\\u000a The diagnosis of schizophrenia can only be made in the presence of a loss of functioning in domains such as employment, independent\\u000a living, and social functioning. Accurately measuring functioning is central to research on the course of the disorder, treatment\\u000a and rehabilitation outcomes, and biosocial factors in schizophrenia. Assessments of functional disability have described three\\u000a dimensions of functioning: functional capacity,
Elizabeth Bromley; John S. Brekke
Activities of Project OATS (Outcomes of Assistive Technology in the Schools) are described, including identification and piloting of existing assessment instruments for use as an outcome measure, examining the validity of the School Function Assessment, and field testing the School Function Assessment-Assistive Technology Version, an adaptation of…
Silverman, Michelle Kaye; Stratman, Kristine Freiberg; Smith, Roger O.
Investigated differences in family narratives between mothers with and those without current depressive symptoms as an indicator of family functioning. Found that Family Narrative Consortium measures of narrative coherence distinguished level of symptom severity. Found that more coherent narratives were associated with marital satisfaction,…
Dickstein, Susan; St. Andre, Martin; Sameroff, Arnold; Seifer, Ronald; Schiller, Masha
In ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP), practitioners often examine outcomes using measures related to functions necessary for daily life. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) Dimensions D and E, Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) Parent and Child versions, Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) Walking subscale, Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), temporal-spatial gait parameters, and O(2) cost during ambulation were selected for study. Cross-sectional data were collected in a prospective multicenter study of 562 participants with CP (339 males, 223 females), between 4 and 18 years of age (mean age 11y 1mo). There were 240 classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I, 196 as Level II, and 126 as Level III. The tools that had the best interrelationships and underlying constructs predominately measured changes in physical function. These included portions of the FAQ, Parent PODCI, WeeFIM, and GMFM. GMFM Dimensions D and E exhibited a very strong relationship. Temporal-spatial gait parameters and O2 cost measures represented a different construct of physical function. The Child PODCI reports and both the Parent and Child PedsQL reports did not relate well to other measures, suggesting a pattern of answers not related to question content. The Parent PODCI, the FAQ Walking subscale, and GMFM Dimension E were found to be an appropriate minimum set of instruments for assessment of functional outcomes in patients with ambulatory CP. PMID:17489806
Sullivan, Elroy; Barnes, Douglas; Linton, Judith L; Calmes, Janine; Damiano, Diane; Oeffinger, Donna; Abel, Mark; Bagley, Anita; Gorton, George; Nicholson, Diane; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester
The relationships between different levels of severity of ambulatory cerebral palsy, defined by the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), and several pediatric outcome instruments were examined. Data from the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Pediatric Orthopaedic Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), temporal-spatial gait parameters, and oxygen cost were collected from six sites. The sample size for each assessment tool ranged from 226 to 1047 participants. There were significant differences among GMFCS levels I, II, and III for many of the outcome tools assessed in this study. Strong correlations were seen between GMFCS level and each of the GMFM sections D and E scores, the PODCI measures of Transfer and Mobility, and Sports and Physical Function, Gait Velocity, and Oxygen Cost. Correlations among tools demonstrated that the GMFM sections D and E scores correlated with the largest number of other tools. Logistic regression showed GMFM section E score to be a significant predictor of GMFCS level. GMFM section E score can be used to predict GMFCS level relatively accurately (76.6%). Study data indicate that the assessed outcome tools can distinguish between children with different GMFCS levels. This study establishes justification for using the GMFCS as a classification system in clinical studies. PMID:15132261
Oeffinger, D J; Tylkowski, C M; Rayens, M K; Davis, R F; Gorton, G E; D'Astous, J; Nicholson, D E; Damiano, D L; Abel, M F; Bagley, A M; Luan, J
Acceptance, a third wave cognitive-behavioral concept originally developed for chronic pain patients, was applied to acceptance of chronic illness in an HIV\\/AIDS population. This study examined the internal reliability of two scales of the chronic illness acceptance questionnaire (CIAQ) called activities engagement (AE), and illness willingness (IW), their relationships with functional outcomes, and their ability to predict functional outcomes after
Thomas P. Guck; Mark D. Goodman; Courtney J. Dobleman; Helen O. Fasanya; Mary B. Tadros
Background Dupuytren's disease of the hand is a common condition affecting the palmar fascia, resulting in progressive flexion deformities of the digits and hence limitation of hand function. The optimal treatment remains unclear as outcomes studies have used a variety of measures for assessment. Methods A literature search was performed for all publications describing surgical treatment, percutaneous needle aponeurotomy or collagenase injection for primary or recurrent Dupuytren’s disease where outcomes had been monitored using functional measures. Results Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies reported outcomes using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) ranging from validated questionnaires to self-reported measures for return to work and self-rated disability. The Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was the most utilised patient-reported function measure (n=11). Patient satisfaction was reported by eighteen studies but no single method was used consistently. Range of movement was the most frequent physical measure and was reported in all 91 studies. However, the methods of measurement and reporting varied, with seventeen different techniques being used. Other physical measures included grip and pinch strength and sensibility, again with variations in measurement protocols. The mean follow-up time ranged from 2 weeks to 17 years. Conclusions There is little consistency in the reporting of outcomes for interventions in patients with Dupuytren’s disease, making it impossible to compare the efficacy of different treatment modalities. Although there are limitations to the existing generic patient reported outcomes measures, a combination of these together with a disease-specific questionnaire, and physical measures of active and passive individual joint Range of movement (ROM), grip and sensibility using standardised protocols should be used for future outcomes studies. As Dupuytren’s disease tends to recur following treatment as well as extend to involve other areas of the hand, follow-up times should be standardised and designed to capture both short and long term outcomes. PMID:23575442
Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome. PMID:24980579
Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G
One hundred and five children with the whole spectrum of obstetric brachial plexus (OBP) injuries, from severe to full recovery, were examined at the age of 5 years with regard to motor and sensory functions as well as to use of the affected limb. Since root involvement level does not fully reflect the degree of disability, a classification based on range of motion and grip-strength was formulated and found to correspond well with functional abilities. The results from this study indicate that the eventual outcome in upper-plexus lesions is more complex than is commonly believed. Hand function is affected due to the effect of limited shoulder movements on hand positioning. Grip strength was also reduced in many of these children. All the children with total-plexus lesions had diminished grip strength and half of them had impaired tactile sensibility. In most children with total-plexus lesions, performance of activities in daily life was affected as were bimanual activities requiring use of the involved limb. Hand preference was affected in children with a right-sided injury. From a clinical perspective, as well as for research, it is important to describe OBP injuries not only in terms of impairment but also of disability. PMID:9459211
Sundholm, L K; Eliasson, A C; Forssberg, H
Environmental pollutants encompass a vast array of compounds. Most studies in birds have focused on toxicological effects, with little attention to non-lethal effects. Consequently, it has proven difficult to assess potential risk associated with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Assessing potential adverse effects due to exposure is further complicated by the great variation that occurs across avian species. These include variations in reproductive strategies, life span, sexual differentiation, and migration. Differences in reproductive strategies, particularly in the developmental patterns and mechanisms for precocial and altricial chicks, predispose birds to wide variations in response to steroids and steroid-like EDCs. We have investigated the effects of EDCs in precocial birds including Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as well as in wild altricial songbirds. Studies in Japanese quail characterized endogenous steroid hormone changes during development and have demonstrated that the developing embryo uses the yolk as a 'steroid hormone depot'. It appears that actual embryonic exposure is quantitatively lower than indicated by the treatment in egg injections and that the true amount of compound necessary for bioactivity may be quite low relative to the actual dosage delivered. Additionally, embryonic exposure to specific EDCs adversely affected sexual differentiation in quail, especially impacting male sexual behavior as well as neural systems, immune response, and thyroid hormones. Many of these studies considered single compounds; however, wild birds are exposed to complex mixtures and multiple compounds. We tested complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at concentrations that bracketed those found in eggs in contaminated regions. Results indicated that the predictive value of the toxic equivalency (TEQ), based on comparative activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) relative to dioxin was not as accurate as expected. We discuss the potential of developing an endocrine disruption index (EDI) to bridge the inconsistencies observed between responses predicted by the TEQ and those observed in vivo following exposure to EDCs. Further, we will discuss how an EDI would complement the adverse outcome pathways analyses to consider the range of effects of endocrine disruptors in birds. PMID:23773971
Ottinger, Mary Ann; Carro, Tiffany; Bohannon, Meredith; Baltos, Leah; Marcell, Allegra M; McKernan, Moira; Dean, Karen M; Lavoie, Emma; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud
The majority of women with pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence report more than one symptom that affects urinary, bowel, or sexual function. Most research studies on outcomes following surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and stress incontinence focus on anatomic outcomes and relief of symptoms specific to prolapse and/or stress incontinence. Pelvic symptoms related to voiding function such as de novo urgency or incontinence, bowel function, and sexual function are clinically important outcomes but are infrequently reported. Deterioration of pelvic symptoms postoperatively is associated with decreased patient satisfaction, which underscores the importance of effectively assessing functional and anatomic treatment outcomes. Future studies of reconstructive pelvic surgery should routinely include multiple domain functional outcomes specifically addressing voiding, defecatory, and sexual function. PMID:23066437
Segal, Saya; Arya, Lily A.; Smith, Ariana L.
The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) questionnaire was used to quantify functional abilities of a group of unilateral upper extremity deficiency (U-UED) patients and compare them with "normal" control children. Sixty-four consecutive patients with U-UED were assessed. Parents and adolescent (ages 11-21) patients responded. Underlying diagnosis, amputation level, and type of prosthesis were recorded. Scores were compared for congenital versus traumatic etiologies for patients with various amputation levels, and for patients using prostheses versus those not using prostheses. In both parent and patient responses, PODCI scores were significantly lower than "normal" for upper extremity function and sports. Scores were similar for congenital and acquired amputees. Responses from adolescent patients showed progressively decreasing scores for upper extremity, transfers, sports, and global function with progressively proximal amputation levels. Patients using prostheses with different terminal devices did not significantly differ. Parent responses for prosthesis wearers showed lower comfort/pain scores (ie, increased pain) than non-prosthesis wearers, but no significant differences in function, including upper extremity function. PMID:15832164
Lerman, Joel A; Sullivan, Elroy; Barnes, Douglas A; Haynes, Richard J
Functional outcome and quality of life have become frequent outcome measures in head and neck cancer (HNC) clinical trials.\\u000a Many thoroughly validated outcome measures are available. Still, there is a low degree of standardization and comparability\\u000a among measures. It seems difficult to fully translate the new insights into clinical routine. The aims of this paper are 1)\\u000a to acknowledge the
This study assesses the academic performance of Capital Community-Technical College (CCTC) students who transferred to senior institutions in Connecticut and neighboring states between the academic years of 1993-94 and 1996-97. It was designed to address the students' experience at CCTC as compared to the students' experiences at their senior…
Mohammadi, John; Danek, Kim
We investigated the use of a popular measure, the Children and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), in treatment outcome research. The sample included 70 children who had been discharged from an elementary therapeutic classroom (Intensive Mental Health Program). Significant relationships were found between decreases in CAFAS scores and…
Roy, Kimberlee M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Randall, Camille J.
Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107
SUMMARY. Outcomes management is important for quality assurance purposes. Issues of reliability and validity are central to determining appropriate outcomes tools. Outcomes can be used to measure progress in three critical areas of patient management: pain relief, physical capacity (impairment), and disability. Outcomes can be obtained inexpensively and in a time-efficient manner. This article reviews the most valuable outcomes tools for a small, private practice and how they can be implemented into patient care. Copyright 1997 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:11485356
Liebenson, C.; Yeomans, S.
Linguistics Department Student Outcomes Assessment June 4, 2008 Plans for Student Outcomes Assessment Department of Linguistics Submitted by Jennifer Cole Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies Department of Linguistics, UIUC I. Undergraduate Program A. Mission The undergraduate program
In this study we provide a compilation of functional impairments before and improvements after face transplantation (FT) of five FT recipients of our institution and all FTs reported in current literature. Functional outcome included the ability to smell, breath, eat, speak, grimace and facial sensation. Before FT, all our patients revealed compromised ability to breath, eat, speak, grimace and experience facial sensation. The ability to smell was compromised in two of our five patients. Two patients were dependent on tracheostomy and one on gastrostomy tubes. After FT, all abilities were significantly improved and all patients were independent from artificial air airways and feeding tubes. Including data given in current literature about the other 24 FT recipients in the world, the abilities to smell, eat and feel were enhanced in 100% of cases, while the abilities of breathing, speaking and facial expressions were ameliorated in 93%, 71% and 76% of cases, respectively. All patients that required gastrostomy and 91% of patients depending on tracheostomy were decannulated after FT. Unfortunately, outcomes remain unreported in all other cases and therefore we are unable to comment on improvements. PMID:25359281
Fischer, S; Kueckelhaus, M; Pauzenberger, R; Bueno, E M; Pomahac, B
In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
A statement of the Council for Optometric Education (COE) defines and characterizes educational outcomes, outcomes assessment, and outcomes data, and explains the reasons for outcomes assessment, its relationship to curricular design, and its function in accreditation of optometry programs. Stated COE standards and expectations of optometry…
Optometric Education, 1998
Abstract This article reports on a three-year study of information literacy instruction in Canadian academic libraries, focusing on the outcomes of instruction in terms of tests of information literacy skills and interviews with students that explored their experiences of information literacy instruction. Particular emphasis is given to investigating instructional effectiveness and assessing learning outcomes,with respect to identifying those institutional and
Heidi Julien; Stuart Boon
Schizophrenia is characterized by significant heterogeneity in outcome. The last decades have witnessed a significant interest in identifying factors that can moderate or influence clinical and functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia. One factor of particular interest is neurocognition, as performance on various measures of cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention, and executive functions, have been consistently related to functional outcome and, to a lesser extent, clinical outcome. This review aims to provide an up-to-date description of recent studies examining the association between neurocognition and clinical and (or) functional outcomes. In the first section, studies examining neurocognitive performance in relation to clinical outcome are examined. When clinical outcome is defined dichotomously (for example, comparing remitted and nonremitted), verbal memory performance consistently exhibits a strong association with clinical status, with the poor outcome group showing the largest deficits. In the second section, studies exploring the relation between neurocognition and various dimensions of functional outcome are reviewed. These dimensions include independent living, social functioning, and vocational functioning, among others. Again, a strong link between neurocognitive deficits and impairments in several aspects of functioning clearly emerges from this review. Finally, several measurement issues are discussed that pertain to the need to standardize definitions of clinical and (or) functional outcomes, the importance of defining cognitive domains consistently across studies, and distinguishing between one’s competence to perform tasks and what one actually does in everyday life. Addressing these measurement issues will be key to studies examining the development of effective interventions targeting neurocognitive functions and their impact on clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:24444318
Lepage, Martin; Bodnar, Michael; Bowie, Christopher R
Aim: The long term outcomes of congenital hydrocephalus are still not clearly known despite it being a common clinical condition. Several clinical, radiological factors were correlated to predict the functional outcomes. This study aimed to correlate the clinical, radiological parameters with the regional functional outcomes of the brain. Materials and Methods: Children with congenital hydrocephalus were divided into Group A with hydrocephalus alone and Group B hydrocephalus with spina bifida. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery was performed by the same surgeon. CT scans and neuropsychological assessments were performed before and serially after the shunt. The clinical and the radiological findings were correlated with the developmental levels during the follow-up. Results: There were 25 children in Group A and 15 children in Group B; 72% in Group A and 93% in Group B were less than 6 months of age at the time of treatment. Forty percent in Group A and 92% in Group B had the signs of hydrocephalus at admission. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion results in the reduction in ventricular dilatation and corresponding increase in the cortical mantle thickness. The ventricular size and the cortical mantle thickness were measured serially and correlated with the development in the neuropsychological function. In this study, 80% in Group B reached near normal development in comparison to 33% in Group A. We have noticed a significant correlation in the increase in the regional cortical mantle thickness with corresponding improvement in the functional development. This clearly ratifies the improvement in the frontal and parietal areas having their distinctive effect on the functional development of the child. Conclusion: Early CSF diversion and timely intervention seems to benefit functional recovery. It is interesting to note that reconstitution of cortical mantle in different areas of the brain showing corresponding improvement in their respective areas. Large ventricles (head circumference more than 50 cm) recurrent subdural collections and repeated shunt obstructions have a bad influence on the long-term outcome. Unlike the previous belief the children with myelomeningocele can have equal benefit in terms of neuropsychological development after the shunt surgery. PMID:21977080
Venkataramana, N. K.; Mukundan, C. R.
Improvement Program Purpose: Implement a coordinated, sustainable student learning outcomes assessment plan standards and relevant outcomes facilitating improvement of academic programs thus, the university's status Student Learning Outcome Assessment Plan: Continuous Quality Improvement Florida Atlantic
We evaluated interrater agreement across multiple respondents on anecdotal assessments and compared cases in which agreement was obtained with outcomes of functional analyses. Experiment 1 evaluated agreement among multiple respondents on the function of problem behavior for 27 individuals across 42 target behaviors using the Motivation Assessment…
Smith, Carla M.; Smith, Richard G.; Dracobly, Joseph D.; Pace, Amy Peterson
Discriminatory ability of several pediatric outcome tools was assessed relative to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in patients with cerebral palsy. Five hundred and sixty-two patients (400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]), classified as GMFCS Levels I to…
Bagley, Anita M; Gorton, George; Oeffinger, Donna; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Nicholson, Diane; Damiano, Diane; Abel, Mark; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester
Describes the Ontario college system's Prior Learning Assessment program for adult learners, focusing on outcomes and characteristics of students completing the process at Seneca College from April 1994 to February 1995. Indicates that of 77 participants, 46 were female, the mean age was 31, and 81% passed the process successfully. (BCY)
1 Nuclear Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report 1. Program mission The Nuclear and graduate education to tomorrow's leaders in nuclear engineering. The program provides well-educated nuclear engineering professionals and leaders to Missouri and the nation in the commercial nuclear industry, national
Missouri-Rolla, University of
How can student outcomes assessment (SOA) be incorporated into ones courses and teaching? The purposes of this article are to explore a process enacted in the Department of Agronomy at Iowa State University using SOA to: (i) develop a clearer understanding of what students should learn in a course, (ii) determine how a course or courses fit within…
Cook, Michelle D.; Wiedenhoeft, Mary H.; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance R.; Pogranichniy, Sherry; Mullen, Russ E.
A comprehensive assessment is the foundation of a successful pulmonary rehabilitation programme. There is a broad selection of outcome measures that tend to be categorized into measures of exercise performance (including measures of strength) quality of life (health status), psychological well-being, nutritional status and more recently knowledge and self-efficacy. There is a growing interest in the measurement of physical activity too, although this is a current line of research activity. A sophisticated suite of outcomes allows the rehabilitation program to be personalised to the individual and deliver effective rehabilitation. PMID:24874130
Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…
Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David
We evaluated interrater agreement across multiple respondents on anecdotal assessments and compared cases in which agreement was obtained with outcomes of functional analyses. Experiment 1 evaluated agreement among multiple respondents on the function of problem behavior for 27 individuals across 42 target behaviors using the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF). Results showed that at least 4 of 5 respondents agreed on the primary maintaining consequence for 52% (22 of 42) of target behaviors with the MAS and 57% (24 of 42) with the QABF. Experiment 2 examined correspondence between the anecdotal assessment results and functional analysis results for 7 individuals for whom at least 4 of 5 respondents showed agreement in Experiment 1. Correspondence with functional analysis results was observed in 6 of 7 cases with the QABF and in 4 of 7 cases with the MAS. Implications of these outcomes for the utility of anecdotal assessments are discussed. PMID:23322932
Smith, Carla M.; Smith, Richard G.; Dracobly, Joseph D.; Pace, Amy Peterson
This study retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in participants who underwent a rigorous selection process, uniform surgical procedure, and a standardized postoperative rehabilitation process. Outcome measures assessed were the Ashworth scale for spasticity, the Gillette Gait Index (GGI) for overall gait pathology, oxygen cost for gait efficiency, and the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire (functional walking ability scale; [FAQ]) for functional mobility. Outcomes were evaluated for 136 children (81 males, 55 females; mean age 7y 3mo [SD 2y 1mo], range 3y 5mo-18y 9mo) for an average of 18.3 months (SD 4.4mo) postoperatively. All participants had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP): 10 quadriplegia, 19 triplegia, and 107 diplegia. Preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System levels were: Level I n=6; Level II n=64; Level III n=59, and Level IV n=7. All outcome measures improved for the group as a whole. Spasticity improved with 66 to 92% of possible gain in Ashworth scores; GGI was 7.5 times more likely to have a good as opposed to a poor outcome; energy efficiency improved in over half of the participants, and the FAQ demonstrated a statistically significant improvement of 0.9 levels (p<0.001). The rate of complications was low, with peri- and postoperative complications resolved by time of discharge. PMID:18834390
Trost, Joyce P; Schwartz, Michael H; Krach, Linda E; Dunn, Mary E; Novacheck, Tom F
This report examines the clinical performance of three very similar total hip arthroplasty designs with distinctly different bearing surfaces used over the course 10-17 years. Clinical outcomes assessments for each group are compared in the context of varying implant related costs related to the latest technology at the time of surgery. Eighty-one surgeries were studied and differ by bearing surface. In this study, 36 hips are ceramic on polyethylene, 27 are metal on polyethylene and 18 are metal on metal. All polyethylene components are nonhighly cross-linked. The ceramic on polyethylene group has younger patients, on average, and higher percentage of patients with significant polyethylene wear. These groups have an average follow-up time of 8.6 years when assessing functional hip scores, thigh pain, groin pain, revision surgeries and radiographic osteolysis. The implant purchasing cost at the time of surgery was assessed to determine if a correlation exists between outcomes and the more technologically advanced implants use at the time of surgery. Based on midterm clinical outcome assessment, no correlation between initial hospital cost and clinical outcomes of one bearing surface over another can be found. PMID:25002938
Parsons, Christopher; Batson, Ryan; Reighard, Shane; Tanner, Stephanie; Snider, Becky; Pace, Thomas B.
Discriminatory ability of several pediatric outcome tools was assessed relative to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in patients with cerebral palsy. Five hundred and sixty-two patients (400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]), classified as GMFCS Levels I to III, participated in this prospective multicenter, cross-sectional study. All tools were completed by parents and participants when appropriate. Effect size indices (ESIs) for parametric variables and odds ratios for non-parametric data quantified the magnitude of differences across GMFCS levels. Binary logistic regression models determined discrimination, and receiver operating characteristic curves addressed sensitivity and specificity. Between Levels I and II, the most discriminatory tools were Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), velocity, and WeeFIM Mobility. Between Levels II and III, the most discriminatory tools were GMFM Dimension E, Pediatric Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) Self-Care and Mobility, cadence, and Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire Question 1. Large ESIs were noted for Parent and Child reports of Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) Sports & Physical Function, Parent report of PODCI Global Function, GMFM Dimension E, and GMFM-66 across all GMFCS level comparisons. The least discriminatory tools were the Quality of Life and cognition measures; however, these are important in comprehensive assessments of treatment effects. PMID:17355473
Bagley, Anita M; Gorton, George; Oeffinger, Donna; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Nicholson, Diane; Damiano, Diane; Abel, Mark; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive functioning at intake into treatment was associated with completion of a 30-day day hospital alcoholism rehabilitation program and 1- and 6-month posttreatment functioning. None of our measures of sociodemographic characteristics, cognitive functioning, and life functioning was found to be significantly correlated with program completion. The measures of cognitive functioning included four cognitive factors--language ability, auditory verbal learning, logical memory, and complex cognitive functioning--as well as an objective measure of within-treatment learning. Canonical correlation analyses were performed to estimate associations among 14 independent variables and seven measures of both 1- and 6-month follow-up outcomes. The independent variables included the five cognitive measures described above, race and age, and seven baseline Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interviewer ratings of severity of alcohol, drug, family/social, legal, medical, employment, and psychological/psychiatric problem levels. The dependent variables at each follow-up evaluation point consisted of the difference between the baseline and follow-up ASI composite (factor) scores in the seven areas of functioning described above. The findings revealed the relative independence of improvement in alcohol problem level at both followup periods, as contrasted with the relative interdependence of the other areas of functioning. Greater baseline alcohol problems and poorer complex cognitive functioning were most consistently associated with improved alcohol-related outcome. Other cognitive measures ere not significantly associated with treatment outcome in the other areas of functioning described above.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2380694
Alterman, A I; Kushner, H; Holahan, J M
In this article, we describe a systematic approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating functional assessment-based interventions developed by Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, and Lane (2007), implemented in a job-share classroom with two first-grade students. One student was at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) according to…
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Eisner, Shanna L.; Kretzer, James; Bruhn, Allison L.; Crnobori, Mary; Funke, Laura; Lerner, Tara; Casey, Amy
Objective Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. Methods One hundred patients were enrolled with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and categorized into two groups: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ? 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Results Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS < 3) and 38 patients with poor functional outcome (mRS ? 3). The baPWV values were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome (2,070.05 ± 518.37 cm/s) compared with those with good outcome (1,838.63 ± 436.65) (p = 0.039). In patients with SVD subtype, there was a significant difference of baPWV values between groups (2,163.18 ± 412.71 vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Conclusions Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype. PMID:24765608
Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki
Hyposplenic patients are at risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which carries mortality of up to 70%. Therefore, preventive measures are warranted. However, patients with diminished splenic function are difficult to identify. In this review we discuss immunological, haematological and scintigraphic parameters that can be used to measure splenic function. IgM memory B cells are a potential parameter for assessing splenic function; however, more studies are necessary for its validation. Detection of Howell–Jolly bodies does not reflect splenic function accurately, whereas determining the percentage of pitted erythrocytes is a well-evaluated method and seems a good first-line investigation for assessing splenic function. When assessing spleen function, 99mTc-labelled, heat-altered, autologous erythrocyte scintigraphy with multimodality single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT technology is the best approach, as all facets of splenic function are evaluated. In conclusion, although scintigraphic methods are most reliable, they are not suitable for screening large populations. We therefore recommend using the percentage of pitted erythrocytes, albeit suboptimal, as a first-line investigation and subsequently confirming abnormal readings by means of scintigraphy. More studies evaluating the value of potentially new markers are needed. PMID:20853172
Lammers, A. J. J.; Bennink, R. J.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Speelman, P.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.
The documentation of treatment outcomes has gained increased importance as those responsible for paying for healthcare focus on the delivery of cost-effective care. The practitioner and researcher, challenged with documenting the clinical significance of their endeavors, must depend on conceptually appropriate, valid and reliable instruments. Outcomes of particular relevance for sleep disorders include self-reported general symptoms, subjective and objective daytime
Terri E Weaver
Assessing the outcomes of interventions in mental health care is both important and challenging. The aim of this paper is to advance the field of outcomes research by proposing a taxonomy of the decisions that clinicians and researchers need to consider when evaluating outcomes. Our taxonomy has eight components, framed as decisions: Whose outcome will be considered? Which scientific stage is being investigated? What outcome domain(s) matter? What level of assessment will be used? Will clinical and/or recovery outcomes be assessed? Whose perspective will be considered? Will deficits and/or strengths be the focus? Will invariant or individualized measures be preferred? We propose a future focus on understanding what matters most to people using mental health services, and on the use of measures rated by service users as the primary approach to evaluating outcome. PMID:24890055
Thornicroft, Graham; Slade, Mike
The systematic assessment of the social and affective outcomes of inclusion has been lagging behind the assessment of academic outcomes. This is particularly problematic in view of research evidence supporting concerns about peer rejection and bullying. In this article, Norah Frederickson and Elizabeth Simmonds, of University College London, and…
Frederickson, Norah; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Evans, Lynda; Soulsby, Chris
Alzheimer's disease is a common disorder in the elderly, and a cure is not currently available. This article summarises the intervention studies that have been done in Alzheimer's disease research and discusses assessment tools and outcome measures used in these studies. Current approaches are broadening their definition of positive outcome beyond improvement or maintenance of cognitive functioning. These new areas
Stacey Wood; Jeffrey L. Cummings
Objective: To provide an overview of clinical outcomes assessment, discuss the classification of outcomes measures, present considerations for choosing outcomes scales, identify the importance of assessing clinical outcomes, and describe the critical link between the utilization of disablement models and clinical outcomes assessment. Background: Clinical outcomes are the end result of health care services. Clinical outcomes assessment is based on the conceptual framework of disablement models and serves as the measurement method for the collection of patient-oriented evidence, a concept central to evidence-based practice. Description: Clinical outcomes management refers to the use of outcomes measures in the course of routine clinical care and provides athletic trainers with a mechanism to assess treatment progress and to measure the end results of the services they provide. Outcomes measures can be classified as either clinician based or patient based. Clinician-based measures, such as range of motion and strength, are taken directly by clinicians. Patient-based measures solicit a patient's perception as to health status in the form of questionnaires and survey scales. Clinician-based measures may assist with patient evaluation, but patient-based measures should always be included in clinical assessment to identify what is important to the patient. Clinical and Research Advantages: Evidence-based athletic training practice depends on clinical outcomes research to provide the foundation of patient-oriented evidence. The widespread use of clinical outcomes assessment, based on the disablement model framework, will be necessary for athletic trainers to demonstrate the effectiveness of therapies and interventions, the provision of patient-centered care, and the development of evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:18668177
Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Snyder, Alison R; Parsons, John T; Curtis Bay, R; Michener, Lori A; Sauers, Eric L
For clinical trials of many chronic diseases, the outcome of greatest interest may be patient function. Unfortunately, most scales for measuring functional status are crude and rarely consider important psychosocial impacts of disease. This paper briefly considers the pressures for improving functional status measurement, proposes six criteria for assessing functional or "health status" scales, and selectively reviews representative instruments using these criteria. Older functional classifications and many scales used for quality-of-care assessment are narrowly focussed on physical function. Their reliability, validity, and sensitivity to clinical changes are generally unknown. Traditional scales of "Activities of Daily Living" are similarly focussed on physical function, and are most appropriate for severely disabled inpatients. A new generation of "health status" instruments offers wider applicability, more comprehensiveness, and feasibility for clinical applications. Their validity and reliability are generally quite good. None of the instruments reviewed, however, has yet demonstrated convincing success as a "transition" variable (sensitivity to small but clinically important changes). Based on this analysis, future investigation should seek to (1) define the optimal balance between brevity on the one hand, and comprehensiveness and reliability on the other, (2) describe the sensitivity of scales to clinically important changes, and (3) directly compare existing instruments to aid selection by investigators who are considering their use in clinical trials. PMID:6488807
Deyo, R A
Background and aim: Trunk performance is an important predictor of functional outcome after stroke. However, the percentage of explained variance varies considerably between studies. This may be explained by the stroke population examined, the different scales used to assess trunk performance and the time points used to measure outcome. The aim of this multicentre study was to examine the predictive
Geert Verheyden; Alice Nieuwboer; Liesbet De Wit; Hilde Feys; Birgit Schuback; Ilse Baert; Walter Jenni; Wilfried Schupp; Vincent Thijs; Willy De Weerdt
Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive
Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh
Accurate, reproducible outcome measures are essential for the evaluation of any orthopaedic procedure, in both clinical practice and research. Commonly used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have drawbacks such as 'floor' and 'ceiling' effects, limitations of worldwide adaptability and an inability to distinguish pain from function. They are also unable to measure the true outcome of an intervention rather than a patient's perception of that outcome. Performance-based functional outcome tools may address these problems. It is important that both clinicians and researchers are aware of these measures when dealing with high-demand patients, using a new intervention or implant, or testing a new rehabilitation protocol. This article provides an overview of some of the clinically-validated performance-based functional outcome tools used in the assessment of patients undergoing hip and knee surgery. PMID:25371452
Konan, S; Hossain, F; Patel, S; Haddad, F S
Background From a mechanistic or physical perspective there is no basis to suspect that electric charges on clusters of air molecules (air ions) would have beneficial or deleterious effects on respiratory function. Yet, there is a large lay and scientific literature spanning 80 years that asserts exposure to air ions affects the respiratory system and has other biological effects. Aims This review evaluates the scientific evidence in published human experimental studies regarding the effects of exposure to air ions on respiratory performance and symptoms. Methods We identified 23 studies (published 1933–1993) that met our inclusion criteria. Relevant data pertaining to study population characteristics, study design, experimental methods, statistical techniques, and study results were assessed. Where relevant, random effects meta-analysis models were utilized to quantify similar exposure and outcome groupings. Results The included studies examined the therapeutic benefits of exposure to negative air ions on respiratory outcomes, such as ventilatory function and asthmatic symptoms. Study specific sample sizes ranged between 7 and 23, and studies varied considerably by subject characteristics (e.g., infants with asthma, adults with emphysema), experimental method, outcomes measured (e.g., subjective symptoms, sensitivity, clinical pulmonary function), analytical design, and statistical reporting. Conclusions Despite numerous experimental and analytical differences across studies, the literature does not clearly support a beneficial role in exposure to negative air ions and respiratory function or asthmatic symptom alleviation. Further, collectively, the human experimental studies do not indicate a significant detrimental effect of exposure to positive air ions on respiratory measures. Exposure to negative or positive air ions does not appear to play an appreciable role in respiratory function. PMID:24016271
This article describes a method for the assessment of professional student outcomes (performance-type outcomes or soft skills). The method is based upon group activities, research on modern electrical engineering topics by individual students, classroom presentations on chosen research topics, final presentations, and technical report writing.…
Keshavarz, Mohsen; Baghdarnia, Mostafa
and academic achievement relative to career/academic goals Â· Alumni and Graduating Student Surveys Â· ExitREPORT ON STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES & ASSESSMENT MEASURES: MUSIC OUTCOMES Music graduates will understand and demonstrate: Â· Knowledge of music cultural heritage and history Â· Appreciation for musical
Wurtele, Eve Syrkin
This case study examined the intersection of collegiate-level student learning outcomes assessment with regional accreditation to understand how regional accreditation policies and practices leverage student learning outcomes efforts on US college campuses. To that end, the standards of each of the regional accreditation agencies were carefully…
Provezis, Staci J.
Background: Periosteal osteosarcoma is an uncommon variant of osteosarcoma which constitutes less than 2% of all osteosarcomas. Whereas adequate surgical excision remains the cornerstone of treatment, the role of chemotherapy in this tumor is still unclear. Existing literature contains very few single center studies on the outcomes for periosteal osteosarcomas and any additional information will help in better understanding of these uncommon lesions. This study aims to evaluate the oncologic and functional outcomes of treatment of periosteal osteosarcoma treated at our institute. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 cases of periosteal osteosarcoma treated between January 2001 and December 2010 was carried out. There were 12 males and 6 females. The mean age at presentation was 16.3 years (range 5-26 years). Tibia and femur were the most common sites (n = 8). 16 of 18 patients received chemotherapy, 16 had limb sparing resection, one had an amputation and one had rotationplasty. Of the 16 patients with limb salvage, conventional wide excision was done in 11 cases. In 5 cases tumor was excised with hemicortical excision. Of the 11 cases treated with wide excisions, 4 patients underwent an osteoarticular resection and in 7 patients a joint preserving segmental intercalary resection was done. Results: All patients were available for followup. Surgical margins were free in all patients. A good response to chemotherapy was seen in 4/11 cases and poor in 6/11 cases. In one case the histological response was not discernible due to predominant chondromyxoid nature of the tumor. The median followup was 61 months (range: 18-130 months). There were two local recurrences (11%) at 9 and 18 months postsurgery. Pulmonary metastasis subsequently occurred in 4 cases (22%). Fourteen patients are currently alive and continuously disease free. Disease free survival at 5 years was 77.8% and overall survival (OVS) was 83.3%. Patients without marrow involvement had a better OVS at 5 years when compared with patients with marrow involvement (90% vs. 75%) (P = 0.23). Conclusion: Surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment. Intramedullary involvement may suggest aggressive disease biology. The role of chemotherapy is still debatable and multicenter studies are needed to provide guidelines. PMID:24932034
Gulia, Ashish; Puri, Ajay; Pruthi, Manish; Desai, Saral
The objective of the study was to develop a conceptual framework of key assessment areas for the evaluation of rehabilitation outcomes in older persons. The study was designed in four stages. First, a review of the literature generated a list of 84 potential outcome variables. Second, semi-structured interviews were conducted with older adults informants (n = 19) to record their thoughts about important rehabilitation outcomes. From the analyses of the transcripts, 20 recurrent themes became apparent. Third, relevant assessment areas were determined based on the merged data from the literature and the interviews. Fourth, a focus group was held with a panel of eight interdisciplinary experts with strong involvement in geriatric rehabilitation to evaluate, improve, and validate the preliminary work. As a result of the study, the conceptual framework for the assessment of geriatric rehabilitation outcomes (FAGRO) is composed of four primary outcome domains related to important activities for community-living older persons: mobility activities, basic activities of daily living, activities of independent living, and leisure activities. The models also allows for four brief evaluations of underlying functioning components, including: physical functioning, psychological functioning, social functioning, and factors related to the caregiver status and available resources. The model has the potential to become a valuable additional tool for outcome assessment, researched and developed specifically for geriatric rehabilitation. PMID:15066309
Demers, Louise; Ska, Bernadette; Desrosiers, Johanne; Alix, Caroline; Wolfson, Christina
Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…
Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten
Worldwide, economic and other factors are pressing institutions of higher education to assess student learning to insure that graduates acquire the skills and competencies demanded in the 21st century. This paper summarises the status of undergraduate student learning outcomes assessment at accredited colleges and universities in the United…
Kuh, George D.; Ewell, Peter T.
Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST) is a 24-session weekly group therapy intervention to improve functioning in people with schizophrenia. In our prior randomized clinical trial comparing treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU plus group CBSST (Granholm et al. 2005), participants with schizophrenia in CBSST showed significantly better functional outcome than participants in TAU. The present study was a secondary analysis of neuropsychological predictors of functional outcome in our prior CBSST trial. We examined (1) whether neuropsychological impairment at baseline moderated functional outcome in CBSST relative to TAU, and (2) whether improvement in neuropsychological abilities mediated improvement in functional outcome in CBSST. Attention, verbal learning/memory, speed of processing, and executive functions were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, and 12-month follow-up. Greater severity of neuropsychological impairment at baseline predicted poorer functional outcome for both treatment groups (nonspecific predictor), but the interaction between severity of neuropsychological impairment and treatment group was not significant (no moderation). Effect sizes for the difference between treatment groups on functional outcome measures at 12-month follow-up were similar for participants with relatively mild (d=.44–.64) and severe (d=.29–.60) neuropsychological impairment. Results also did not support the hypothesis that improvement in neuropsychological abilities mediated improvement in functioning in CBSST. Adding CBSST to standard pharmacologic care, therefore, improved functioning relative to standard care alone, even for participants with severe neuropsychological impairment, and this improvement in functioning was not related to improvement in neuropsychological abilities in CBSST. PMID:18222648
Granholm, Eric; McQuaid, John R.; Link, Peter C.; Fish, Scott; Patterson, Thomas; Jeste, Dilip V.
Describes the multifaceted process for assessing students over the course of their undergraduate degree work in the Department of Theater and Dance at Appalachian State University in North Carolina. (SR)
Cole, Susan S.
University counseling center clients' (N = 52) perceptions of precounseling functioning were highly correlated with their actual well-being scores at intake. The magnitude of change based on perceptions of precounseling functioning to current well-being was approximately double of what is found from the difference of actual precounseling…
Moore, Jon; Owen, Jesse
Background context: The existing literature lacks a functional outcome study addressing instrumented posterior lumbar fusion surgery in physically active patients. Furthermore, results of operative versus nonoperative treatment in these patients are not clear. Purpose: To evaluate patient-assessed function, pain, and satisfaction and military job performance between servicemen treated operatively and nonoperatively. Study design\\/setting: This is a nonrandomized analysis of consecutive
Major Robert W Molinari; Major Tad Gerlinger
Unemployment wage data were evaluated to assess employment, job retention, and wage progression for graduates of Community Jobs (CJ), a short-term public job creation program for the hard to employ in the state of Washington. The following were among the findings: (1) 66% of all participants were employed after graduating from CJ; (2) 53% were…
Case, Annette; Burchfield, Erin; Sommers, Paul
During the last 10 years, we have witnessed an impressive increase in the number of studies examining knowledge about osteoporosis. The aim of the present paper is to examine the status of research on knowledge about osteoporosis by reviewing and analyzing the current literature as it pertains to assessment of knowledge about osteoporosis, factors associated with knowledge, and relationship between
strengths. Since 2000, we have added strength in health communication, political and rhetorical studies and Culture, (b) Communication and Health, (c) Communication and Organizations, (d) InterpersonalDepartment of Communication Outcomes Assessment Plan 1 Unit Plan for Assessing and Improving
All professional health care disciplines are now being held accountable to demonstrate the outcomes they produce. It is imperative that nurses demonstrate the difference they make in patient care to justify the cost of professional nursing. Standardized language is needed to aggregate data and report information on nursing interventions and associated outcomes. The Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) system is the first comprehensive classification of nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. In this review, the development of this classification system with specific results related to physical functional status and implications of NOC for nursing practice are discussed. PMID:8716580
Johnson, S J; Brady-Schluttner, K; Ellenbecker, S; Johnson, M; Lassegard, E; Maas, M; Stone, J L; Westra, B L
This monograph is a collection of papers that emerged from a project evaluating the implementation of college outcomes assessment at the campuses of the California State University (CSU) system. Fifteen pilot projects integrated their outcomes assessment in the academic majors and in general education from 1986 to 1990 and the projects were then…
California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Inst. for Teaching and Learning.
We systematically investigated how 11 overlapping meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel could yield contradictory outcomes. The results of the meta-analyses differed because more recent meta-analyses included more primary studies and some had not included conference abstracts. Conclusions differed because between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were handled differently across meta-analyses. All meta-analyses on the clinical end point observed significant heterogeneity and several reported evidence for publication bias, but only one out of eight statistically significant meta-analyses concluded that therefore the association was unproven and one other refrained from quantifying a pooled estimate because of heterogeneity. For the end point stent thrombosis, all meta-analyses reported statistically significant associations with CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles with no statistically significant evidence for heterogeneity, but only three had investigated publication bias and also found evidence for it. One study therefore concluded that there was no evidence for an association, and one other doubted the association because of a high level of heterogeneity. In summary, meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel differed widely with regard to assessment and interpretation of heterogeneity and publication bias. The substantial heterogeneity and publication bias implies that personalized antiplatelet management based on genotyping is not supported by the currently available evidence.Genet Med advance online publication 19 June 2014. PMID:24946154
Osnabrugge, Ruben L; Head, Stuart J; Zijlstra, Felix; Ten Berg, Jurriën M; Hunink, Myriam G; Kappetein, A Pieter; Janssens, A Cecile J W
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction achieves a good functional restoration with pain reduction, improved mobility, and hallux loading. Therefore, we prospectively studied 32 patients who had a Scarf osteotomy for unilateral hallux valgus. We performed clinical, radiographic, and pedographic evaluations after a mean followup of 33 months to assess clinical and functional outcomes. The mean postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 89 points. The hallux valgus angle improved from 32.5 degrees to 6.2 degrees , and the intermetatarsal angle improved from 15.5 degrees to 6.6 degrees . The postoperative pedographic patterns showed that the maximum force and impulse decreased under the lateral forefoot and increased under the medial forefoot and hallux. The first ray became more important in the roll-over process. There was a moderate relationship between satisfaction and postoperative hallux valgus angle. The Scarf osteotomy improved the pain situation, the walking capacity, and led to an improved contribution of the hallux in the roll-over process. Therefore, this surgical procedure restores forefoot function and normalizes plantar pressure patterns. PMID:16906065
Lorei, Timo J; Kinast, Christian; Klärner, Hans; Rosenbaum, Dieter
The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is the most commonly used measure of adaptive functioning/impairment in mental health settings. Proposes that GAF scores may be influenced by factors other than functional impairment. Results reveal that GAF scores were strongly influenced by other factors, like symptom severity. Suggests that better…
Bacon, Steven F.; Collins, Michael J.; Plake, Edmund V.
Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…
Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura
Accreditation, budget, and accountability pressures at the institution and program levels lead to the involvement of faculty in assessment-based activities. Increasingly, programs are being expected to document student learning beyond traditional course grades. The use of outcomes as a tool to improve learning relies heavily on the active…
Weaver-Kaulis, Amy; Crutsinger, Christy
The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands. A CEAP effort on pastureland, primarily in the eastern and central United States, began in 2008. In this paper we ...
1 Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report 1. Department/Program Mission The mission of the Department of Chemical and Biological is to prepare chemical engineers for successful careers of leadership and innovation in chemical engineering and related fields; expands
Missouri-Rolla, University of
This commentary considers the merits of exploring different public health delivery systems among developed countries to consider which models are most effective. It challenges the conventional focus on delivery of services or functions and asks why we are not primarily interested in delivery of better public health outcomes for our populations. Achieving these outcomes requires the commitment of all sectors of our respective communities and the deployment of a range of delivery systems tailored to the national political and cultural context. PMID:23181476
Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…
Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph
The objective of this study was to assess the possible causes of hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) in Turkish patients with stroke, to identify the correlation between HSP and clinical factors, and to review the effects of HSP on functional outcomes. A total of 187 consecutive patients with stroke were evaluated for the presence of HSP and for the…
Barlak, Aysegul; Unsal, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Sahin-Onat, Sule; Ozel, Sumru
It is unclear how brief postoperative delirium (DEL) affects functional outcomes. In this study, we sought to determine if patients with brief postoper- ative DEL (6-wk duration) have different living situations when compared with non-DEL patients after hip fracture repair. In a prospective study, patients admitted to the geriatric hip fracture ser- vice were assessed every postoperative day for the
Khwaja Zakriya; Frederick E. Sieber; Colleen Christmas; James F. Wenz; Shawn Franckowiak
...announcing a public workshop to discuss measurement principles for clinical outcome assessments (COAs) for use in clinical trials for new drugs. COAs include patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, clinician-reported outcome...
Health status measures constitute an essential part of outcome assessments in patients with rheumatic diseases. Currently used health status measures typically assess patient perceptions within various dimensions of health. The issue of widening patient perspective in outcome assessments was raised at OMERACT 2000 and further activities were initiated at the subsequent American College of Rheumatology meetings. Measuring patient perceptions of health is considered the standard approach in clinical practice, controlled clinical trials, and longitudinal observation studies, as well as in other types of epidemiological research. However, the traditionally used instruments also have limitations based on the relevance of the questionnaire items, sensitivity to change in longitudinal observational studies, and intraindividual variations over time. Patient priorities or preferences for improvement in health may be an alternative for the assessment of important patient outcomes. Data support that patient priorities for improvement in health are associated with their perception, but that overlap is incomplete and that complimentary information may be achieved. Expectations about future health and satisfaction with health may also represent alternative approaches. Thus, an open research agenda is required for the future, including different approaches regarding both endpoints and methodological issues. PMID:12672219
Kvien, Tore K; Heiberg, Turid
Investigates the treatment utility of functional assessment within a behavioral consultation framework to determine the effect of different uses of assessment data on child treatment outcome. Participants were 19 preschool children enrolled in Head Start and their teachers who worked with consultants to identify target behaviors and implement…
Schill, Melissa Twernbold; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.
Objective: In spite of an expanding use of health-related quality of life assessment in research and treatment of ADHD, there is still limited knowledge about the role of impaired quality of life in symptomatic outcomes. This study investigates how specific functional domains affect the relationship between ADHD symptoms and occupational outcome. Method: A total of 149 referred adults with ADHD participated in the study. We used mediation analyses to test a model with two 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) Mental Component scales, that is, role-emotion function and social function as mediators for the relationship between ADHD inattentiveness and occupational outcome. Results: The relationship between ADHD inattentiveness and occupational outcome was completely mediated by both role-emotion function and social function. Conclusion: Role-emotion function and social function may identify specific aspects of functional impairment as potentially important treatment targets for ADHD patients with impaired occupational function. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23407280
Gjervan, Bjørn; Hjemdal, Odin; Nordahl, Hans M
Objective: The goal of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis Visual Outcomes Committee is to define the best functional outcome measures for future neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated optic pathway glioma (OPG) clinical trials. Methods: The committee considered the components of vision, other ophthalmologic parameters affected by OPG, potential biomarkers of visual function, and quality of life measures to arrive at consensus-based, evidence-driven recommendations for objective and measurable functional endpoints for OPG trials. Results: Visual acuity (VA) assessments using consistent quantitative testing methods are recommended as the main functional outcome measure for NF1-OPG clinical trials. Teller acuity cards are recommended for use as the primary VA endpoint, and HOTV as a secondary endpoint once subjects are old enough to complete it. The optic disc should be assessed for pallor, as this appears to be a contributory variable that may affect the interpretation of VA change over time. Given the importance of capturing patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials, evaluating visual quality of life using the Children's Visual Function Questionnaire as a secondary endpoint is also proposed. Conclusions: The use of these key functional endpoints will be essential for evaluating the efficacy of future OPG clinical trials. PMID:24249802
Avery, Robert A.; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Ardern-Holmes, Simone L.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Gutmann, David H.; Listernick, Robert; Martin, Staci; Ullrich, Nicole J.; Liu, Grant T.
Recent research has highlighted the relationships between impairments in cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcomes among people with schizophrenia (PWS). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend this work by testing the relationships between cognition and functional outcome among deaf adults with schizophrenia. Empirical findings from deafness-oriented research reveals enhanced abilities in certain aspects of visual-spatial processing compared to hearing people. Sixty-five PWS (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, and visual processing. The first hypothesis tested whether cognition predicted functional outcome in a similar fashion for both deaf and hearing subjects (n=63). For all subjects, higher levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of functional outcome, and the strongest predictors of outcome were verbal memory and visual-spatial memory (recall condition) (VSM recall). However, the deaf and hearing groups did show different patterns of relationships between cognition and functioning when all cognitive variables were examined. The second hypothesis was that deaf subjects would display superior performance in early visual processing, visual-spatial memory (copy condition) (VSM copy), and VSM recall. Deaf subjects displayed superior performance on each task; however, no significant differences emerged. Deaf subjects outperformed hearing subjects in an unexpected domain (word memory/recognition). This study extends prior work in the area of cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions that address different domains of cognition. PMID:17560083
Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M
This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and Lance-Adams syndrome; in persons with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and in healthy young adults and sedentary and active elderly. Several studies demonstrated promising outcomes of EMST as a non-task-specific training for airway protection in persons with dysphagia secondary to neuromuscular impairments; however, further research is needed to confirm and generalize the reported findings. PMID:25144167
Laciuga, Helena; Rosenbek, John C; Davenport, Paul W; Sapienza, Christine M
Background Neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia has received considerable attention because of its robust prediction of functional outcome. Psychiatric symptoms, in particular negative symptoms, have also been shown to predict functional outcome, but have garnered much less attention. The high degree of intercorrelation among all of these variables leaves unclear whether neurocognition has a direct effect on functional outcome or whether that relationship to functional outcome is partially mediated by symptoms. Methods A meta-analysis of 73 published English language studies (total n = 6519) was conducted to determine the magnitude of the relationship between neurocognition and symptoms, and between symptoms and functional outcome. A model was tested in which symptoms mediate the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome. Functional outcome involved measures of social relationships, school and work functioning, and laboratory assessments of social skill. Results Although negative symptoms were found to be significantly related to neurocognitive functioning (p < .01) positive symptoms were not (p = .97). The relationship was moderate for negative symptoms (r=?.24, n = 4757, 53 studies), but positive symptoms were not at all related to neurocogniton (r = .00, n= 1297, 25 studies). Negative symptoms were significantly correlated with functional outcome (r =?.42, p<.01), and again the correlation was higher than for positive symptoms (r = ?.03, p = .55). Furthermore, our findings support a model in which negative symptoms significantly mediate the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome (Sobel test p <.01). Conclusions Although neurocognition and negative symptoms are both predictors of functional outcome, negative symptoms might at least partially mediate the relationship between neurocognition and outcome. PMID:19628375
Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Thames, April D.; Koellner, Vanessa; Nuechterlein, Keith H.
Background: Growing evidence suggests that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are implicated in stroke recurrence and mortality, and their location can be a critical factor. This study evaluated the impact of periventricular WMHs (PVWMHs) and subcortical WMHs (SWMHs) on poststroke functional outcomes. Methods: Brain MRI was performed on 187 acute ischemic stroke patients (57.8% male; mean age = 64.3 years) recruited
Li-Min Liou; Chien-Fu Chen; Yuh-Cherng Guo; Hsiu-Ling Cheng; Hui-Lin Lee; Jui-Sheng Hsu; Ruey-Tay Lin; Hsiu-Fen Lin
Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40
Objective. To assess the outcomes of functional rhinoplasty for nasal valve incompetence and to evaluate an in-office test used to select appropriate surgical techniques. Methods. Patients with nasal obstruction due to nasal valve incompetence were enrolled. The modified Cottle maneuver was used to assess the internal and external nasal valves to help select the appropriate surgical method. The rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation (ROE) form and a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) of nasal breathing were used to compare preoperative and postoperative symptoms. Results. Forty-nine patients underwent functional rhinoplasty evaluation. Of those, 35 isolated batten or spreader grafts were inserted without additional procedures. Overall mean ROE score increased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 41.9 ± 2.4 to 81.7 ± 2.5 after surgery. Subjective improvement in nasal breathing was also observed with the VAS (mean improvement of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8–5.2) from baseline (P = 0.000)). Spearman rank correlation between predicted outcomes using the modified Cottle maneuver and postoperative outcomes was strong for the internal nasal valve (Rho = 0.80; P = 0.0029) and moderate for the external nasal valve (Rho = 0.50; P = 0.013). Conclusion. Functional rhinoplasty improved subjective nasal airflow in our population. The modified Cottle maneuver was effective in predicting positive surgical outcomes. PMID:25243085
Moore, Corey; Taylor, S. Mark
NEW JERSEY'S SPECIAL REVIEW ASSESSMENT (SRA): AN EXAMINATION OF THE POST SECONDARY OUTCOMES.............................................................................................................................................8 HISTORY OF ASSESSMENT: HSPA AND SRA IN NEW JERSEY....................................... 10
Objective The main objective of the current study was to assess the distribution and its prognostic value of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) levels assessed at admission in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fracture. Methods From January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, all postmenopausal women with first-ever hip fracture were recruited to participate in the study. Serum 25[OH] D levels were measured at admission. The functional evaluation at the time of discharge was performed by the Barthel Index (BI). The prognostic value of 25[OH] D to predict the functional outcome within discharge was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for the possible confounders. Results In our study, 261 patients were included and assessed. In the 76 patients with an unfavorable functional outcome, serum 25(OH) D levels were lower compared with those in patients with a favorable outcome [11.8(IQR, 9.9–16.1)ng/ml; 16.8(IQR, 13.6–21.4)ng/ml, respectively; P<0.0001]. In multivariate analysis, there was an increased risk of unfavorable outcome associated with serum 25(OH) D levels ? 20ng/ml (OR 5.24, 95%CI: 3.11–8.15; P<0.0001) after adjusting for possible confounders. Conclusions Our data support an association between serum 25[OH] D levels and prognosis in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fracture. PMID:25635882
Liu, Lan-Mei; Wang, Shuai-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Sheng; Han, Xiang-Zhen; Wei, Bao-Fu
Summarize functional outcomes after transoral robotic surgery (TORS) ± adjuvant therapy for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). A systematic review was conducted. The MEDLINE database was searched (MeSH terms: TORS, pharyngeal neoplasms, oropharyngeal neoplasms). Peer-reviewed human subject papers published through December 2013 were included. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) case report design (n < 10), (2) review article, or (3) technical, animal, or cadaver studies. Functional outcomes extracted included feeding tube dependence, swallow examination findings, speech ratings, velopharyngeal insufficiency, pneumonia, and oral intake measures. Twelve papers comprising 441 patients with OPC treated with TORS ± adjuvant therapy were included. Feeding tube rates were the most commonly reported functional outcome. Excluding prophylactic placement, 18-39 % of patients required gastrostomy placement, typically during adjuvant therapy. Chronic gastrostomy dependence ranged from 0 to 7 % (mean follow-up 11-26 months), regardless of disease stage. Composite MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) scores ranged from 65.2 to 78 (89 patients, 3 series, mean follow-up 12-13 months). Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were not systematically reported. Incidence of postoperative pneumonia was 0-7 %. Predictors of swallowing function included baseline function, T-stage, N-stage, tongue base primary tumors, and adjuvant chemoradiation. Rates of transient hypernasality were 4-9 %. A single study suggested dose-dependent effects of adjuvant therapy (none, radiation alone, chemoradiation) on diet scores at 6 and 12 months. Crude end points of functional recovery after TORS ± adjuvant therapy suggest promising swallowing outcomes, depending on the functional measure reported. PMID:24643851
Hutcheson, Katherine A; Holsinger, F Christopher; Kupferman, Michael E; Lewin, Jan S
Background Studies have linked migraine with aura to an increased risk of ischemic stroke, particularly among women. Data on the relationship of migraine and functional outcome from ischemic cerebral events are sparse. Methods and Results Prospective cohort study among 27,852 women enrolled in the Women’s Health Study for whom we had information on migraine and measured cholesterol values and who had no prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Migraine was classified into no history of migraine, active migraine with aura, active migraine without aura, and past history of migraine. Possible functional outcomes were no stroke or TIA, TIA, and stroke with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0–1, mRS 2–3, and mRS 4–6. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the relationship of migraine with functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. During a mean of 13.5 years of follow-up, 398 TIAs and 345 ischemic strokes occurred. Compared with women without history of migraine and who did not experience a TIA or stroke, women who reported migraine with aura had adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.56 (1.03–2.36) for TIA, 2.33 (1.37–3.97) for stroke with mRS 0–1, 0.82 (0.30–2.24) for mRS 2–3, and 1.18 (0.28–4.97) for mRS 4–6. The risk of any outcome was not significantly elevated for women who experienced migraine without aura or who had a past history of migraine. Conclusion Results of this large prospective cohort suggest that women with migraine with aura are at increased risk of experiencing TIA or ischemic stroke with good functional outcome. PMID:21126968
Rist, Pamela M.; Buring, Julie E.; Kase, Carlos S.; Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias
We examined the clinical features of patients with pontine infarction in the acute stage and the factors affecting functional prognosis and outcome. Lesions, neurological manifestations at initial physical status examinations, cognitive function, swallowing function and outcome [activities of daily living (ADL), status of nutritional intake at discharge and destination after discharge] were evaluated in 68 patients (47 males and 21 females) who had pontine lesions with acute phase cerebral infarction. The mean length of stay was 24.4 days. The symptoms (number of patients) observed included paralysis (50), dysarthria (47), ataxia (18), diplopia (11), dysphagia (49) and poor cognitive performance (37). The types of lesions (number of patients) included lacunar infarcts in the ventral pontine area (15), lacunar infarcts in the dorsal pontine area (13) and large lacunar infarcts (LLIs) (41). After hospital discharge, 23 patients were discharged home, 44 were transferred to another hospital and 1 died. Twenty-three patients were on a regular diet, 22 were receiving a dysphagia diet and 22 were on enteral feeding at discharge. Patients with LLIs more frequently had poor cognitive performance, paralysis, dysphagia at discharge and a tendency for a longer length of stay compared with patients who had lacunar infarct. Most patients who returned home were those who were younger in age, had fewer neurological symptoms, had better cognitive function and ADL performance, and could ingest food. In an acute hospital, age, neurological symptoms, ADL, cognitive function, and dysphagia were considered important factors for determining the outcome in patients with pontine infarction. PMID:21979558
Maeshima, S; Osawa, A; Miyazaki, Y; Takeda, H; Tanahashi, N
Clinical outcomes and effectiveness of renal artery stenting in patients with critical atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: does it improve blood pressure control and renal function assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate?
Introduction Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is associated with uncontrolled hypertension and chronic renal failure. Aim To evaluate the influence of gender and presence of chronic renal failure on the outcomes of percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting (PTRAS) due to atherosclerosis. Material and methods A total of 28 ARAS patients underwent PTRAS and 36 stents were placed. Basal characteristics, laboratory data and blood pressure of patients were recorded. The differences between genders and improvement/deterioration of renal functions and blood pressure were analyzed. The predictors of outcomes were determined. Results Baseline characteristics were similar between men and women. Significant improvement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure control was achieved after PTRAS (153.04 ±17.07 mm Hg vs. 124.75 ±11.40 mm Hg, p = 0.001 and 92.50 ±10.76 mm Hg vs. 77.54 ±8.23 mm Hg, p < 0.001, respectively). Although mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine levels did not significantly improve at the 6-month follow-up visit compared to baseline values, of the 28 patients 13 (46.4%) patients had improvement of renal functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that PTRAS is a safe procedure and may offer blood pressure control but beneficial effects of PTRAS on renal function may be anticipated in a selected group of patients, especially those with a low eGFR. PMID:24570723
Yildiz, Mustafa; Karakoyun, Suleyman; Gokdeniz, Tayyar; Karabay, Can Y.; Akin, Ibrahim; Gul, Cetin
The present study examined the psychometric characteristics of a “core-set” of six individual questions (on pain, function, symptom-specific well-being, work disability, social disability and satisfaction) for use in low back pain (LBP) outcome assessment. A questionnaire booklet was administered to 277 German-speaking LBP patients with a range of common diagnoses, before and 6 months after surgical (N=187) or conservative (N=90) treatment.
Anne F. Mannion; Achim Elfering; Ralph Staerkle; Astrid Junge; Dieter Grob; Norbert K. Semmer; Nicola Jacobshagen; Jiri Dvorak; Norbert Boos
Previous research on functional outcome in bipolar disorder (BD) has uncovered various factors that exacerbate psychosocial disability over the course of illness, including genetics, illness severity, stress, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. This paper presents an integrated view of these findings that accounts for the precipitous decline in psychosocial functioning after illness onset. The proposed model highlights a number of reciprocal pathways among previously studied factors that trap people in a powerful cycle of ailing forces. The paper discusses implications to patient care as well as the larger social changes required for shifting the functional trajectory of people with BD from psychosocial decline to growth. PMID:21961062
Levy, Boaz; Manove, Emily
Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…
White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.
Background: Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is a devastating clinical entity affecting about 10% of stroke patients. Decompressive craniectomy has been found to reduce mortality rates and improve outcome in patients. Methods: A retrospective case review study was conducted to compare patients treated with medical therapy and decompressive surgery for malignant MCA infarction in Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a period of 5 years (from January 2007 to December 2012). A total of 125 patients were included in this study; 90 (72%) patients were treated with surgery, while 35 (28%) patients were treated with medical therapy. Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality rate at 30 days, Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) on discharge, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 and 6 months. Results: Decompressive craniectomy resulted in a significant reduction in mortality rate at 30 days (P < 0.05) and favorable GOS outcome at discharge (P < 0.05). Good functional outcome based on mRS was seen in 48.9% of patients at 3 months and in 64.4% of patients at 6 months (P < 0.05). Factors associated with good outcome include infarct volume of less than 250 ml, midline shift of less than 10 mm, absence of additional vascular territory involvement, good preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and early surgical intervention (within 24 h) (P < 0.05). Age and dominant hemisphere infarction had no significant association with functional outcome. Conclusion: Decompressive craniectomy achieves good functional outcome in, young patients with good preoperative GCS score and favorable radiological findings treated with surgery within 24 h of ictus. PMID:25101197
Raffiq, Mohammad Azman Mohammed; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari Mohammad; Kandasamy, Regunath; Abdullah, Jafri Malin
All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students are informed of the instructor's expectations at the beginning of the course. The level of faculty-student and student-student communication is very high, both in terms of quantity and quality, and exceeds that experienced in classroom sections. Student scores on graded assignments compare favorably to classroom sections. Overall, online courses offer a cost-effective means of addressing top priority issues, including increasing student access to learning, accelerating rates of graduation, and improving outreach to K-12 educators, especially those working on credential requirements.
Reed, D. L.
Program Assessment Report for MS-SOC, 2010/2011 Program Outcomes 1. Human Computer Interaction outcome: It may be possible to improve this program outcome, in consultation with the instructor of the existing courses, due to a lack of a suitable instructor. This program outcome should be replaced with one
In the present article, the authors want to present the results of a retrospectively evaluated consecutive series of patients\\u000a with surgically treated isolated orbital floor fractures (OFF; “blow-out fractures”) concerning the functional outcome after\\u000a OFF and give detailed recommendations based on the clinical and radiological findings. A series of 60 patients with isolated\\u000a OFF over a 5-year period needing surgically
Paul W. Poeschl; Arnulf Baumann; Guido Dorner; Guenter Russmueller; Rudolf Seemann; Ferenc Fabian; Rolf Ewers
Outcomes assessment is a process by which an academic unit defines and articulates its program goals and assesses its attainment of those goals. This article chronicles one language division's efforts at outcomes assessment for beginning and intermediate Spanish. The evidence used for program assessment consisted of WebCAPE placement scores,…
We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ?4% of the annual number for ?2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus <2% of the annual positive isolates for ?2 consecutive weeks. We examined effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were <0.1% for all natural causes mortality, but >0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.
Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.
Arthralgia affects postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (BCSs) receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs). This study aims to establish the feasibility of studying the impact of yoga on objective functional outcomes, pain, and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) for AI-associated arthralgia (AIAA). Postmenopausal women with stage I to III breast cancer who reported AIAA were enrolled in a single-arm pilot trial. A yoga program was provided twice a week for 8 weeks. The Functional Reach (FR) and Sit and Reach (SR) were evaluated as primary outcomes. Pain, as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), self-reported Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) were secondary outcomes. Paired t tests were used for analysis, and 90% provided data for assessment at the end of the intervention. Participants experienced significant improvement in balance, as measured by FR, and flexibility, as measured by SR. The PSFS improved from 4.55 to 7.21, and HR-QOL measured by FACT-B also improved; both P < .05. The score for the Pain Severity subscale of the BPI reduced. No adverse events nor development or worsening of lymphedema was observed. In all, 80% of participants adhered to the home program. Preliminary data suggest that yoga may reduce pain and improve balance and flexibility in BCSs with AIAA. A randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the definitive efficacy of yoga for objective functional improvement in BCSs related to AIAA. PMID:21733988
Galantino, Mary Lou; Desai, Krupali; Greene, Laurie; Demichele, Angela; Stricker, Carrie Tompkins; Mao, Jun James
Recent developments in magnetic resonance (MR) functional quantitative imaging have made it a potentially powerful tool to assess treatment response in radiation therapy. With its abilities to capture functional information on underlying tissue characteristics, MR functional quantitative imaging can be valuable in assessing treatment response and as such to optimize therapeutic outcome. Various MR quantitative imaging techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, have been investigated and found useful for assessment of radiotherapy. However, various aspects including data reproducibility, interpretation of biomarkers, image quality and data analysis impose challenges on applications of MR functional quantitative imaging in radiotherapy assessment. All of these challenging issues shall be addressed to help us understand whether MR functional quantitative imaging is truly beneficial and contributes to future development of radiotherapy. It is evident that individualized therapy is the future direction of patient care. MR functional quantitative imaging might serves as an indispensable tool towards this promising direction.
Chang, Zheng; Wang, Chunhao
The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…
Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim
Identifying biosignatures to assess the probability of response to an antidepressant for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is critically needed. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) offers the promise to provide such a measure. Previous work with fcMRI demonstrated that the correlation in signal from one region to another is a measure of functional connectivity. In this pilot work, a baseline non-task fcMRI was acquired in 14 adults with MDD who were free of all medications. Participants were then treated for 8 weeks with an antidepressant and then clinically re-evaluated. Probabilistic anatomic regions of interest (ROI) were defined for 16 brain regions (eight for each hemisphere) previously identified as being important in mood disorders. These ROIs were used to determine mean time courses for each individual's baseline non-task fcMRI. The correlations in time courses between 16 brain regions were calculated. These calculated correlations were considered to signify measures of functional connectivity. The degree of connectivity for each participant was correlated with treatment outcome. Among 13 participants with 8 weeks follow-up data, connectivity measures in several regions, especially the subcallosal cortex, were highly correlated with treatment outcome. These connectivity measures could provide a means to evaluate how likely a patient is to respond to an antidepressant treatment. Further work using larger samples is required to confirm these findings and to assess if measures of functional connectivity can be used to predict differential outcomes between antidepressant treatments. PMID:21556277
Kozel, F. Andrew; Rao, Uma; Lu, Hanzhang; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Grannemann, Bruce; McGregor, Tamara; Croarkin, Paul E.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.
Abstract Background: Community-based rehabilitation can help to maximize function following acquired brain injury (ABI); however, data on treatment outcome is limited in quantity. Objective: To describe and evaluate client outcomes of an outpatient programme for adults with moderate-to-severe traumatic and non-traumatic ABI. Methods: Two phase design involving retrospective and longitudinal study of programme completers with ABI (n?=?47). Changes in functioning were measured with the Mayo-Portland Inventory (MPAI-4), administered pre- and immediately post-rehabilitation and at 3 years follow-up. Self-ratings were supplemented with MPAI-4 data from significant others (n?=?32) and staff (n?=?32). Results: Injured individuals and informants reported improved physical and psychosocial functioning immediately following the completion of community rehabilitation, with medium-to-large and significant treatment gains noted on the MPAI-4 ability, adjustment and participation sub-scales (Cohen's d range?=?0.31-1.10). A deterioration in individuals' adjustment was further reported at follow-up, although this was based on limited data. Issues with longer-term rehabilitation service provision were additionally noted. Conclusions: The data support the need for continuity of care, including ongoing emotional support, to cater to the complex and dynamic needs of the ABI population. However, these results need to be considered in the context of a small sample size and quasi-experimental design. PMID:25180709
Curran, Christine; Dorstyn, Diana; Polychronis, Con; Denson, Linley
Background Fragility fractures are a major health care problem worldwide. The proportion of the geriatric population and the overall\\u000a life expectancy will increase. Hip fractures are the most common fragility fractures needing surgery and nowadays treatment\\u000a concepts are changing. We studied the long-term functional outcome and their influencing factors in patients treated without\\u000a any interdisciplinary aspects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting A retrospective cohort
Christian Kammerlander; Markus Gosch; Ursula Kammerlander-Knauer; Thomas J. Luger; Michael Blauth; Tobias Roth
Diffusion imaging has made significant inroads into the clinical diagnosis of a variety of diseases by inferring changes in microstructure, namely cell membranes, myelin sheath and other structures that inhibit water diffusion. This review discusses recent progress in the use of diffusion parameters in predicting functional outcome. Studies in the literature using only scalar parameters from diffusion measurements, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), are summarized. Other more complex mathematical models and post-processing uses are also discussed briefly. PMID:23288477
Xu, Duan; Mukherjee, Pratik; Barkovich, A James
Background Approximately 12% of operations for traumatic neuropathy are for patients with segmental nerve loss and less than 50% of these injuries obtain meaningful functional recovery. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) therapy has been shown to improve functional outcomes after nerve severance and we hypothesized this therapy could also benefit nerve autografting. Methods A segmental rat sciatic nerve injury model was used, whereby a 0.5 cm defect was repaired with an autograft using microsurgery. Experimental animals were treated with solutions containing methylene blue (MB) and PEG; control animals did not receive PEG. Compound Actions Potentials (CAPs) were recorded before nerve transection, after solution therapy, and at 72 hours postoperatively. The animals underwent behavioral testing at 24 and 72 hours postoperatively. After sacrifice, nerves were fixed, sectioned, and immunostained to allow for quantitative morphometric analysis. Results The introduction of hydrophilic polymers greatly improved morphological and functional recovery of rat sciatic axons at 1–3 days following nerve autografting. PEG therapy restored CAPs in all animals and CAPs were still present 72 hours postoperatively. No CAPS were detectable in control animals. Footfall asymmetry scores and sciatic functional index scores were significantly improved for PEG therapy group at all time points (p <0.05 and p<0.001; p <0.001 and p <0.01). Sensory and motor axon counts were increased distally in nerves treated with PEG compared to control (p = 0.0189 and p = 0.0032). Conclusions PEG therapy improves early physiologic function, behavioral outcomes, and distal axonal density after nerve autografting. PMID:22521220
Sexton, Kevin W.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Del Corral, Gabriel A.; Bittner, George D.; Shack, R. Bruce; Nanney, Lillian B.; Thayer, Wesley P.
Current analysis of displaced acetabular fractures is limited in its ability to predict functional outcome. This study aimed to (1) quantify initial acetabular damage following acetabular fracture through measurement of subchondral bone density and fracture lines, and (2) evaluate associations between acetabular damage and functional outcomes following fracture. Subchondral bone intensity maps were created for 24 patients with unilateral acetabular fractures. Measures of crack length and density differences between corresponding regions in the fractured acetabuli, normalized by the unfractured side, were generated from preoperative CT images. Damage measures were compared to quality of life survey data collected for each patient at least 2 years post-injury (Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment [MFA] and Short Form-36 [SF-36], with specific focus on parameters that best describe patients' physical health). CT image quantification of initial damage to acetabular subchondral bone was associated with functional outcome post-injury. In general, damage as quantified through differences in density in the superior dome region (zones 8 and 12) and the central anterior region of the acetabulum (zone 3) were found to be the strongest significant predictors of functional outcome (adjusted R(2) = 0.3-0.45, p < 0.05). Damage to the superior dome was predictive of worse functional outcome whereas damage to the central anterior region indicated a better functional outcome. Once automated, this approach may form a basis to score acetabular fractures toward improving clinical prognoses. PMID:23940014
Lubovsky, Omri; Kreder, Michael; Wright, David A; Kiss, Alex; Gallant, Aimee; Kreder, Hans J; Whyne, Cari M
For years, total laryngectomy was the only treatment option for patients with intermediate to advanced laryngeal cancer. Over the past two decades, great progress has been made in the management of this disease, with multimodality approaches aimed at laryngeal preservation reshaping the treatment landscape. In the era of chemoradiation, greater focus and attention are now directed toward functional laryngeal preservation--not simply "organ preservation." The continued development and integration of new treatment approaches, including organ preservation surgery (eg, transoral minimally invasive surgery of the head and neck, supracricoid partial laryngectomy), intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and targeted molecular therapies, offer the potential to improve clinical outcomes, function, and quality of life. Incorporation of these new approaches advances the concept of personalized medicine, with treatment strategies tailored to the circumstances and future of each patient. PMID:18377831
Holsinger, F Christopher
Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women) who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years). All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ?2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and allows early knee mobilization. Careful soft tissue handling and employing minimal invasive techniques minimizes soft tissue complications. PMID:23682182
Prasad, G Thiruvengita; Kumar, T Suresh; Kumar, R Krishna; Murthy, Ganapathy K; Sundaram, Nandkumar
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength, which in the elderly can result in disability and affect functional outcomes after hospitalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes and mortality during hospitalization and at three months post-discharge, according to the presence of sarcopenia. Prospective study of 99 patients (38.4% men, aged 84.6) admitted in a subacute geriatric care unit who underwent a rehabilitation intervention. Main outcomes were mortality and functional improvement at discharge and at three-month follow-up. Sarcopenia was assessed by handgrip strength (hydraulic dynamometer) and by body composition bioimpedance. Forty-six (46.5%) patients met diagnostic criteria of sarcopenia. Patients with sarcopenia had a worse prior functional status than those without the condition (Barthel Index: 64.2±22.8 vs 73.3±21.8; p=0.04) but both groups had similar functional decline at admission (Barthel Index: 24±15.1 vs 28.5±15.2; p=0.1) and achieved similar functional improvement at discharge (20.4±18.3 vs 27.4±21; p=0.08). Barthel Index at discharge remained comparatively worse in patients with sarcopenia (44.2±26.6 vs 55.9±26.7; p=0.03). After completing a 3-month at-home rehabilitation program, no changes in functional capacity were observed in patients with sarcopenia; their peers improved their Barthel Index scores (45.5±24.8 vs 61.6±26.6; p=0.007). Mortality rates at 3-month follow-up did not differ between groups. In conclusion, patients with sarcopenia had a worse functional status, similar functional improvement during hospitalization and a lack of recovery after returning home. Further studies are needed to establish long-terms effects on mortality. PMID:24726179
Sánchez-Rodríguez, Dolores; Marco, Ester; Miralles, Ramon; Fayos, Mónica; Mojal, Sergio; Alvarado, Martha; Vázquez-Ibar, Olga; Escalada, Ferran; Muniesa, Josep M
Objective To evaluate whether early neurofunctional assessment may be useful in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in children of very low birth weight (VLBW). Design Observational longitudinal study. Settings Northern Italy. Patients A total of 250 VLBW children (129 boys, 121 girls) born consecutively 1996–1999. Main outcome measures Neurodevelopment at 36?months of chronological age, classified in accordance with the classification of Tardieu and the International classification of functioning. Results Of the infants exhibiting normal neurodevelopment (n ?=? 183) or major dysfunction (n ?=? 17) at 3?months of corrected age, 72% and 94% respectively did not change their score during the study. Minor dysfunctions at 3?months of corrected age were transient in 17 (34%) children. After adjustment for neonatal variables, neurodevelopment at 3?months of corrected age remained predictive of dysfunction at 36?months (odds ratio ?=? 4.33, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 9.12). If the results for the normal and minor dysfunction groups were pooled, the predictive qualities of the 3?month neurofunctional assessment were: sensitivity 0.5, specificity 0.99, positive predictive value 0.94, negative predictive value 0.93. Conclusion Early neurofunctional evaluation may be useful in predicting later neurodevelopmental outcome in VLBW children. PMID:16492947
Picciolini, O; Giannì, M L; Vegni, C; Fumagalli, M; Mosca, F
There is a lack of biomarkers in schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in social functioning are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to explore whether neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia is correlated to social function and clinical variables. A further aim was to determine whether baseline levels of NPY were associated with subsequent 3-year outcome. Fifty-six consecutively admitted patients with schizophrenia were included and underwent lumbar puncture and symptom ratings before antipsychotic treatment. NPY levels in CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Social function (Social Competence and Social Interest) was assessed by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation while psychiatric symptoms were rated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Three-year outcome was assessed with the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale. Cross-sectional analysis showed a correlation between level of NPY and Social Competence at index admission (r(s)=0.37, p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis (i.e., at the 3-year follow-up) indicated that, for each standard deviation increase in baseline NPY, there was an increased risk of being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.82), having moderate or severe symptoms (OR 3.09, CI 1.30-7.32) or being hospitalized at least 6 months the previous year (OR 3.24, CI 1.09-9.64). However, NPY was not correlated to Social Interest or clinical variables at index admission. In conclusion, NPY levels in CSF are correlated to Social Competence and seem to predict some aspects of longitudinal outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:24799298
Stålberg, Gabriella; Ekselius, Lisa; Lindström, Leif H; Larhammar, Dan; Bodén, Robert
Edaravone has been used in patients with acute ischemic stroke in Japan for over 10 years but does not have marketing authorization in Europe or America. Either patients in Europe and America are not receiving an effective treatment, or those in Asia are being given a treatment which is not effective. Finding out which of these is true will require further clinical trials, and a better understanding of its efficacy in animal models may help inform the design of those trials so that it might be tested under conditions where there is the greatest prospect of success. We systematically reviewed the efficacy of edaravone in animal models of focal ischemia and summarized data using weighted mean difference DerSimonian and Laird random-effects modeling. We used stratified meta-analysis and metaregression to assess the influence of study design and methodological quality. We identified 49 experiments describing outcome in 814 animals; 30 experiments (519 animals) reported functional and 35 experiments (503 animals) reported structural outcome. Edaravone improved functional and structural outcome by 30·3% (95% confidence interval 23·4-37·2%) and 25·5% (95% confidence interval, 21·1-29·9%), respectively. For functional outcome, there was an inverse relationship between study quality and effect size (P?0·0017). Effect sizes were larger in studies where randomization or blinded assessment was not reported. There was no evidence of publication bias. Edaravone is a promising treatment for stroke. However, because of the methodological weakness in current animal studies, no sufficient preclinical evidence is available to optimize the study design of clinical trials. Higher quality animal studies are expected to inform further clinical study. PMID:24148907
Wu, Simiao; Sena, Emily; Egan, Kieren; Macleod, Malcolm; Mead, Gillian
This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain internalizing distress (e.g., anxiety, depression), externalizing distress (e.g., aggression), and recovery outcomes following traumatic events.
Susan E. Borja; Jennifer L. Callahan
Assessment of higher order learning outcomes such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity has remained a challenge for universities. While newer technologies such as social networking tools have the potential to support these intended outcomes, academics' assessment practice is slow to change. University mission statements and unit…
McNeill, Margot; Gosper, Maree; Xu, Jing
Evaluating translocation outcomes is important for improving wildlife management and conservation actions. Often, when quick decisions need to be made and long-lived animals with slow reproduction rates are translocated, traditional assessment methods such as long-term survival and reproductive success cannot be used for assessing translocation outcomes. Thus, alternative, seldom used, measures such as comparing the behavior and physiology of translocated
Noa Pinter-Wollman; Lynne A. Isbell; Lynette A. Hart
A guidebook for the individual or group of persons on a college campus responsible for implementation of institutional effectiveness or outcomes assessment activities is presented in seven chapters. Chapter 1 explains the handbook's use in institutional effectiveness and outcomes assessment implementation, and Chapter 2 gives an overview of the…
Nichols, James O.
With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current literature assessing adult outcomes for individuals with CP within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), Disability, and Health model of enablement. Preliminary data over the last decade indicate that among adults with cerebral palsy without intellectual disability, 60-80% completed high school, 14-25% completed college, up to 61% were living independently in the community, 25-55% were competitively employed, and 14-28% were involved in long term relationships with partners or had established families. These outcomes occurred with biomedical advances in the management of spasticity, deformity, and medical co-morbidities, as well as with concurrent policy initiatives to increase access to a continuum of habilitative and education services. Although we have incomplete population data to inform comprehensive life-course planning, there are opportunities to create clinical and translational community networks with improved measures of functioning and participation that can better inform us about the factors influencing lifespan development of people with CP. PMID:23949832
Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E
Background To investigate the relation between maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV) in breech presentation. Methods Prospective cohort study in 141 women (? 35 weeks gestation) with a singleton fetus in breech. Blood samples for assessing thyroid function were taken prior to ECV. Main outcome measure was the relation between maternal thyroid function and ECV outcome indicated by post ECV ultrasound. Results ECV success rate was 77/141 (55%), 41/48 (85%) in multipara and 36/93 (39%) in primipara. Women with a failed ECV attempt had significantly higher TSH concentrations than women with a successful ECV (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression showed that TSH (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.90), nulliparity (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.36), frank breech (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10-0.93) and placenta anterior (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.85) were independently related to ECV success. Conclusions Higher TSH levels increase the risk of ECV failure. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00516555 PMID:21269431
Stroke survivors (SS) are rising with higher incidence of stroke in developing countries. In addition to physical impairment, other factors such as cognition, social interaction, and depression determine the functional outcome after stroke. Considering the paucity of data from developing countries, we planned to determine the change in various functional parameters among SS. This community-based prospective study was carried out in Kolkata, India among 283 SS between 2006 and 2010. Functional outcome was assessed at baseline and at 3 annual follow-up visits using validated tools. A stepwise regression analysis was performed with demographic and stroke-related covariates against various measures of functional outcome. Result showed that mean Barthel Index score at baseline was 76.4 ± 30.8. Bengali version of mental status examination and Geriatric Depression Scale scores trended down over time with a negative regression coefficient of -.2061 (standard error [SE], .0937) and -.4488 (SE, .2145). Other outcomes did not change. Female gender, depression, and cognitive dysfunction had an unfavorable impact, whereas education correlated positively. In conclusions female gender and neuropsychiatric disturbances showed poor functional outcome compared with education, which correlates with better outcome. This information will be helpful for patients in developing countries for planning stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25238928
Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Burman, Prabir; Singh, Vineeta; Das, Sujata; Paul, Neelanjana; Ray, Biman Kanti; Hazra, Avijit; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Basu, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Arijit; Das, Shyamal Kumar
Objective: To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. Methods: 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2–3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13
Jørgen Wagle; Lasse Farner; Kjell Flekkøy; Torgeir Bruun Wyller; Leiv Sandvik; Brynjar Fure; Brynhild Stensrød; Knut Engedal
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2006 draft guidance on "Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims" has engendered wide discussion about patient-reported outcome (PRO) domains that should be endpoints in clinical trials. Reducing the severity and impact of symptoms is a natural intervention endpoint for cancer, a condition associated with considerable symptom burden. Because symptoms are best described by patients who have them, including PROs as measures of treatment effectiveness or the differences among treatments provides essential information about the efficacy and toxicity of a treatment and its effects on function. The FDA guidance provides a framework for addressing such issues as clinical significance, study design, and statistical methods as they relate to applications for labeling claims; however, no set of recommended approaches for assessing specific symptoms by patient report in clinical trials exists, other than for pain. Accordingly, an interdisciplinary workgroup, Assessing the Symptoms of Cancer using Patient-Reported Outcomes (ASCPRO), has been formed to generate evidence-based recommendations for the assessment of patient-reported cancer-related symptoms and the use of that information to facilitate clinical research and decision making. ASCPRO is among the first working groups to focus primarily on nonpain symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, appetite loss, depression, cognitive impairment, and shortness of breath. ASCPRO members are stakeholders in optimal symptom assessment, including patient advocates, academics, clinicians, those who pay for symptom control and monitor quality of care, and those who produce products that palliate cancer-related symptoms but that may also engender treatment-related symptoms. PMID:20538189
Cleeland, Charles S; Sloan, Jeff A
A promising approach to addressing challenging behavior in schools is to develop and implement "function-based interventions" (Dunlap et al., 2006; Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Function-based interventions are individualized interventions in which five key outcomes of functional assessment (i.e., identification of challenging behavior,…
de Courcy-Bower, Laurie
The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative was designed to encourage the development of cognitive enhancing agents for schizophrenia. For a medication to receive this indication, regulatory agencies require evidence of improvement in both cognition and functional outcome. Because medication trials are conducted across multiple countries, we examined ratings of the cross-cultural adaptability of 4 intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, Cognitive Assessment Interview [CAI]) made by experienced clinical researchers at 31 sites in 8 countries. English-speaking research staff familiar with conducting medication trials rated the extent to which each subscale of each intermediate measure could be applied to their culture and to subgroups within their culture based on gender, geographic region, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the Cultural Adaptation Rating Scale. Ratings suggested that the CAI would be easiest to adapt across cultures. However, in a recent study, the CAI was found to have weaker psychometric properties than some of the other measures. Problems were identified for specific subscales on all the performance-based assessments across multiple countries. India, China, and Mexico presented the greatest challenges in adaptation. For international clinical trials, it would be important to use the measures that are most adaptable, to adapt subscales that are problematic for specific countries or regions, or to develop a battery composed of the subscales from different instruments that may be most acceptable across multiple cultures with minimal adaptation. PMID:21134973
Velligan, Dawn I; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Schooler, Nina R; Jaeger, Judith; Peters, Nancy M; Buller, Raimund; Marder, Stephen R; Dube, Sanjay
Background Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is the standard treatment for patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). Significant improvement in pain and function are seen after TKR and approximately 80% of patients are very satisfied with the outcome. Functional status prior to TKR is a major predictor of outcome after the intervention. Thus, improving functional status prior to surgery through exercise may improve after surgery outcome. However, results from several previous trials testing the concept have been inconclusive after surgery. Methods/design In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) we will test the effect of a pre-operative neuromuscular trainingprogram versus an attention control program on lower extremity function – before and after surgery. We will enroll 80 participants, aged between 55–90 years, who are scheduled for TKR. In this single-blinded RCT, the intervention group will receive a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 24 training sessions plus 3 educational sessions of the knee school. The control group will receive the 3 educational sessions only. Assessments are performed immediately before and after the intervention (before surgery), at 6?weeks, 3?months and 12?months (after surgery). The primary outcome will include the Chair Stand Test as a measure of leg strength and reaction time. Secondary outcomes are knee function and pain assessed with the self-reported Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). All measurements will be carried out by a specially trained physical therapist, blinded to group allocation. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first single-blinded RCT to test the effect of pre-operative neuromuscular training plus knee school against knee school alone – on knee function and pain, assessed immediately after the interventions prior to surgery and repeatedly after surgery. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00913575 PMID:23641782
The University of Phoenix has developed a comprehensive outcomes and impact assessment program to assess the effects of a university education on students, particularly adult students. The program is integrated with the existing process assessment systems. Process assessments, which the university refers to as the Academic Quality Management…
Tucker, Robert W.; Murphy, John D.
Outlines eight steps that will help optometry schools transition a faculty from "denial" of the need for assessment to "institutionalization": establish a collaborative environment, establish an infrastructure that makes assessment an integral activity, recruit a leader for full implementation of outcomes assessment, conduct a needs assessment,…
Beck, Diane E.; Daum, Kent M.
The Pediatrics Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a valid and reliable measure of functional health status in children with acute and chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP), but its responsiveness has not been documented specifically for this population. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) are the only two instruments validated specifically as evaluative measures for CP, and while widely used, they are limited by a ceiling effect when assessing higher-functioning children. The PEDI is further restricted to children who are 7 years old or less. The goal of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness, and secondarily the uniqueness, of the PODCI compared with the GMFM for evaluating surgical outcomes in CP. Changes in the GMFM and PODCI Parent forms were assessed at two time points in 64 children with spastic CP who underwent muscle-tendon lengthenings (MT; n = 22) or neurosurgical spasticity reduction consisting of either selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR; n = 18) or intrathecal baclofen pump implantation (ITB; n = 11) or who had no surgery between assessments (n = 13). The GMFM Total score was responsive to change after both MT surgery and SDR, with a nearly equivalent magnitude of change in both groups. However, the PODCI Global Function Scale was responsive to changes only after MT surgery, with improvement in the Sports and Physical Function subscale particularly prominent. No significant changes were noted in the ITB group for either measure. PMID:16199947
Damiano, Diane L; Gilgannon, Marc D; Abel, Mark F
White matter (WM) lesions are the classic pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, MRI-based WM lesion load shows relatively poor correlation with functional outcome, resulting in the “clinico-radiological paradox” of MS. Unlike lesion based measures, volumetric MRI assessment of brain atrophy shows a strong correlation with functional outcome, and the presence of early atrophy predicts a worse disease course. While extensive literature exists describing MRI characteristics of atrophy in MS, the exact pathogenesis and the substrate of atrophy - gray vs WM loss, axonal/neuronal damage vs demyelination, or a combination of the above – remain unclear. Animal models of atrophy would allow for detailed investigations of the pathomechanism, and would contribute to an enhanced understanding of structural-functional connections in this complex disease. We now report that in the Theiler’s Murine Encephalitis Virus (TMEV) model of MS in SJL/J mice, significant brain atrophy accompanies the development of the progressive MS-like disease. We conducted volumetric MRI studies in 8 cases and 4 age, gender and strain matched control mice. While in controls we did not detect any brain atrophy, significant atrophy developed as early as 3 months into the disease course, and reached its peak by 6 months, resulting in ventricular enlargement by 118% (p= 0.00003). A strong correlation (r=?0.88) between atrophy and disability, as assessed by rotarod assay, was also demonstrated. We earlier reported another neurodegenerative feature in this model, the presence of deep gray matter T2 hypointensity in thalamic nuclei. Future studies utilizing this model will allow us to investigate key components of MRI detectable neurodegenerative feature development, their tissue correlations and associations with functional outcome measures. These studies are expected to pave the way to a better understanding of the substrate of disability in MS models. PMID:20817104
Pirko, I.; Johnson, A.J.; Chen, Yi; Lindquist, D. M.; Lohrey, A. K.; Ying, J.; Dunn, R. Scott
Obtaining an esthetic and functional primary surgical repair in patients with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP) can be challenging because of tissue deficiencies and alveolar ridge displacement. This study aimed to describe surgeons' assessments of presurgical deformity and predicted surgical outcomes in patients with complete unilateral and bilateral CLP (UCLP and BCLP, respectively) treated with and without nasoalveolar molding (NAM). Cleft surgeon members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association completed online surveys to evaluate 20 presurgical photograph sets (frontal and basal views) of patients with UCLP (n = 10) and BCLP (n = 10) for severity of cleft deformity, quality of predicted surgical outcome, and likelihood of early surgical revision. Five patients in each group (UCLP and BCLP) received NAM, and 5 patients did not receive NAM. Surgeons were masked to patient group. Twenty-four percent (176/731) of surgeons with valid e-mail addresses responded to the survey. For patients with UCLP, surgeons reported that, for NAM-prepared patients, 53.3% had minimum severity clefts, 58.9% were anticipated to be among their best surgical outcomes, and 82.9% were unlikely to need revision surgery. For patients with BCLP, these percentages were 29.8%, 38.6%, and 59.9%, respectively. Comparing NAM-prepared with non-NAM-prepared patients showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001), favoring NAM-prepared patients. This study suggests that cleft surgeons assess NAM-prepared patients as more likely to have less severe clefts, to be among the best of their surgical outcomes, and to be less likely to need revision surgery when compared with patients not prepared with NAM. PMID:25534051
Rubin, Marcie S; Clouston, Sean; Ahmed, Mohammad M; M Lowe, Kristen; Shetye, Pradip R; Broder, Hillary L; Warren, Stephen M; Grayson, Barry H
Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker) prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months). Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to administer the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH), patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), and visual analogue scale (VAS), and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median follow-up time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months). Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation. PMID:25386579
Kachooei, Amir Reza; Chase, Samantha M; Jupiter, Jesse B
The possibility of individualized treatment prediction has profound implications for the development of personalized interventions for patients with anxiety disorders. Here we utilize random forest classification and pre-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) to generate individual subject treatment outcome predictions. Before cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 48 adults (25 GAD and 23 PD) reduced (via cognitive reappraisal) or maintained their emotional responses to negative images during fMRI scanning. CBT responder status was predicted using activations from 70 anatomically defined regions. The final random forest model included 10 predictors contributing most to classification accuracy. A similar analysis was conducted using the clinical and demographic variables. Activations in the hippocampus during maintenance and anterior insula, superior temporal, supramarginal, and superior frontal gyri during reappraisal were among the best predictors, with greater activation in responders than non-responders. The final fMRI-based model yielded 79% accuracy, with good sensitivity (0.86), specificity (0.68), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (2.73, 0.20). Clinical and demographic variables yielded poorer accuracy (69%), sensitivity (0.79), specificity (0.53), and likelihood ratios (1.67, 0.39). This is the first use of random forest models to predict treatment outcome from pre-treatment neuroimaging data in psychiatry. Together, random forest models and fMRI can provide single-subject predictions with good test characteristics. Moreover, activation patterns are consistent with the notion that greater activation in cortico-limbic circuitry predicts better CBT response in GAD and PD. PMID:24270731
Ball, Tali M; Stein, Murray B; Ramsawh, Holly J; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Paulus, Martin P
In spite of being a common and important complication of stroke, post stroke depression is often overlooked, so its impact on stroke outcome remains under recognized. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of depression on functional outcome and quality of life in stroke patients. The study included 60 patients treated for their first clinical stroke, 30 of them diagnosed with depression and 30 patients without depression. Testing was done in all patients two and six weeks after stroke. Depression was diagnosed according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, and depression severity was quantified by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; functional impairment was determined by the Barthel Index; and post stroke quality of life was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires. The patients with depression had significantly more severe functional disability both at baseline and after rehabilitation treatment, although the potential for functional recovery in depressed patients was less than in non-depressed ones. The quality of life in patients with post stroke depression was impaired more severely in all SF-36 domains compared with non-depressed stroke patients, with the domains of the role of emotional functioning and social relations being most severely affected. PMID:25509239
Žiki?, Tamara Rabi; Divjak, Ivana; Jovi?evi?, Mirjana; Semnic, Marija; Slankamenac, Petar; Žarkov, Marija; Žiki?, Milorad
Various outcomes following operative therapy for Hirschsprung's disease and anorectal malformations have been reported. Operative techniques for anorectal reconstruction have been modified several times in the past. Repair of anorectal -malformations have been performed through a posterior sagittal approach since the 1980s. This -allows an anatomically correct reconstruction of the anorectal canal. Abdominoperineal or sacro-abdominoperineal pull-through procedures, as the classical operative techniques, have been abandoned by most surgeons. Rectosigmoid-ectomy with colo-anal anastomosis, as described by Swenson and Bill in 1948, as well as the retro-rectal pull-through (Duhamel) and the endorectal pull-through (Soave) are still frequently used in surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. The development of the transanal endorectal pull-through with (Georgeson) or without (de la Torre) laparoscopic assistance has eliminated the necessity of laparotomy in selected cases. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and therapy for Hirschsprung's dis-ease and anorectal malformations, the functional results remain unsatisfactory. Functional problems occur already in early childhood and de-crease the quality of life significantly. Although complications resolve with time and the quality of life normalises in adolescence and adulthood, this might be mainly due to an adaptation strategy by the patients. For the future, a standardised and prospective study design is necessary to compare different procedures and to provide a basis for the further development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:20020381
Obermayr, F; Fuchs, J
This prospective cross-sectional multicenter study assessed the relationships between Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level and scores on outcome tools used in pediatric orthopedics. Five hundred and sixty-two participants with cerebral palsy (CP; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean age 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]; 400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; GMFCS Levels I-III;) completed the study. The Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) Dimensions D and E, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), Pediatric Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM), temporal-spatial gait parameters, and O(2) cost were collected during one session. Descriptive characteristics are reported by GMFCS level clinicians can use for comparison with individual children. Tools with a direct relationship between outcome scores and GMFCS levels were the PODCI Parent and Child Global Function, Transfers & Basic Mobility, and Sports and Physical Function; PODCI Parent Upper Extremity Function; WeeFIM Self-care and Mobility; FAQ Question 1; GMFM Dimensions D and E; GMFM-66; O(2) cost; and temporal-spatial gait parameters. Child report scores differed significantly higher than Parent scores for six of eight PODCI subscales and three of four PedsQL dimensions. Children classified into different GMFCS levels function differently. PMID:17355472
Oeffinger, Donna; Gorton, George; Bagley, Anita; Nicholson, Diane; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Abel, Mark; Damiano, Diane; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester
OBJECTIVESTo assess outcome after elective treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms.METHODSOf 193 consecutive patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage 626 first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) were screened with magnetic resonance angiography. Subsequently, 18 relatives underwent elective angiography and operation. Outcome was assessed in terms of impairments (neurological examination), disabilities (Barthel index), handicaps (Rankin scale), and quality of life (sickness impact profile (SIP)
Theodora W M Raaymakers
A hallmark of heart failure (HF) is exercise intolerance, along with fatigue and shortness of breath. Functional assessments provide important clinical information. As the disease progresses, HF patients experience a downward spiral leading to a functional disability. Reduced functional abilities restrict or prevent HF patients from performing occupational tasks, which may result in loss of work and reduced quality of life. Functional assessments provide a measure of functional capacity and information on prognosis, disease severity, degree of disability, and quality of life. Direct and indirect cardiovascular and muscular functional assessments for patients with HF are provided in this review. PMID:25432472
Kaminsky, Leonard A; Tuttle, Mary S
The purpose of this article is to report the development and psychometric testing of the Edmonton Fanctional Assessment Tool (EFAT), The EFAT was developed as a functional outcome measure for use with a palliative care population. The assessment identified ten functional activities important to patients even in the terminal stage of their illness. In addition, a global performance status rating
Terry Kaasa; Joan Loomis; Kathy Gillis; Eduardo Bruera; John Hanson
Background Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand injuries due to electric circular saws. Methods Patients treated from 1999 through 2007 for circular saw-related hand injuries were contacted and asked for clinical follow-up assessment. The clinical follow-up protocol consisted of a physical examination and an assessment of static muscle power (grip and pinch strength). For assessment of the subjective experience of the patients regarding their injury-related disability and impairment, the DASH follow-up questionnaire was used. The occupational impact of these injuries was measured by number of lost working days. Finally, safety-related behaviour of the patients was investigated. Results 114 Patients were followed-up on average 52 months after the injury. Average in-house treatment was 8.8 days. Average time lost from work was 14.8 weeks. A significant reduction of static muscle testing parameters compared with the uninjured hand was revealed for grip strength, tip pinch, key pinch, and palmar pinch. Average DASH score was 17.4 (DASH work 15.8, DASH sports/music 17.7). Most patients had more than ten years experience in using these power tools. Conclusion The everyday occurrence of circular saw-related hand injuries followed by relatively short periods of in-house treatment might distort the real dimension of the patients' remaining disability and impairment. While the trauma surgeon's view is generally confined to the patients' clinical course, the outcome parameters in this follow-up investigation, with loss of working time as the key factor, confirm that the whole socioeconomic burden is much greater than the direct cost of treatment. PMID:20819215
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery, but there are few studies that utilize presurgical ratings to assess the effect of surgery on HRQOL. We collected parental ratings on the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 28 children who participated in neuropsychological assessment before and after epilepsy surgery. Our results revealed significant improvements in overall HRQOL after surgery, especially in physical and social activities. These changes were apparent despite generally unchanged intellectual and psychological functioning. Children with better seizure outcome had more improvement in HRQOL; however, improvements were not statistically different among children with Engel class I, II, and III outcomes. Our results suggest that children can experience significant improvements in HRQOL following epilepsy surgery even when neuropsychological functioning remains unchanged. Moreover, improvements in HRQOL appear evident in children who experience any worthwhile improvement in seizure control (Engel class III or better). PMID:23631952
Titus, Jeffrey B; Lee, Amy; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Thio, Liu Lin; Stephenson, Jennifer; Steger-May, Karen; Limbrick, David D; Smyth, Matthew D
??abstractAdequate and serial functional cardiovascular assessment is important in patients with congenital heart disease because many show disruption of normal myocardial geometry, which may or… (more)
W.J.B.W. van den Berg
Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly.BackgroundThere is a high prevalence of both reduced kidney function as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly. We evaluated whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for CVD outcomes in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort of subjects whose age
Guruprasad Manjunath; Hocine Tighiouart; Josef Coresh; Bonnie Macleod; Deeb N. Salem; John L. Griffith; Andrew S. Levey; Mark J. Sarnak
Clinical experience suggests that application of the fundamental principles of rehabilitation medicine can improve the care of patients with cancer. Despite the high incidence of neurological and functional deficits in patients affected by brain tumours (BTs), rehabilitation treatment of this population is not as well established as it is for patients with other neurological conditions. To assess functional outcome in brain tumour inpatients who underwent early rehabilitation after surgery. 75 patients who had undergone neurosurgery for primary BTs and 75 patients affected by stroke were enrolled in a case-control study. All patients were evaluated by means of a core set of clinical scales (Functional Independence Measure, Sitting Balance score, Standing Balance score, Hauser Index, Massachusetts General Hospital Functional Ambulation Classification). Patients were evaluated before the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of rehabilitation treatment. The neurorehabilitation programme consisted of individual 60-min sessions of treatment, administered once a day, six days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Speech therapy was included when aphasia was diagnosed. All the measures of outcome were indicative of substantial improvements for neuro-oncological and for stroke patients (P = 0.000). Analysis of subgroups showed that patients affected by meningioma achieved better results (in efficiency terms) as regards independence in activities of daily living (P = 0.02) and mobility (P = 0.04) compared with patients affected by glioblastoma or stroke. Rehabilitation after surgery can improve functional outcome, justifying the delivery of rehabilitation services, even during the acute phase, to BTs inpatients, irrespective of tumour type. PMID:22124725
Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, Chiara; Pace, Andrea; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Vecchione, Carmine; Bartolo, Marcello; Grillea, Giovanni; Serrao, Mariano; Tassorelli, Cristina; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco
The aim of this report is to describe a novel technical approach to total anorectal reconstruction and show surgical results and functional outcome. The technique is an innovative surgery to restore gastrointestinal perineal continuity after coloproctectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. We made the internal anal sphincter replacement with demucosated small bowel plication, the external anal sphincter replacement with an artificial bowel sphincter (ABS) and the restitution of intestinal transit with and ileal "S" pouch. After 12 months follow-up the control of gas is irregular, normal continence to solid stool was achieved with only occasional minimal soiling after defecation. The Jorge-Wexner incontinence score is 6 (moderate incontinence). The fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQL) comparing stoma vs. non-stomas, shows a relevant clinical difference, with improvement in all scales. This study has limitations because it is preliminary, observational and with no control group. We conclude that this recent surgical technique requires expertise in pelvic floor surgery and management of fecal incontinence. The surgeon should be able not only to introduce an artificial anal sphincter, but also to make the plication of intestinal muscle layer to create a zone of high pressure in anal canal and the ileal pouch. PMID:24516957
Lumi, Carlos Miguel; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Miravalle, Omar Rubén; Masciangoli, Guillermo; La Rosa, Luciana
Context Development of pharmacologic and behavioral interventions for cancer-related fatigue (CRF) requires adequate measures of this symptom. A guidance document from the Food and Drug Administration offers criteria for the formulation and evaluation of patient-reported outcome measures used in clinical trials to support drug or device labeling claims. Methods An independent working group, ASCPRO (Assessing Symptoms of Cancer Using Patient-Reported Outcomes), has begun developing recommendations for the measurement of symptoms in oncology clinical trials. The recommendations of the Fatigue Task Force for measurement of CRF are presented here. Results There was consensus that CRF could be measured effectively in clinical trials as the sensation of fatigue or tiredness, impact of fatigue/tiredness on usual functioning or as both sensation and impact. The ASCPRO Fatigue Task Force constructed a definition and conceptual model to guide measurement of CRF. ASCPRO recommendations do not endorse a specific fatigue measure but clarify how to evaluate and implement fatigue assessments in clinical studies. The selection of a CRF measure should be tailored to the goals of the research. Measurement issues related to various research environments were also discussed. Conclusion There exist in the literature good measures of CRF for clinical trials with strong evidence of clarity and comprehensibility to patients, content and construct validity, reliability, sensitivity to change in conditions in which one would expect them to change (assay sensitivity), and sufficient evidence to establish guides for interpreting changes in scores. Direction for future research is discussed. PMID:20538190
Barsevick, Andrea M.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Manning, Donald C.; O'Mara, Ann M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Scott, Jane A.; Sloan, Jeff A.
This article argues that while the importance of assessment in academic advising is clear and the current emphasis on defining and measuring student learning outcomes represents an essential component of any comprehensive advising assessment plan, an even more comprehensive understanding of programme assessment is needed. Drawing upon business…
McClellan, Jeffrey L.
Kolitz BP, Vanderploeg RD, Curtiss G. Development of the Key Behaviors Change Inventory: a traumatic brain injury behavioral outcome assessment instrument. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:277-84. Objective: To describe the development and initial validation of a neurobehavioral outcome measure, the Key Behaviors Change Inventory (KBCI), for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Scale construction and development, and validity study.
Brent P. Kolitz; Rodney D. Vanderploeg; Glenn Curtiss
The value of schizophrenic inpatients' initial global assessments of treatment in the prediction of outcome was investigated. Within 3 days of admission, 31 patients with an acute paranoid schizophrenic psychosis according to ICD-10 rated on a visual analog scale to what extent they believed the treatment they were receiving was right for them. Outcome criteria were overall clinical changes measured
Matthias Bröker; Frank Röhricht; Stefan Priebe
This cross-disciplinary study examined syllabus quality (n = 280) and the connection of learning outcomes to the Dimensions of a Duquesne Education for two purposes: informing instructional development and writing an accreditation self-study. Three researchers coded the syllabi for learning outcomes, assessment, and the presence of these…
The demand for quantitative assessment by external agencies and internal administrators can leave post-secondary instructors confused about the nature and purpose of learning outcomes and fearful that the demand is simply part of the increasing corporatization of the university system. This need not be the case. Writing learning outcomes has a…
Ascough, Richard S.
AIM: To assess whether ischemic stroke severity and outcome is more adverse in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke between September 2010 and June 2013 were studied prospectively (n = 482; 40.2% males, age 78.8 ± 6.7 years). T2DM was defined as self-reported T2DM or antidiabetic treatment. Stroke severity was evaluated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission. The outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at discharge and with in-hospital mortality. Adverse outcome was defined as mRS score at discharge ? 2 or in-hospital death. The length of hospitalization was also recorded. RESULTS: T2DM was present in 32.2% of the study population. Patients with T2DM had a larger waist circumference, higher serum triglyceride and glucose levels and lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as higher prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure than patients without T2DM. On the other hand, diabetic patients had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reported smaller consumption of alcohol than non-diabetic patients. At admission, the NIHSS score did not differ between patients with and without T2DM (8.7 ± 8.8 and 8.6 ± 9.2, respectively; P = NS). At discharge, the mRS score also did not differ between the two groups (2.7 ± 2.1 and 2.7 ± 2.2 in patients with and without T2DM, respectively; P = NS). Rates of adverse outcome were also similar in patients with and without T2DM (62.3% and 58.5%, respectively; P = NS). However, when we adjusted for the differences between patients with T2DM and those without T2DM in cardiovascular risk factors, T2DM was independently associated with adverse outcome [relative risk (RR) = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.21-4.72, P = 0.012]. In-hospital mortality rates did not differ between patients with T2DM and those without T2DM (9.0% and 9.8%, respectively; P = NS). In multivariate analysis adjusting for the difference in cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups, T2DM was again not associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: T2DM does not appear to affect ischemic stroke severity but is independently associated with a worse functional outcome at discharge. PMID:25512800
Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Spanou, Marianna; Bouziana, Stella D; Papadopoulou, Maria; Giampatzis, Vasilios; Kostaki, Stavroula; Dourliou, Vasiliki; Tsopozidi, Maria; Savopoulos, Christos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I
Background Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate. Methods 180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union. Results The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74%) had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15%) and in 11 patients were major (6%). Conclusion This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention. PMID:22280557
Objectives: Although stroke associated with small vessel disease (SSVD) can induce both motor and cognitive impairment, the latter has received less attention. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of the varying severity levels of cognitive impairment, the determinants of severe cognitive impairment, and the association of cognitive impairment with functional outcome after SSVD. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to hospital because of SSVD were assessed at 3 months after stroke. We performed a semi-structured clinical interview to screen for cognitive symptoms. Severity of cognitive symptoms was graded according to the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Performance on psychometric tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (cognition subscale), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (initiation/perseverence subscale; MDRS I/P)) of patients of different CDR gradings was compared with that of 42 healthy controls. Basic demographic data, vascular risk factors, stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; NIHSS), pre-stroke cognitive decline (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; IQCODE), functional outcome (Barthel index; BI), Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living; IADL), and neuroimaging features (site of recent small infarcts, number of silent small infarcts, white matter changes) were also compared among the groups. Regression analyses were performed to find predictors of severe cognitive impairment and poor functional outcome. Results: Among the 75 included patients, 39 (52%) complained of cognitive symptoms. The number of patients in each CDR grading was as follows: 39 (52%) had a CDR of 0, 26 (34.7%) had a CDR of 0.5, 10 (13.3%) had a CDR of ?1. Pre-stroke IQCODE and previous stroke predicted CDR?1. The NIHSS was associated with more impaired BI. The NIHSS and MDRS I/P contributed most to impaired IADL. Conclusions: Half of the patients with SSVD complained of varying severity of cognitive problems 3 months after stroke. Pre-stroke cognitive decline and previous stroke predict severe cognitive impairment post stroke. Stroke severity and executive dysfunction contribute most to a poor functional outcome. PMID:15026497
Mok, V; Wong, A; Lam, W; Fan, Y; Tang, W; Kwok, T; Hui, A; Wong, K
Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…
Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho
Background The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is essential for the maintenance of correct biomechanical function of the knee. Reconstruction of the MPFL is commonly used in the restoration of patellofemoral stability after traumatic lateral subluxation of the patella. Although a method to accurately determine the MPFL's insertion point has been described, it remains unclear if anatomic placement of MPFL graft tissue is essential for preservation of knee function after MPFL reconstruction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the importance of anatomic placement of MPFL graft tissue for the preservation of knee function following MPFL reconstruction operations. Methods Twenty-seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction operations were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative radiographs were reviewed. Measurements were taken, and the placement of each patient's MPFL graft tissue was determined to be anatomic or non-anatomic based on radiographic methods previously described in the literature. Each subject's electronic medical record was then reviewed, and clinical data was recorded. Finally, the clinical outcomes of each patient were compared to placement location of the MPFL graft tissue in their procedure. Results Thirteen patients were found to have anatomic MPFL graft tissue placement, and 14 non-anatomic. A significant post-operative difference was found between groups in the following parameters: WOMAC pain (anatomic mean = 85.71 ± 11.34, non-anatomic mean = 75.00 ± 26.35 p = 0.018), function (anatomic mean = 85.85 ± 9.96, non-anatomic mean = 79.09 ± 24.45, p = 0.017) and in KOOS symptom (anatomic mean = 75.63 ± 11.79, non-anatomic mean = 67.83 ± 22.40, p = 0.024), pain (anatomic mean = 77.54 ± 8.61, non-anatomic mean = 71.39 ± 25.18, p = 0.01), ADL (anatomic mean = 85.85 ± 9.97, non-anatomic mean = 79.09 ± 24.45, p = 0.017) and overall (anatomic mean = 74.61 ± 10.33, non-anatomic mean = 69.41 ± 24.25, p = 0.01) scores. No significant difference was observed for post-op instability (p = 0.290) or apprehension (p = 0.496), improvement in WOMAC or KOOS, 2-week, 6-week, or final 1-year range of motion, WOMAC stiffness, or KOOS sport/recreation or QOL. Conclusion Within the range of graft placement values considered by this study, while no reduction in range of motion was seen, non-anatomic placement of MPFL graft tissue in MPFL reconstruction operations caused increased pain and decreased function, evidenced by post-operative KOOS and WOMAC scores. Clinical Relevance It seems that the pivotal step in MPFL reconstruction operations is ensuring correct patellofemoral tracking via intraoperative electrical femoral nerve stimulation. If this step of the procedure is performed correctly, non-anatomic placement will not limit range of motion, lead to continued apprehension, or affect the overall biomechanical functioning of the knee. PMID:25328457
Larson, Evan; Edwards, Alan; Albright, John
Background Multiple factors can influence the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the functioning of patients with COPD, such as personal characteristics and systemic manifestations. Objective To evaluate the different factors that can influence the activity and psychosocial impact domains of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in COPD patients. Method Participants, recruited in a university-based hospital, responded to the SGRQ, and in addition, personal, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models, with the SGRQ activity and psychosocial impact scores as outcome variables, and 10 explanatory variables (age, gender, forced expiratory volume in the first second - FEV1, smoking load, body mass index, oxygen therapy, associated diseases, regular physical activity, participation in a formal rehabilitation program, and SGRQ symptoms score) were considered. Results The best regression model for predicting the SGRQ activity score (r2=0.477) included gender, FEV1, and SGRQ symptoms. In contrast, the predictive model with the highest proportion of explained variance in psychosocial impact score (r2=0.426) included the variables gender, oxygen therapy, and SGRQ symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that the outcomes, while based on functioning parameters in COPD patients, could be partly explained by the personal and clinical factors analyzed, especially by the symptoms assessed by the SGRQ. Thus, it appears that the health conditions of these patients cannot be described by isolated variables, including pulmonary function parameters. PMID:24675914
Athayde, Filipe T. S.; Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.
This case describes the course of a patient who was admitted to an acute care hospital with pneumonia and odynophagia and found to have severe, idiopathic oropharyngeal dysphagia. The assessment, treatment, and outcome are reported alongside suggestions for best practice in the treatment of dysphagia in hospital settings. Timely instrumental assessment, interdisciplinary management, and post-discharge follow-up were needed to provide optimum care and to achieve a positive outcome for this patient with life-threatening dysphagia.
Simning, Inga; Simning, Adam
Education and human service organizations providing services to people with intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities are increasingly being impacted by the supports paradigm, the quality of life concept, and the evaluation of personal outcomes. In this article the authors discuss the relationship among these three areas,…
van Loon, Jos; Claes, Claudia; Vandevelde, Stijn; Van Hove, Geert; Schalock, Robert L.
Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…
Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy
An interdisciplinary course titled Issues in Ecology and Environment was developed and taught by an anthropologist and an oceanographer at Florida Gulf Coast University begin- ning spring 1998. Focusing on cognate interdisciplinary competencies rather than diverging disciplinary content, this collaboration also yielded working definitions of several integrating learning outcomes—an ecological perspective being chief among these. As part of the course
Michael R. McDonald; S. Gregory Tolley
Examines the scientific concept of evaporation. Attempts to show how students develop their understanding through the levels of the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Shows how designing learning experiences to suit the learners' developmental stages in understanding a concept is paramount to the overall growth of the…
Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final…
Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa
Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…
Topping, Keith J.
and Payables - Auxiliary Operations - Research Administration - Business Services - Enrollment Management for consideration, charters, start-up kits, and timing for in- depth reviews. Project Manager Project Manager Role with Huron on detailed project plan. Subject Experts Subject Expert Role Functional leadership Administrative
There is widespread recognition that consistency between research centres in the ways that patients with tinnitus are assessed and outcomes following interventions are measured would facilitate more effective co-operation and more meaningful evaluations and comparisons of outcomes. At the first Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting held in Regensburg in July 2006 an attempt was made through workshops to gain a consensus both for patient assessments and for outcome measurements. It is hoped that this will contribute towards better cooperation between research centres in finding and evaluating treatments for tinnitus by allowing better comparability between studies. PMID:17956816
Langguth, B.; Goodey, R.; Azevedo, A.; Bjorne, A.; Cacace, A.; Crocetti, A.; Del Bo, L.; De Ridder, D.; Diges, I.; Elbert, T.; Flor, H.; Herraiz, C.; Sanchez, T. Ganz; Eichhammer, P.; Figueiredo, R.; Hajak, G.; Kleinjung, T.; Landgrebe, M.; Londero, A.; Lainez, M.J.A.; Mazzoli, M.; Meikle, M.B.; Melcher, J.; Rauschecker, J.P.; Sand, P.G.; Struve, M.; Van de Heyning, P.; Van Dijk, P.; Vergara, R.
Objectives We review the NCI\\/DIA conference, “Improving health outcomes assessment based on modern measurement theory and computerized\\u000a adaptive testing,” and suggest next steps in use of item response theory (IRT) to assess health outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background In recent years the level of interest and use of IRT methods has increased dramatically among health outcomes researchers.\\u000a The NCI\\/DIA conference on June 24–25, 2004, was
Ron D. Hays; Joseph Lipscomb
Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ?65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical intervention were associated with nonunion surgery outcomes. Patient’s age at the time of surgery was not associated with achieving union. Advanced age was generally not associated with poorer nonunion surgery outcomes. PMID:25360341
Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.
We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76). Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Medical Research Council (MRC) scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = ?0.38, r = ?0.30; p < 0.05). After rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = ?0.34) and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p < 0.05). Baseline 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with post-treatment FMA, MRC, and pain scores (r = ?0.34, ?0.31, and 0.25; p < 0.05), indicating its ability to predict functional outcomes. 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased, and functional outcomes were improved after rehabilitation. The exploratory study findings conclude that 8-OHdG is a reliable and promising biomarker of oxidative stress and could be a valid predictor of functional outcomes in patients. Monitoring of behavioral indicators along with biomarkers may have crucial benefits in translational stroke research. PMID:24743892
Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Lin, Keh-Chung; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wu, Kuen-Yuh
Health care executives and health professionals often compare financial outcomes among not-for-profit community hospitals, such as operating margins and excess of revenue over expenses. Some performance measures used in these comparisons tend to be uniform yardsticks across community hospitals; other measures may vary significantly by legal, organizational, and reporting-practice differences among hospitals. A unique database of certified financial statements now permits an examination of these reporting-practice differences in the context of a three-year study of financial outcomes for 1,297 hospitals. Six panels are used in the study for partitioning hospitals in response to differences in reporting practices. Revenue over expenses expressed to net patient revenue and to total unrestricted assets are partially explained by 15 factors. The relative outcomes for these measures within a panel are combined with two common yardsticks of financial condition so the 1,297 hospitals can be classified into five status categories: (1) 121 hospitals in a crisis status, (2) 203 hospitals in a warning status, (3) 511 hospitals with average results, (4) 312 hospitals with excellent performance, and (5) 150 hospitals with outstanding performance. PMID:10112572
Prince, T R
We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of…
Roscoe, Eileen M.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Pence, Sacha T.; Longworth, Lynlea J.
, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union. Results The median DASH score was 2.3 and median...
Phadnis, Joideep; Trompeter, Alex; Gallagher, Kieran; Bradshaw, Lucy; Elliott, David S; Newman, Kevin J
Active participation in learning activities and reviewing assessment activity can facilitate learners engaged in these processes. This case study reports student experiences of the process of peer assessment with teacher guidance in a group project for a first-year nursing course with 153 students. Twenty groups of students were assigned roles in…
Hodgson, Paula; Chan, Kitty; Liu, Justina
The higher education system in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States provides a case model for how discussions regarding educational quality and assessment of that quality have affected institutions' policy decisions and implementation. Using Levin's (1998) policy analysis framework, this essay explores how assessment of student…
Assessment of general education has a long history, although relative to the age of liberal education and educational evaluation it is a very recent development. One of the first recorded efforts to comprehensively assess student achievement in higher education in the United States occurred in the late 1920s and early 1930s, when many institutions…
Penn, Jeremy D.
Inflammatory cells may contribute to secondary brain injury following cerebral ischemia. The C57Bl/6 mouse strain is known to exhibit a T helper 1-prone, pro-inflammatory type response to injury, whereas the FVB strain is relatively T helper 2-prone, or anti-inflammatory, in its immune response. We tested whether stroke outcome is more severe in C57Bl/6 than FVB mice. Male mice of each strain underwent sham surgery or 1 h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by 23 h of reperfusion. Despite no difference in infarct size, C57Bl/6 mice displayed markedly greater functional deficits than FVB mice after stroke, as assessed by neurological scoring and hanging wire test. Total numbers of CD45+ leukocytes tended to be larger in the brains of C57Bl/6 than FVB mice after stroke, but there were marked differences in leukocyte composition between the two mouse strains. The inflammatory response in C57Bl/6 mice primarily involved T and B lymphocytes, whereas neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages were more prominent in FVB mice. Our data are consistent with the concept that functional outcome after stroke is dependent on the immune cell composition which develops following ischemic brain injury. PMID:25477780
Kim, Hyun Ah; Whittle, Stephanie C.; Lee, Seyoung; Chu, Hannah X.; Zhang, Shenpeng R.; Wei, Zihui; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Vinh, Anthony; Drummond, Grant R.; Sobey, Christopher G.
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is an eye disorder in which the stem cells responsible for forming the surface skin of the cornea are destroyed by disease. This results in pain, loss of vision, and a cosmetically unpleasant appearance. Many new treatments, including stem cell therapies, are emerging for the treatment of this condition, but assessment of these new technologies is severely hampered by the lack of biomarkers for this disease or validated tools for assessing its severity. The aims of this study were to design and test the reliability of a tool for grading LSCD, to define a set of core outcome measures for use in evaluating treatments for this condition, and to demonstrate their utility. This was achieved by using our defined outcome set (which included the Clinical Outcome Assessment in Surgical Trials of Limbal stem cell deficiency [COASTL] tool) to evaluate the 3-year outcomes for allogeneic ex vivo cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (allo-CLET) in patients who had bilateral total LSCD secondary to aniridia or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The results demonstrate that our new grading tool for LSCD, the COASTL tool, is reliable and repeatable, and that improvements in the biomarkers used in this tool correlate positively with improvements in visual acuity. The COASTL tool showed that following allo-CLET there was a decrease in LSCD severity and an increase in visual acuity up to 12 months post-treatment, but thereafter LSCD severity and visual acuity progressively deteriorated. PMID:24443006
Bunce, Catey; Levis, Hannah J.; Blows, Peter; Doré, Caroline J.; Vernon, Amanda; Secker, Genevieve A.; Tuft, Stephen J.; Daniels, Julie T.
A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781
Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.
Introduction: We assess midterm morbidity and functional outcomes using the Prolift (Gynecare/Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) system and identify potential related risk factors. The Prolift mesh system to treat genital prolapse was introduced in 2005. It was withdrawn from the market in early 2013 after rising doubts about safety. Methods: Over a 7-year period, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 112 consecutive patients who underwent the Prolift procedure since 2006. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, anatomical and functional outcomes were recorded. Results: The median follow-up was 49.5 months (range: 16–85). The mean age was 64.7 ± 10.9 years (range: 40–86). Of the 112 patients, 74 patients had stage 3 (66.1%) and 8 patients had stage 4 (7.14%) vaginal prolapse. Prolift surgery was performed for pro-lapse recurrence for 26 patients (23.2%). Total mesh was used in 32 patients (29%), an isolated anterior mesh in 57 patients (51%) and an isolated posterior mesh in 23 patients (21%). Concomitant surgical procedures were performed for 44 patients (39.3%). Overall, 72% (18/25) of the complications were managed medically. We reported a failure rate of 8% (n = 9) occurring after a median follow-up of 9.5 months (range: 1–45). Among the 64 patients who had preoperative sexual activity (57.1%), de novo dyspareunia occurred in 9 patients (16.07%). We extracted predictive factors concerning failure, complications and sexuality. Conclusion: Despite its market withdrawal, the Prolift system was associated with good midterm anatomic outcomes and few severe complications. Long-term follow-up data are still lacking, but surgeons and patients may be reassured. PMID:25295130
Kozal, Sébastien; Ripert, Thomas; Bayoud, Younes; Menard, Johan; Nicolacopoulos, Ioannis; Bednarzyck, Laurence; Staerman, Frederic; Larré, Stéphane
will apply the NSPE Code of Ethics to ethical situations that involve engineers, their clientsUndergraduate Student Ethics Outcomes 4/28/14 draft developed by the CSM Assessment Committee departments have struggled to develop meaning strategies to assess ethics (particularly in relation
This article presents the outcomes of the Mobile Technologies Pilot Project for the Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL). ALPS is a partnership of five Higher Education Institutions (HEI) that aims to develop and improve assessment, and thereby learning, in practice settings for…
Dearnley, Christine; Taylor, Jill; Hennessy, Scott; Parks, Maria; Coates, Catherine; Haigh, Jackie; Fairhall, John; Riley, Kevin; Dransfield, Mark
This report details the activities, findings, and actions that have made up Germanna Community College's (Virginia) student outcomes assessment program in specific reporting areas for 2000-2001. The following sections comprise the report: (1) an executive summary; (2) a report on assessment activities in five general education areas, including…
Germanna Community Coll., Locust Grove, VA.
The purpose of this year-long, collective case study was to investigate what influences contributed to alternate assessment outcomes for students with significant disabilities. This study of seven students and teachers in two school districts revealed seven main factors that contributed to students' scores on the state's alternate assessment, including resources, curriculum, instructional effectiveness, teacher and student charac- teristics, data collection
Meagan Karvonen; Claudia Flowers; Diane M. Browder; Shawnee Y. Wakeman; Bob Algozzine
Institutions of higher education are increasingly being held more accountable for assessing student learning both in and out of their classrooms along with reporting results to their stakeholders. The purpose of this study, which examined assessment of student learning outcomes in undergraduate park and recreation academic programs, was two-fold:…
Ross, Craig M.; Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.
There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results showed that 95% of the participants experienced clinically
Jane Shakespeare-Finch; Therese de Dassel
In its recent history, the U.S. Forest Service is among many federal land management agencies struggling with questions concerning why its planning procedures are sometimes inefficient, perform poorly in the eyes of the public, and fail to deliver outputs that advance agency mission. By examining a representative sample of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) processes conducted by the agency between 2007 and 2009, we provide new insights into what drives outcomes in these planning processes. We examined team leaders' perceptions of the following outcomes: achievement of agency goals and NEPA mandates, process efficiency, public relations, and team outcomes. The most consistently important predictors of positive outcomes were team harmony and a clearly empowered team leader. Other factors, such as perceptions of the use of best science, a clear and unambiguous purpose and need, team turnover (personnel changes during the process), extra-agency engagement, and intra-agency relations, were also important, but played a less consistent role. The findings suggest the importance of empowering team leaders and team members through enhancing elements of discretion, responsibility, clear role definition, collaborative interdisciplinary deliberation, and perceived self-efficacy. The results also suggest the importance of genuine concern and respect for participating publics and effective inter-agency coordination. PMID:22562009
Stern, Marc J; Predmore, S Andrew
MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes
Richard W. Elwood
Background Measures assessing treatment outcomes in previous CC clinical trials have not met the requirements described in the US Food and Drug Administration’s guidance on patient-reported outcomes. Aim Psychometric analyses using data from one Phase IIb study and two Phase III trials of linaclotide for the treatment of chronic constipation (CC) were conducted to document the measurement properties of patient-reported CC Symptom Severity Measures. Study methods Each study had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, comparing placebo to four doses of oral linaclotide taken once daily for 4 weeks in the Phase IIb dose-ranging study (n=307) and to two doses of linaclotide taken once daily for 12 weeks in the Phase III trials (n=1,272). The CC Symptom Severity Measures addressing bowel function (Bowel Movement Frequency, Stool Consistency, Straining) and abdominal symptoms (Bloating, Abdominal Discomfort, Abdominal Pain) were administered daily using interactive voice-response system technology. Intraclass correlations, Pearson correlations, factor analyses, F-tests, and effect sizes were computed. Results The CC Symptom Severity Measures demonstrated satisfactory test–retest reliability and construct validity. Factor analyses indicated one factor for abdominal symptoms and another for bowel symptoms. Known-groups F-tests substantiated the discriminating ability of the CC Symptom Severity Measures. Responsiveness statistics were moderate to strong, indicating that these measures are capable of detecting change. Conclusion In large studies of CC patients, linaclotide significantly improved abdominal and bowel symptoms. These psychometric analyses support the reliability, validity, discriminating ability, and responsiveness of the CC Symptom Severity Measures for evaluating treatment outcomes in the linaclotide clinical studies. PMID:25298737
Nelson, Lauren M; Williams, Valerie SL; Fehnel, Sheri E; Carson, Robyn T; MacDougall, James; Baird, Mollie J; Tourkodimitris, Stavros; Kurtz, Caroline B; Johnston, Jeffrey M
Background Traditionally, physicians have believed that limb-salvage surgery has functional and cosmetic advantages over amputation, yet the literature is equivocal. Therefore, we sought to compare the psychosocial and functional outcomes in osteosarcoma survivors after limb-salvage surgery and amputation. We hypothesized there to be neither psychosocial nor functional outcome differences between groups. Procedure Participants received treatment of extremity osteosarcoma, had received their cancer diagnosis at least 2 years prior, and were at least 16 years old. A comprehensive set of validated psychosocial and functional measures was used to assess outcome. Results Fifty-seven patients participated in this study (33 who underwent limb-salvage surgery and 24 who underwent amputation). Participants had gone 12–24 years since diagnosis and were 16–52 years old at study participation. We used multiple linear regression models to examine differences in quality of life, body image, self-esteem, and social support between the two groups and found no differences. Lower limb function was a significant predictor of quality of life (p < 0.001), whereas surgery type did not impact this relationship. Body image was rated significantly worse by those who underwent late amputation, amputation after failed limb salvage, than by those who did not. Conclusions Participants with more functional lower limbs had better quality of life than did those with less functional lower limbs regardless of whether they underwent amputation or limb-salvage surgery. PMID:20135700
Robert, Rhonda S.; Ottaviani, Giulia; Huh, Winston W.; Palla, Shana; Jaffe, Norman
Summary Objective Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (UKR) has important advantages over total knee replacement (TKR) but has a higher revision rate. Outcomes vary between centres, suggesting that risk factors for revision may be modifiable with changes to patient selection or operative technique. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting revision, patient-reported outcome and satisfaction following UKR. Method 25,982 cases from three national databases were analysed. Multilevel multivariable regression models were used to examine the effect of patient and surgical factors on implant survival, patient-reported outcome and satisfaction at 6 months and 8 years following UKR. Results Of the 25,982 cases, 3862 (14.9%) had pre-operative and 6-month Oxford Knee Scores (OKS). Eight-year survival was 89.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 88.3–89.9). OKS increased from 21.9 (SD 7.6) to 37.5 (SD 9.5). Age (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.96–0.97) per year), male gender (HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.76–0.96)), unit size (HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.86–0.97) per case up to 40 cases/year) and operating surgeon grade (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.67–0.91) if consultant) predicted improved implant survival. Older patients (?75 years), and those with lower deprivation levels had superior OKS and satisfaction (adjusted mean difference 0.14 (95% CI 0.09–0.20) points per year of age and 0.93 (95% CI 0.60–1.27) per quintile of deprivation). Ethnicity, anxiety and co-morbidities also affected patient-reported outcome. Conclusions This study has identified important predictors of revision and patient-reported outcome following UKR. Older patients, who are least likely to be offered UKR, may derive the greatest benefits. Improved understanding of these factors may improve the long-term outcomes of UKR. PMID:25042552
Liddle, A.D.; Judge, A.; Pandit, H.; Murray, D.W.
One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…
Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
The present study examines legal, service use and substance abuse outcomes for a sample of participants in the Washoe County, Nevada MHC and suggests what occurs during MHC enrollment that is associated with these outcomes. A comparison of participants and graduates to a comparable control group reveals significantly fewer jail days for the MHC participants and graduates, both when measured against the control group and their own pre-mental health court histories. There was also a significant drop in psychiatric hospitalization days for the MHC participants and graduates and a decrease in positive drug and alcohol tests over the course of enrollment in the court. Observations of the MHC sessions reveal a nonadversarial atmosphere in which participants interact directly with the judge and in which praise and encouragement are issued far more often than sanctions. These interactions with the judge, which are frequent and common among all MHC participants who are engaged in the process, are associated with the observed outcomes and serve to contextualize them. It is imperative that research continues on a variety of aspects of the MHC process to determine whether these courts are truly effective and if so, for whom and why. PMID:20667593
Purpose of study: A task force of North American spine Society (NASS), Council of Spine Societies (COSS) and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) developed a patient-based outcomes assessment instrument for the cervical spine adapted from the NASS lumber spine outcomes instrument. Areas covered included demographics, occupational and medical history, pain\\/disability, neurogenic symptoms, treatment expectations and satisfaction.Study design: A prospective
Bernard Pfeifer; Lawren Daltroy; Anne Holley Fossel
Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children…
Gates, Philip E.; Otsuka, Norman Y.; Sanders, James O.; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
This needs assessment attempted to identify the following: (1) strong curriculum programs; (2) critical needs in current programs; (3) areas in which new programs were needed; (4) which recommended new program areas had community financial support; (5) communication problems between the school district and the community; (6) attitudes toward…
Lave, Janice; Root, Darrell
to bicycle system. Example: Introduce web-based bicycle design software and computer-aid- ed-design. Emphasis on course) Develop engineering intuition in four diverse engineering areas; Statics, Computer Aided Design of the ideas of design, statics, material science and data acquisition. Assessment :4: Excellent: Student
program of curriculum evaluation, program enhancements, and teaching innovations. With the input curriculum reflects the rapid changes in learning methods, business practices, and technology. SECTION 2 Â REVISED ASSESSMENT PLAN 1. Plan Development Process In September 2003 Dean Avijit Ghosh convened the Core
The present study illustrates an extension of Kamata's (2001) restricted form of the hierarchical generalized linear model that provides a multilevel longitudinal Rasch measurement model appropriate for use with polytomous responses. This extension can be used to assess average and interindividual change in the latent trait of interest,…
Pastor, Dena A.; Beretvas, S. Natasha
As part of the Geriatric Interdisciplinary Team Training (GITT) Program funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, the authors of this article worked to create an instrument, the Trainee Test of Team Dynamics, to assess health care trainees' understanding of team dynamics. The Trainee Test of Team Dynamics is a five-question written test designed to capture GITT trainees' knowledge of
Kathryn Hyer; John H. Skinner; Robert L. Kane; Judith L. Howe; Nancy Whitelaw; Nancy Wilson; Ellen Flaherty; Lois Halstead; Terry Fulmer
. Sokoloff, performed during lecture. 08-02 Understanding of Knowledge and Inquiry Assess experimental data to decide whether the data supports or refutes the hypothesis being tested. Exam questions which probe, collect data, and then analyze data to de- termine whether the data supports or refutes the hypothesis
in the discipline, Â· development of critical thinking skills Â· development of problem-solving skills Â· development researcher Â· development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills Â· development of the ability Â· development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills Â· development of the ability to critically assess
A preliminary provisional assessment of the prospects for the establishment of an adequate technology assessment function and the implications of the assessment function for the public decision process are presented. Effects of the technology assessment function on each phase of the public decision process and briefly explored. Significant implications during the next decade are projected with respect to the following phases: invention and development of alternative means (technological configurations); evaluation, selection and promotion of preferred courses of action; and modification of statutory scheme or social action program as an outcome of continuing monitoring and appraisal.
Mayo, L. H.
Measuring progress of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during intervention programs is a challenge faced by researchers and clinicians. Typically, standardized assessments of child development are used within research settings to measure the effects of early intervention programs. However, the use of standardized assessments is not without limitations, including lack of sensitivity of some assessments to measure small or slow progress, testing constraints that may affect the child's performance, and the lack of information provided by the assessments that can be used to guide treatment planning. The utility of a curriculum-based assessment is discussed in comparison to the use of standardized assessments to measure child functioning and progress throughout an early intervention program for toddlers with risk for ASD. Scores derived from the curriculum-based assessment were positively correlated with standardized assessments, captured progress masked by standardized assessments, and early scores were predictive of later outcomes. These results support the use of a curriculum-based assessment as an additional and appropriate method for measuring child progress in an early intervention program. Further benefits of the use of curriculum-based measures for use within community settings are discussed. PMID:24711926
Bacon, Elizabeth C.; Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric
Psoriasis is a complex disease. Dermatologists have not documented psoriasis severity, except in clinical trials; doing so requires tools for assessing psoriasis and an understanding of what changes in those assessments mean in terms of outcome. Two psoriasis assessment tools have dominated: The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. There are advantages and disadvantages to each. Newer instruments may not be more suitable for documenting psoriasis. There may be benefits in terms of patient ownership of disease management from using self-assessment tools for documenting severity, for example, the Self-assessment version of the Simplified Psoriasis Index. PMID:25412783
Chalmers, Robert J G
Treatment for medulloblastoma during childhood impairs neurocognitive function in survivors. While those diagnosed at younger ages are most vulnerable, little is known about the long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes in survivors as they approach middle age. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed 20 adults who were treated with surgery and radiotherapy for medulloblastoma during childhood (median age at assessment, 21.9 years [range, 18-47 years]; median time since diagnosis, 15.5 years [range, 6.5-42.2 years]). Nine patients also underwent chemotherapy. Cross-sectional analyses of current neurocognitive, functional, and physical status were conducted. Data from prior neuropsychological assessments were available for 18 subjects; longitudinal analyses were used to model individual change over time for those subjects. The group was well below average across multiple neurocognitive domains, and 90% had required accommodations at school for learning disorders. Longer time since diagnosis, but not age at diagnosis, was associated with continued decline in working memory, a common sign of aging. Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower intelligence quotient and academic achievement scores, even many years after treatment had been completed. The most common health complications in survivors were hearing impairment, second cancers, diabetes, hypertension, and endocrine deficiencies. Adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma exhibit signs of early aging regardless of how young they were at diagnosis. As survival rates for brain tumors continue to improve, these neurocognitive and physical sequelae may become evident in survivors diagnosed at different ages across the lifespan. It will become increasingly important to identify factors that contribute to risk and resilience in this growing population. PMID:21367970
Edelstein, Kim; Spiegler, Brenda J; Fung, Sharon; Panzarella, Tony; Mabbott, Donald J; Jewitt, Natalie; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Mason, Warren P; Bouffet, Eric; Tabori, Uri; Laperriere, Normand; Hodgson, David C
Objectives To compare 18- to 22-month cognitive scores and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in 2 time periods using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Neonatal Research Network assessment of extremely low birth weight infants with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (Bayley II) in 2006–2007 (period 1) and using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley III), with separate cognitive and language scores, in 2008–2011 (period 2). Study design Scores were compared with bivariate analysis, and regression analyses were run to identify differences in NDI rates. Results Mean Bayley III cognitive scores were 11 points higher than mean Bayley II cognitive scores. The NDI rate was reduced by 70% (from 43% in period 1 to 13% in period 2; P < .0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that Bayley III contributed to a decreased risk of NDI by 5 definitions: cognitive score <70 and <85, cognitive or language score <70; cognitive or motor score <70, and cognitive, language, or motor score <70 (P < .001). Conclusion Whether the Bayley III is overestimating cognitive performance or whether it is a more valid assessment of emerging cognitive skills than the Bayley II is uncertain. Because the Bayley III identifies significantly fewer children with disability, it is recommended that all extremely low birth weight infants be offered early intervention services at the time of discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, and that Bayley scores be interpreted with caution. PMID:22421261
Vohr, Betty R.; Stephens, Bonnie E.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bann, Carla M.; Hintz, Susan R.; Epi, MS; Das, Abhik; Newman, Jamie E.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Yolton, Kimberly; Dusick, Anna M.; Evans, Patricia W.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Pappas, Athina; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Bauer, Charles R.; Bodnar, Anna; Heyne, Roy J.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Dillard, Robert G.; Acarregui, Michael J.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Myers, Gary J.; Fuller, Janell
Total knee arthroplasty has come under increasing scrutiny attributable to the fact that it is a high-volume, high-cost medical\\u000a intervention in an era of increasingly scarce medical resources. Health-related quality-of-life outcomes have been developed\\u000a such that healthcare providers might determine how good an intervention is and whether it is cost-effective. Total knee arthroplasty\\u000a has been subjected to disease-specific, patient-specific, global
Robert B. Bourne
. Describe the structure of the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems in the human body and explain how health and well-being. Describe how physiological mecha- nisms work in the functioning of the human body. Analyze the roles that var- ious organ systems of the body play in establishing and maintaining homeosta
Arthrodesis surgery aims to give pain relief by abolishing the movement of the joint concerned. Few studies describe the outcome as appreciated by the patient. This was the major concern of the authors, when they set up this retrospective study about the outcome after ankle fusion or subtalar fusion. Inclusion criteria were: pre-existing idiopathic and posttraumatic osteoarthritis, leading to joint pain unresponsive to conservative treatment, clinically and radiologically fused with an open approach between 2007 and 2011. Exclusion criteria were: preexisting joint infection, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, nonunion, age below 18 years, decease, and arthroscopic fusion. Fifteen ankle fusions and 18 subtalar fusions fulfilled the criteria. The mean age of the patients was 77 and 69 years, respectively; the average follow-up period was 3 and 4 years. A telephone questionnaire showed that the average patients' satisfaction was 7.86/10 in the ankle group and 7.94/10 in the subtalar group. All patients driving a car prior to surgery were able to do so afterwards. Forty percent walked unaided and without problems (excellent). Fifty-one percent were able to mobilise, but their walking distance was limited and a stick was required (good or fair). Nine percent were unable to mobilise out of their homes (poor), however it was generalized osteoarthritis which limited their mobility. Forty-five percent were involved in sports including judo, swimming, cycling, jogging, gardening, bowling, golf, and boules. PMID:25090803
Faraj, Adnan A; Loveday, David T
In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815
Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio
URSSA is the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, an online survey instrument for programs and departments to use in assessing the student outcomes of undergraduate research (UR). URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. The online questionnaire includes both multiple-choice and open-ended items that focus on students' gains from undergraduate research. These gains include skills, knowledge, deeper understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science, growth in confidence, changes in identity, and career preparation. Other items probe students' participation in important research-related activities that lead to these gains (e.g. giving presentations, having responsibility for a project). These activities, and the gains themselves, are based in research and thus constitute a core set of items. Using these items as a group helps to align a particular program assessment with research-demonstrated outcomes. Optional items may be used to probe particular features that are augment the research experience (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The URSSA items are based on extensive, interview-based research and evaluation work on undergraduate research by our group and others. This grounding in research means that URSSA measures what we know to be important about the UR experience The items were tested with students, revised and re-tested. Data from a large pilot sample of over 500 students enabled statistical testing of the items' validity and reliability. Optional items about UR program elements were developed in consultation with UR program developers and leaders. The resulting instrument is flexible. Users begin with a set of core items, then customize their survey with optional items to probe students' experiences of specific program elements. The online instrument is free and easy to use, with numeric results available as raw data, summary statistics, cross-tabs, and graphs, and as raw, downloadable data. Finally, URSSA has high content validity based on its research grounding and rigorous development. We will present examples of how URSSA has been used in evaluations of UR programs. A multi-year evaluation of a university-based UR program shows that URSSA items are sensitive to differences in students' prior level of experience with research. For example, experienced student researchers reported greater gains than did their peers new to UR in understanding the process of research and in coming to see themselves as scientists. These differences are consistent with interview data that suggest a developmental progression of gains as students pursue research and gain confidence in their ability to contribute meaningfully. A second example comes from a multi-site evaluation of sites funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Biology. This study acquired data from nearly 800 students at some 60 Bio REU sites in 2010 and 2011. Results reveal differences in gains among demographic groups, and the general strength of these well-planned programs relative to a comparison sample of UR programs that are not part of REU. Our presentation will demonstrate the evaluative use of URSSA and its potential applications to undergraduate research in the geosciences.
Laursen, S. L.; Weston, T. J.; Thiry, H.
Background Following the onset of focal ischemic stroke, the brain experiences a series of alterations including infarct evolvement, cellular proliferation in the penumbra, and behavioral deficits. However, systematic study on the temporal and spatial dependence of these alterations has not been provided. Results Using multiple approaches, we assessed stroke outcomes by measuring brain injury, dynamic cellular and glial proliferation, and functional deficits at different times up to two weeks after photothrombosis (PT)-induced ischemic stroke in adult mice. Results from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Nissl staining showed a maximal infarction, and brain edema and swelling 1–3 days after PT. The rate of Bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu)-labeled proliferating cell generation is spatiotemporal dependent in the penumbra, with the highest rate in post ischemic days 3–4, and higher rate of proliferation in the region immediate to the ischemic core than in the distant region. Similar time-dependent generation of proliferating GFAP+ astrocytes and Iba1+ microglia/macrophage were observed in the penumbra. Using behavioral tests, we showed that PT resulted in the largest functional deficits during post ischemic days 2–4. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that first a few days is a critical period that causes brain expansion, cellular proliferation and behavioral deficits in photothrombosis-induced ischemic model, and proliferating astrocytes only have a small contribution to the pools of proliferating cells and reactive astrocytes. PMID:24886391
Introduction The aims of this present study were firstly to assess the outcome, including functional course, in anti-Jo1 positive patients with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), and secondly to determine predictive parameters of poor outcome in these patients. Methods The medical records of 86 consecutive anti-Jo1 patients with ASS were reviewed in 4 academic centers. Results 13 patients (15.1%) achieved remission of ASS, whereas 55 (63.9%) improved and 18 (20.9%) deteriorated in their clinical status. Both steroid and cytotoxic drugs could be discontinued in only 4.7% of patients. ASS was associated with decreased quality of life at long-term follow-up: only 69.2% of patients considered to be in remission experienced a return to previous normal activities; and 24.7% of other patients with non-remitting ASS still had a marked reduction of activities (as shown by the disability scale of the Health Assessment Questionnaire). Decreased quality of life was further due to calcinosis cutis (8.1%) and adverse effects of steroid therapy (36%). Factors associated with ASS deterioration were older age, pulmonary and esophageal involvement, calcinosis cutis and cancer. Higher anti-Jo1 levels were further associated with disease severity in ASS patients. Conclusions The present study shows high morbidity related to ASS. Furthermore, we suggest that patients with predictive factors of ASS deterioration may require more aggressive therapy. Our findings also suggest that in anti-Jo1 patients with severe esophageal manifestations, combined high dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins might be proposed as the first line therapy. Finally, as cancer occurred in 14% of anti-Jo1 patients, our findings underscore that the search for cancer should be performed in these patients. PMID:24286268
Background The removal of brain tumors in peri-eloquent or eloquent cortex risks causing new neurological deficits in patients. The assessment of the functionality of peri-lesional tissue is essential to avoidance of postoperative neurological morbidity. Objective To evaluate preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based functional connectivity as a predictor of short- and medium-term neurological outcome after removal of gliomas in peri-eloquent and eloquent areas. Methods Resting-state whole-brain MEG recordings were obtained from 79 consecutive subjects with focal brain gliomas near or within motor, sensory, or language areas. Neural activity was estimated using adaptive spatial filtering. The mean imaginary coherence between voxels in and around brain tumors was compared to contralesional voxels and used as an index of their functional connectivity with the rest of the brain. The connectivity values of the tissue resected during surgery were correlated to the early (one week post-operatively) and medium-term (six months post-operatively) neurological morbidity. Results Patients undergoing resection of tumors with decreased functional connectivity had a 29% rate of new neurological deficit 1 week after surgery and a 0% rate at 6-month follow-up. Patients undergoing resection of tumors with increased functional connectivity had a 60% rate of new deficit at 1 week and a 25% rate at 6 months. Conclusion MEG connectivity analysis gives a valuable preoperative evaluation of the functionality of the tissue surrounding tumors in peri-eloquent and eloquent areas. These data may be used to optimize pre-operative patient counseling and surgical strategy. PMID:22895403
Tarapore, Phiroz E.; Martino, Juan; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Owen, Julia; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.
Cognitive remediation improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia, but its effect on other relevant factors such as negative symptoms and functional outcome has not been extensively studied. In this hospital-based study, 84 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited from Alava Hospital (Spain). All of the subjects underwent a baseline and a 3-month assessment that examined neurocognition, clinical symptoms, insight, and functional outcome according to the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and Disability Assessment Schedule from World Health Organization (DAS-WHO). In addition to receiving standard treatment, patients were randomly assigned either to receive neuropsychological rehabilitation (REHACOP) or to a control group. REHACOP is an integrative program that taps all basic cognitive functions. The program included experts' latest suggestions about positive feedback and activities of daily living in the patients' environment. The REHACOP group showed significantly greater improvements at 3 months in the areas of neurocognition, negative symptoms, disorganization, and emotional distress compared with the control group (Cohen's effect size for these changes ranged from d = 0.47 for emotional distress to d = 0.58 for disorganization symptoms). The REHACOP group also improved significantly in both the GAF (d = 0.61) and DAS-WHO total scores (d = 0.57). Specifically, the patients showed significant improvement in vocational outcomes (d = 0.47), family contact (d = 0.50), and social competence (d = 0.56). In conclusion, neuropsychological rehabilitation may be useful for the reduction of negative symptoms and functional disability in schizophrenia. These findings support the integration of neuropsychological rehabilitation into standard treatment programs for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23686130
Sánchez, Pedro; Peña, Javier; Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Ojeda, Natalia; Elizagárate, Edorta; Ezcurra, Jesus; Gutiérrez, Miguel
= Primary outcome that is assessed (suggest 2-3 Primary Outcomes) S = Secondary outcome that is also and a report at the end of the semester. Undergraduate students work together in teams of 3 students. Primary (b) The students learn how to theoretically design a biosensor device to solve a critical analytical
The goal of this article consists of describing the calibration of an instrument to assess quality of life-related personal outcomes using Rasch analysis. The sample was composed of 3.029 recipients of social services from Catalonia (Spain) and was selected using a probabilistic polietapic sample design. Results related to unidimensionality, item…
Gomez, Laura Elisabet; Arias, Benito; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Navas, Patricia
and Critical Thinking Skills - Demonstrate effective analytical and critical thinking skills to make and Critical Thinking Skills) 2006-2007 (To be discussed in 4-1-08 Assessment Re Goal #3 (Ethical Reasoning an appropriate decision in a complex situation. Learning Outcomes: Â· Collect and organize critical data
Gallo, Linda C.
Develops a model whereby information literacy competencies are formally adopted as learning outcomes for an undergraduate business curriculum. The information competencies are some of the mission driven competencies developed by a College of Business Administration at a regional university in keeping with the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business standards. In one class, develops an assessment instrument to measure
Ann M. Fiegen; Bennett Cherry; Kathleen Watson
Peer-assessed outcomes were examined at the end of treatment (14 months after study entry) for 285 children (226 boys, 59 girls) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were rated by their classmates (2,232 classmates total) using peer sociometric procedures. All children with ADHD were participants in the Multimodal Treatment…
Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy
This descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study inquired into the methods used to assess the student outcomes of master's degree programs in organizational leadership. A survey questionnaire was submitted to the directors of master's degree programs in organizational leadership at ninety-three not-for-profit institutions of higher…
Pugh, Joseph W. T.
An outcomes-based assessment instrument was devised to screen patients for learning problems that would impede patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. Criteria for seven barriers were established: hearing, language, cultural, religious, vision, cognitive, emotional). Points of data collection and a rationale for collection were identified.…
Hernandez, Teri L.; Rupnow, Jana M.; Currie, Kristi A.; Procious, James K.; Adams, Jenny
Trends over the past 25 years calling for accreditation, program evaluation, and outcomes assessment for higher education institutions are briefly reviewed. The cooperative market model of institutional research and self-study is outlined, which involves cooperation among institutions, accrediting bodies, state departments of education, and state…
Lincoln, Yvonna S.
;04-01 4.a.1 Innovation Processes Professional. Portfolio. Rubric Â see attached. Construction ofED-BLESL400 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Write effectively: Purpose-03 3C Evaluative Reasoning present and defend professional arti- facts that demonstrate your
The focus and purpose of master's degree student affairs preparation programs is to prepare students to become competent student affairs practitioners. Program assessments, especially those focused on outcomes are important metrics for understanding the role and impact of student affairs professional preparation programs. A well designed…
Kuk, Linda; Banning, James
Objective: This study examined intermediate outcomes of a faith-based prisoner reentry program by assessing how client spirituality related to client- and program-level characteristics, investigating differences between completers and terminators, and examining how religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, religious salience, and…
Roman, Caterina G.; Wolff, Ashley; Correa, Vanessa; Buck, Janeen
This chapter describes a study that compares two approaches (self-reported effort [SRE] and response time effort [RTE]) for identifying low-effort examinees in student learning outcomes assessment. Although both approaches equally discriminated from measures of ability (e.g., SAT scores), RTE was found to have a stronger relationship with test…
Rios, Joseph A.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent
Purpose: This paper is the second part of a comprehensive report about a research study that aims to assess the relationship between the university experience and student outcomes as a means of determining a university's success in meeting its educational goals. Design/methodology/approach: While Part I has described the process of how data were…
Summary A battery of objective measurements of cosmetic outcome was performed on 114 patients who had been treated by breast-preservation techniques for breast cancer. Cosmetic breast retraction, as determined by Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) measurements, was significantly greater in patients who underwent extensive primary tumor resection, were more than 60 years old, weighed more than 150 lbs, or had a
Richard D. Pezner; Mary P. Patterson; James A. Lipsett; Tamara Odom-Maryon; Nayana L. Vora; Jeffrey Y. C. Wong; Kenneth H. Luk
This guide is intended for college and university administrators responsible for designing and implementing a model for assessment of student outcomes and institutional effectiveness. The first chapter explains use of the handbook and introduces the institutional effectiveness paradigm on which it is based. The second chapter explains the model…
Nichols, James O.
Objective: To describe characteristics and outcomes of youth aged 7 to 17 who received inpatient psychiatric and mental health services along different clinical pathways of a new service delivery model. Method: Participants included 211 admissions to an inpatient crisis stabilization and assessment program over a one-year period. Standardized…
Greenham, Stephanie L.; Bisnaire, Lise
This article describes the use of Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) to assess child and program outcomes. IGDIs do not provide all information needed to plan and implement effective services for infants and toddlers, but they do provide frequent data that can be used to make good decisions about interventions. Even though IGDIs…
Luze, Gayle J.; Hughes, Kre
This study investigated the relationship between both receptive and expressive prosody and each of three reading outcomes: accuracy of reading aloud words, accuracy of reading aloud nonwords, and comprehension. Participants were 63 children aged 7 to 12 years. To assess prosody, we used the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech Communication…
Lochrin, Margaret; Arciuli, Joanne; Sharma, Mridula
A national survey of state adult protective services programs (APS) was conducted to collect information about the current status of documentation systems, risk assessment protocols, and outcome measures in adult protective services interventions. Fifty responses were received from 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Guam. The results highlight the wide variation in the state protective services programs, not only
Carolyn Stahl Goodrich
Traces functional assessment (FA) in school settings to early contributions by B. F. Skinner. FA plays an important role in behavior analysis, and the value of this approach in dealing with behavior problems in many settings has long been evident. Although interest in FA in school settings has only recently become widespread, FA in education has a…
Ervin, Ruth A.; Ehrhardt, Kristal E.; Poling, Alan
Background Due to the osseous distribution of prostate cancer metastases, progression is more readily identified than response in prostate cancer clinical trials. As a result, there is an increased focus on progression free survival (PFS) as a phase II endpoint. PFS, however, is vulnerable to inter-study design variability. We sought to identify and quantify this variability and the resultant error in PFS across prostate cancer clinical trials. Methods We reviewed phase II clinical trials of cytotoxic agents in castrate metastatic prostate cancer over 5-years to evaluate the policies determining extent of disease and the definitions of disease progression. A simulation model was created to define the degree of error in estimating PFS in 3 hypothetical cohorts (median PFS of 12, 24, and 36 weeks) when the frequency of outcome assessments varies. Results Imaging policies for trial entry were heterogeneous, as were the type, timing, and indications for outcome assessments. In the simulation, error in the reported PFS varied according to the interval between assessments. The difference between the detected and the true PFS could vary as much as 6.4 weeks per cycle, strictly resulting from the variability of assessment schedules tested. Conclusions Outcome assessment policies are highly variable in phase II studies of castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, despite published guidelines designed to standardize authenticating disease progression. The estimated error in PFS can exceed 6 weeks per cycle, just due to variations in the assessment schedules. Comparisons of PFS times from different studies must be made with circumspection. PMID:18661513
Gignac, Gretchen A.; Morris, Michael J.; Heller, Glenn; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Scher, Howard I.
Introduction. Glottic carcinoma can be successfully diagnosed in its early stages and treated with high percentage of success. Organ preservation and optimal functional outcomes could be achieved with wide array of surgical techniques for early glottic cancer, including endoscopic approaches or open laryngeal preserving procedures, making surgery the preferred method of treatment of early glottic carcinoma in the last few years. Material and Methods. Prospective study was done on 59 patients treated for Tis and T1a glottic carcinoma over a one-year time period in a tertiary medical center. Patients were treated with endoscopic laser cordectomy (types II–IV cordectomies according to European Laryngological Society classification of endoscopic cordectomies) and open cordectomy through laryngofissure. Follow-up period was 60 months. Clinical and oncological results were followed postoperatively. Voice quality after the treatment was assessed using multidimensional voice analysis 12 months after the treatment. Results. There were no significant differences between oncological and functional results among two groups of patients, though complications were more frequent in patients treated with open cordectomy. Conclusion. Endoscopic laser surgery should be the first treatment of choice in treatment of early glottic carcinomas, though open approach through laryngofissure should be available for selected cases where anatomical factors present limiting adequate tumor removal. PMID:24991554
Milovanovic, Jovica; Jotic, Ana; Djukic, Vojko; Pavlovic, Bojan; Trivic, Aleksandar; Krejovic-Trivic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Artiko, Vera; Banko, Bojan
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (Mnk1 and Mnk2) play important roles in controlling signals involved in mRNA translation. In addition to the MAPKs (p38 or Erk), multiple studies suggest that the Mnk kinases can be regulated by other known kinases such as Pak2 and/or other unidentified kinases by phosphorylation of residues distinct from the sites phosphorylated by the MAPKs. Several studies have established multiple Mnk protein targets, including PSF, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, Sprouty 2 and have lead to the identification of distinct biological functions and substrate specificity for the Mnk kinases. In this review we discuss the pathways regulating the Mnk kinases, their known substrates as well as the functional consequences of engagement of pathways controlled by Mnk kinases. These kinases play an important role in mRNA translation via their regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and their functions have important implications in tumor biology as well as the regulation of drug resistance to anti-oncogenic therapies. Other studies have identified a role for the Mnk kinases in cap-independent mRNA translation, suggesting that the Mnk kinases can exert important functional effects independently of the phosphorylation of eIF4E. The role of Mnk kinases in inflammation and inflammation-induced malignancies is also discussed. PMID:25225600
Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C
The goal of this study was to characterize long-term social and functional outcomes in adults treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Data for 252 patients treated medically or surgically for idiopathic NPH were obtained through the Hydrocephalus Association Database Project. Data on post-surgical outcomes including improvement in symptoms, the need for in-home care, ability to drive, and employment status
T. A. Cage; K. I. Auguste; M. Wrensch; Y. W. Wu; N. Gupta
Background Rectal cancer patients’ expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of post-surgery function has received little study. Objective We used a qualitative approach to explore patients’ expectations of outcomes related to bowel function following sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS) for rectal cancer. Design and Setting Individual telephone interviews with patients who were about to undergo SPS for rectal cancer. Patients 26 patients (14 men, 12 women) with clinical stage (cTNM) I to III disease. Main Outcome Measures The semi-structured interview script contained open-ended questions on patients’ expectations of post-operative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Results Participants’ expectations of bowel function reflected three major themes: (1) information sources, (2) personal attitudes, and (3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants’ descriptions of the certainty, importance and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer-free and getting through surgery. Limitations This study is limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Conclusions Patients’ expectations of long term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer-experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the expectation formation process offers opportunities to develop strategies to enhance patient education and appropriately manage expectations, attend to immediate and long term concerns, and support patients through the treatment and recovery process. PMID:24401875
Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P. Terry; Wong, W. Douglas; Temple, Larissa K.
Comparative evaluations of neuroperformance and clinical outcome assessments in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: I. Reliability, validity and sensitivity to disease progression. Multiple Sclerosis Study Group.
There remains controversy regarding the most sensitive and valid outcome assessments to use in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials. A double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of cyclosporine A in chronic progressive MS incorporated several major clinical and performance outcome assessment modalities and a large sample size, both of which provide a unique opportunity to explore the relationship among MS disease status and the various outcome measures over time. The measures included a structured neurological examination, the Kurtzke Functional System scales and Expanded Disability Status Score, and the Incapacity Status Scale from the MS Minimal Record of Disability, the Harvard Ambulation Index, and neuroperformance testing. A test-retest reliability index, principal component analyses and a signal-to-noise ratio metric were used to comparatively evaluate the reliability, validity and sensitivity to disease progression of the various outcome assessments. The goal was to provide a rational basis for selection of behavioral outcome assessments in future MS clinical trials by identifying the primary dimensions of MS measured by the candidate outcome assessments and providing an objective basis for selecting tests that are most sensitive to MS disease and its progression over a two year trial period. We conclude that the components of the major clinical and performance measures show excellent reliability and cross validation. Principal component analyses of all outcome assessments yielded six primary underlying factors for describing disease status in chronic progressive MS that included lower extremity/pyramidal dysfunction, cerebellar/brainstem and upper extremity dysfunction, somatosensory dysfunction, visual dysfunction, mental or intellectual dysfunction and bowel/bladder problems. Signal-to-noise ratios indicated that upper and lower extremity composites of neuroperformance test items provided the most sensitive indicators of MS disease progression in the placebo group over the 2 year trial period. PMID:9345379
Syndulko, K; Ke, D; Ellison, G W; Baumhefner, R W; Myers, L W; Tourtellotte, W W
Objective: Resistance and endurance training result in gains in fitness in the aged. It is unclear whether the debilitated elderly can perform moderate-intensity training and whether such training results in short-term improvements in strength, endurance, and function in this population.Design: Randomized, controlled trial.Settings and Patient: Subjects were from a Veterans Affairs nursing home and rehabilitation unit and a community nursing
John R. Meuleman; William F. Brechue; Paul S. Kubilis; David T. Lowenthal
For several years, detecting and preventing cardiovascular diseases have become a major issue. Different methods have been developed to evaluate endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first steps leading to atherosclerosis. This review presents an insight into endothelial function, the interests of its assessment and methods for studying endothelial function. To date, the vascular endothelium must be considered as a specific organ with its own functions that contribute to the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Endothelial dysfunction typically corresponds to a decrease of nitric oxide NO bioavailability. Biological or physico-chemical methods may be used to assess dysfunction. Biological methods allow measuring NO metabolites and pro-inflammatory and vasoconstrictor mediators released by the endothelium. The physico-chemical methods include intra-coronary injections, plethysmography, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), digital plethysmography and optical techniques using laser (laser Doppler single-point, laser Doppler imager, laser speckle contrast imaging) that can be coupled with provocation tests (iontophoresis, microdialysis, post-ischemic hyperemia, local heating). The principle of each technique and its use in clinical practice are discussed. Studying endothelial dysfunction is a particularly promising field because of new drugs being developed. Nevertheless, assessment methodology still needs further development to enable reliable, non-invasive, reproducible, and inexpensive ways to analyze endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24355615
Puissant, C; Abraham, P; Durand, S; Humeau-Heurtier, A; Faure, S; Rousseau, P; Mahé, G
PURPOSE This study was designed to evaluate rectocele repair using collagen mesh.METHODS 32 female patients underwent surgical repair using collagen mesh. Outcome was assessed in 29 patients and preoperative assessment included standardized questionnaire, clinical examination, and defecography. At the six-month follow-up, patients answered a standardized questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. At the 12-month follow-up, patients answered a standardized questionnaire, underwent clinical examination,
Daniel Altman; Jan Zetterström; Annika López; Bo Anzén; Christian Falconer; Fredrik Hjern; Anders Mellgren
The review considers management strategies for malignant melanoma metastatic to the larynx. This rare clinical entity lacks clear treatment recommendations because extirpative surgery can often result in severe functional debilitation in patients with limited life expectancy. Here, we report a case of melanoma metastatic to the larynx in a patient with a prior history of Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient was treated with partial laryngectomy and local radiation therapy. The rationale for treatment decisions and for surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques and the associated literature are discussed. PMID:20697525
Lanson, B.G.; Sanfilippo, N.; Wang, B.; Grew, D.; DeLacure, M.D.
Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. The neuropsychological profile is typically characterized by prominent specific deficits in memory and learning, working memory, executive functions, attention, and processing speed, which are evident on a background of a generalized cognitive deficit This paper provides a review of studies of neuropsychological functioning in schizophrenia. The main cognitive ability areas affected in schizophrenia are described, and the degree of impairment in each ability area as found in studies of schizophrenia patients is summarized, based on meta-analytic findings. Recent studies that have compared neuropsychological functioning across psychotic disorders are presented, and finally, neuropsychological assessment batteries specifically developed for schizophrenia are introduced. PMID:20954432
Reichenberg, Abraham (Avi)
Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…
McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.
Water skiing is associated with severe injuries to the proximal hamstring muscles. We wanted to define the mechanism of injury, describe the associated pathologic changes, determine the functional limitations of patients, and suggest measures to prevent injury. Twelve patients with water skiing-related hamstring injuries were included. Six patients were experienced skiers and six were novices. The mechanism of injury was identical in five of six novice skiers. Each sustained the injury while attempting to get up on one or two skis from a submerged position. In contrast, the expert skiers all sustained injury secondary to a fall while skiing. Physical examination documented evidence of complete or partial avulsion of the proximal hamstring muscle origins in all patients. In addition, six patients had magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans that confirmed the location and extent of the tear. Convalescence ranged from 3 months to 1.5 years before the patient could return to vigorous activities. Seven patients (58%) returned to most of their preinjury sports, albeit at a lower level. Five patients (42%), all with complete disruptions, were unable to run or participate in sports requiring agility. Two of these patients required delayed surgical repairs because of persistent functional limitations. PMID:8775108
Sallay, P I; Friedman, R L; Coogan, P G; Garrett, W E
Background: Many studies in literature have supported the role of wrist arthroscopy as an adjunct to the stable fixation of unstable intraarticular distal radial fractures. This article focuses on the surgical technique, indications, advantages, and results using wrist arthroscopy to assess articular reduction and evaluates the treatment of carpal ligament injuries and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries in conjunction with the stable fixation of distal radial fractures. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 27 patients (16 males and 11 females), who underwent stable fixation of intraarticular distal radial fractures with arthroscopic evaluation of the articular reduction and repair of associated carpal injuries. As per the AO classification, they were 9 C 1, 12 C2, 2 C3, 3 B 1, and 1 B2 fractures. The final results were evaluated by modified Mayo wrist scoring system. The average age was 41 years (range: 18-68 years). The average followup was of 26 months (range 24-52 months). Results: Five patients needed modification of the reduction and fixation after arthroscopic joint evaluation. Associated ligament lesions found during the wrist arthroscopy were TFCC tears (n=17), scapholunate ligament injury (n=8), and luno-triquetral ligament injury (n=1). Five patients had combined injuries i.e. included TFCC tear, scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral ligament tear. There were 20 excellent, 3 good, and 4 fair results using this score. Conclusion: The radiocarpal and mid carpal arthroscopy is a useful adjunct to stable fixation of distal radial fractures. PMID:23798761
Khanchandani, Prakash; Badia, Alejandro
The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297
McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W
This study tested the appropriateness of Outcome Questionnaire-45 norms for Asian and Pacific Islander students. Both groups scored higher, based on participants' self-reported general functioning, than the norms and more frequently met criteria for clinical classification, a possible indication of greater distress. This article discusses findings…
Gregersen, Ann T.; Nebeker, R. Scott; Seely, Kenneth L.; Lambert, Michael J.
Objectives To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. Summary Background Data Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR). Methods Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ?18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12) health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. Results 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17), and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12). Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: ?1.2, 3.6) and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: ?0.4, 95% CI: ?3.2, 2.4) compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: ?2.1, 2.8) or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: ?0.8, 4.5). Conclusion The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions. PMID:25157522
Rainer, Timothy H.; Yeung, Hiu Hung; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Yuen, Kai Y.; Ho, Hiu F.; Kam, Chak W.; Chang, Annice; Poon, Wai S.; Cameron, Peter A.; Graham, Colin A.
The purpose of this study was to determine independent influences of functional level and lower limb amputation type on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes. We conducted a secondary data analysis for patients with lower limb amputation who received inpatient medical rehabilitation (N = 26,501). The study outcomes included length of stay, discharge functional status, and community discharge. Predictors included the 3-level case mix group variable and a 4-category amputation variable. Age of the sample was 64.5 years (13.4) and 64% were male. More than 75% of patients had a dysvascular-related amputation. Patients with bilateral transfemoral amputations and higher functional severity experienced longest lengths of stay (average 13.7 days) and lowest functional rating at discharge (average 79.4). Likelihood of community discharge was significantly lower for those in more functionally severe patients but did not differ between amputation categories. Functional levels and amputation type are associated with rehabilitation outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation settings. Patients with transfemoral amputations and those in case mix group 1003 (admission motor score less than 36.25) generally experience poorer outcomes than those in other case mix groups. These relationships may be associated with other demographic and/or health factors, which should be explored in future research. PMID:25400948
Graham, James E.; Reistetter, Timothy A.; Kumar, Amit; Niewczyk, Paulette; Granger, Carl V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.
Isolated tibiotalar fusion is the preferred choice for isolated end-stage arthritis, joint destruction after infection, talar avascular necrosis, Charcot neuroarthropathy, and joint replacement failure. Combined tibiotalar and subtalar joint fusion with an intramedullary nail can achieve better alignment and save patients from prolonged non-weightbearing. The purpose of the present study was to functionally assess using instrumental gait analysis and clinically assess the effect of these 2 surgical techniques. Twelve patients with a mean follow-up duration of 70 (range 55 to 89) months after successful ankle fusion were analyzed, 6 isolated and 6 combined. The main outcome measure was the functional assessment performed using a stereophotogrammetric system and an established multisegment foot kinematics protocol. Standard clinical, imaging, and score systems were also assessed in the 2 groups, including radiographic-based classification of arthritic degeneration at the neighboring foot joints. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups using the scoring systems. Severe arthritic degeneration was found at the subtalar joint in the isolated fusion group and at the talonavicular and Lisfranc joints in the combined fusion group. From the gait analysis, no differences were found in the time-distance parameters; however, significant differences were observed in several joint rotations and planar angles. Isolated tibiotalar fusion allows for motion, however small, at the subtalar joint but can result in severe degeneration. Good clinical and functional results can also be obtained with combined tibiotalar and subtalar fusion, although this can result in degeneration of the adjacent joints of the foot. PMID:25434867
Malerba, Francesco; Benedetti, Maria G; Usuelli, Federico G; Milani, Rossano; Berti, Lisa; Champlon, Christine; Leardini, Alberto
Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176
Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) measures differences in function between children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) who are candidates for shoulder tendon surgery and age-matched controls. The PODCI was administered prospectively to 23 children with BPBP who were candidates for shoulder tendon surgery. Their results were compared with published PODCI data for control subjects, and factors associated with function within the BPBP cohort were determined. Children in the BPBP cohort had significantly lower PODCI scores in upper extremity function, sports, and global function than control subjects. Limited active shoulder external rotation was significantly associated with lower functional scores. The PODCI measures diminished upper extremity function in children with BPBP who are candidates for shoulder tendon surgery, thereby showing promise as a tool for measuring baseline function and postoperative functional gains for children with BPBP. PMID:15832163
Huffman, G Russell; Bagley, Anita M; James, Michelle A; Lerman, Joel A; Rab, George
Cleft lip is an anomaly that primarily affects aesthetics, whereas cleft palate is an anomaly that primarily affects function, particularly speech. In fact, the main reason for repairing the palate is to provide adequate structure and function for normal speech production. Despite undergoing palatoplasty surgery, 20 to 30% of children with repaired cleft palate will demonstrate some degree of velopharyngeal dysfunction, resulting in abnormal speech. Velopharyngeal dysfunction is also seen in individuals without a history of cleft palate for various reasons. Because the symptoms of velopharyngeal dysfunction have a variety of causes, a comprehensive evaluation is very important to make the appropriate recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to discuss the clinical assessment of velopharyngeal function for speech, using low-tech and "no-tech" procedures. PMID:21948642
Kummer, Ann W
BACKGROUND: Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitivity to change of five outcome instruments for effect measurement in chronic pain. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 273 chronic pain patients were assessed on the Numeric Rating
Felix Angst; Martin L Verra; Susanne Lehmann; André Aeschlimann
Summary Background: Hyponatraemia is the most commonly identified electrolyte abnormality. Published data on severe hyponatraemia in general medical in-patients is lacking. Aim: To determine the aetiology, adequacy of assessment, and outcome of severe hyponatraemia in general medical in-patients. Design: Retrospective case-note review. Methods: All general medical in-patients (n ¼ 108) with serum sodium 4125 mmol\\/l were identified from the clinical
J. A. Clayton; I. R. LE JEUNE; I. P. HALL
This paper reviews the 19 published studies that have utilized psychological assessments in determining the outcome of children\\u000a with phenylketonuria who have discontinued a phenylalanine-restricted diet. About half the studies showed that, after diet\\u000a termination, the intellectual performance of children decreased, while the other studies indicated that the intellectual performance\\u000a of the children did not change. Difficulties in the use
S. E. Waisbren; R. R. Schnell; H. L. Levy
Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children and their parents, and the School Function Assessment (SFA), a school-based functional assessment. One hundred and two children with CP (80.4% dipliegia; 10.8% hemiplegia; 3.9% triplegia; 2.0% quadriplegia; 2.9% unspecified; 60 males, 42 females, mean age 11 years 8 months (SD 3 y 3 mo, range 6-8 y), Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to IV (13.7% Level I 50% Level II 35.3% Level III 1% Level IV), had complete PODCI and SFA assessments. Significant relationships were noted among multiple PODCI subscales and subscales of the SFA, as well as among individual questions. PODCI predicted performance in all 31 subscales of the SFA when comorbidity subscales were included (r =0.35-0.64). The PODCI in-clinic questionnaire provides an accurate reflection of the child's actual participation in the community setting, as assessed by the SFA. PODCI can reliably be used to help ensure that outcomes assessed in the clinic setting reflect function within the community, and can be used to help with treatment planning, goal setting, and improved patient care. PMID:18754919
Gates, Philip E; Otsuka, Norman Y; Sanders, James O; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social outcomes of HIV interventions. This limits knowledge about social drivers and inhibits the institutionalization of social approaches within the HIV/AIDS response. We conclude that indicator frameworks should expand to offer a more comprehensive range of social indicators for monitoring and evaluation and to include indicators of organizational capacity to tackle social drivers. While such expansion poses challenges for standardization and coordination, we argue that the complexity of interventions producing social outcomes necessitates capacity for flexibility and local tailoring in monitoring and evaluation. PMID:25160645
Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill
Objectives To describe functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hospital rehabilitation for a UK cohort of inpatients with complex rehabilitation needs arising from inflammatory polyneuropathies. Subjects and Setting 186 patients consecutively admitted to specialist neurorehabilitation centres in England with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (n?=?118 (63.4%)) or other inflammatory polyneuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n?=?15 (8.1%) or critical illness neuropathy (n?=?32 (17.2%)). Methods Cohort analysis of data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative national clinical dataset. Outcome measures include the UK Functional Assessment Measure, Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS) and Care Needs Assessment (NPCNA). Patients were analysed in three groups of dependency based on their admission NPDS score: ‘low’ (NPDS<10), ‘medium’ (NPDS 10–24) and ‘high’ (NPDS ?25). Cost-efficiency was measured as the time taken to offset the cost of rehabilitation by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of on-going care in the community. Results The mean rehabilitation length of stay was 72.2 (sd?=?66.6) days. Significant differences were seen between the diagnostic groups on admission, but all showed significant improvements between admission and discharge, in both motor and cognitive function (p<0.0001). Patients who were highly dependent on admission had the longest lengths of stay (mean 97.0 (SD 79.0) days), but also showed the greatest reduction in on-going care costs (£1049 per week (SD £994)), so that overall they were the most cost-efficient to treat. Conclusions Patients with polyneuropathies have both physical and cognitive disabilities that are amenable to change with rehabilitation, resulting in significant reduction in on-going care-costs, especially for highly dependent patients. PMID:25402491
Alexandrescu, Roxana; Siegert, Richard John; Turner-Stokes, Lynne
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of disability in childhood. While the outcomes of TBI sustained in school years has been heavily researched, very little is known about the impact of TBI in infants and young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of TBI on executive function (EF) in children who sustained a
Louise M. Crowe; Cathy Catroppa; Franz E. Babl; Vicki Anderson
Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...
ObjectivesThe goal of this study was to determine whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective cohort study of subjects aged 45 to 64 years.
Guruprasad Manjunath; Hocine Tighiouart; Hassan Ibrahim; Bonnie MacLeod; Deeb N Salem; John L Griffith; Josef Coresh; Andrew S Levey; Mark J Sarnak
This study examines the association between approach coping and better functioning outcomes and the reciprocal relationships between coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in patients diagnosed with PTSD. Posttraumatic stress disorder patients receiving services in five VA health care systems were randomly selected and surveyed at baseline and followed 10 months later. Analyses of longitudinal data using structural equation
Quyen Q. Tiet; Craig Rosen; Steven Cavella; Rudolf H. Moos; John W. Finney; Jerome Yesavage
Management of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes of transarticular arthroscopic drilling for isolated stable, juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the medial femoral condyle with an intact articular surface after 6 months of nonoperative management had failed. We reviewed 30 affected knees in 23 skeletally immature patients (mean
Mininder S. Kocher; Lyle J. Micheli; Moshe Yaniv; David Zurakowski; Andrew Ames; Anthony A. Adrignolo
Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…
Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista
The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…
van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Background Restorative proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for intractable or complicated ulcerative colitis (UC). Debate exists concerning outcomes of IPAA in the elderly and literature data are scarce. We report our experience of IPAA in older population. Methods We gathered data on a prospective database of patients undergoing IPAA for UC over 70 years of age in our Unit from January 1990 through January 2010. Patients were compared with randomly selected younger controls on a 1:3 ratio. Patients underwent IPAA in 2 or 3 stages. Demographical data, disease characteristics, comorbidities, concomitant medications, peri-operative management, intra- and post-operative complications were analyzed. Function and quality of life were assessed by clinical visit and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire 1 and 3 years after ileostomy takedown. Results Twenty-seven elderly patients underwent IPAA for UC in the study period; these were compared with 81 younger controls. The former had more comorbidities and higher ASA score. All patients underwent loop-ileostomy closure. There were no differences between groups concerning the rate of major complications, but elderly patients more frequently had nuisances due to stoma output. Younger patients experienced significantly more episodes of small bowel obstruction. No significant differences in bowel control and health-related quality of life was observed, except for an higher rate of elderly patients taking antidiarrhoeals at 1-year follow-up; this observation was not confirmed at 3-year follow-up. A minimal decrease in continence was observed, but this did not affect overall satisfaction. Conclusions IPAA can be safely offered to selected elderly UC patients who are strongly motivated and with no clinical disturbances of continence. In experienced hands no differences are likely to be expected concerning complications, quality of life and function. Results are stable with time and comparable to those of younger patients. PMID:24267006
The majority of Australian weeds are exotic plant species that were intentionally introduced for a variety of horticultural and agricultural purposes. A border weed risk assessment system (WRA) was implemented in 1997 in order to reduce the high economic costs and massive environmental damage associated with introducing serious weeds. We review the behaviour of this system with regard to eight years of data collected from the assessment of species proposed for importation or held within genetic resource centres in Australia. From a taxonomic perspective, species from the Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae were most likely to be rejected and those from the Arecaceae and Flacourtiaceae were most likely to be accepted. Dendrogram analysis and classification and regression tree (TREE) models were also used to analyse the data. The latter revealed that a small subset of the 35 variables assessed was highly associated with the outcome of the original assessment. The TREE model examining all of the data contained just five variables: unintentional human dispersal, congeneric weed, weed elsewhere, tolerates or benefits from mutilation, cultivation or fire, and reproduction by vegetative propagation. It gave the same outcome as the full WRA model for 71% of species. Weed elsewhere was not the first splitting variable in this model, indicating that the WRA has a capacity for capturing species that have no history of weediness. A reduced TREE model (in which human-mediated variables had been removed) contained four variables: broad climate suitability, reproduction in less or than equal to 1year, self-fertilisation, and tolerates and benefits from mutilation, cultivation or fire. It yielded the same outcome as the full WRA model for 65% of species. Data inconsistencies and the relative importance of questions are discussed, with some recommendations made for improving the use of the system. PMID:18339471
Weber, Jason; Dane Panetta, F; Virtue, John; Pheloung, Paul
Background and Purpose Symptomatic steno-occlusion (SYSO) in acute ischemic stroke has a significant impact on treatment options and prognosis. However, the prevalence, distribution, clinical characteristics, and outcome of SYSO are not well known. Methods We retrospectively identified 3,451 patients hospitalized because of ischemic stroke within 24 hours of symptom onset at 9 stroke centers in South Korea. Patients who did not undergo magnetic resonance imaging were excluded. SYSO was defined as stenosis or occlusion of cerebral arteries with relevant ischemic lesions in the corresponding arterial territory. The number, location, and severity of SYSOs and their effects on functional outcome were analyzed. Results In total, 1,929 of 3,057 subjects (63.1%) had SYSO. The most frequently affected vessels were the middle cerebral artery (34.6%), extracranial internal carotid artery (14%), vertebral artery (12.4%), and basilar artery (8.7%). SYSO predicted poor outcome on the modified Rankin Scale 3-6 (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.15) with adjustments. Involvement of 2 or more vessels was observed in 30.6% of patients with SYSO and independently increased the risk of poor outcome (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 2.12-3.59). The severity of SYSO was associated with outcome and showed a significant dose-response trend (P<0.001). The effect of SYSO on outcome did not significantly differ by individual arterial location (P for contrast=0.21). Conclusions Approximately 60% of patients with acute ischemic stroke had SYSO, and the severity and number were inversely correlated with outcome. The results suggest that SYSO could predict stroke outcome. PMID:24741563
Kang, Jihoon; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Jong-Moo; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Soo Joo; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Jun; Jang, Myung Suk; Han, Moon-Ku
Background The relationship between whole spectrum of Ejection fraction (EF) and cardioembolic stroke (CES) outcome has not been fully described yet. Notably, it remains unclear whether borderline EF (41?49%) is related with poor outcome after CES. We sought to evaluate whether lower ejection fraction and borderline EF could predict the outcome in patients with CES. Method and Results We evaluated the relationship between EF and functional outcome in 437 consecutive patients with CES. EF was introduced as continuous and categorical (EF?40%, EF 41?49%, EF?50%) variable. Patients with CES and the subgroup with AF were evaluated separately. Poor short-term outcome (modified Rankin Score?3at discharge or death within 90 days after stroke onset) and long-term mortality were evaluated. A total of 165 patients (37.8%) had poor short-term outcomes. EF tends to be lower in patients with poor short-term outcome (56.8±11.0 vs. 54.8±12.0, p-value 0.086). Overall cumulative death was136 (31.1%) in all CES patients and 106 (31.7%) in the AF subgroup. In a multivariable model adjusted for possible covariates, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly decreased by 3% for every 1% increase in ejection fraction in CES patients and 2% for every 1% increase in the AF subgroup. Reduced EF (EF?40%) showed higher mortality (HR 2.61), and those with borderline EF (41?49%) had a tendency of higher mortality (HR 1.65, p-value 0.067)compared with those with normal EF. Conclusion We found a strong association between lower EF and CES outcome. Echocardiographic evaluation helps to better determine the prognosis in CES patients, even in subgroup of patients with AF. PMID:24760037
Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Kim, Young-Dae; Kim, Jeong-Min; Roh, Jae-Kyu
Blood thyroid function tests (TFT) are routinely used to screen for thyroid disorders in several clinical settings. TFT on hospital admission may also be useful prognostic predictors of acute IS: according to recent evidence, poststroke outcome is better in patients with lower thyroid function and worse in those with higher thyroid function. However, previous reports are few and mostly compared patients with thyroid disorders to euthyroid patients. Thyroid disorders are known risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. However, hyperthyroidism is related to cardioembolic IS whereas hypothyroidism is related to atherosclerotic risk factors. Therefore, findings from available studies of TFT might just reflect the worse prognosis of cardioembolic IS compared to other IS subtypes. Another limitation of previous studies is the lack of information for older persons, who represent three quarters of all IS patients. In this paper, we investigated whether serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) measured on Stroke Unit (SU) admission are associated with early outcomes of acute IS in 775 euthyroid patients aged ?65years (mean age 80.1±8.7years). Two composite outcomes were investigated: poor functional outcome (death during SU stay or disability at SU discharge), and unfavorable discharge setting (death during SU stay, transfer from SU to other acute hospital unit or transfer from SU to long-term care-facilities as opposed to direct discharge home). Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Curvilinear associations were tested including TFT as polynomial terms. Models were adjusted for demographics, prestroke, and IS-related confounders. We found that lower TSH had a complex curvilinear association with poor functional outcome and that the shape of the associations changed with age. At age 65, the curve was U-shaped: outcome risk decreased with increasing TSH, reached its minimum at TSH near 3.00mUI/L and then started to rise. Between ages 70 and 75, however, the shape of the curve straightened and, starting from age 80 took an inverted U-shape: outcome risk rose with increasing TSH, reached its maximum at TSH values that progressively shifted upward with increasing age (from 1.70mU/L at age 80 to about 2.20mUI/L at age 90), then started to decrease. A linear inverse association was found between FT3 and unfavorable discharge setting. Our study suggests that measurement of TFT on SU admission can provide independent prognostic information for early outcomes of acute IS in older euthyroid patients. PMID:25449856
Forti, Paola; Maioli, Fabiola; Coveri, Maura; Nativio, Valeria; Arnone, Giorgia; Loreti, Alice; Zoli, Marco; Sacquegna, Tommaso; Procaccianti, Gaetano
Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632
Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew
Object Traumatic brain injury (TBI), the third most common central nervous system (CNS) pathology, plagues 5.3 million Americans with permanent TBI-related disabilities. To evaluate injury severity and prognosis, physicians rely on clinical variables. Here we seek objective, biochemical markers reflecting molecular injury mechanisms specific to the CNS as more accurate measurements of injury severity and outcome. One such secondary injury mechanism, the innate immune response, is regulated by the inflammasome, a molecular platform that activates caspase-1 and interleukin-1?. Methods We investigated whether inflammasome components are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 23 TBI patients, and whether levels of inflammasome components correlate with outcome. We performed immunoblot analysis of CSF samples from TBI patients and non-trauma controls and assessed outcome five months post-injury by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U tests and linear regression analysis. Results Patients with severe or moderate cranial trauma exhibited significantly higher CSF levels of the inflammasome proteins apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and NAcht leucine-rich-repeat protein-1 (NALP-1) compared to non-trauma controls (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0029; P = 0.0202, respectively). Expression of each protein correlated significantly with GOS at five months post-injury (P < 0.05). ASC, caspase-1, and NALP-1 were significantly higher in the CSF of patients with unfavorable outcomes, including death and severe disability (P < 0.0001). Conclusions NALP-1 inflammasome proteins are potential biomarkers to assess TBI severity, outcome, and the secondary injury mechanisms impeding recovery, serving as adjuncts to clinical predictors. PMID:23061392
Adamczak, Stephanie; Dale, Gordon; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Bullock, M. Ross; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Keane, Robert W.
Introduction We hypothesized that the degree of preserved functional connectivity within the DMN during the first week after cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) would be associated with functional outcome at hospital discharge. Methods Initially comatose CPA survivors with indeterminate prognosis at 72 hours were enrolled. Seventeen CPA subjects between 4–7 days after CPA and 17 matched controls were studied with task-free fMRI. Independent component analysis was performed to delineate the DMN. Connectivity strength in the DMN was compared between CPA subjects and controls, as well as between CPA subjects with good outcome (discharge Cerebral Performance Category or CPC 1–2) and those with bad outcome (CPC 3–5). The relationship between connectivity strength in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PC) within the DMN with discharge CPC was evaluated using linear regression. Results Compared to controls, CPA subjects had significantly lower connectivity strength in subregions of the DMN, the PCC and PC (p <0.0001). Furthermore, connectivity strength in the PCC and PC was greater in CPA subjects with good outcome (n=8) than those with bad outcome (n=9) (p <0.003). Among CPA subjects, the connectivity strength in the PCC and PC showed strong linear correlations with the discharge CPC (p <0.005). Conclusion Among initially comatose CPA survivors with indeterminate prognosis, task-free fMRI demonstrated graded disruption of DMN connectivity, especially in those with bad outcomes. If confirmed, connectivity strength in the PC/PCC may provide a clinically useful prognostic marker for functional recovery after CPA. PMID:24464830
Koenig, Matthew A.; Holt, John L.; Ernst, Thomas; Buchthal, Steven D.; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Stenger, Victor A.; Chang, Linda
Purpose Several international committees involved in establishing standards of care have recommended that patients undergoing surgery for bladder outlet obstruction should be assessed with patient reported outcomes (PRO). The Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) is an instrument designed to measure a patients interpretation of symptom changes following intervention. The objective of this study was to validate the PGI-I as a PRO assessment following surgery for bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Men undergoing photoselective vaporisation of the prostate were followed prospectively. Pre- and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of life (QoL) index, peak urinary flow (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) assessments were done. The PGI-I was conducted and correlated at 3 months postoperatively to changes in IPSS, QoL, Qmax, and PVR. Results One hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients were included. Following surgery, IPSS and QoL improved by 11 and 2.4 points (P<0.0001). PGI-I was found to correlate with postoperative changes in IPSS and QoL (Pearson correlation, 0.47 and 0.58, respectively; P<0.0001). Conclusions This is the first study to validate the PGI-I as a PRO measure to surgery for BOO. This suggests a potential for the PGI-I to be used to assess surgical therapies for BPH and may be a valuable addition for measuring outcomes in clinical trials evaluating surgical interventions for BPH.
Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry
A historical survey of the literature indicates that benefits derived from low doses of toxic substances have been reported over many centuries. Hippocrates, Paracelsus, Arndt, Schulz, and Hahnemann (founder of homeopathy) have all reported that low doses of toxic substances may be "stimulatory" or otherwise beneficial. Assessment of mortality data from modern-day bioassay studies indicates that low-dose animal exposure to a variety of toxic agents can, through an unknown mechanism, also induce beneficial changes which promote health and prolong life (longevity hormesis). This nonspecific and apparently reversible phenomenon has been modeled kinetically through use of age-specific mortality rate and a generalized Gompertz function; the basic assumption is that mortality in an interval is a function of the weighted sum of intensities of physiologic injury during that interval. It was assumed that longevity-enhancing hormetic reduction in population injury may be decremented from life-shortening injury produced through the aging process and concomitant toxicity. At low exposure levels, a net reduction in age-specific mortality rate can sometimes be observed. The implications for risk assessment are significant. It is tacitly assumed in generating virtually all estimates of risk that toxic manifestations observed at higher doses are the sole effects elicited at lower doses. This appears to be qualitatively incorrect. PMID:3069422
Boxenbaum, H; Neafsey, P J; Fournier, D J
New healthcare demands for quality measures of elective procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery, warrant the establishment of high throughput outcomes for high volume clinics. To this end, we evaluated the PROMIS and GAITRite as physical function outcome measures to quantify early healing and post-operative complications in 106 patients at pre-operative and 3, 10, 20 and 52 weeks post-ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft, and compared the results to the current IKDC validated outcome measure. The results showed that both PROMIS and GAITRite were significantly quicker to administer versus IKDC (p<0.0001). Additional advantages were that PROMIS and GAITRite detected a significant decrease in physical function at 3 weeks post-operative, and a significant improvement at 10 weeks post-operative versus pre-operative (p<0.001), which were not detected with IKDC. GAITRite was limited by a low ceiling that could not detect improvement of physical function beyond 20 weeks, while both PROMIS and IKDC detected significant improvement out to 52 weeks post-operative (p<0.001). Linear regressions demonstrated a significant relationship between IKDC and PROMIS, with a combined correlation value of 0.8954 (p<0.001) for all time points. Finally, ROC curve analysis demonstrated that PROMIS is a diagnostic test for poor outcomes. PMID:24532421
Papuga, M Owen; Beck, Christopher A; Kates, Stephen L; Schwarz, Edward M; Maloney, Michael D
Objective. To evaluate the outcomes of alumni who were enrolled in a professional development seminar series during their doctor of pharmacy program. Design. A weekly development seminar series was administered over 5 semesters with the goal of bringing academic advisees together to help develop performance-based abilities, prepare them for entry into the profession after graduation, and provide exposure to different career opportunities. Assessment. A survey instrument containing 39 Likert-type scale items, 2 open-ended questions, and a 10-item demographic survey was created and content-validated to assess the effect of the seminar series on alumni advisees’ perceived outcomes and professional development since their graduation. The survey was electronically forwarded to advisees from the graduating classes of 2005 to 2012, and response data was collected with Qualtrics, a web-based survey service. A total of 36 percent of alumni responded to the survey. Respondents cited exposure to career alternatives and opportunities, development of presentation and communication skills, networking, and the importance of advisor/mentor relationships as benefits of the seminar series. Conclusion. The professional development seminar series has demonstrated a positive impact on alumni advisees’ career development and professional outcomes, most notably relating to career path exposure, communication skills, and advisor/mentor relationships. PMID:25386015
Zueger, Patrick M.; Katz, Norman L.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for septic complications of pelvic pouch surgery; to assess the relationship between diagnosis and outcome; to assess quality of life after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic and perineal sepsis due to ileal pouch-anal anastomotic leaks frequently results in pouch loss. Many surgeons believe that pelvic sepsis and/or dense pelvic fibrosis makes salvage surgery unsafe or that pouches salvaged under these circumstances may not function well. As a result, there are few studies of pouch salvage procedures for septic indications. METHODS: The authors reviewed records of Cleveland Clinic Foundation patients who had undergone repeat IPAA surgery after septic complications from previous pelvic pouch surgery and who had completed at least 6 months of follow-up. Final diagnoses included ulcerative colitis (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 10), indeterminate colitis (n = 1), and familial polyposis (n = 2). Patients with functioning pouches were interviewed about functional problems and quality of life using an in-house questionnaire and the validated SF-36 Health Survey. RESULTS: Of 35 patients, 30 (86%) had a functioning pouch 6 months after repeat IPAA. In 4 patients, complications led to pouch removal or fecal diversion. One patient declined stoma closure. Of the patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC), 95% (21/22) had a functioning pouch 6 months after surgery. For patients with Crohn's disease (CD) 60% (6/10) have maintained a functioning pouch. Of the 30 patients with functioning pouches, 17 (57%) rated their quality of life as either "good" or "excellent," the remaining 13 (43%) selected "fair" or "poor." All said they would choose repeat IPAA surgery again. An SF-36 Health Survey completed by all patients with a functioning pouch at follow-up showed a mean physical component scale of 46.4 and a mean mental component scale of 47.6, scores well within the normal limit. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat IPAA can often salvage pelvic pouches in patients with MUC who suffer major chronic perianastomotic and pelvic sepsis. Patients who had successful repeat IPAA surgery often report functional problems but would still choose to have the surgery again. For patients with CD, ultimate pouch excision or fecal diversion have been required in 40% indicating a guarded prognosis for these patients. Data on the success of the procedure for patients with indeterminate colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis were inconclusive because of small sample sizes. Images Figure 1. PMID:9790348
Fazio, V W; Wu, J S; Lavery, I C
Level of achievement relative to stated goal Proposed Action An understanding of the problems, issues Outcomes Specific to Course ABET a- criteria How criterion is met Examples of assessment Goal Assessment. #12;3 (D) Course Enhancement Questionnaire As part of on-going self-assessment for ABET accreditation
Level of achievement relative to stated goal Proposed Action An understanding of the problems, issues Outcomes Specific to Course ABET a- criteria How criterion is met Examples of assessment Goal Assessment difficulties. #12;3 (D) Course Enhancement Questionnaire As part of on-going self-assessment for ABET
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) with open partial nephrectomy (OPN) in the management of small renal masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 46 RAPN patients and 20 OPN patients was included in this study. Patients’ demographics, mean operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), warm ischemia time (WIT), length of hospital stay, pre- and post-operative renal functions, complications and oncological outcomes were recorded, prospectively. RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 4.04 cm in OPN group and 3.56 cm in RAPN group (P = 0.27). Mean R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was 6.35 in OPN group and 5.35 in RAPN group (P = 0.02). The mean operative time was 152 min in OPN group and 225 min in RAPN group (P = 0.006). The mean EBL in OPN and RAPN groups were 417 ml and 268 ml, respectively (P = 0.001). WIT in OPN group was significantly shorter than RAPN group (18.02 min vs. 23.33 min, P = 0.003). The mean drain removal time and the length of hospital stay were longer in OPN group. There were no significant differences in terms of renal functional outcomes and postoperative complications between groups. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgical management of renal masses with RAPN offers better outcomes in terms of EBL and length of stay. However, the mean operative time and WIT were significantly shorter in OPN group. RAPN is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to OPN in terms of oncological and functional outcomes. PMID:25598603
Boylu, Ugur; Basatac, Cem; Yildirim, Umit; Onol, Fikret F.; Gumus, Eyup
There has been persistent controversy regarding possible favorable or adverse effects of statins or of cholesterol reduction on cognition, mood and behavior (including aggressive or violent behavior), muscle function, and quality of life. The UCSD Statin Study seeks to ascertain the beneficial or adverse effects of statin cholesterol-lowering drugs on a set of noncardiac endpoints, including cognition, behavior, and serotonin biochemistry. The study will enroll 1000 subjects (minimum 20% female) of mixed ethnicity from San Diego. Subjects must be age 20 and older, postmenopausal if female, without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and with LDL-cholesterol between 115 and 190 mg/dl. Subjects will be randomized to a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with assignment 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 to placebo, simvastatin 20 mg, or pravastatin 40 mg (equipotent LDL-cholesterol-lowering doses for drug arms with simvastatin and pravastatin chosen to represent the extremes of the lipophilicity spectrum) for 6 months of treatment followed by 2 months postcessation follow-up. Primary outcomes are cognition (cognitive battery), irritability/aggression (behavior measure), and serotonin (gauged by whole blood serotonin), assessed as the difference between baseline and 6 months, judging combined statin groups vs. placebo. Secondary outcomes include mood (CES-D and Wakefield depression inventory), quality of life (SF-12V), sleep (Leeds sleep scale, modified), and secondary aggression measures (Conflict Tactics Scale; Overt Aggression Scale, Modified). Cardiovascular reactivity will be examined in a 10% subset. As additional secondary endpoints, primary and selected secondary outcomes will be assessed by statin assignment (lipophilic simvastatin vs. hydrophilic pravastatin). “Reversibility” of changes, if any, at 2 months postcessation will be determined. If effects (favorable or unfavorable) are identified, we will seek to ascertain whether there are baseline variables that predict who will be most susceptible to these favorable or adverse noncardiac effects (i.e., effect modification). PMID:15020036
Golomb, Beatrice A.; Criqui, Michael H.; White, Halbert L.; Dimsdale, Joel E.
Purpose. This paper describes the functional and oncologic outcome of 30 cases (in 29 patients) treated with limb-salvage surgery for localized soft tissue sarcoma (STS) or fibromatosis of the foot and ankle. Subjects. Patients were eligible for the study if they had a STS or fibromatosis in the distal one-third of the tibia or the foot such that ablative surgery would require a below-knee amputation; had no metastatic disease at presentation; and had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Methods. Function was prospectively evaluated using the modified Enneking functional rating scale (MSTS) at 3, 6, 12 months and at most recent follow-up. Premorbid work status and change following surgery, lower leg oedema, and the use of orthotics and ambulatory aids were consecutively assessed. Tumour characteristics were recorded and patients were followed for systemic and local recurrence. Results. Thirty-six consecutive cases were managed by a multi-disciplinary sarcoma team. Six patients underwent below-knee amputation due to extensive local disease, while 30 cases were treated with limb-salvage surgery. Of the patients treated with limb salvage, there were 19 high-grade sarcomas, five low-grade sarcomas and six cases of fibromatosis. Microscopically negative margins were achieved in 26 of 30 cases. Ten cases required bone excision, and eight patients needed free vascularized tissue flaps. Twenty-five patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Seven patients had post-operative complications. At mean follow-up of 52 months (range 24–109 months), four patients had developed systemic recurrence. There was one local recurrence in a patient with fibromatosis, while another patient with fibromatosis developed recurrence a considerable distance from the surgical and radiation field. Mean scores on the MSTS were 27.5 (range 11–35), 29.9 (range 13–35), 31.4 (range 17–35) and 31.0 (range 13–35) at 3, 6, 12 months and at most recent follow-up, respectively. Eighty-five per cent of the patients scored good to excellent at their last visit. Twelve patients reported persistent pain with two continuing to require occasional narcotics. Six had persistent mild oedema. Four required shoe modifications and three continue to use a cane. Six patients were unable to return to their premorbid employment with the majority of these previously employed in jobs requiring physical labour or long periods of either standing or walking. Discussion. Thirty of 36 patients (83%) presenting with foot and ankle STS or fibromatosis were candidates for limb preservation. With excellent local control and good functional outcome demonstrated in this study, limb salvage should be a primary goal in the management of selected patients with STS and fibromatosis of the foot and ankle. PMID:18521204
Colterjohn, Nigel R.; Davis, Aileen M.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles N.; Wunder, Jay S.
Background The evidence behind the widely used prelung transplant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) cutoff of 50 mL/min per 1.73 m2 is limited. This study reviews data from a large cohort to assess outcomes associated with this historical cutoff and to estimate other possible cutoffs that might be appropriate in lung transplantation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of lung recipients at a single center. Recursive partitioning and receiver operating characteristics analysis were used to estimate other potential GFR cutoffs with 1-year mortality as the outcome. Postoperative outcomes around the various cutoffs, including survival, acute kidney injury, and dialysis, were assessed using ?2, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression methods. Results A total of 794 lung recipients met study inclusion criteria. Compared with 778 patients with GFR 50 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater at time of transplant, 16 patients with GFR below this cutoff were older and more likely to have restrictive disease. One-year mortality below the cutoff was 31.3% compared with 15.1% above the cutoff (p = 0.021). Recursive partitioning estimated potential GFR cutoff values between 46 and 61 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Patients with GFR below these cutoffs were at significantly higher risk for adverse outcomes (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was less successful at identifying meaningful cutoff values with areas under the curve approximately 0.5. Conclusions Study results support the practice of requiring candidate GFR 50 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater for lung transplantation. Future work should focus on reproducing the analysis in a larger cohort of patients including more individuals with low GFR. PMID:24793682
Osho, Asishana A.; Castleberry, Anthony W.; Snyder, Laurie D.; Ganapathi, Asvin M.; Hirji, Sameer A.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Lin, Shu S.; Duane Davis, R.; Hartwig, Matthew G.
Subjective outcomes may exaggerate intervention effects compared to objectively measured outcomes. We compared effect estimates for clinical failure and all-cause mortality clinical trials of antibiotic treatment for pneumonia. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing adults with pneumonia, comparing different antibiotics, published between 2005 and 2012 was undertaken. We compared the intervention to the control arm. The all-cause mortality in the intention-to-treat population and clinical failure as defined by the study investigators for the primary analyzed population were the primary outcomes examined. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled, using a fixed effect model. Meta-regression was used to examine the impact of clinical failure on the mortality effect size. Thirty-six trials were included, of which 30 were industry-sponsored and 30 were non-inferiority trials. There was no difference between the effect on mortality for intervention versus control (RR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.91-1.16) and clinical failure (RR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.93-1.10), without significant heterogeneity in both analyses. In double-blind trials with adequate sequence generation and concealment, there was a significant advantage to the intervention for clinical failure (RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.76-0.98), but not for mortality (RR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.76-1.21). RRs for clinical failure did not explain the variability in the RRs for mortality significantly, with a meta-regression coefficient of 0.32 (95 % CI -0.21-0.85). In non-inferiority trials of antibiotic treatment for pneumonia, we did not find evidence for bias induced by the use of a subjective outcome overall. The small number of trials without sponsorship precludes an adequate assessment of sponsorship effects. PMID:24352842
Avni, T; Shiber-Ofer, S; Leibovici, L; Paul, M
Background: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the outcome of patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), aged >= 65 years, treated in our institution from 2003 to 2009, and compared the outcome of patients admitted into the Nordic Glioma Study (NGS group) to the outcomes of elderly patients treated during the same time period outside of studies. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Patients and methods: The study population of 70 patients (32 females) aged 65 - 83, median 71 years, was divided into three groups: the NGS group consisted of 35 patients, 1 group of 12 patients estimated as frail was treated with back then standard radiotherapy of 60 Gy (RT arm), and 23 "fit elderly" were treated with standard radio-chemotherapy (RCT arm). 31 of the 70 patients underwent gross total resection (44%), 21 patients had subtotal resection (30%), and 18 patients underwent biopsy (26%). Results: Survival in the three study arms of the NGS group was very similar to the outcomes in the whole cohort of the Nordic Glioma Study (6 - 10 months). Median OS in the RCT arm was 21.0 (6 - 47) months vs. 3.0 (0.3 - 21) months in the RT arm of the NGS group. In the temozolomide (TMZ) arm, 2 of 10 patients (20%) suffered from grade 3 - 4 thrombocytopenia. In the RCT arm, grade 3 hematologic toxicity occurred in 2 of 23 patients (8.7%) and in 1 patient of the RT arm (8.3%). This retrospective single center experience shows the wide variety of outcomes in elderly patients with GBM and underlines their need for individualized, geriatric assessment-based therapy planning. PMID:25158679
Ackerl, Michael; Flechl, Birgit; Dieckmann, Karin; Preusser, Matthias; Widhalm, Georg; Sax, Cornelia; Marosi, Christine
Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.
Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol
Preparing early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood special education (ECSE) professionals to work with young children with and without disabilities entails the acquisition of content, its application, and opportunities for reflection. This article describes a component of an ECSE assessment course focusing on the logistics and process…
Bruns, Deborah A.; Cooley, Marissa
Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale in a sample of higher functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and comorbid anxiety disorders enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (n = 30). Pretreatment Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale scores correlated with severity of autism spectrum disorders core symptoms (r = -.388, p = .034), pragmatic communication (r = .407, p = .032), and verbal ability (r = .449, p = .013) and did not correlate with severity of anxiety symptoms or with parent-reported adaptive behavior. Change in Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale scores during treatment was associated with autism spectrum disorders symptomatic improvement (r = .414, p = .040) and with improved general communication (r = .499, p = .013). Results support the importance of assessing global functioning in addition to symptom change and treatment response in clinical trials. PMID:23965288
White, Susan W; Smith, Laura A; Schry, Amie R
Purpose Stroke caregivers often express the need for information about stroke and assistance with stroke-related care in the early discharge period. The Telephone Assessment and Skill-Building Kit (TASK) is an 8-week program that addresses caregiver needs. This study explored the efficacy of the TASK program in improving stroke caregiver outcomes. Method Guided by a conceptual model, 6 outcomes (optimism, task difficulty, threat appraisal, depressive symptoms, life changes, general health perceptions) were measured in 40 caregivers randomized to the TASK (n = 21) or an attention control group (n = 19). Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline scores and minutes spent with the nurse. Results Significant increases in optimism at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks were found, with medium effect sizes for the TASK group relative to the control group (p < .05). Significant improvements in task difficulty at 4 weeks, and threat appraisal at both 8 weeks and 12 weeks were also found (p < .05). Conclusion Caregivers receiving the TASK intervention improved in optimism, task difficulty, and threat appraisal. Further testing of an enhanced version of the TASK program is warranted, with attention directed toward more distal stroke caregiver outcomes. PMID:19581197
Bakas, Tamilyn; Farran, Carol J.; Austin, Joan K.; Given, Barbara A.; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Williams, Linda S.
Little is known about the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in very young children. This study used a prospective, cross-sectional design to investigate the impact of TBI on executive function (EF) outcomes in children who sustained a TBI before the age of seven. The study aimed to identify specific or global EF deficits five years post-TBI, and to
Caroline Nadebaum; Vicki Anderson; Cathy Catroppa
This article discusses the impact of cognitive-communicative and behavior problems on oral intake. Data on the swallowing outcomes of a group of patients in an acute rehabilitation facility are presented. These data illustrate the relationships among severity of dysphagia, admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, admission and discharge cognitive FIM scores and length of stay. Two case studies that describe the effect of cognitive-communicative disorders on dysphagia are provided. PMID:10653944
Halper, A S; Cherney, L R; Cichowski, K; Zhang, M
Background and Purpose—The goals of this study were to examine MRI baseline characteristics of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and to study the influence of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on MR parameters and functional outcome using a multicenter approach. Methods—In this open-label, nonrandomized study of AIS patients with suspected anterior circulation stroke, subjects received a multiparametric stroke MRI
J. Röther; P. D. Schellinger; A. Gass; M. Siebler; A. Villringer; J. B. Fiebach; J. Fiehler; O. Jansen; T. Kucinski; V. Schoder; K. Szabo; G. J. Junge-Hülsing; M. Hennerici; H. Zeumer; K. Sartor; C. Weiller; W. Hacke
Accelerometry provides information on habitual physical capability that may be of value in the assessment of function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This preliminary investigation describes the relationship between community ambulation measured by the StepWatch activity monitor and the current standard of functional assessment, the 6-minute walk test, in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 13). All participants completed a 6-minute walk test and wore the StepWatch™ monitor for 5 consecutive days. Both the 6-minute walk test and StepWatch accelerometry identified a decreased capacity for ambulation in boys with Duchenne compared to healthy controls. There were strong, significant correlations between 6-minute walk distance and all StepWatch parameters in affected boys only (r = 0.701-0.804). These data proffer intriguing observations that warrant further exploration. Specifically, accelerometry outcomes may compliment the 6-minute walk test in assessment of therapeutic interventions for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24762862
Davidson, Zoe E; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew J; Walker, Karen Z; Truby, Helen
Blood biomarkers may improve the performance in predicting early stroke outcome beyond well-established clinical factors. We investigated the value of growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) to predict functional outcome after 90 days in a prospectively collected patient cohort with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke. Two hundred eighty-one patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke were prospectively investigated. Serial blood samples for GDF-15 analysis were obtained after the admission of the patient, after 6 and 24 h. Primary outcome was the dichotomized modified ranking scale (MRS) 90 days after the initial clinical event. Within the final study population (264 patients, mean age 70.3 ± 12.7 years, 55.3% male), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIH-SS) [odds ratio (OR) 1.269, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.141-1.412, p < 0.001] and initial GDF-15 levels (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.007-1.053, p = 0.011) were independently associated with a MRS ? 2 after day 90 after multiple regression analysis. Growth-differentiation factor-15 levels increase with higher NIH-SS-tertiles (p = 0.005). Receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrated a discriminatory accuracy to predict unfavourable stroke outcome of 0.629 (95% CI 0.558-0.699), 0.753 (95% CI 0.693-812) and 0.774 (95% CI 0.717-0.832) for GDF-15, NIH-SS and the combination of these variables. The additional use of GDF-15 to NIH-SS ameliorates the model with a net reclassification index of 0.044 (p = 0.541) and integrated discrimination improvement of 0.034 (p = 0.443). Growth-differentiation factor-15 as an acute stroke biomarker independently predicts unfavourable functional 90 day stroke outcome. Discriminatory value in addition to NIH-SS is only modestly distinct. PMID:22231869
Gröschel, Klaus; Schnaudigel, Sonja; Edelmann, Frank; Niehaus, Cord-Friedrich; Weber-Krüger, Mark; Haase, Beatrice; Lahno, Rosine; Seegers, Joachim; Wasser, Katrin; Wohlfahrt, Janin; Vollmann, Dirk; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Wachter, Rolf
We examined the short-term efficacy of 2 treatments using environmental supports (e.g. signs, alarms, pill containers, checklists) to improve target behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia. 120 participants were randomized into one of 3 treatment groups 1) Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT; a manual-driven set of environmental supports customized to individual cognitive impairments and behaviors and established and maintained in participants’ homes on weekly visits 2) Generic Environmental Supports (GES; a generic set of supports given to patients at a routine clinic visit and replaced on a monthly basis) and 3) treatment as usual (TAU; standard follow-up provided by a community mental health center). Global level of functional outcome and target behaviors including orientation, grooming and hygiene, and medication adherence were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results of an analysis of covariance indicated that patients in both CAT and GES had better scores on global functional outcome at 3 months than those in TAU. Results of Chi Square analyses indicated that patients in CAT were more likely to improve on target behaviors including orientation, hygiene, and medication adherence than those in GES. Irrespective of treatment group, individuals who were high utilizers of environmental supports were more likely to improve on target behaviors than individuals who were low utilizers of supports. PMID:19523690
Velligan, Dawn I.; Diamond, Pamela; Mueller, Janet; Li, Xueying; Maples, Natalie; Wang, Mei; Miller, Alexander L.
Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766
O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N
This retrospective study compared the long-term stability and functional outcomes of basicervical versus intertrochanteric fractures, and evaluated the use of an additional derotational screw in the treatment of basicervical fractures. Sixty-six patients (28 with basicervical fractures and 38 treated for stable and unstable intertrochanteric fractures) were identified. All intertrochanteric fractures were treated with a sliding hip screw. Basicervical fractures were treated with a sliding hip screw with or without a derotational screw. Radiographically measured fracture collapse and tip-apex distance were measured at least 6 weeks after surgery; SF-36 score and Functional Recovery Score data was collected at least 1 year after surgery. The proportion of fractures with > 10% collapse was significantly greater in the basicervical group than the subset of stable intertrochanteric fractures (P = .009), but not than the subset of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. The mean SF-36 bodily pain section domain was greater (less pain) in the basicervical group than the unstable intertrochanteric group (P = .02). No other significant differences in SF-36 scores were noted between the basicervical and either intertrochanteric group. Basicervical fractures collapse more than stable intertrochanteric fractures, suggesting that they may have greater biomechanical instability. This instability, however, does not translate into clinically significant decreases in functional outcome. Using a derotational screw with a sliding hip screw does not affect fracture stability or clinical outcome. PMID:17061418
Su, Brian W; Heyworth, Benton E; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Lipton, Carter B; Sinicropi, Stephano M; Chapman, Cary B; Kuremsky, Marshall A; Rosenwasser, Melvin P
Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.
Walker, Gordon, E-mail: email@example.com [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)
This research study investigated the assessment practices of five different undergraduate business programs. It examines the learning outcomes required for the business programs and their linkages with general education outcomes. Specific assessment methods, the results from assessments, and how business program faculty use assessment findings to…
Vitullo, Elizabeth; Jones, Elizabeth A.
PROMIS (Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System) is an NIH Roadmap network project intended to improve the reliability, validity, and precision of PROs and to provide definitive new instruments that will exceed the capabilities of classic instruments and enable improved outcome measurement for clinical research across all NIH institutes. Item response theory (IRT) measurement models now permit us to transition conventional health status assessment into an era of item banking and computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Item banking uses IRT measurement models and methods to develop item banks from large pools of items from many available questionnaires. IRT allows the reduction and improvement of items and assembles domains of items which are unidimensional and not excessively redundant. CAT provides a model-driven algorithm and software to iteratively select the most informative remaining item in a domain until a desired degree of precision is obtained. Through these approaches the number of patients required for a clinical trial may be reduced while holding statistical power constant. PROMIS tools, expected to improve precision and enable assessment at the individual patient level which should broaden the appeal of PROs, will begin to be available to the general medical community in 2008. PMID:16273785
Fries, J F; Bruce, B; Cella, D
Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. PMID:25261300
Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) results from prematurity and surfactant deficiency with contributing factors from barotrauma, volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity from supportive mechanical ventilation care and infection. These factors result in chronic inflammation with recurring cycles of lung damage and repair that impair alveolarisation and vascularisation in developing infant lungs. With advancement in the understanding of its pathophysiology and resulting therapy, BPD has evolved into a different disorder which has been coined the 'new' BPD. As these patients age, primary care physicians need to understand the impact on pulmonary function. This discussion reviews the pulmonary function outcomes resulting from BPD through later childhood and young adulthood. PMID:21336467
Hayes, Don; Meadows, J Thomas; Murphy, Brian S; Feola, David J; Shook, Lori A; Ballard, Hubert O
Background Mechanomyography (MMG) has been extensively applied in clinical and experimental practice to examine muscle characteristics including muscle function (MF), prosthesis and/or switch control, signal processing, physiological exercise, and medical rehabilitation. Despite several existing MMG studies of MF, there has not yet been a review of these. This study aimed to determine the current status on the use of MMG in measuring the conditions of MFs. Methodology/Principal Findings Five electronic databases were extensively searched for potentially eligible studies published between 2003 and 2012. Two authors independently assessed selected articles using an MS-Word based form created for this review. Several domains (name of muscle, study type, sensor type, subject's types, muscle contraction, measured parameters, frequency range, hardware and software, signal processing and statistical analysis, results, applications, authors' conclusions and recommendations for future work) were extracted for further analysis. From a total of 2184 citations 119 were selected for full-text evaluation and 36 studies of MFs were identified. The systematic results find sufficient evidence that MMG may be used for assessing muscle fatigue, strength, and balance. This review also provides reason to believe that MMG may be used to examine muscle actions during movements and for monitoring muscle activities under various types of exercise paradigms. Conclusions/Significance Overall judging from the increasing number of articles in recent years, this review reports sufficient evidence that MMG is increasingly being used in different aspects of MF. Thus, MMG may be applied as a useful tool to examine diverse conditions of muscle activity. However, the existing studies which examined MMG for MFs were confined to a small sample size of healthy population. Therefore, future work is needed to investigate MMG, in examining MFs between a sufficient number of healthy subjects and neuromuscular patients. PMID:23536834
Islam, Md. Anamul; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin
Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) improves functional outcomes in schizophrenia outpatients living in the United States. The effectiveness of CAT for patients living outside the US as well as for long-term hospitalized patients remains to be determined. In addition, it has not yet been studied whether CAT can be successful if patients receive the treatment from psychiatric nurses. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness and feasibility of CAT as a nursing intervention in the Netherlands. Thirty schizophrenia patients (long-term hospitalized patients: 63%) participated in this study. Sixteen patients received treatment as usual (TAU)+CAT, and fourteen patients received TAU. Patients in CAT participated in the treatment for eight months, consisting of weekly home-visits by a psychiatric nurse, supervised by a psychologist. After eight months, CAT interventions were integrated in the usual treatment. Outcome measures were the Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS), the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-Motivation subscale (NSA-M). For inpatients, work-related activities were also tracked for 16 months after baseline. Patients receiving TAU+CAT had better scores on the MCAS (trend), compared to TAU patients. Moreover, inpatients' work-related activities increased in TAU+CAT, relative to TAU inpatients, reaching significance after ten months. Improvements on the SOFAS and NSA-M were not significant. These results indicate that CAT as a nursing intervention may improve outcomes in patients with schizophrenia living in the Netherlands, including long-term hospitalized patients. However, since the current study was designed for exploratory purposes, larger randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the long-term effects of CAT as a nursing intervention systematically. PMID:25000912
Quee, Piotr J; Stiekema, Annemarie P M; Wigman, Johanna T W; Schneider, Harald; van der Meer, Lisette; Maples, Natalie J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Velligan, Dawn I; Bruggeman, Richard
Background To date, few parameters have been found that can aid in patient selection and surgical strategy for eloquent area gliomas. Aims The aim of the study was to analyze preoperative and intraoperative factors that can predict functional outcome and extent of resection in eloquent area tumors. Patients and Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 60 patients harboring supratentorial gliomas in eloquent areas undergoing awake surgery. The analysis considered clinical, neuroradiologic (morphologic), intraoperative, and postoperative factors. End-points were extent of resection (EOR) as well as functional short- and long-term outcome. Postoperatively, MRI objectively established the EOR. ?2 analyses were used to evaluate parameters that could be predictive. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the best combination to predict binary positive outcomes. Results In 90% of the cases, subcortical stimulation was positive in the margins of the surgical cavity. Postoperatively, 51% of the patients deteriorated but 90% of the patients regained their preoperative neurological score. Factors negatively affecting EOR were volume, degree of subcortical infiltration, and presence of paresis (P<0.01). Sharp margins and cystic components were more amenable to gross total resection (P<0.01). Contrast enhancement (P<0.02), higher grade (P<0.01), paresis (P<0.01), and residual tumor in the cortex (P<0.02) negatively affected long-term functional outcomes, whereas postoperative deterioration could not be predicted for any factor other than paresis. Subcortical stimulation did not correlate with deterioration, both postoperatively (P<0.08) and at follow-up (P<0.042). Conclusions Biological and morphological factors such as type of margins, volume, preoperative neurological status, cystic components, histology and the type of infiltration into the white matter must be considered when planning intraoperative mapping. PMID:24339890
Spena, Giannantonio; D’Agata, Federico; Panciani, Pier Paolo; Buglione di Monale, Michela; Fontanella, Marco Maria
Level of achievement relative to stated goal Proposed Action An understanding of the problems, issues Outcomes Specific to Course ABET a- criteria How criterion is met Examples of assessment Goal Assessment% Mean grade = 86% None. #12;3 (D) Course Enhancement Questionnaire As part of on-going self
Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning. PMID:23395192
Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.
Early brain injury alters both structural and functional connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres. Despite increasing knowledge on the individual hemispheric contributions to recovery from such injury, we know very little about how their interactions affect this process. In the present study, we related interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity to receptive language outcome following early left hemisphere stroke. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 14 people with neonatal brain injury, and 25 age-matched controls during passive story comprehension. With respect to structural connectivity, we found that increased volume of the corpus callosum predicted good receptive language outcome, but that this is not specific to people with injury. By contrast, we found that increased posterior superior temporal gyrus interhemispheric functional connectivity during story comprehension predicted better receptive language performance in people with early brain injury, but worse performance in typical controls. This suggests that interhemispheric functional connectivity is one potential compensatory mechanism following early injury. Further, this pattern of results suggests refinement of the prevailing notion that better language outcome following early left hemisphere injury relies on the contribution of the contralesional hemisphere (i.e., the “right-hemisphere-take-over” theory). This pattern of results was also regionally specific; connectivity of the angular gyrus predicted poorer performance in both groups, independent of brain injury. These results present a complex picture of recovery—in some cases, such recovery relies on increased cooperation between the injured hemisphere and homologous regions in the contralesional hemisphere, but in other cases, the opposite appears to hold. PMID:23536076
Dick, Anthony Steven; Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.
Accurate evaluation and documentation of the efficacy of recovery schools can be vital to the continuation and expansion of these beneficial resources. A very limited data set currently exists that examines the value of specific schools established to support adolescents and young adults in recovery; additional research is necessary. The following article outlines the methodology utilized in a current quasi-experimental study evaluating both academic and therapeutic outcomes of adolescents attending recovery high schools as compared to traditional (non-recovery-based) high schools. The developmental considerations in assessing adolescents in recovery and their parents is delineated in this article, which underscores the need for extensive knowledge of adolescent substance abuse and other mental health issues. In addition, sensitivity around privacy among adolescents, parents, schools, and health providers is highlighted, as well as the validity of assessment. Key assessment strategies, including protocol of recruitment and interviewing techniques, are also presented along with a list of parent and adolescent assessment instruments and their corresponding interpretive variables. Protocol recommendations for future research are also outlined. PMID:25018573
Botzet, Andria M.; McIlvaine, Patrick W.; Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Dittel, Christine
The goal of this study was to characterize long-term social and functional outcomes in adults treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Data for 252 patients treated medically or surgically for idiopathic NPH were obtained through the Hydrocephalus Association Database Project. Data on post-surgical outcomes including improvement in symptoms, the need for in-home care, ability to drive, and employment status were analyzed. Most patients (73.7%) surveyed were treated with a shunt, an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), or both. More patients who underwent surgery reported driving and being employed compared to those who did not have surgery. Most shunt patients had improvements in gait (81.1%), urinary incontinence (55.9%), and dementia (64.4%). Overall, shunt patients reported more dramatic improvements in quality of life as compared to ETV patients (72.2% versus 55.6%). Treating idiopathic NPH with cerebrospinal fluid diversion facilitates a return to independence through improved functional and social outcomes. PMID:21371890
Cage, T A; Auguste, K I; Wrensch, M; Wu, Y W; Gupta, N
Assessment of children with daytime wetting starts with the distinction between 'enuresis diurna' and 'functional incontinence', incontinence being defined as any form of wetting caused by bladder/sphincter dysfunction. Standard history-taking does not allow for a sharp enough distinction: pertinent questions have to be asked about daytime wetting, night-time wetting, micturition, and about urge and reactions to urge. By using urodynamics to expose the pathophysiology behind the patterns of bladder/sphincter dysfunction, these questions were formulated and validated in a series of 156 children, referred with persistent daytime wetting to a programme for cognitive bladder training. With history-taking organized into a simple questionnaire, complemented by urodynamics, four patterns of bladder/sphincter dysfunction emerged: urge syndrome, staccato voiding, fractionated and incomplete voiding, and lazy bladder syndrome. A strong correlation was found between recurrent urinary tract infections and non-neuropathic bladder/sphincter dysfunction, implying that detection and treatment of bladder/sphincter dysfunction is essential in every child with recurrent urinary tract infections, especially in the presence of vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:1609253
van Gool, J D; Vijverberg, M A; de Jong, T P
??Hyperthermia worsens outcome after ischemia. While it seems reasonable that hyperthermia would also worsen outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), clinical studies attempting to find a… (more)
Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes. PMID:24704000
Tulsyan, Sonam; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Agarwal, Gaurav; Lal, Punita; Agrawal, Sushma; Mittal, Rama Devi; Mittal, Balraj
Background Scapulectomy requires not only joint resection but also wide resection of the shoulder girdle muscles. Even the significance of reconstruction has not yet been determined because of the difficulties in comparing the different conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence functional outcomes after scapulectomy in a multicenter study. Methods This retrospective study comprised 48 patients who underwent total or subtotal scapulectomy and were followed for at least one year after surgery. Patients were registered at the Japanese Musculoskeletal Oncology Group affiliated hospitals. Soft tissue reconstruction for joint stabilization was performed when there was enough remaining tissue for reconstruction of the rotator cuff and tendons. In 23 cases, humeral suspension was performed. The average follow-up period was 61.9 months. Multivariate analysis was performed using the patient’s background to determine which factors influence the Enneking functional score or active range of motion. Results The average functional score was 21.1 out of 30. Active shoulder range of motion was 42.7 degree in flexion, 39.7 degree in abduction, 49.6 degree of internal rotation and 16.8 degree of external rotation. The amount of remaining bone influenced functional outcome, which means that preserving the glenoid or the acromion lead to better function compared to total scapulectomy (p<0.01). Factors that influenced each functional measure include the amount of remaining bone, soft tissue reconstruction, the length of the resected humerus and nerve resection (p<0.05). Conclusion Although shoulder function was almost eliminated following total or subtotal scapulectomy, minimal resection of bone, and soft tissue reconstruction should lead to better function. PMID:24937254
Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Shintaro; Ogose, Akira; Kawai, Akira; Ueda, Takafumi; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
Expanded abstract Citation Mikkelsen ME, Christie JD, Lanken PN, Biester RC, Thompson BT, Bellamy SL, Localio AR, Demissie E, Hopkins RO, Angus DC: The adult respiratory distress syndrome cognitive outcomes study: long-term neuropsychological function in survivors of acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012, 185:1307-1315. Background Cognitive and psychiatric morbidity is common and potentially modifiable after acute lung injury (ALI). However, practical measures of neuropsychological function for use in multicenter trials are lacking. Methods Objective The objectives were to determine whether a validated telephone-based neuropsychological test battery is feasible in a multicenter trial and to determine the frequency and risk factors for long-term neuropsychological impairment. Design A prospective, multicenter cohort study of a subset of survivors from the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) was conducted. Setting The FACTT enrolled patients from 38 North American hospitals between June 2000 and October 2005. Subjects To be eligible for the ALI Cognitive Outcomes Study (ACOS), subjects had to be enrolled in the FACTT and the EA-PAC (Economic Assessment of the Pulmonary Artery Catheter) trial. The FACTT enrolled mechanically ventilated adults who met the American-European Consensus Conference criteria for ALI. Intervention In an adjunct study to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials Network Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial, neuropsychological function at 2 and 12 months after hospital discharge was assessed. Outcomes The primary outcome was the result of a validated telephone battery of standardized neuropsychological tests administered to consenting, English-speaking subjects at 2 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Results Of 406 eligible survivors, 261 patients were approached to participate and 213 consented. One hundred twenty-two subjects, including 102 subjects at 12 months, were tested at least once. Memory, verbal fluency, and executive function were impaired in 13% (12 of 92), 16% (15 of 96), and 49% (37 of 76) of long-term survivors, respectively. Long-term cognitive impairment was present in 41 (55%) of the 75 survivors who completed cognitive testing. Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety were present in 36% (37 of 102), 39% (40 of 102), and 62% (63 of 102) of long-term survivors, respectively. Enrollment in a conservative fluid management strategy (P <0.005) was associated with cognitive impairment, and lower partial pressure of arterial oxygen during the trial was associated with cognitive (P <0.02) and psychiatric (P <0.02) impairment. Conclusions Neuropsychological function can be assessed by telephone in a multicenter trial. Long-term neuropsychological impairment is common in survivors of ALI. Hypoxemia is a risk factor for long-term neuropsychological impairment. A fluid management strategy is a potential risk factor for long-term cognitive impairment; however, given the select population studied and an unclear mechanism, this finding requires confirmation. PMID:23714655
This project aimed to determine if a correlation-based measure of functional connectivity can identify epileptogenic zones from intracranial EEG signals, as well as to investigate the prognostic significance of such a measure on seizure outcome following temporal lobe lobectomy. To this end, we retrospectively analyzed 23 adult patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who underwent an invasive stereo-EEG (SEEG) evaluation between January 2009 year and January 2012. A follow-up of at least one year was required. The primary outcome measure was complete seizure-freedom at last follow-up. Functional connectivity between two areas in the temporal lobe that were sampled by two SEEG electrode contacts was defined as Pearson’s correlation coefficient of interictal activity between those areas. SEEG signals were filtered between 5 and 50 Hz prior to computing this correlation. The mean and standard deviation of the off diagonal elements in the connectivity matrix were also calculated. Analysis of the mean and standard deviation of the functional connections for each patient reveals that 90% of the patients who had weak and homogenous connections were seizure free one year after temporal lobectomy, whereas 85% of the patients who had stronger and more heterogeneous connections within the temporal lobe had recurrence of seizures. This suggests that temporal lobectomy is ineffective in preventing seizure recurrence for patients in whom the temporal lobe is characterized by weakly connected, homogenous networks. This pilot study shows promising potential of a simple measure of functional brain connectivity to identify epileptogenicity and predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery. PMID:24205027
Antony, Arun R.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; González-Martínez, Jorge A.; Mosher, John C.; Jehi, Lara; Burgess, Richard C.; So, Norman K.; Galán, Roberto F.
The purpose of this study was to improve the evaluation process of children with type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) by providing a quantitative comparison of gait and selected functional assessments to age-matched controls. A 14-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used for gait analysis along with selected functional assessments (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument [PODCI], Functional Assessment Questionnaire [FAQ], Faces Pain Scale-Revised [FPS-R]) conducted on 10 subjects with type I OI and 22 age-matched healthy controls. The results of the OI group demonstrated abnormal gait parameters including increased double support, delayed foot off, reduced ankle range of motion and plantarflexion during third rocker, along with greater ankle power absorption during terminal stance and reduced ankle power generation during push off. The functional assessment scores of the OI group were similar to the control group for basic mobility and function, but were lower than their peers in the sports and physical function category. The evaluation of individuals with OI by means of gait analysis and selected functional assessments, along with an accurate biomechanical model of the lower extremities, is proposed to better understand and predict OI disability and improve quality of life. PMID:19242979
Graf, Adam; Hassani, Sahar; Krzak, Joseph; Caudill, Angela; Flanagan, Ann; Bajorunaite, Ruta; Harris, Gerald; Smith, Peter
Purpose To assess the content, format, and comprehension of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric physical function related to mobility items for children who use wheelchairs (WCs). Methods During a cognitive interview, 14 children, ages 8 to 12 years, who use WCs, verbalized their thoughts when answering PROMIS items. Questionnaire Appraisal System was used to code summarized text from the interviews. Results The children requested items be more specific and include options for reporting adaptive ways of performing and participating. How they would answer the item depended on the situation and specific environmental supports and constraints they may have experienced. Conclusions As rehabilitation professionals develop and use self-reported outcome measures, they should explore what is important to children who use WCs regarding their views on physical functioning, the influences of the environment, and variability in the use of devices to assist with functional mobility. PMID:23542193
Kerfeld, Cheryl I; Dudgeon, Brian J; Engel, Joyce M; Kartin, Deborah
The majority of studies have shown that the use of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) leads to symptomatic improvement in 73-98.4 % of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis (NP). The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical outcomes and quality of life (QoL) in patients with NP after FESS. The prospective study included 85 consecutive adult patients (?18 years) with NP who were operated on using FESS after failure of the medicamentous treatment and in certain cases of surgical treatment. QoL was assessed by Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire, and the symptom intensity was presented using visual analogue scale (VAS). The objective finding was presented as endoscopic and computerized tomography (CT) score. The intensity of each symptom, the values of symptom scores (major, minor and total), the values of dimension scales and summary scales of the QoL, as well as the values of endoscopic score through three periods of time (pre-surgery, 6 and 12 months after the surgery) were analyzed. Following the FESS, mean intensity values of all individual symptoms and symptom scores were significantly lower and the values of all dimension scales and summary scales of QoL were significantly higher (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in symptom intensity and QoL after 6 and 12 months of surgical treatment (p > 0.05). Endoscopic score was on average significantly lower after 6 and 12 months of FESS (p < 0.05), but the mean score value after 12 months of operation was significantly higher in relation to that after 6 months of surgery (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, the recurrence of NP was observed in 28 patients (32.9 %) in the follow-up period. In conclusion, FESS in NP patients results in significant improvement of symptom intensity, QoL and endoscopic score. While the intensity of symptoms and QoL showed a tendency to maintain between 6 and 12 months after surgery, endoscopic score showed a tendency of exacerbation in the same period. PMID:24760309
Djukic, Vojko; Dudvarski, Zoran; Arsovic, Nenad; Dimitrijevic, Milovan; Janosevic, Ljiljana
This probing study focused on alternative and traditional assessments, their comparative impacts on students' attitudes and science learning outcomes. Four basic questions were asked: What type of science learning stemming from the instruction can best be assessed by the use of traditional paper-and pencil test? What type of science learning stemming from the instruction can best be assessed by the use of alternative assessment? What are the differences in the types of learning outcomes that can be assessed by the use of paper-pencil test and alternative assessment test? Is there a difference in students' attitude towards learning science when assessment of outcomes is by alternative assessment means compared to traditional means compared to traditional means? A mixed methodology involving quantitative and qualitative techniques was utilized. However, the study was essentially a case study. Quantitative data analysis included content achievement and attitude results, to which non-parametric statistics were applied. Analysis of qualitative data was done as a case study utilizing pre-set protocols resulting in a narrative summary style of report. These outcomes were combined in order to produce conclusions. This study revealed that the traditional method yielded more concrete cognitive content learning than did the alternative assessment. The alternative assessment yielded more psychomotor, cooperative learning and critical thinking skills. In both the alternative and the traditional methods the student's attitudes toward science were positive. There was no significant differences favoring either group. The quantitative findings of no statistically significant differences suggest that at a minimum there is no loss in the use of alternative assessment methods, in this instance, performance testing. Adding the results from the qualitative analysis to this suggests (1) that class groups were more satisfied when alternative methods were employed, and (2) that the two assessment methodologies are complementary to each other, and thus should probably be used together to produce maximum benefit.
Century, Daisy Nelson
Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, CBCT has become increasingly utilized for orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning and research. The utilization of CBCT for these purposes has been facilitated by the relative advantages of three-dimensional (3D) over two-dimensional radiography. Despite many suggested indications of CBCT, scientific evidence that its utilization improves diagnosis and treatment plans or outcomes has only recently begun to emerge for some of these applications. This article provides a comprehensive and current review of key studies on the applications of CBCT in orthodontic therapy and for research to decipher treatment outcomes and 3D craniofacial anatomy. The current diagnostic and treatment planning indications for CBCT include impacted teeth, cleft lip and palate and skeletal discrepancies requiring surgical intervention. The use of CBCT in these and other situations such as root resorption, supernumerary teeth, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology, asymmetries and alveolar boundary conditions should be justified on the basis of the merits relative to risks of imaging. CBCT has also been used to assess 3D craniofacial anatomy in health and disease and of treatment outcomes including that of root morphology and angulation; alveolar boundary conditions; maxillary transverse dimensions and maxillary expansion; airway morphology, vertical malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnoea; TMJ morphology and pathology contributing to malocclusion; and temporary anchorage devices. Finally, this article utilizes findings of these studies and current voids in knowledge to provide ideas for future research that could be beneficial for further optimizing the use of CBCT in research and the clinical practice of orthodontics. PMID:25358833
Kapila, S D; Nervina, J M
Background: Rehabilitation programs for criminal offenders target primary outcomes such as effects on criminogenic needs and secondary outcomes of reducing recidivism. Most evaluation studies focus only on one type of outcome. This study evaluated outcomes on both primary and secondary targets of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R) program for…
Berman, Anne H.
Fifty-six pig farmers who attended a series of health seminars completed a questionnaire to assess their attitude to the inclusion of some welfare outcome assessments within farm assurance. In answer to open questions, farmers were most commonly proud of the productivity (27.5 per cent) and welfare (23.5 per cent) of the pigs on their farm, and the welfare of pigs in the UK industry as a whole (26.1 per cent). The most common thing that farmers wanted to tell consumers about was the welfare of the pigs (55.8 per cent), followed by their stockmanship qualities, the quality of their pig meat and the safety of their pig meat (all 13.5 per cent). In answer to closed questions, 66 per cent of farmers stated they would be either quite willing or very willing to perform welfare self-assessments as part of farm assurance, and 66 per cent would be quite or very willing to be anonymously benchmarked on the welfare of their pigs. PMID:20511650
Mullan, S; Butterworth, A; Whay, H R; Edwards, S; Main, D C J
Summary The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of using supervised statistical models to assess burn injury patterns, outcomes and their interrelationship. Using burn study data, a preliminary principal component analysis was carried out and two separate clusters were observed. Observations were split into two classes and analysed by partial least squares (PLS) regression discriminant analysis to assess possible predictors of each class. To assess predictors of total body surface area burned (TBSA), the orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) model was used after PLS regression. The identified classes were later designated as high-risk burn victims and low-risk burn victims. Female gender fell into the high-risk class. Many possible predictors were found to be associated with burn injury extent, after modelling the natural logarithm of TBSA by OPLS. The fitted model explained 76% of variation in Y. It excluded up to 9% of orthogonal variation captured in two orthogonal components. This seems to be the first application of the OPLS model in public health epidemiology. The results of this study were promising regarding the use of supervised models in injury pattern analysis. PMID:22639562
Sadeghi-Bazargani, H.; Bangdiwala, S.I.; Mohmmadi, R.
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disease manifested as a result of pulmonary and systemic responses to several insults. It is now well accepted that genetic variation influences these responses. However, little is known about the genes that are responsible for patient susceptibility and outcome of ARDS. Methodological flaws are still abundant among genetic association studies with ARDS and here, we aimed to highlight the quality criteria where the standards have not been reached, to expose the associated genes to facilitate replication attempts, and to provide quick-reference guidance for future studies. We conducted a PubMed search from January 2008 to September 2012 for original articles. Studies were considered if a statistically significant association was declared with either susceptibility or outcomes of all-cause ARDS. Fourteen criteria were used for evaluation and results were compared to those from a previous quality assessment report. Significant improvements affecting study design and statistical analysis were detected. However, major issues such as adjustments for the underlying population stratification and replication studies remain poorly addressed. PMID:24567738
Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Perez-Mendez, Lina; Villar, Jesús; Flores, Carlos
Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications.
Hertzber, V.S.; Lemasters, G.K.; Hansen, K. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Zenick, H.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))
Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications. PMID:2050057
Hertzberg, V S; Lemasters, G K; Hansen, K; Zenick, H M
Background To determine whether the predictions of functional outcome after ischemic stroke made at the bedside using a doctor’s clinical experience were more or less accurate than the predictions made by clinical prediction models (CPMs). Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study of nine hundred and thirty one ischemic stroke patients recruited consecutively at the outpatient, inpatient and emergency departments of the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh between 2002 and 2005. Doctors made informal predictions of six month functional outcome on the Oxford Handicap Scale (OHS). Patients were followed up at six months with a validated postal questionnaire. For each patient we calculated the absolute predicted risk of death or dependence (OHS?3) using five previously described CPMs. The specificity of a doctor’s informal predictions of OHS?3 at six months was good 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94 to 0.97) and similar to CPMs (range 0.94 to 0.96); however the sensitivity of both informal clinical predictions 0.44 (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.49) and clinical prediction models (range 0.38 to 0.45) was poor. The prediction of the level of disability after stroke was similar for informal clinical predictions (ordinal c-statistic 0.74 with 95% CI 0.72 to 0.76) and CPMs (range 0.69 to 0.75). No patient or clinician characteristic affected the accuracy of informal predictions, though predictions were more accurate in outpatients. Conclusions CPMs are at least as good as informal clinical predictions in discriminating between good and bad functional outcome after ischemic stroke. The place of these models in clinical practice has yet to be determined. PMID:25299053
Thompson, Douglas D.; Murray, Gordon D.; Sudlow, Cathie L. M.; Dennis, Martin; Whiteley, William N.
To evaluate the long-term outcome and functional recovery of intramedullary medullocervical ependymoma (IME), the clinical charts of 38 surgically treated consecutive cases of IME were reviewed. Follow-up was obtained prospectively. The mean age of the patients (19 male and 19 female) was 35.3 years (range: 11-60 years). Complete resection was achieved in 33 (86.8%) patients. Fourteen patients worsened postoperatively; five and seven of these improved to their baseline levels within 1 and 3 months, respectively. By 1 year postoperatively, 17 patients returned to work. After a mean follow-up duration of 81.5 months, 31 patients improved or stabilized, and 3 had recurrence. The means of the modified McCormick grade (mMG) scores before the operation, at discharge, 1 year after the operation, and at the most recent evaluation were 1.76, 2.13, 1.82, and 1.84, respectively. A favorable long-term outcome of the mMG was associated with a good preoperative status (mMG I) (odds ratio [OR] = 9.956, p = 0.008) and well-defined tumor boundary (OR = 7.829, p = 0.035). Improvements in the postoperative walking dysfunction and paresthesia over time were associated with the absence of preoperative walking dysfunction (p = 0.047) and paresthesia (p = 0.028), respectively. The 12-year progression/recurrence-free survival and overall survival rates were 92.0% and 93.7%, respectively. The study suggests that the goal of surgery is to stabilize the preoperative neurological function and that a favorable outcome may be achieved in patients with good preoperative statuses and well-defined tumor boundaries. Surgery should be performed as soon as possible after the diagnoses and before the neurological functions deteriorate. PMID:24077278
Li, Da; Hao, Shu-Yu; Wu, Zhen; Jia, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting
Objective To determine the predictive value of S100b and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to accurately and quickly determine discharge prognosis after primary supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods After IRB approval and informed consent, blood samples were obtained and analyzed from 28 adult patients consecutively admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit with computed tomography-proven supratentorial ICH from June 2003 and December 2004 within the first 24 h after symptom onset for S100b and BNP. Functional outcomes on discharge were dichotomized to favorable (mRS<3) or unfavorable. Results BNP (a neurohormone) and S100b (a marker of glial activation) were found to be independently highly predictive of functional neurological outcome at the time of discharge as measured by modified Rankin Score (BNP:p<0.01, r=0.46; S100b: p<0.01, r=0.42) and Barthel Index (BNP:p<0.01, r=0.54; s100b:p<0.01, r=0.50). Although inclusion of either biomarker produced additive value when included with traditional clinical prognostic variables, such as the ICH Score (Barthel index: p<0.01, r=0.66; mRS:p<0.01, r=0.96), little predictive power is added with inclusion of both biomarkers in a regression model for neurological outcome. Conclusions Serum S100b and BNP levels in the first 24 h after injury accurately predict neurological function at discharge after supratentorial ICH. PMID:19505208
James, Michael L.; Blessing, Robert; Phillips-Bute, Barbara G.; Bennett, Ellen; Laskowitz, Daniel T.
Purpose This study aims to examine the subjective functional outcomes of patients 70 years or older who sustained distal radius fractures\\u000a through the use of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-8 Health (SF-8) surveys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients at least 70 years old with a distal radius fracture between 2000 and 2004 were identified and their charts reviewed.\\u000a They were
Louis F. Amorosa; Mark A. Vitale; Shervondalonn Brown; Robert A. Kaufmann
Management of condyle fractures includes a wide spectrum of alternatives including analgesia alone, physiotherapy, intermaxillary fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation. Various approaches have been previously mentioned for the access to the mandibular condyle. The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate our clinical results on preauricular underparotid retrograde approach for condylar fractures. This retrospective study included 20 condylar fractures in 16 patients who were treated surgically using a preauricular transparotid retrograde approach between 2010 and 2013. Functional outcomes with this method were addressed in light of the results obtained in this clinical series. We suggest this method in the management of condylar fractures. PMID:24717314
Pilanci, Özgur; Basaran, Karaca; Ceran, Fatih; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized content specific mastery assessments and NCLEX-RN outcomes. Three content-specific standardized assessments testing Fundamentals, Pharmacology and Mental Health concepts were used to explain the dichotomous NCLEX-RN outcome of pass or fail. The three assessments were…
Emory, DeAnna Jan
Although high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is an important predictor of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary stenting, it is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction and HTPR are associated. We examined the platelet function, peripheral vascular function, endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number, platelet activation markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and clinical outcomes in patients receiving chronic clopidogrel therapy. We consecutively enrolled 91 patients who underwent follow-up angiography because of chest discomfort. All patients took aspirin and clopidogrel for an average of 498 ± 138 days. Platelet reactivity was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry (maximal platelet aggregation by 5 ?mol/L of adenosine diphosphate ?50% in group 1 [optimal response] and >50% as group 2 [HTPR]). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV), numbers of EPCs isolated from peripheral blood, platelet activation markers (soluble CD40 ligand and soluble P-selectin), and hs-CRP levels were assessed before follow-up angiography. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) data between groups 1 (n = 59) and 2 (n = 32). Group 2 showed poorer flow-mediated dilation (6.1 ± 4.1% vs 12.9 ± 6.2%, p <0.001), pulse wave velocity (1925.4 ± 362.2 vs 1571.0 ± 306.5 ms, p <0.001), and lower circulating EPCs by flow cytometry (21.9 ± 14.7 vs 65.2 ± 30.1 per 10 fields, p <0.001) compared with group 1. Significantly higher levels of soluble CD40 ligand, soluble P-selectin, and hs-CRP were observed in group 2. In multivariate analysis, elevated hs-CRP level, but not HTPR, was independently associated with repeated PCI. In patients with angina, HTPR was associated endothelial dysfunction and elevated hs-CRP, although elevated hs-CRP level was significantly associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:24388620
Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Jang, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam
Pediatric proximal tibial epiphysis fractures are uncommon and have subsequently received little attention in terms of treatment and outcomes. We studied the clinical and functional outcomes of 13 patients with Salter-Harris III and IV fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis after operative fixation. Associated meniscus, ligamentous, or neurovascular injury was present in 100% of this cohort. Provisional external fixation and locked plating spanning the open physis were used in the majority of cases. The mean clinical follow-up was 15.69 months, where all fractures progressed to union. Good functional outcomes with a low complication rate are possible after operative fixation of these infrequent injuries. PMID:24977943
Hill, Brian W; Rizkala, Amir R; Li, Mengnai
Despite the common usage of the term "executive functioning" in neuropsychology, several aspects of this concept remain unsettled. In this paper, we will address some of the issues surrounding the notion of executive functioning and how an understanding of executive functioning and its components might assist school-based practitioners…
Hass, Michael R.; Patterson, Ashlea; Sukraw, Jocelyn; Sullivan, Brianna M.
Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service Water and Soils and Welsh of this can be accessed here: Woodlands for Wales - WAG Equality Impact Assessment. A summary of how E to show that any specific E&D group will be disadvantaged. Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment
Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service Heritage, Landscape of woodlands and trees. Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment #12;Information and Data (evidence) used here: Woodlands for Wales - WAG Equality Impact Assessment. A summary of how E&D evidence is reflected
Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification and all met the displacement criteria described by Neer. Standard physical therapy program was applied. Patients were evaluated clinically using Constant shoulder score, quick form of disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand score and visual analog scale. At the final follow-up, humeral head position in the coronal plane was assessed with neck-shaft angle. Any complication was recorded during the treatment period. Correlation between the functional outcomes and final radiologic results were statistically analyzed. Results: Data were analyzed from 29 cases (21 female, 8 male) with a mean age was 78 ± 8.6 years (range 65-93 years). The mean follow-up period was 18.2 ± 4.07 months (range 12-26 months). Functional results were significantly related with initial fragmentation. However, there was no correlation between the functional outcomes and the final geometry of the humeral head. Despite the union occurred with deformity, the functional outcome were satisfactory. Conclusion: The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results. PMID:24167402
Canbora, Mehmet Kerem; Kose, Ozkan; Polat, Atilla; Konukoglu, Levent; Gorgec, Mucahit
Background: Depression can occur in patients with or without trait anxiety. Although it is assumed that assessment of defenses can be useful in planning biological treatment, no studies have confirmed this hypothesis. In this study we focus on the relation between trait anxiety and defensive functioning, and on the combined influence of these personality characteristics on response to antidepressants among
Yashvir R. M. Sukul; Tom K. Birkenhäger; Walter W. van den Broek; Paul G. H. Mulder; Jan A. Bruijn
Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with GCT.
Odagiri, Kazumasa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan) [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan) [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hata, Masaharu [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kigasawa, Hisato [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ito, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Adachi, Masataka [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)
Depression is one of the major global health challenges and a leading contributor of health related disability and costs. Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and current methods for assessing its severity in clinical practice rely on symptom count, however this approach is unreliable and inconsistent. The clinical evaluation of depressive symptoms is particularly challenging in primary care, where the majority of patients with depression are managed, due to the presence of co-morbidities. Current methods for risk assessment of depression do not accurately predict treatment response or clinical outcomes. Several biological pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression; however, accurate and predictive biomarkers remain elusive. We conducted a systematic review of the published evidence supporting the use of peripheral biomarkers to predict outcomes in depression, using Medline and Embase. Peripheral biomarkers in depression were found to be statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes such as treatment response, poor outcome and symptom remission; and physical health outcomes such as increased incidence of cardiovascular events and deaths, and all-cause mortality. However, the available evidence has multiple methodological limitations which must be overcome to make any real clinical progress. Despite extensive research on the relationship of depression with peripheral biomarkers, its translational application in practice remains uncertain. In future, peripheral biomarkers identified with novel techniques and combining multiple biomarkers may have a potential role in depression risk assessment but further research is needed in this area.
Jani, Bhautesh D.; McLean, Gary; Nicholl, Barbara I.; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Sattar, Naveed; Mair, Frances S.; Cavanagh, Jonathan
A baccalaureate nursing curriculum was redesigned around eight core competencies with measurable indicators for each performance-based competency outcome. Effective learning strategies to achieve outcomes and methods to document achievement were also outlined. (SK)
Luttrell, Marjorie F.; Lenburg, Carrie B.; Scherubel, Janet C.; Jacob, Susan R.; Koch, Robert W.
Purpose One potential complication after cardiothoracic surgery involves mediastinitis, which may lead to a sternectomy. A sternectomy involves partial or total debridement of the sternum to remove infected bone. Little evidence regarding functional outcomes following sternectomy exists in literature. The purpose of this case series is to report the demographics of 6 patients admitted to a long term acute care hospital (LTACH) treated for sternectomy after open heart surgery, along with presenting length of stay (LOS) data, analyzing functional outcomes, and describing the physical therapy (PT) interventions used with these patients to obtain the reported functional outcomes. Methods Medical charts were reviewed retrospectively. Information in four main areas were extrapolated from the chart and further analyzed: patient demographics, length of hospital stay (acute care and LTACH), admission and discharge FIM scores, and information about the PT interventions (both numerical and descriptive). Results Patients included 5 males and 1 female with an age range of 65-78 years old (mean 70 years old, SD 4.8 years). Patients had a total mean acute care LOS of 26.33 (12.26) days and total mean LTACH LOS of 27.67 (11.74) days. Median total FIM score at admission was 80.00 [range 58.00-94.00], while the median total FIM score at discharge increased significantly to 106.50 [range 86.00-116.00] (p = 0.031). Total mean FIM score change during LTACH stay (efficiency) was 25.17 (3.25), and FIM score change per day (efficacy) was 1.23 (0.46). Median motor score had a significant increase from admission to discharge (p = 0.031). Median cognitive score did not significantly change from admission to discharge (p = 0.125). PT interventions used with this patient population were presented and described, with a mean number of PT sessions in LTACH of 27.33 (15.38) (range = 10-46). Conclusion Although patients required an increased acute care LOS and an additional stay on LTACH, all 6 patients were discharged home following a course of multi-disciplinary inpatient rehabilitation on a LTACH unit. Patients are able to make significant functional gains during rehabilitation following sternectomy, as evidenced by increases in FIM score. PMID:23304094
Irons, Sonya L.; Hoffman, Julie E.; Elliott, Shannon; Linnaus, Melanie
This study was performed to evaluate whether early, middle, or late treatment of zoledronate, an approved bisphosphonate that blocks bone resorption, can reduce nociceptive behaviors in a mouse arthritis model. Arthritis was produced by repeated intra-articular knee injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). A dose-response curve with zoledronate (3, 30, 100, and 300??g/kg, i.p., day 4 to day 25, twice weekly for 3 weeks) was performed, and the most effective dose of zoledronate (100??g/kg, i.p.) was initially administered at different times of disease progression: day 4 (early), day 15 (middle), or day 21 (late) and continued until day 25 after the first CFA injection. Flinching of the injected extremity (spontaneous nociceptive behavior), vertical rearings and horizontal activity (functional outcomes), and knee edema were assessed. Zoledronate improved both functional outcomes and reduced flinching behavior. At day 25, the effect of zoledronate on flinching behavior and vertical rearings was greater in magnitude when it was given early or middle rather than late in the treatment regimen. Chronic zoledronate did not reduce knee edema in CFA-injected mice nor functional outcomes in naïve mice by itself. These results suggest that zoledronate may have a positive effect on arthritis-induced nociception and functional disabilities. PMID:25043808
Morado-Urbina, Carlos Eduardo; Alvarado-Vázquez, Perla Abigail; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Acosta-González, Rosa Issel; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel
Background Master of Public Health programs have been developed across Canada in response to the need for graduate-level trained professionals to work in the public health sector. The University of Guelph recently conducted a five-year outcome assessment using the Core Competencies for Public Health in Canada as an evaluative framework to determine whether graduates are receiving adequate training, and identify areas for improvement. Methods A curriculum map of core courses and an online survey of University of Guelph Master of Public Health graduates comprised the outcome assessment. The curriculum map was constructed by evaluating course outlines, assignments, and content to determine the extent to which the Core Competencies were covered in each course. Quantitative survey results were characterized using descriptive statistics. Qualitative survey results were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns in open-ended responses. Results The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program provided a positive learning environment in which graduates gained proficiency across the Core Competencies through core and elective courses, meaningful practicums, and competent faculty. Practice-based learning environments, particularly in collaboration with public health organizations, were deemed to be beneficial to students’ learning experiences. Conclusions The Core Competencies and graduate surveys can be used to conduct a meaningful and informative outcome assessment. We encourage other Master of Public Health programs to conduct their own outcome assessments using a similar framework, and disseminate these results in order to identify best practices and strengthen the Canadian graduate public health education system. PMID:25078124
All institutions of higher learning in America must have national accreditation in order to receive government funding. One of the main requirements from the national accreditation commissions is that the institution must have a process for assessing student learning outcomes (SLO). The reason for the new requirement is that the federal government…
An analysis of studies of the outcomes of environmental impact assessment (EIA) indicates that its role in consent and design decisions is limited, due primarily to passive integration with the decision processes it is intended to inform. How much EIA helps sustainable development is largely unknown, but it is hypothesised that it is more than is typically assumed, through a
Matthew Cashmore; Richard Gwilliam; Richard Morgan; Dick Cobb; Alan Bond
American Studies Assessment Plan 1. Learning goals: what formal learning outcomes are students expected to achieve in the major? The American Studies major provides an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural approach to the study of the United States within a hemispheric context. We ask majors to draw
Illustrates progress made at Howard Community College (HCC) in the last three years in efforts to improve student learning, instructional effectiveness, and curriculum. Information for this progress report was compiled with input from offices involved in monitoring outcomes assessment of student learning at the college. These include the office of…
Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD. Office of Planning and Evaluation.
Objective To evaluate whether an initial complete impairment of spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to the functional outcome prediction, we analyzed the relationship between the degree of complete impairment according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS), the posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potential (PTSEP) and the changes of functional indices. Methods Sixty subjects with SCI were studied who received rehabilitative management for over 2 months. The degree of completeness on basis of the initial AIS and PTSEP were evaluated at the beginning of rehabilitation. Following treatment, several functional indices, such as walking index for spinal cord injury version II (WISCI II), spinal cord independence measure version III (SCIM III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Modified Barthel Index (MBI), were evaluated until the index score reached a plateau value. Results The recovery efficiency of WISCI and BBS revealed a statistically significant difference between complete and incomplete impairments of initial AIS and PTSEP. The SCIM and MBI based analysis did not reveal any significant differences in terms of the degree of AIS and PTSEP completeness. Conclusion AIS and PTSEP were highly effective to evaluate the prognosis in post-acute phase SCI patients. BBS and WISCI might be better parameters than other functional indices for activities of daily living to predict the recovery of the walking ability in post-acute SCI. PMID:25024956
Kim, Hyo Sang; Jeong, Hyung Jun
The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States. PMID:24751379
Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most common ligamentous injury of the knee. Reconstructing this ligament is often required to restore functional stability of the knee. Many graft options are available for ACL reconstruction, including different autograft and allograft tissues. Autografts include bone-patellar tendon-bone composites (PT), combined semitendinosus and gracilis hamstring tendons (HT), and quadriceps tendon. Allograft options include the same types of tendons harvested from donors, in addition to Achilles and tibialis tendons. Tissue-engineered anterior cruciate grafts are not yet available for clinical use, but may become a feasible alternative in the future. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess whether one of the popular grafts (PT and HT) is preferable for reconstructing the ACL. For this objective, the authors selected only true level I studies that compared these graft choices in functional clinical outcomes, failure rates, and other objective parameters following reconstruction of the ACL. In addition, this review discusses mechanical considerations related to different allograft tissues. PMID:20399364
Reinhardt, Keith R; Hetsroni, Iftach; Marx, Robert G
Background Bariatric surgery is technically demanding surgery performed on high-risk patients. Previous studies using administrative databases have shown a relationship between surgeon volume and patient outcome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objective To examine the relationship between surgeons’ annual RYGB volumes and 30-day patient outcomes. Setting Ten centers within the United States. Methods LABS-1 is a prospective study examining 30-day adverse outcomes following bariatric surgery. Outcome following RYGB was adjusted for procedure type (open vs. laparoscopic), functional status, BMI, past history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The data were examined to determine the nature and strength of association between surgeon’s volume and patients’ short-term (30-day) adverse outcome following RYGB surgery. Results The analysis included 3410 initial RYGB operations performed by 31 surgeons, 15 of whom averaged fewer than 50 cases/year. The crude composite adverse outcome (death, DVT, PE, re-intervention or non-discharge at day 30) incidence was 5.2%. After risk adjustment, higher surgeon RYGB volume was associated with lower CE rates with a continuous relationship (i.e., various cutpoints differentiated rates of CE) such that for each 10 cases/year increase in volume the risk of CE is decreased by 10%. Conclusions In LABS, patient’s risk of an adverse outcome following RYGB operation decreased significantly with the increase in surgeon’s RYGB volume (cases per year). PMID:19969507
Smith, Mark D.; Patterson, Emma J.; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Bessler, Marc; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Flum, David; Halpin, Valerie; Mitchell, James E.; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J.; Wolfe, Bruce
) Doctoral Graduate Outcome Assessment Entomology Graduate Program Dissertation Defense (oral and written Entomology Graduate Program Dissertation Defense (oral and written) Assessment Student name knowledge within the area of study 4. Approach: Has applied appropriate research design / methods
Gruner, Daniel S.
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional outcome in competitive level athletes at 5 years after ACL reconstruction with regard to return to sports and the factors or reasons in those who either stopped sports or showed a fall in their sporting levels. Methods. 48 competitive athletes who had undergone arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstruction with a minimum follow up of at least 5 years were successfully recalled and were analyzed. Results. 22 patients had returned to the preinjury levels of sports and 18 showed a decrease in their sporting levels. Of the 18 patients, 12 referred to fear of reinjuring the same or contra-lateral knee as the prime reason for the same while 6 patients reported persisting knee pain and instability as reasons for a fall in their sporting abilities. The difference in the scores of these groups was statistically significant. 8 patients out of the 48 had left sports completely due to reasons other than sports, even though they had good knee outcome scores. Conclusion. Fear of reinjury and psychosocial issues that are relevant to the social milieu of the athlete are very important and affect the overall results of the surgery with respect to return to sports. PMID:24977065
Devgan, Ashish; Magu, N. K.; Siwach, R. C.; Rohilla, Rajesh; Sangwan, S. S.
This project, utilizing a seldom-used approach to dental education, was designed to define the desired characteristics of a graduating dental student; convert those characteristics to educational outcomes; and use those outcomes to map a dental school's learning and assessment programs, based on outcomes rather than courses and disciplines. A detailed rubric of the outcomes expected of a graduating dental student from this school was developed, building on Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standards and the school's competencies. The presence of each characteristic in the rubric was mapped within and across courses and disciplines. To assess implementation of the rubric, members of two faculty committees and all fourth-year students were asked to use it to rate 1) the importance of each characteristic, 2) the extent to which the school teaches and assesses each, and 3) the extent to which each counts toward overall assessment of competence. All thirty-three faculty members (100 percent) on the committees participated, as did forty-six of the fifty-five students (84 percent). The groups gave high scores to the importance of each characteristic, especially for knowledge and technical competence (then separate categories but merged in the final rubric) and for self-assessment, as well as the extent to which they are being taught and assessed. Respondents most commonly named critical thinking as the area that should be emphasized more. Mapping the curriculum and creating its related database allow the faculty and administration to more systematically coordinate learning and assessment than was possible with a course-based approach. PMID:25179923
Schneider, Galen B; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Johnsen, David C; Eckert, Mary Lynn; Mulder, Michael
Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) manifests itself in a wide range of symptoms. Physiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of those symptoms connected with mobility. For this therapy to be at its most effective it should be based on a systematic examination that is able to describe and classify damaged clinical functions meaningfully. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a battery of tests and composite tests that can be used to systematically evaluate clinical features of MS treatable by physiotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a proposed battery of tests comprising known, standard, and validated assessments (low-contrast letter acuity testing; the Motricity Index; the Modified Ashworth Scale; the Berg Balance Scale; scales of postural reactions, tremor, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysmetria; the Nine-Hole Peg Test; the Timed 25-Foot Walk; and the 3-minute version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) and one test (knee hyperextension) of the authors’ own. Normalization was calculated and six composite assessments were measured. Seventeen ambulatory subjects with MS were tested twice with the assessment set before undergoing physiotherapy, and 12 were also tested with the assessment set after the physiotherapy. The test–retest reliability, stability, internal consistency of composite measurements, sensitivity to changes after therapy, and correlation between measurements and the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale score were evaluated for all tests in the assessment set. Results: A good internal consistency was confirmed for all tests in the proposed battery, and most of the tests also showed good test–retest reliability. While no significant changes occurred without treatment, significant posttreatment improvement was proved in all tests except for low-contrast letter acuity testing, where only a trend to improvement was proved. Conclusion: The proposed assessment set is a good tool for the evaluation of clinical features of MS treatable by physiotherapy. This battery of tests is applicable in both clinical practice and research. PMID:23185123
Rasova, Kamila; Martinkova, Patricia; Vyskotova, Jana; Sedova, Michaela
The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…
Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.
Disturbance impact on ecosystem are often based on functional indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem functions. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil functions after fire as a function of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape Functional Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling functions for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the impact of fire on soil functions using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface functions to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil functions to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and functional traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil functional status of recently burned areas.
López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana
Symptom severity and neuropsychological deficits negatively influence functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research implicates specific types of biased thinking styles (e.g. jumping-to-conclusions) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This is the first study to test the impact of jumping-to-conclusions on functional outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of psychopathology, neuropsychology and JTC with subjective quality of life, vocational outcome and housing status in schizophrenia. Analyses were carried out both cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally over the course of symptomatic improvement in the immediate aftermath of a psychotic exacerbation. Seventy-nine patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. Data concerning the variables of interest were collected at baseline, after one month, and after six months. Positive symptomatology was the most significant predictor of subjective and vocational outcome and changes across time. Verbal memory deficits were associated with functional status cross-sectionally, whereas general cognitive capacity significantly predicted functional changes over time. Improvement of the jumping-to-conclusions bias positively affected vocational outcome. Though limited, the observed effect of this bias on real-world functioning highlights the possible usefulness of interventions aimed at improving (meta)cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:24836199
Andreou, Christina; Treszl, András; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Köther, Ulf; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Moritz, Steffen
Extensive upper-limb injuries are usually secondary to accidental partial or complete avulsions or massive burns. Caustic injections are an exceptional etiology, with terrible lesions that present therapeutic challenges and major aftereffects. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient presenting with a large and deep anterior necrosis of the upper-limb anterior tissues, after a criminal intravenous injection of caustic soda on the inner side of his left elbow. Reconstruction methods consisted of a homolateral latissimus dorsi pediculated flap, a humeroulnar vascular bypass, a medial nerve autograft, and a secondary palliative Brand 1 procedure. Final functional and aesthetic results, obtained after long-term physiotherapy, were unexpectedly good. In conclusion, reconstructive surgery of such major lesions cannot be considered without a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, patients have to be well informed about the necessity of multiple surgical interventions, the risk of major handicap, and the unpredictable nature of the final outcome. PMID:19061155
Lazar, Calin Constantin; Revol, M; Servant, J-M
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcome of stapled, functional, end-to-end anastomosis (FEEA) for the reconstruction of right hemicolectomy. We enrolled 204 patients who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon carcinomas or adenomas by open surgery. One hundred two patients received an FEEA, and 102 patients received a conventional, handsewn anastomosis after a right hemicolectomy. We examined the postoperative complications, the duration of the operations, and the recurrences. The wound infection rate was lower in the FEEA group than in the handsewn group (4.9 % versus 13.7 %; P = 0.03). The duration of the operations was shorter in the FEEA group than in the handsewn group (134.4 mins versus 160.0 mins; P < 0.0001). There was no recurrence of anastomosis or stenosis in either group. The FEEA method is an easy and safe technique compared with the conventional handsewn anastomosis procedure. PMID:20187520
Sameshima, Shinichi; Koketsu, Shinichiro; Yoneyama, Satomi; Miyato, Hideyo; Kaji, Toshio; Sawada, Toshio
The purpose of this study was to apply a novel method to evaluate surgical outcomes at 1 year after orthognathic surgery for Class III patients undergoing two different surgical protocols. Fifty patients divided equally into two groups (maxillary advancement only and combined with mandibular setback) had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans taken pre-surgery, at splint removal, and at 1-year post-surgery. An automatic cranial base superimposition method was used to register, and shape correspondence was applied to assess, the overall changes between pre-surgery and splint removal (surgical changes) and between splint removal and 1-year post-surgery at the end of orthodontic treatment (post-surgical adaptations). Post-surgical maxillary adaptations were exactly the same for both groups, with 52% of the patients having changes >2 mm. Approximately half of the post-surgical changes in the maxilla for both groups were vertical. The two-jaw group showed significantly greater surgical and post-surgical changes in the ramus, chin, and most of the condylar surfaces (P < 0.05). Post-surgical adaptation on the anterior part of the chin was also more significant in the two-jaw group (P < 0.05). Regardless of the type of surgery, marked post-surgical adaptations were observed in the regions evaluated, which explain the adequate maxillary–mandibular relationship at 1-year post-surgery on average, with individual variability. PMID:23403336
de Paula, L.K.; de Oliveira Ruellas, A.C.; Paniagua, B.; Styner, M.; Turvey, T.; Zhu, H.; Wang, J.; Cevidanes, L.H.S.
We sought to evaluate the economic impact and diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the management of patients with headache and nonfocal physical examinations. Computerized medical records were retrospectively reviewed of 1,233 patients presenting for MRI of headache at our institution over a 3-year period (1992-1995). Patients with focal findings at physical examination, prior brain surgery, head trauma, or immunocompromise were excluded. A model was developed to assess the cost associated with the MR test results, and actual average institutional costs of performing an examination applied. Correlative statistical analysis of referring specialties and positive tests was also performed. Three hundred twenty-eight patients who met the above criteria were retained in the sample. One hundred sixty-three patients (50%) had negative MR test results. Of the 50% of patients with positive studies, only 5 (1.5%) had clinically significant MR results. The average cost of an MR examination was 517 dollars (1998 dollars). The cost per clinically significant managed case detected was 34,535 dollars. No statistically significant difference was found among referring specialties and clinically significant MR results. Our results indicate that MRI of nonfocal headache yields a low percentage of positive clinically significant results and has limited cost-effectiveness. Referring specialty had no significant bearing on these outcomes, regardless of specialist experience. PMID:11202760
Jordan, J. E.; Ramirez, G. F.; Bradley, W. G.; Chen, D. Y.; Lightfoote, J. B.; Song, A.
The viability of populations of plants and animals is a key focus for environmental regulation. Population-level responses integrate the cumulative effects of chemical stressors on individuals as those individuals interact with and are affected by their con-specifics, competitors, predators, prey, habitat and other biotic and abiotic factors. Models of population-level effects of contaminants can integrate information from lower levels of biological organization and feed that information into higher-level community and ecosystem models. As individual-level endpoints are utilized to predict population responses, this requires that biological responses at lower levels of organization be translated into a form that is useable by the population modeler. In this paper we describe how mechanistic data, as captured in adverse outcome pathways, can be translated into modeling focused on population-level risk assessments. First, we present a succinct overview of different approaches to population modeling, and discuss the types of data needed for these models. Then we discuss how toxicity data are used currently for population modeling, and provide recommendations as to how testing might be modified to better generate information to support modeling. From this we describe how different key processes measured at the level of the individual serve as the bridge between mechanistic toxicology data and predictions of population status, and provide case examples of how this linkage has been/can be achieved.
Kramer, Vincent J.; Etterson, Matthew A.; Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Spade, Daniel J.; Spromberg, Julann A.; Wang, Magnus; Ankley, Gerald T.
A program of care co-ordination (CC) in Melbourne for individuals with a history of high use of in-patient services was evaluated. The intervention involved care planning by a general practitioner (GP) and graduated case management depending on client health status. Services were purchased from pooled funds of participating health care agencies. A randomised control trial of 2,742 participants demonstrated no significant differences between the intervention and usual care group for two quality of life measures, the SF-36 and the AQoL (assessment of quality of life), and no difference in mortality rates. Total resource usage in the CC group was substantially higher, principally due to the extra costs for care planning and case management and for administering the CC model. Results conform to the higher costs typically found in other CC trials, although the failure to demonstrate improved client outcomes is less often reported. The reasons for this failure, whether in trial design, implementation, or theoretical underpinnings are explored in a companion paper. PMID:15212867
Segal, Leonie; Dunt, David; Day, Susan E; Day, Neil Atherton; Robertson, Iain; Hawthorne, Graeme
The Impact of Mental Health Issues on Students with Mental Retardation: The Relationship of Teacher Report of Symptoms, Adaptive Functioning, and School Outcomes for Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation
This study investigated the relationship of mental health issues, adaptive functioning, and school outcomes for students with mild mental retardation (MMR). Mental health (MH) was measured using the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Teachers also completed the Adaptive Behavior Inventory…
Wright, Jennifer Adams
BACKGROUND: Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve health outcomes or prevent diseases. However, the efficiency and consistency of using different analytical methods in the analysis of binary outcome have received little attention. We described and compared various statistical approaches in the analysis of CRTs using the Community Hypertension Assessment Trial (CHAT)
Jinhui Ma; Lehana Thabane; Janusz Kaczorowski; Larry Chambers; Lisa Dolovich; Tina Karwalajtys; Cheryl Levitt
Musculoskeletal disease is a significant burden for children with Mucopolysaccharide (MPS) disorders. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a validated, functional measure of musculoskeletal health in children with disabilities. The goal of this study is to describe the musculoskeletal manifestations of children with MPS II (Hunter syndrome), and their functional response to intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Patients with MPS II were prospectively entered into an IRB approved registry. Chart review of physical findings including, shoulder, elbow, hip, knee and ankle range of motion, and need for carpal tunnel release was performed. Radiographs of the spine and pelvis were evaluated in all patients. Serial PODCI exams were administered to all patients. Seven patients, 5 receiving ERT, were included. Four patients had spinal deformities, seven had modest hip disease, and two required carpal tunnel release. PODCI scores were abnormally low in all domains, but significant improvements in PODCI scores were documented with enzyme replacement therapy. Spine and hip deformity are ubiquitous in MPS II, none of which have required surgical intervention, but require long term monitoring. Patients with MPS II should be monitored for carpal tunnel syndrome. Functional improvements are seen, as documented by the PODCI, in children with MPS II on ERT. PMID:21791837
White, Klane K; Hale, Susan; Goldberg, Michael J
Burn injury affects all facets of life. Burn care has improved over time. Improved survival after burn injury has resulted in a shift in outcome measurement from inpatient morbidity and mortality to long-term functional and health-related quality-of-life measures. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns based on their ability to reintegrate into their normal physical, social, psychological, and functional activities. Burn outcomes will continue to develop on the foundation that has been built and will generate evidence-based best practices in the future. PMID:25085096
Palmieri, Tina L; Przkora, Rene; Meyer, Walter J; Carrougher, Gretchen J
Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P < .05). When comparing the results of the VFS among the 3 groups, we found significant improvements in patients eating cookies and thick liquid after combined NMES/TS therapy (P < .05). In acute stroke patients with dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids. PMID:25245482
Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping
Objective To determine swallowing, speech and quality of life (QOL) outcomes following transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care academic comprehensive cancer center. Patients 81 patients with previously untreated OPSCC. Intervention Primary surgical resection via TORS and neck dissection as indicated. Main Outcome Measures Patients were asked to complete the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI) pre-operatively and at 3 weeks as well as 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Swallowing ability was assessed by independence from a gastrostomy tube (G-Tube). Clinicopathological and follow-up data were also collected. Results Mean follow-up time was 22.7 months. HNCI response rates at 3 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months were 79%, 60%, 63%, 67% respectively. There were overall declines in speech, eating, aesthetic, social and overall QOL domains in the early post-operative periods. However, at 1 year post-TORS scores for aesthetic, social and overall QOL remained high. Radiation therapy was negatively correlated with multiple QOL domains (p<0.05), while age > 55 years correlated with lower speech and aesthetic scores (p<0.05). HPV status did not correlate with any QOL domain. G-Tube rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively. The extent of TORS (> 1 oropharyngeal site resected) and age > 55 years predicted the need for a G-Tube at any point after TORS (p<0.05). Conclusions Patients with OPSCC treated with TORS maintain a high QOL at 1 year after surgery. Adjuvant treatment and advanced age tend to decrease QOL. PMID:23576186
Dziegielewski, Peter T.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Durmus, Kasim; Old, Matthew; Agrawalm, Amit; Kakarala, Kiran; Marcinow, Anna; Ozer, Enver
Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has neuroprotective benefits in animal models, including enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of EE on the improvement of damaged neural function and the induction of angiogenesis. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Neurological status scores were used to evaluate neural function on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14. A beam-walking task was used to test the recovery of motor behavior on postoperative days 2, 5, 10, and 15. We also used a Morris water maze task to examine whether EE protected learning and memory performance. The specific marker of angiogenesis of CD31 was examined by western blot. Angiogenesis around the peri-infarction region was assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) after 14days of EE exposure starting 24h after ischemia. Neurological status scores of animals in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the standard housing condition (SC) control group from the seventh day after ischemic. EE accelerated the recovery of motor coordination and integration and also improved learning and memory performance after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, EE increased CD31 levels and promoted angiogenesis of cortex in the peri-infarction region compared to the SC group. Neural function outcomes are positively correlated with post-ischemia angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EE plays an important role in the recovery of damaged neural function via regulation of angiogenesis after ischemia. PMID:25455300
Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Guo, Zhenzhen; Li, Fang; Jia, Jie; Kuang, Shenyi; Hu, Ruiping
We evaluated whether African-Americans in the Osteoarthritis Initiative have a greater risk (vs. Caucasians) of poor 4-year function outcome within strata defined by gender, BMI, and waist circumference. Using WOMAC function, 20 meter walk, and chair stand performance, poor outcome was defined as moving into a worse function group or remaining in the 2 worst groups over 4 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between racial group and outcome within each stratum, adjusting for age, education, and income, and then further adjusting for BMI, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, physical activity, knee pain, and OA severity. In 3695 persons with or at higher risk for knee OA, higher BMI and large waist circumference were each associated with poor outcome. Among women with high BMI and among women with large waist circumference, African-Americans were at greater risk for poor outcome by every measure, adjusting for age, education, and income. From fully adjusted models, potential explanatory factors included income, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, pain, and disease severity. Findings were less consistent for men, emerging only for the 20 meter walk or chair stand outcomes, and potentially explained by age and knee pain. Among OAI women with excess body weight, African-Americans are at greater risk than Caucasians for poor 4-year outcome. Modifiable factors that may help to explain these findings in the OAI include comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and knee pain. Targeting such factors, while supporting weight loss, may help to lessen the outcome disparity between African-American and Caucasian women. PMID:22833527
Colbert, Carmelita J.; Almagor, Orit; Chmiel, Joan S.; Song, Jing; Dunlop, Dorothy; Hayes, Karen W.; Sharma, Leena
The technology of functional assessment is among the most important developments in several decades for the education and treatment of people with mental retardation, autism, and other developmental disabilities. These powerful methods for understanding maladaptive behavior and linking intervention closely to assessment have made a difference in the lives of countless people with developmental disabilities and should be part of
SANDRA L. HARRIS; BETH A. GLASBERG
Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service Health and Well: Woodlands for Wales - WAG Equality Impact Assessment. In addition to the evidence collated in that exercise, new and emerging evidence has been collated from the Equality Issues in Wales: a research review
Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service Education, Learning. The results of this can be accessed here: Woodlands for Wales - WAG Equality Impact Assessment. In addition to the evidence collated in that exercise, new and emerging evidence has been collated from the Equality Issues
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques continue to change rapidly, and cardiac MRI is developing as an alternative\\u000a noninvasive technique having the unique potential of three-dimensional function analysis with great accuracy and reproducibility.\\u000a Advances in rapid cardiac MRI technology are making real-time imaging possible at approaching echocardiographic frame rates.\\u000a Together with the increasing availability of cardiac MRI machines, cardiac MRI
Bernard P. Paelinck; Hildo J. Lamb
Motivation: The availability of genome-scale data has enabled an abundance of novel analysis techniques for investigating a variety of systems-level biological relationships. As thousands of such datasets become available, they provide an opportunity to study high-level associations between cellular pathways and processes. This also allows the exploration of shared functional enrichments between diverse biological datasets, and it serves to direct experimenters to areas of low data coverage or with high probability of new discoveries. Results: We analyze the functional structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae datasets from over 950 publications in the context of over 140 biological processes. This includes a coverage analysis of biological processes given current high-throughput data, a data-driven map of associations between processes, and a measure of similar functional activity between genome-scale datasets. This uncovers subtle gene expression similarities in three otherwise disparate microarray datasets due to a shared strain background. We also provide several means of predicting areas of yeast biology likely to benefit from additional high-throughput experimental screens. Availability: Predictions are provided in supplementary tables; software and additional data are available from the authors by request. Contact: email@example.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18586732
Huttenhower, C.; Troyanskaya, O.G.
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of handgrip strength in predicting the functional outcome after hip fracture in women.We prospectively investigated white women (N?=?193 of 207) who were consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital after a hip fracture. We measured handgrip strength with a Jamar dynamometer (Lafayette Instrument Co, Lafayette, IN), on admission to rehabilitation. Ability to function in activities of daily living was assessed by the Barthel index both on discharge from rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up.We found significant correlations between handgrip strength measured before rehabilitation and Barthel index scores assessed both on discharge from rehabilitation (??=?0.52, P?0.001) and after 6 months (??=?0.49, P?0.001). Significant associations between handgrip strength and Barthel index scores persisted after adjustment for age, comorbidities, pressure ulcers, medications in use, concomitant infections, body mass index, hip-fracture type, and Barthel index scores assessed both preinjury and on admission to rehabilitation (P?=?0.001). Further adjustments for both Barthel index scores and Timed Up-and-Go test assessed at rehabilitation ending did not erase the significant association between handgrip strength and the Barthel index scores at the 6-month evaluation (P?=?0.007). To define successful rehabilitation, we categorized the Barthel index scores as either high (85 or higher) or low (<85). The adjusted odds ratio for 1 SD increase in grip strength was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.84, P?=?0.032) for having a high Barthel index score at the end of inpatient rehabilitation and 2.24 (95% CI 1.06-5.18) for having a high Barthel index score at the 6-month follow-up.Handgrip strength assessed before rehabilitation independently predicted the functional outcome both after inpatient rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up in hip-fracture women. PMID:25674760
Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; De Toma, Elena; Gardin, Luisa; Giordano, Silvia; Tappero, Rosa
Background Various physiotherapeutic evaluation methods are used to assess the functionality of dogs with stifle problems. Neither validity nor sensitivity of these methods has been investigated. This study aimed to determine the most valid and sensitive physiotherapeutic evaluation methods for assessing functional capacity in hind limbs of dogs with stifle problems and to serve as a basis for developing an indexed test for these dogs. A group of 43 dogs with unilateral surgically treated cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and osteoarthritic findings was used to test different physiotherapeutic evaluation methods. Twenty-one healthy dogs served as the control group and were used to determine normal variation in static weight bearing and range of motion. The protocol consisted of 14 different evaluation methods: visual evaluation of lameness, visual evaluation of diagonal movement, visual evaluation of functional active range of motion and difference in thrust of hind limbs via functional tests (sit-to-move and lie-to-move), movement in stairs, evaluation of hind limb muscle atrophy, manual evaluation of hind limb static weight bearing, quantitative measurement of static weight bearing of hind limbs with bathroom scales, and passive range of motion of hind limb stifle (flexion and extension) and tarsal (flexion and extension) joints using a universal goniometer. The results were compared with those from an orthopaedic examination, force plate analysis, radiographic evaluation, and a conclusive assessment. Congruity of the methods was assessed with a combination of three statistical approaches (Fisher’s exact test and two differently calculated proportions of agreeing observations), and the components were ranked from best to worst. Sensitivities of all of the physiotherapeutic evaluation methods against each standard were calculated. Results Evaluation of asymmetry in a sitting and lying position, assessment of muscle atrophy, manual and measured static weight bearing, and measurement of stifle passive range of motion were the most valid and sensitive physiotherapeutic evaluation methods. Conclusions Ranking of the various physiotherapeutic evaluation methods was accomplished. Several of these methods can be considered valid and sensitive when examining the functionality of dogs with stifle problems. PMID:23566355
This study sought to implement outcomes monitoring and to review outcome data from a community-based rehabilitation program for maltreated children and adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil. Maltreated children and adolescents (N=452) were enrolled in The Equilibrium Program (TEP), a multidisciplinary community-based rehabilitation program. About half (n=230) of the participants were successfully evaluated using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) at entry, 3, and/or 6 months later. Analysis of outcomes used hierarchical linear modeling of functional change from baseline. With a baseline C-GAS score of 51.7 (SD=14.22), average improvement was 2.8 and 5.5 points at 3 and 6 months, respectively (reflecting small to moderate effect sizes=0.20 and 0.39). Improvement was associated with Problems related to upbringing (p<.02) at entry and absence of Physical abuse (p<.05) and Negative life events in childhood (p<.05) but was not associated with sociodemographics or any specific psychiatric diagnosis. This study showed that outcomes monitoring is feasible in a community-based program in a developing country. Although there was no untreated control group for comparison and specific evidence-based treatments were not used, it is notable that significant improvement, with small to moderate effect size, was observed. PMID:24300697
Stefanovics, Elina A; Filho, Mauro V M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Scivoletto, Sandra
Objective: To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Method: Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist—Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. Results: The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Conclusions: Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment. PMID:24444323
Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Background: Motor impairment in children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or High functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Methods: 16 HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). Results:…
Freitag, Christine M.; Kleser, Christina; Schneider, Marc; von Gontard, Alexander
There are increasing efforts towards improving the quality and safety of surgical care while decreasing the costs. In Washington state, there has been a regional and unique approach to surgical quality improvement. The development of the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) was first described 5 years ago. SCOAP is a peer-to-peer collaborative that engages surgeons to determine the many process of care metrics that go into a "perfect" operation, track on risk adjusted outcomes that are specific to a given operation, and create interventions to correct under performance in both the use of these process measures and outcomes. SCOAP is a thematic departure from report card oriented QI. SCOAP builds off the collaboration and trust of the surgical community and strives for quality improvement by having peers change behaviors of one another. We provide, here, the progress of the SCOAP initiative and highlight its achievements and challenges. PMID:22129638
Kwon, Steve; Florence, Michael; Grigas, Peter; Horton, Marc; Horvath, Karen; Johnson, Morrie; Jurkovich, Gregory; Klamp, Wendy; Peterson, Kristin; Quigley, Terence; Raum, William; Rogers, Terry; Thirlby, Richard; Farrokhi, Ellen T; Flum, David R
As chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, commonly used insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) may not be applicable in individuals with CKD. Here we sought to validate surrogate ISIs against the glucose disposal rate by the gold-standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp (HEGC) technique in 1074 elderly men of similar age (70 years) of whom 495 had and 579 did not have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 60?ml/min per 1.73?m(2) (median eGFR of 46?ml/min per 1.73?m(2))). All ISIs provided satisfactory (weighted ? over 0.6) estimates of the glucose disposal rate in patients with CKD. ISIs derived from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) agreed better with HEGC than those from fasting samples (higher predictive accuracy). Regardless of CKD strata, all ISIs allowed satisfactory clinical discrimination between the presence and absence of insulin resistance (glucose disposal rate under 4?mg/kg/min). We also assessed the ability of both HEGC and ISIs to predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality during a 10-year follow-up. Neither HEGC nor ISIs independently predicted mortality. Adjustment for renal function did not materially change these associations. Thus, ISIs can be applied in individuals with moderately impaired renal function for diagnostic purposes. For research matters, OGTT-derived ISIs may be preferred. Our data do not support the hypothesis of kidney function mediating insulin sensitivity (IS)-associated outcomes nor a role for IS as a predictor of mortality. PMID:24476695
Jia, Ting; Huang, Xiaoyan; Qureshi, Abdul R; Xu, Hong; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Cederholm, Tommy; Stenvinkel, Peter; Risérus, Ulf; Carrero, Juan J
The goal of this study was to determine if relatively complex motor training on Rota-rod involving balance and coordination plays an essential role in improving motor function in ischemic rats, as compared with simple locomotor exercise on treadmill. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with (n=40) or without (n=40) ischemia were trained under each of three conditions: (1) motor balance and coordination training on Rota-rod; (2) simple exercise on treadmill; and (3) non-trained controls. Motor function was evaluated by a series of tests (foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing) before and at 14 or 28 days after training procedures in both ischemic and normal animals. Infarct volume in ischemic animals was determined with Nissl staining. Compared with both treadmill exercised and non-trained animals, Rota-rod-trained animals with or without ischemia significantly (P<0.01) improved motor performance of all tasks except for foot fault placing after 14 days of training, with normal rats having better performance. Animals trained for up to 28 days on the treadmill did not show significantly improved function. With regard to foot fault placing task, performance on foot placing was improved in ischemic rats across the three measurements at 0, 14 and 28 days regardless of training condition, while the normal group reached their best performance at the beginning of measurement. No significant differences in infarct volume were found in rats trained either with Rota-rod (47+/-4%; mean+/-S.E.), treadmill (45+/-5%) or non-exercised control (45+/-3%). In addition, no obvious difference could be detected in the location of the damage which included the dorso-lateral portion of the neostriatum and the frontoparietal cortex, the main regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery. The data suggest that complex motor training rather than simple exercise effectively improves functional outcome. PMID:14706778
Ding, Y; Li, J; Lai, Q; Rafols, J A; Luan, X; Clark, J; Diaz, F G
AIM: To systematically review and analyze the overall impact and effectiveness of bony surgical procedures, the triangle tilt and humeral surgery in a comparative manner in permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search and identified original full research articles of OBPI patients treated with a secondary bony surgery, particularly addressing the limitation of shoulder abduction and functions. Further, we analyzed and compared the efficacy and the surgical outcomes of 9 humeral surgery papers with 179 patients, and 4 of our secondary bony procedure, the triangle tilt surgical papers with 86 patients. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, using the search term “brachial plexus” and obstetric or pediatric (246 articles) or neonatal (219 articles) or congenital (188 articles) or “birth palsy” (121 articles). Further, only a few articles were identified using the bony surgery search, osteotomy “brachial plexus” obstetric (35), “humeral osteotomy” and “brachial plexus” (17), and triangle tilt “brachial plexus” (14). Of all, 12 studies reporting pre- and post- operative or improvement in total Mallet functional score were included in this study. Among these, 9 studies reported the humeral surgery and 4 were triangle tilt surgery. We used modified total Mallet functional score in this analysis. Various studies with humeral surgery showed improvement of 1.4, 2.3, 5.0 and 5.6 total Mallet score, whereas the triangle tilt surgery showed improvement of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.2. CONCLUSION: The triangle tilt surgery improves on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy in the management of shoulder function in OBPI patients.
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra
This article presents an outcome-based model for evaluating school and community programs serving at-risk adolescents, and a cost-effective technique for comparing the progress of youth receiving an intervention with youth in a pseudocontrol group. The outcomes considered most important for success were derived from the literature pertaining to…
Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Audas, Richard P.; Willms, J. Douglas
Objective. Determine the potential of procalcitonin (PCT) to predict neurological outcome after hypothermia treatment following cardiac arrest. Methods. Retrospective analysis of patient data over a 2-year period. Mortality and neurological outcome of survivors were determined 6 months after cardiac arrest using the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score. Results. Data from 53 consecutive patients were analyzed. Median age was 63 (54–71) and 79% were male. Twenty-seven patients had good outcome (CPC???2) whereas 26 had severe neurological sequelae or died (CPC 3–5). At 48?h, after regaining normothermia, PCT was significantly higher in patients with bad outcome compared to those with good outcome: 3.38 (1.10–24.48) versus 0.28 (0–0.75)?ng/mL (P < 0.001). PCT values correlated with bad neurological outcome (r = 0.54, P = 0.00004) and predicted outcome with an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI 0.73–0.96). A cutoff point of 1?ng/mL provided a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 81%. Above a PCT level of 16?ng/mL, no patient regained consciousness. PCT provided an additive value over simplified acute physiology score II. Conclusions. PCT might be an ancillary marker for outcome prediction after cardiac arrest treated by induced hypothermia. PMID:22110909
Stammet, Pascal; Devaux, Yvan; Azuaje, Francisco; Werer, Christophe; Lorang, Christiane; Gilson, Georges; Max, Martin
Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…
Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.
Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Elevated ALT, GGT, ALP or bilirubin levels on admission were observed in 1.7% - 9.9% of patients. With age GGT, ALT and leptin decrease, while PTH and adiponectin concentrations increase. Higher GGT (>30U/L, median level) was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and alcohol overuse; lower ALT (?20U/L, median level) with dementia; total bilirubin >20?mol/L with CAD and alcohol overuse; and albumin >33g/L with CAD. Multivariate adjusted regression analyses revealed ALT, ALP, adiponectin, alcohol overuse and DM as independent and significant determinants of GGT (as continuous or categorical variable); GGT for each other liver marker; and PTH for adiponectin. The risk of prolonged hospital stay (>20 days) was about two times higher in patients with GGT>30U/L or adiponectin >17.14 ng/L (median level) and 4.7 times higher if both conditions coexisted. The risk of in-hospital death was 3 times higher if albumin was <33g/L. Conclusions: In older HF patients liver markers even within the normal range are associated with age-related disorders and outcomes. Adiponectin (but not 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, leptin or resistin) is an independent contributor to higher GGT. Serum GGT and albumin predict prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death, respectively. A unifying hypothesis of the findings presented. PMID:25589886
Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul
Eighty-eight of 119 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis were evaluated. Forty patients had a handsewn anastomosis (Hs) with mucosectomy, and 48 had a stapled anastomosis (St). In each patient, we evaluated operative, morphologic, functional, and manometric features. The results in the Hs and St groups were similar when the anastomosis was within 1 cm of the dentate line. In particular, there was no correlation between the type of anastomosis and the number of bowel movements in a 24-hour period, the presence of the urge to defecate, and the use of antidiarrheal drugs. Leakage was significantly higher in the Hs group, even when the anastomosis was less than 1 cm from the dentate line. Pouchitis was more frequent in the Hs group, and, within this group, among those with a short distance between the anastomosis and the dentate line. No correlations were found between the presence of columnar epithelium or active colitis in the mucosa below the anastomosis, the functional outcomes, and the incidence of pouchitis. PMID:7943588
Gozzetti, G; Poggioli, G; Marchetti, F; Laureti, S; Grazi, G L; Mastrorilli, M; Selleri, S; Stocchi, L; Di Simone, M
Background and Objectives To investigate whether different vestibular function tests such as cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and caloric test were correlated with severity, pattern and prognosis in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Subjects and Methods Ninety-two patients with unilateral ISSNHL were subjected to complete audiovestibular evaluation. cVEMP and caloric test results were compared with patients' initial and final audiogram. We classified patients in 4 groups as cochlear nerve (C) type, cochlear and superior vestibular nerve (C+S) type, cochlear and inferior vestibular nerve (C+I) type and cochlear, superior vestibular nerve, inferior vestibular nerve (C+S+I) type, for evaluation of the results. cVEMP and caloric tests were compared among the groups. Results Abnormal caloric test results and abnormal cVEMP results were found in 50% and 31.6% patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that abnormal caloric result (canal paresis) is a significant negative prognostic factor. Conclusions Initial vestibular function test can be valuable in predicting the final outcome in patients with ISSNHL. PMID:25558407
Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Nam; Park, Jung Mee; Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Hyun bum
Objective To create upper-extremity and mobility subdomain scores from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical functioning adult item bank. Design Expert reviews were used to identify upper-extremity and mobility items from the PROMIS item bank. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess empirical support for scoring upper-extremity and mobility subdomains. Setting Data were collected from the U.S. general population and multiple disease groups via self-administered surveys. Participants The sample (N=21,773) included 21,133 English-speaking adults who participated in the PROMIS wave 1 data collection and 640 Spanish-speaking Latino adults recruited separately. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures We used English- and Spanish-language data and existing PROMIS item parameters for the physical functioning item bank to estimate upper-extremity and mobility scores. In addition, we fit graded response models to calibrate the upper-extremity items and mobility items separately, compare separate to combined calibrations, and produce subdomain scores. Results After eliminating items because of local dependency, 16 items remained to assess upper extremity and 17 items to assess mobility. The estimated correlation between upper extremity and mobility was .59 using existing PROMIS physical functioning item parameters (r=.60 using parameters calibrated separately for upper-extremity and mobility items). Conclusions Upper-extremity and mobility subdomains shared about 35% of the variance in common, and produced comparable scores whether calibrated separately or together. The identification of the subset of items tapping these 2 aspects of physical functioning and scored using the existing PROMIS parameters provides the option of scoring these subdomains in addition to the overall physical functioning score. PMID:23751290
Hays, Ron D.; Spritzer, Karen L.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Lai, Jin-Shei; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Rothrock, Nan; DeWalt, Darren A.; Riley, William T.; Fries, James F.; Krishnan, Eswar
This study proposes a method of measuring vasodilatation via air pressure sensing to assess the function of endothelium cells. The vasodilatation index is calculated according to the change of area of waveform caused by stimulation to the blood vessels, and uses this index to reflect the function of endothelium cells; therefore, early self-monitoring of cardiovascular dysfunction and arterial stiffness can
Hsien-Tsai Wu; Chun-Ho Lee; Tsang-Chin Wu; An-Bang Liu
Docking is a computational technique that samples conformations of small molecules in protein binding sites; scoring functions are used to assess which of these conformations best complements the protein binding site. An evaluation of 10 docking programs and 37 scoring functions was conducted against eight proteins of seven protein types for three tasks: binding mode prediction, virtual screening for lead
Gregory L. Warren; C. Webster Andrews; Anna-Maria Capelli; Brian Clarke; Judith LaLonde; Millard H. Lambert; Mika Lindvall; Neysa Nevins; Simon F. Semus; Stefan Senger; Giovanna Tedesco; Ian D. Wall; James M. Woolven; Catherine E. Peishoff; Martha S. Head
As documented in the recent OECD report 'the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitisation initiated by covalent binding to proteins' (OECD, 2012), the chemical and biological events driving the induction of human skin sensitisation have been investigated for many years and are now well understood. Several non-animal test methods have been developed to predict sensitiser potential by measuring the impact of chemical sensitisers on these key events (Adler et al., 2011; Maxwell et al., 2011); however our ability to use these non-animal datasets for risk assessment decision-making (i.e. to establish a safe level of human exposure for a sensitising chemical) remains limited and a more mechanistic approach to data integration is required to address this challenge. Informed by our previous efforts to model the induction of skin sensitisation (Maxwell and MacKay, 2008) we are now developing two mathematical models ('total haptenated protein' model and 'CD8(+) T cell response' model) that will be linked to provide predictions of the human CD8(+) T cell response for a defined skin exposure to a sensitising chemical. Mathematical model development is underpinned by focussed clinical or human-relevant research activities designed to inform/challenge model predictions whilst also increasing our fundamental understanding of human skin sensitisation. With this approach, we aim to quantify the relationship between the dose of sensitiser applied to the skin and the extent of the hapten-specific T cell response that would result. Furthermore, by benchmarking our mathematical model predictions against clinical datasets (e.g. human diagnostic patch test data), instead of animal test data, we propose that this approach could represent a new paradigm for mechanistic toxicology. PMID:24184331
Maxwell, Gavin; MacKay, Cameron; Cubberley, Richard; Davies, Michael; Gellatly, Nichola; Glavin, Stephen; Gouin, Todd; Jacquoilleot, Sandrine; Moore, Craig; Pendlington, Ruth; Saib, Ouarda; Sheffield, David; Stark, Richard; Summerfield, Vicki