These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Assessing Function and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of schizophrenia can only be made in the presence of a loss of functioning in domains such as employment, independent\\u000a living, and social functioning. Accurately measuring functioning is central to research on the course of the disorder, treatment\\u000a and rehabilitation outcomes, and biosocial factors in schizophrenia. Assessments of functional disability have described three\\u000a dimensions of functioning: functional capacity,

Elizabeth Bromley; John S. Brekke

2

Measuring Assistive Technology Outcomes in Schools Using Functional Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities of Project OATS (Outcomes of Assistive Technology in the Schools) are described, including identification and piloting of existing assessment instruments for use as an outcome measure, examining the validity of the School Function Assessment, and field testing the School Function Assessment-Assistive Technology Version, an adaptation of…

Silverman, Michelle Kaye; Stratman, Kristine Freiberg; Smith, Roger O.

2000-01-01

3

Brief cognitive assessment and prediction of functional outcome in stroke.  

PubMed

To evaluate the ability to predict outcome with a brief measure of cognitive ability, we tested consecutive admissions who received inpatient rehabilitation for stroke with the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Symptoms (RBANS). Six months later, 34 discharged patients were contacted by telephone and were interviewed using a battery of functional outcome and quality of life measures. Multiple regression analysis showed that inpatient RBANS indexes predicted cognitive disability 6 months later. The present findings support the use of cognitive evaluations of patients with acute stroke to assist with prediction of outcome to be used in treatment planning. PMID:14523696

Larson, Eric B; Kirschner, Kristi; Bode, Rita K; Heinemann, Allen W; Clorfene, Jeremy; Goodman, Rebecca

2003-01-01

4

Objective Integrated Assessment of Functional Outcomes in Reduction Mammaplasty  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of our study was an objective integrated assessment of the functional outcomes of reduction mammaplasty. Methods: The study involved 17 women undergoing reduction mammaplasty from March 2009 to June 2011. Each patient was assessed before surgery and 2 months postoperatively with the original association of 4 subjective and objective assessment methods: a physiatric clinical examination, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Berg Balance Scale, and a static force platform analysis. Results: All of the tests proved multiple statistically significant associated outcomes demonstrating a significant improvement in the functional status following reduction mammaplasty. Surgical correction of breast hypertrophy could achieve both spinal pain relief and recovery of performance status in everyday life tasks, owing to a muscular postural functional rearrangement with a consistent antigravity muscle activity sparing. Pain reduction in turn could reduce the antalgic stiffness and improved the spinal range of motion. In our sample, the improvement of the spinal range of motion in flexion matched a similar improvement in extension. Recovery of a more favorable postural pattern with reduction of the anterior imbalance was demonstrated by the static force stabilometry. Therefore, postoperatively, all of our patients narrowed the gap between the actual body barycenter and the ideal one. The static force platform assessment also consistently confirmed the effectiveness of an accurate clinical examination of functional impairment from breast hypertrophy. Conclusions: The static force platform assessment might help the clinician to support the diagnosis of functional impairment from a breast hypertrophy with objectively based data. PMID:25289256

Passaro, Ilaria; Malovini, Alberto; Faga, Angela; Toffola, Elena Dalla

2013-01-01

5

Myocardial Infarction and Functional Outcome Assessment in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Introduction of newly discovered cardiovascular therapeutics into first-in-man trials depends on a strictly regulated ethical and legal roadmap. One important prerequisite is a good understanding of all safety and efficacy aspects obtained in a large animal model that validly reflect the human scenario of myocardial infarction (MI). Pigs are widely used in this regard since their cardiac size, hemodynamics, and coronary anatomy are close to that of humans. Here, we present an effective protocol for using the porcine MI model using a closed-chest coronary balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), followed by reperfusion. This approach is based on 90 min of myocardial ischemia, inducing large left ventricle infarction of the anterior, septal and inferoseptal walls. Furthermore, we present protocols for various measures of outcome that provide a wide range of information on the heart, such as cardiac systolic and diastolic function, hemodynamics, coronary flow velocity, microvascular resistance, and infarct size. This protocol can be easily tailored to meet study specific requirements for the validation of novel cardioregenerative biologics at different stages (i.e. directly after the acute ischemic insult, in the subacute setting or even in the chronic MI once scar formation has been completed). This model therefore provides a useful translational tool to study MI, subsequent adverse remodeling, and the potential of novel cardioregenerative agents. PMID:24796715

Koudstaal, Stefan; Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; van Hout, Gerardus P.J; Jansen, Marlijn S.; Gründeman, Paul F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Doevendans, Pieter A.

2014-01-01

6

Assessment of outcomes.  

PubMed

Effective healthcare delivery necessitates evaluation of the effect of interventions in the form of outcome assessment. Treatment effect includes measurement of how the patient feels, functions and survives following healthcare interventions. In haemophilia, which is a rare bleeding disorder, outcome assessment was characterized by a lack of validated outcome measurement tools and the challenges of hemophilia study design to collect outcome data. The aim of this communication is to share current thinking and, through practical examples, provide a state of the art practice in the assessment of hemophilia outcomes from a healthcare provider, patient/family and funder perspective. This discussion is timely and particularly relevant to the care of people with hemophilia on the eve of a number of novel hemophilia treatment products which are about to be licensed for use, specifically the long-acting factor VIII and factor IX concentrates. The first section by Dr Blanchet gives an overview of the tools currently available for assessment of structure/function, patient activities and patient participation in hemophilia healthcare delivery, pointing out the challenge of developing new tools and appropriate validation of currently available tools. The second section by Mr Brian O'Mahony emphasizes the essential collaboration and partnership between healthcare providers and people with hemophilia in collating the outcome data. In the third and final section, Mr Leigh McJames, gives a funder's perspective of the desirable outcomes of hemophilia care. PMID:24762286

Blanchette, V S; O'Mahony, B; McJames, L; Mahlangu, J N

2014-05-01

7

Personal Functional Goals: A New Approach to Assessing Patient-Centered Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One dilemma in outcomes research is finding measures that show the impact of an intervention on participants' quality of life, especially in areas most salient to participants. The authors describe the development and testing of a method for eliciting information about personal functional goals from older adults entering an exercise program and assessing progress after completion of the program. The

Lucille B. Bearon; Gail M. Crowley; Julie Chandler; Michael S. Robbins; Stephanie Studenski

2000-01-01

8

The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) in schizophrenia and its relation to functional outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to establish further the validity of the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) in a population with schizophrenia. Specific objectives were: to examine the construct validity and sensitivity of the BADS in differentiating between adult inpatients during an acute episode of illness, adult outpatients in the chronic stages of illness, and healthy controls; and to examine the predictive validity of the BADS regarding functional outcomes within the chronic group. Participants were 30 inpatients during an acute episode of their illness; 31 outpatients in the chronic stage; and 93 healthy controls. Instruments included the BADS, the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat) and the Routine Task Inventory (RTI). Significant differences in BADS scores were found between participants with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and between both groups of patients, showing the chronic group to have more deficits in executive functions. In addition, within the chronic group the BADS was found to be a significant predictor of two of the RTI outcome areas, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and communication, beyond that accounted for by basic cognitive skills. These results support the validity of the BADS within the schizophrenic population, and highlight the importance of measuring executive functions for rehabilitation. PMID:17454693

Katz, Noomi; Tadmor, Inbal; Felzen, Batya; Hartman-Maeir, Adina

2007-04-01

9

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 2: assessment of functional outcome following lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome. PMID:24980579

Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

10

Selecting Career Outcome Assessments: An Organizational Scheme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a framework for selecting assessments of career outcomes: content (career knowledge and skills, career behaviors, feelings and beliefs, role functioning); information source (client, counselor, observer, relevant other, institution/archive); focus (general, specific); and time orientation (macro-outcome, micro-outcome). (Contains 42…

Whiston, Susan C.

2001-01-01

11

Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: Relation to functional outcome of stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zwecker M, Levenkrohn S, Fleisig Y, Zeilig G, Ohry A, Adunsky A. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: relation to functional outcome of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:342-5. Objectives: To compare 3 cognitive tests, used on admission, for predicting discharge functional outcome and to assess the efficacy of these tests in

Manuel Zwecker; Shalom Levenkrohn; Yudit Fleisig; Gabi Zeilig; Avi Ohry; Abraham Adunsky

2002-01-01

12

The power of outcomes: FOTO Industrial Outcomes Tool -- Initial assessment.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how outcomes assessment can assist in describing clients receiving rehabilitation in occupational health rehabilitation clinics and to describe the preliminary assessment of internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the FOTO Industrial Outcomes Tool. METHODS: 266 adults referred for acute work rehabilitation (AWR), work conditioning/hardening (WC/WH) or a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) comprised the data set. Clients were treated between July 1998 and January 1999 in 15 clinics from 6 states by 46 clinicians participating in the Focus on Therapeutic Outcomes (FOTO) national rehabilitation database beta test. For AWR and WC/WH, clients completed a health status questionnaire on intake and discharge, and health status was assessed prior to the FCE. Comprehensive demographic data were collected describing the clinics, clinicians, clients and work status collected 2 weeks following discharge. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the health status scores ranged from 0.57 to 0.89. Construct validity was supported. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate the power of collecting outcomes from a variety of constructs for clients receiving industrial rehabilitation services. Initial reliability and construct validity findings were adequate and support continuing data analyses. PMID:12441480

Hart, D.L.

2001-01-01

13

Measuring Treatment Outcome for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances: Discriminant Validity and Clinical Significance of the Child and Adolescent Functioning Assessment Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of a popular measure, the Children and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), in treatment\\u000a outcome research. The sample included 70 children who had been discharged from an elementary therapeutic classroom (Intensive\\u000a Mental Health Program). Significant relationships were found between decreases in CAFAS scores and optimal educational placement,\\u000a contributing to evidence of the scale’s discriminant validity. Clinically

Kimberlee M. Roy; Michael C. Roberts; Eric M. Vernberg; Camille J. Randall

2008-01-01

14

Assessment of outcome in hypospadias surgery - a review.  

PubMed

Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

Springer, Alexander

2014-01-01

15

Assessment of Outcome in Hypospadias Surgery – A Review  

PubMed Central

Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

Springer, Alexander

2014-01-01

16

Clinical application of optical coherence tomography in combination with functional diagnostics: advantages and limitations for diagnosis and assessment of therapy outcome in central serous chorioretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose While identifying functional and structural parameters of the retina in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) patients, this study investigated how an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based diagnosis can be significantly supplemented with functional diagnostic tools and to what degree the determination of disease severity and therapy outcome can benefit from diagnostics complementary to OCT. Methods CSCR patients were evaluated prospectively with microperimetry (MP) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to determine retinal sensitivity function and retinal thickness as outcome measures along with measures of visual acuity (VA). Patients received clinical care that involved focal laser photocoagulation or pharmacotherapy targeting inflammation and neovascularization. Results Correlation of clinical parameters with a focus on functional parameters, VA, and mean retinal sensitivity, as well as on the structural parameter mean retinal thickness, showed that functional measures were similar in diagnostic power. A moderate correlation was found between OCT data and the standard functional assessment of VA; however, a strong correlation between OCT and MP data showed that diagnostic measures cannot always be used interchangeably, but that complementary use is of higher clinical value. Conclusion The study indicates that integrating SD-OCT with MP provides a more complete diagnosis with high clinical relevance for complex, difficult to quantify diseases such as CSCR. PMID:25473259

Schliesser, Joshua A; Gallimore, Gary; Kunjukunju, Nancy; Sabates, Nelson R; Koulen, Peter; Sabates, Felix N

2014-01-01

17

Outcomes Assessment Plan This document describes the program outcomes for the undergraduate program in computer science and  

E-print Network

a computer-based system, process, component or program to meet desired needs. D. An ability to functionOutcomes Assessment Plan This document describes the program outcomes for the undergraduate program in computer science and an assessment plan to evaluate these outcomes. The primary purpose of the assessment

Mayfield, John

18

Linguistics Department Student Outcomes Assessment June 4, 2008 Plans for Student Outcomes Assessment  

E-print Network

Linguistics Department Student Outcomes Assessment June 4, 2008 Plans for Student Outcomes Assessment Department of Linguistics Submitted by Jennifer Cole Associate Professor and Director of Graduate, speech and hearing science, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, computer science

Liberzon, Daniel

19

Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment

Grimes, Ellen B.

1999-01-01

20

Defining, constructing and assessing learning outcomes.  

PubMed

Learning outcomes define the veterinary curriculum and inform students about what they must be able to demonstrate to succeed. Stakeholder consultation during their development ensures that programme learning outcomes equip graduates to contribute to the veterinary profession. Effective learning outcomes form a hierarchy linking the programme, its courses and tasks. Clear outcomes direct students towards higher quality learning by indicating the achievements intended, but leave scope for emergent learning outcomes. Defined technical competencies fit within this overarching framework, complementing higher order learning. Mapping is used to align learning outcomes horizontally and vertically so students are systematically guided towards entry-level competence and professional independence. Constructively aligned learning and assessment tasks ensure learners spend the focused time required to sequentially develop programme outcomes. Assessment by staff, peers and other stakeholders certifies achievement of intended outcomes. Effective assessment also empowers students to define and achieve their own learning outcomes, so they develop the habits of autonomous life-long learning. Evaluation of the quality and consistency of achieved outcomes informs ongoing programme improvement. If we are going to achieve the objectives of this set of papers, i.e. to improve public health education globally (Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz. 28 [2] 2009), then it is essential that they be well defined in the learning outcomes statement of all veterinary schools. PMID:20128490

Taylor, R M

2009-08-01

21

Assessing Outcomes in Optometric Education: A Commentary by the Council on Optometric Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statement of the Council for Optometric Education (COE) defines and characterizes educational outcomes, outcomes assessment, and outcomes data, and explains the reasons for outcomes assessment, its relationship to curricular design, and its function in accreditation of optometry programs. Stated COE standards and expectations of optometry…

Optometric Education, 1998

1998-01-01

22

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

23

Department of Religion Outcomes Assessment Plan  

E-print Network

Department of Religion Outcomes Assessment Plan Desired Outcomes: We expect all of our majors such as Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Daoism, Hinduism, Judaism (and the religion of the ancient Hebrews) to identify changes that might increase the number of majors in Religion; 2) to improve the balance between

Liberzon, Daniel

24

Neurocognition: Clinical and Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is characterized by significant heterogeneity in outcome. The last decades have witnessed a significant interest in identifying factors that can moderate or influence clinical and functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia. One factor of particular interest is neurocognition, as performance on various measures of cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention, and executive functions, have been consistently related to functional outcome and, to a lesser extent, clinical outcome. This review aims to provide an up-to-date description of recent studies examining the association between neurocognition and clinical and (or) functional outcomes. In the first section, studies examining neurocognitive performance in relation to clinical outcome are examined. When clinical outcome is defined dichotomously (for example, comparing remitted and nonremitted), verbal memory performance consistently exhibits a strong association with clinical status, with the poor outcome group showing the largest deficits. In the second section, studies exploring the relation between neurocognition and various dimensions of functional outcome are reviewed. These dimensions include independent living, social functioning, and vocational functioning, among others. Again, a strong link between neurocognitive deficits and impairments in several aspects of functioning clearly emerges from this review. Finally, several measurement issues are discussed that pertain to the need to standardize definitions of clinical and (or) functional outcomes, the importance of defining cognitive domains consistently across studies, and distinguishing between one’s competence to perform tasks and what one actually does in everyday life. Addressing these measurement issues will be key to studies examining the development of effective interventions targeting neurocognitive functions and their impact on clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:24444318

Lepage, Martin; Bodnar, Michael; Bowie, Christopher R

2014-01-01

25

Patient-important outcome for the assessment of fracture repair.  

PubMed

Current evidence indicates that fracture healing assessment is limited to the use of one or two domains (such as pain, range of motion or mobility) in any single study. Functional outcome measures, which include physician-rated or observer-based impairment ratings and patient self-reported or observer-based activity limitation measures, better position the effectiveness of a given intervention towards patient-important outcomes. Health status measures, for example, cover a wide-range of physical, emotional, and social health dimensions. In this paper, we will examine the utility of metrics to assess fracture healing that are important to both the patient and provider, with selected examples from the recent literature. We recommend outcome measures with established and verified reliability and validity. Policy-makers and other stakeholders need to have an accurate assessment of treatment outcome that includes changes in function over time-adequate measures, should be re-applied at periodic intervals. PMID:24857028

Hoang-Kim, A; Miclau, T; Goldhahn, J; Nijman, T H; Poolman, R W

2014-06-01

26

Authentic Assessment for Restorative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developmental Audit[R] is a comprehensive means of assessment and treatment planning that identifies the coping strategies underlying a youth's maladaptive and self-defeating behavior. This is a strength-based assessment that engages youth in conflict in the process of generating solutions rather than focusing on deficits. This process…

Doerr, Allison

2008-01-01

27

Assessment Faculty Guide: The Rationale and Process for Outcomes Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Assessment Faculty Guide from St. Louis Community College provides guidance for faculty members about how to implement outcomes assessment. The handbook is divided into five areas: (1) assessment rationale, including history, definition, principles, and questions and answers; (2) the structure of assessment, providing a description,…

Baker, Richard

28

[Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].  

PubMed

The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

2015-03-01

29

Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

2013-01-01

30

Outcome Assessment of the Tibetan Scholarship Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Policy and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) contracted with SRI International to conduct an outcome assessment of the Tibetan Scholarship Program (TSP). The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if the program has been successful in meeting these goals. The assessment

US Department of State, 2004

2004-01-01

31

Academic Outcome Assessment Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities  

E-print Network

and Assessment Educational program planning is based on regular and continuous assessment of programs in lightAcademic Outcome Assessment Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities NASC statements and Standards (2003 Accreditation Handbook) dealing with academic outcomes assessment: Institutional Self

O'Laughlin, Jay

32

Biofeedback improves functional outcome after sphincteroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary treatment for obstetric sphincter injury is overlapping sphincteroplasty. However, despite restoration of the anatomy, only 65 percent of patients are fully continent. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine if postoperative biofeedback improved continence in patients with poor functional outcomes after sphincteroplasty. METHOD: Outcomes of 28 patients who underwent electromyographic biofeedback training after sphincteroplasty for obstetric sphincter injury

L. L. Jensen; A. C. Lowry

1997-01-01

33

Multiple-Respondent Anecdotal Assessments: An Analysis of Interrater Agreement and Correspondence with Analogue Assessment Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated interrater agreement across multiple respondents on anecdotal assessments and compared cases in which agreement was obtained with outcomes of functional analyses. Experiment 1 evaluated agreement among multiple respondents on the function of problem behavior for 27 individuals across 42 target behaviors using the Motivation Assessment

Smith, Carla M.; Smith, Richard G.; Dracobly, Joseph D.; Pace, Amy Peterson

2012-01-01

34

Assessment of Outcomes of Free Expression Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses outcomes of instruction in three college-senior-level courses on freedom of expression. Suggests that increased attention to freedom-of-expression issues may have resulted in broader understanding of First Amendment issues, and individual and media rights. Notes that students seem to develop an appreciation of the reflexive nature of…

Andsager, Julie; Ross, Susan Dente

1999-01-01

35

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT SURVEY  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT SURVEY SPRING 2007 Please reflect on your extra sheets if you need additional space. Do not put your name on the survey itself. Put the survey in the enclosed envelope and put your name on the envelope. After all surveys are received, they will be opened

White, Donald L.

36

Using Outcomes Assessment to Change Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can student outcomes assessment (SOA) be incorporated into ones courses and teaching? The purposes of this article are to explore a process enacted in the Department of Agronomy at Iowa State University using SOA to: (i) develop a clearer understanding of what students should learn in a course, (ii) determine how a course or courses fit within…

Cook, Michelle D.; Wiedenhoeft, Mary H.; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance R.; Pogranichniy, Sherry; Mullen, Russ E.

2006-01-01

37

Outcomes Assessment: From Knowledge to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategic planning model for planning and conducting outcomes assessment was developed and implemented at Wayland Baptist University in Lubbock, Texas. First, the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) model was used to survey 100 undergraduate students regarding their perceptions of skills they would need after graduation.…

Brooks, Kent

38

Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

2011-01-01

39

Aligning assessment with learning outcomes in outcome-based education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In outcome based learning, learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and competences) to be achieved by learners are in the focal point of the learning process. All educational activities and resources need to be related to the intended learning outcomes of a learning module or course, in order to assist the learners in successfully achieving the intended learning outcomes at the end

Raquel M. Crespo; Jad Najjar; Michael Derntl; Derick Leony; Susanne Neumann; Petra Oberhuemer; Michael Totschnig; Bernd Simon; Israel Gutierrez Rojas; Carlos Delgado Kloos

2010-01-01

40

AMEE Guide No. 14. Outcome-Based Education: Part 3--Assessment in Outcome-Based Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of performance assessment in outcome-based education. Compares the relationship and interplay between the two related paradigms and presents guidelines of assessment programs in outcome-based education. (Author/CCM)

Ben-David, Miriam Friedman

1999-01-01

41

Functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with brain tumors: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huang ME, Wartella JE, Kreutzer JS. Functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with brain tumors: a preliminary report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1540-6. Objectives: To determine the relationship between functional outcome and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain tumors receiving inpatient rehabilitation, and to assess the sensitivity of 4 assessment tools in measuring changes in that

Mark E. Huang; Jennifer E. Wartella; Jeffery S. Kreutzer

2001-01-01

42

Brain natriuretic peptide predicts functional outcome in ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been associated with cardioembolic (CE) stroke and increased post-stroke mortality. We sought to determine whether BNP levels were associated with functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Methods We measured BNP in consecutive patients aged ?18 years admitted to our Stroke Unit between 2002–2005. BNP quintiles were used for analysis. Stroke subtypes were assigned using TOAST criteria. Outcomes were measured as 6-month modified Rankin Scale score (“good outcome” = 0–2 vs. “poor”) as well as mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess association between the quintiles of BNP and outcomes. Predictive performance of BNP as compared to clinical model alone was assessed by comparing ROC curves. Results Of 569 ischemic stroke patients, 46% were female; mean age was 67.9 ± 15 years. In age- and gender-adjusted analysis, elevated BNP was associated with lower ejection fraction (p<0.0001) and left atrial dilatation (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, elevated BNP decreased the odds of good functional outcome (OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.41–0.98) and increased the odds of death (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.36–2.24) in these patients. Addition of BNP to multivariate models increased their predictive performance for functional outcome (p=0.013) and mortality (p<0.03) after CE stroke. Conclusions Serum BNP levels are strongly associated with CE stroke and functional outcome at 6 months after ischemic stroke. Inclusion of BNP improved prediction of mortality in patients with CE stroke. PMID:22116811

Rost, Natalia S; Biffi, Alessandro; Cloonan, Lisa; Chorba, John; Kelly, Peter; Greer, David; Ellinor, Patrick; Furie, Karen L

2011-01-01

43

Technology and outcomes assessment in lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Lung transplantation offers the hope of prolonged survival and significant improvement in quality of life to patients that have advanced lung diseases. However, the medical literature lacks strong positive evidence and shows conflicting information regarding survival and quality of life outcomes related to lung transplantation. Decisions about the use of lung transplantation require an assessment of trade-offs: do the potential health and quality of life benefits outweigh the potential risks and harms? No amount of theoretical reasoning can resolve this question; empiric data are needed. Rational analyses of these trade-offs require valid measurements of the benefits and harms to the patients in all relevant domains that affect survival and quality of life. Lung transplant systems and registries mainly focus outcomes assessment on patient survival on the waiting list and after transplantation. Improved analytic approaches allow comparisons of the survival effects of lung transplantation versus continued waiting. Lung transplant entities do not routinely collect quality of life data. However, the medical community and the public want to know how lung transplantation affects quality of life. Given the huge stakes for the patients, the providers, and the healthcare systems, key stakeholders need to further support quality of life assessment in patients with advanced lung disease that enter into the lung transplant systems. Studies of lung transplantation and its related technologies should assess patients with tools that integrate both survival and quality of life information. Higher quality information obtained will lead to improved knowledge and more informed decision making. PMID:19131538

Yusen, Roger D

2009-01-15

44

Clinical Outcomes Assessment of Three Similar Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surfaces  

PubMed Central

This report examines the clinical performance of three very similar total hip arthroplasty designs with distinctly different bearing surfaces used over the course 10-17 years. Clinical outcomes assessments for each group are compared in the context of varying implant related costs related to the latest technology at the time of surgery. Eighty-one surgeries were studied and differ by bearing surface. In this study, 36 hips are ceramic on polyethylene, 27 are metal on polyethylene and 18 are metal on metal. All polyethylene components are nonhighly cross-linked. The ceramic on polyethylene group has younger patients, on average, and higher percentage of patients with significant polyethylene wear. These groups have an average follow-up time of 8.6 years when assessing functional hip scores, thigh pain, groin pain, revision surgeries and radiographic osteolysis. The implant purchasing cost at the time of surgery was assessed to determine if a correlation exists between outcomes and the more technologically advanced implants use at the time of surgery. Based on midterm clinical outcome assessment, no correlation between initial hospital cost and clinical outcomes of one bearing surface over another can be found. PMID:25002938

Parsons, Christopher; Batson, Ryan; Reighard, Shane; Tanner, Stephanie; Snider, Becky; Pace, Thomas B.

2014-01-01

45

Meniscal allograft transplantation: preoperative assessment, surgical considerations, and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to characterize the preoperative assessment of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) candidates, to detail MAT surgical techniques, and to evaluate current clinical outcome data on MAT. The MAT candidate is typically less than 50 years old and has a history of knee injury, previous meniscus surgery, and persistent pain. Physical exam generally reveals knee pain with joint line tenderness with normal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating the postmeniscectomized state. There are several common surgical techniques used for transplantation, with fixation achieved through sutures, bony fixation, or a combination of the two. Concomitant procedures such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, osteotomy, and other cartilage procedures are commonly performed. The available short- and long-term studies of clinical outcomes of MAT are variable and difficult to effectively compare due to heterogeneity of the study population and available treatment techniques. In addition, there are no published randomized controlled trials. However, recent reviews and cohort studies of clinical outcomes following MAT have shown that whether performed in isolation or performed with concomitant articular cartilage, realignment, or soft tissue reconstruction procedures MAT outcomes have been acceptable with the majority of studies reporting improved clinical outcomes regardless of the scoring system employed. MAT has proven to be a safe and effective technique in reducing knee pain and improving function in the symptomatic meniscal deficient knee. Evaluation of long-term clinical outcomes is necessary as is evaluation of meniscal replacement alternatives. PMID:24951950

Mascarenhas, Randy; Yanke, Adam B; Frank, Rachel M; Butty, Davietta C; Cole, Brian J

2014-12-01

46

Assessment of endothelial function.  

PubMed

In 1986, endothelial function was measured for the first time in patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Since then, several methods for assessment of endothelial function, such as endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by intra-arterial infusion of vasoactive agents using coronary angiography, Doppler flow guide wire, mercury-filled Silastic strain-gauge plethysmography, flow-mediated vasodilation, reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry, and vascular response using an oscillometric method have been performed in humans. This review focuses on the assessment of endothelial function, including measurement history, methodological issues, and clinical perspectives. PMID:25740586

Higashi, Yukihito

2015-03-20

47

Effects of idiosyncratic stimulus variables on functional analysis outcomes.  

PubMed Central

As the methods for the functional analysis of problem behavior have continued to develop, there has been a greater focus on the specificity of controlling variables, both antecedents and consequences. Accelerating research interest in the role of antecedents reveals that a large array of stimulus variables can influence the rate of problem behavior. Indeed, the variety of these stimuli is so great that it is sometimes possible to overlook specific stimulus variables during initial assessment. The present study shows that a failure to identify these very specific (idiosyncratic) stimulus variables is serious because their presence can systematically alter the outcomes of functional analyses that are designed to assess the motivation of problem behavior. Guidelines are therefore discussed concerning when to suspect that idiosyncratic stimuli might be acting to influence assessment data, thereby promoting a search for additional stimulus variables whose identification can aid in improving the design of functional analysis conditions. PMID:9433791

Carr, E G; Yarbrough, S C; Langdon, N A

1997-01-01

48

FUNCTIONAL NEURORADIOLOGY Functional reorganization associated with outcome in hand  

E-print Network

] that significantly impair the quality of daily life for these patients. Previous studies have indicated, for the first time, investigate subgroups of stroke patients with different outcomes in hand function using a resting-state fMRI approach. Methods We selected 24 patients with subcortical stroke and divided them

49

A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

2014-01-01

50

Implementing Assessment in an Outcome-Based Marketing Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and implementation of assessment in a new outcome-based marketing curriculum that was developed using a zero-based approach. Outcomes for the marketing curriculum were specified at the program, department, course, and lesson levels. Direct embedded assessments as well as indirect assessment methods were used…

Borin, Norm; Metcalf, Lynn E.; Tietje, Brian C.

2008-01-01

51

Pancreatic function assessment.  

PubMed

Several non invasive tests are available to assess pancreatic function, but no one is routinely used in clinical practice to diagnose chronic pancreatitis, due to their poor sensitivity in diagnosing mild pancreatic insufficiency. (13)C breath tests share the same limits of the other non invasive functional tests, but the mixed triglyceride breath test seems to be useful in finding the correct dosage of enzyme substitutive therapy to prevent malnutrition in patients with known pancreatic insufficiency. PMID:24443071

Laterza, L; Scaldaferri, F; Bruno, G; Agnes, A; Boškoski, I; Ianiro, G; Gerardi, V; Ojetti, V; Alfieri, S; Gasbarrini, A

2013-01-01

52

Assessment of splenic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyposplenic patients are at risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which carries mortality of up to 70%.\\u000a Therefore, preventive measures are warranted. However, patients with diminished splenic function are difficult to identify.\\u000a In this review we discuss immunological, haematological and scintigraphic parameters that can be used to measure splenic function.\\u000a IgM memory B cells are a potential parameter for assessing

A. P. N. A. de Porto; A. J. J. Lammers; R. J. Bennink; I. J. M. ten Berge; P. Speelman; J. B. L. Hoekstra

2010-01-01

53

Glasgow Head Injury Outcome Prediction Program: an independent assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an independent data set, the utility of the Glasgow Head Injury Outcome Prediction Program was investigated in terms of possible frequency of use and reliability of outcome prediction in patients with severe head injury, or haematoma requiring evacuation, or coma lasting 6 hours or more, in whom outcome had been reliably assessed at 6 to 24 months after injury.

Justin J Nissen; Patricia A Jones; David F Signorini; Lilian S Murray; Graham M Teasdale; J Douglas Miller

1999-01-01

54

Functional outcome after acetabular revision with roof reinforcement rings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the role for potential predictors of functional outcome after acetabular arthroplasty and to assess the results of revision with the use of a roof reinforcement ring. Design A retrospective case series. Setting A tertiary-care referral centre. Patients Twenty-four patients (average age 72.7 years) who had undergone acetabular revision with a roof reinforcement ring were followed up for an average of 2.8 years. Interventions Revision acetabular arthroplasty was performed using either the Mueller or Burch–Schneider roof reinforcement ring, bone grafting and a cemented polyethylene cup. Outcome measures A modified Harris hip score (range of motion omitted), the SF-36 health survey and the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index measured outcome. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effects of certain clinical factors (age, sex, time to revision from previous hip operation and number of previous revisions) on outcome. Results Patients reported disability both on hip-specific and general health measures. The time to revision from previous operation positively correlated with SF-36 mental component scores (p = 0.003), WOMAC function (p = 0.04) and WOMAC pain (p = 0.03). Age, gender and number of past revisions did not affect outcome. Conclusions Patients who undergo acetabular revision with a roof ring will continue to have some disability in the first 3 years after the procedure. A greater time between the previous operation and the revision operation is associated with a better outcome. Patients’ expectations of postoperative results should be realistic in the face of a challenging reconstructive procedure. PMID:10948688

Jain, Rina; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.

2000-01-01

55

Predictors of excellent functional outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

OBJECT Case fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have decreased over time, and many patients treated with modern paradigms return to a normal life. However, there is little information on predictors of excellent functional outcome after aSAH. In this study, the authors investigated predictors of excellent outcome in a modern consecutive series of patients with aSAH. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of patients with aSAH admitted between 2001 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was excellent functional outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 or 1 at last follow-up within 1 year of aSAH. RESULTS Three hundred seventy-three patients were identified with posthospital follow-up. Excellent outcome was noted in 236 patients (63.3%), including an mRS score of 0 in 122 (32.7%) and an mRS score of 1 in 114 (30.6%). On univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with an excellent outcome: indicators of less severe bleeding, such as better World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade at any of the times of assessment, better modified Fisher grade, and absence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and symptomatic hydrocephalus; aneurysm treatment with coil embolization; absence of symptomatic vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and radiological infarction; absence of in-hospital seizures; lack of need for CSF diversion; fewer hours with fever; less severe anemia; and absence of transfusion. On multivariable analysis, the 4 variables that were most strongly associated with excellent outcome were presence of good clinical grade after neurological resuscitation, absence of ICH on initial CT scan, blood transfusion during the hospitalization, and radiological infarctions on final brain imaging. CONCLUSIONS Excellent outcomes (mRS score 0-1) can be achieved in the majority of patients with aSAH. The likelihood of excellent outcome is predicted by good clinical condition after resuscitation, absence of ICH on presentation, no evidence of infarction on brain imaging, and absence of blood transfusion during hospitalization. PMID:25495745

Pegoli, Marianna; Mandrekar, Jay; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Lanzino, Giuseppe

2015-02-01

56

Assessing the Social and Affective Outcomes of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systematic assessment of the social and affective outcomes of inclusion has been lagging behind the assessment of academic outcomes. This is particularly problematic in view of research evidence supporting concerns about peer rejection and bullying. In this article, Norah Frederickson and Elizabeth Simmonds, of University College London, and…

Frederickson, Norah; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Evans, Lynda; Soulsby, Chris

2007-01-01

57

Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

Bennett, Dorine

2010-01-01

58

Obstacles in Outcomes Assessment: Identifying and Overcoming Them.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The obstacles encountered in an outcomes assessment process were studied, focusing on the specific obstacles that prevent program administration from successfully completing the outcomes assessment process and the degree to which these obstacles operate. Of 135 dental hygiene education program directors surveyed, 107 responded, completing a…

Woldt, Janet L.

59

Measuring Outcomes in Alzheimer's Disease Research: Assessment of the Effectiveness of Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is a common disorder in the elderly, and a cure is not currently available. This article summarises the intervention studies that have been done in Alzheimer's disease research and discusses assessment tools and outcome measures used in these studies. Current approaches are broadening their definition of positive outcome beyond improvement or maintenance of cognitive functioning. These new areas

Stacey Wood; Jeffrey L. Cummings

1999-01-01

60

Assessment Strategy for an Outcome Based Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysian engineering education is now embracing an Outcome Based Education (OBE) approach. This approach emphasizes on the outcomes, as opposed to the process in an educational strategy. The approach now becomes one of the important for an engineering degree to obtain accreditation from the Malaysian Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC). The approach is relatively new in the country, and it requires

M. S. Jaafar; N. K. Nordin; R. Wagiran; A. Aziz; M. J. M. M. Noor; M. R. Osman; J. Noorzaei; F. N. A. Abdulaziz

61

Students' Conceptions of Assessment: Links to Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students conceive of assessment in at least four major ways (i.e., assessment makes students accountable; assessment is irrelevant because it is bad or unfair; assessment improves the quality of learning; and assessment is enjoyable). A study in New Zealand of 3469 secondary school students' conceptions of assessment used a self-report inventory…

Brown, Gavin T. L.; Hirschfeld, Gerrit H. F.

2008-01-01

62

Alternative Approaches to Outcomes Assessment for Postsecondary Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes six different approaches to outcomes assessments, approaches that are named in the titles of chapters 2 through 7. The chapters and authors are as follows: "Perspectives on Assessment Policy and Practice" (Bragg, Harmon); "Total Quality Management" (Bragg); "Assessing Student Success" (Harmon); "Value-Added Assessment"…

Bragg, Debra D., Ed.

63

Executive Function Processes Predict Mobility Outcomes in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting an association between cognitive function and physical performance in late life. This study examined the relationship between performance on executive function measures and subsequent mobility outcomes among community dwelling older adults across a 12-month randomized controlled exercise trial. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING: Champaign-Urbana, Illinois PARTICIPANTS: Community dwelling older adults (N = 179; Mage = 66.4) INTERVENTION: A 12-month exercise trial with two arms: an aerobic exercise group and a stretching and strengthening group MEASUREMENTS: Established cognitive tests of executive function including the flanker task, task switching and a dual task paradigm, and the Wisconsin card sort test. Mobility was assessed using the timed 8-foot up and go test and times to climb up and down a flight of stairs. METHODS: Participants completed the cognitive measures at baseline and the mobility measures at baseline and after 12 months of the intervention. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether baseline executive function predicted post-intervention functional performance after controlling for age, sex, education, cardiorespiratory fitness and baseline mobility levels. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed that selective baseline executive function measures, particularly performance on the flanker task (?’s =.15 to .17) and the Wisconsin card sort test (?’s =.11 to .16) consistently predicted mobility outcomes at month 12. The estimates were in the expected direction, such that better baseline performance on the executive function measures predicted better performance on the timed mobility tests independent of the intervention group. CONCLUSION: Executive functions of inhibitory control, mental set shifting and attentional flexibility were predictive of functional mobility. Given the literature associating mobility limitations with disability, morbidity, and mortality, these results are important for understanding the antecedents to poor mobility function that can be attenuated by well-designed interventions to improve cognitive performance. PMID:24521364

Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, David; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Voss, Michelle; Erickson, Kirk I.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

2013-01-01

64

Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome

Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

2007-01-01

65

Neurologic, Functional and Cognitive Stroke Outcomes in Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Our objective was to compare neurologic, functional, and cognitive stroke outcomes in Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) using data from a population-based study. Methods: Ischemic strokes (2008-2012) were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from patient or proxy interviews (conducted at baseline and 90 days post-stroke) and medical records. Ethnic differences in neurologic (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), range 0-44, higher scores worse), functional (activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score, range 1-4, higher scores worse), and cognitive (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), range 0-100, lower scores worse) outcomes were assessed with Tobit or linear regression adjusted for demographics and clinical factors. Results: 513, 510, and 415 subjects had complete data for neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes and covariates, respectively. Median age was 66 (IQR: 57-78); 64% were MA. In MAs, median NIHSS, ADL/IADL and 3MSE score were 3 (IQR: 1-6), 2.5 (IQR: 1.6-3.5) and 88 (IQR: 76-94), respectively. MAs scored 48% worse (95% CI: 23%-78%) on NIHSS, 0.36 points worse (95% CI: 0.16-0.57) on ADL/IADL score, and 3.39 points worse (95% CI: 0.35-6.43) on 3MSE than NHWs after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: MAs scored worse than NHWs on all outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors; differences were only partially explained by ethnic differences in survival. These findings in combination with the increased stroke risk in MAs suggest that the public health burden of stroke in this growing population is substantial. PMID:24627112

Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Baek, Jonggyu; Skolarus, Lesli E; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

2014-01-01

66

Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Background From a mechanistic or physical perspective there is no basis to suspect that electric charges on clusters of air molecules (air ions) would have beneficial or deleterious effects on respiratory function. Yet, there is a large lay and scientific literature spanning 80 years that asserts exposure to air ions affects the respiratory system and has other biological effects. Aims This review evaluates the scientific evidence in published human experimental studies regarding the effects of exposure to air ions on respiratory performance and symptoms. Methods We identified 23 studies (published 1933–1993) that met our inclusion criteria. Relevant data pertaining to study population characteristics, study design, experimental methods, statistical techniques, and study results were assessed. Where relevant, random effects meta-analysis models were utilized to quantify similar exposure and outcome groupings. Results The included studies examined the therapeutic benefits of exposure to negative air ions on respiratory outcomes, such as ventilatory function and asthmatic symptoms. Study specific sample sizes ranged between 7 and 23, and studies varied considerably by subject characteristics (e.g., infants with asthma, adults with emphysema), experimental method, outcomes measured (e.g., subjective symptoms, sensitivity, clinical pulmonary function), analytical design, and statistical reporting. Conclusions Despite numerous experimental and analytical differences across studies, the literature does not clearly support a beneficial role in exposure to negative air ions and respiratory function or asthmatic symptom alleviation. Further, collectively, the human experimental studies do not indicate a significant detrimental effect of exposure to positive air ions on respiratory measures. Exposure to negative or positive air ions does not appear to play an appreciable role in respiratory function. PMID:24016271

2013-01-01

67

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: Workplace, Family, and Community Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was conducted to assess Family Studies bachelor's degree graduates' use of learning outcomes from course competencies in personal finance, family lifespan development, intervention, and advocacy and policy, and to determine how they apply these learning outcomes to their workplace, family, and community roles. Alumni surveys completed by…

Johnson, Cheryl A.; Heath, Claudia J.

2011-01-01

68

Assessment of Student Professional Outcomes for Continuous Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a method for the assessment of professional student outcomes (performance-type outcomes or soft skills). The method is based upon group activities, research on modern electrical engineering topics by individual students, classroom presentations on chosen research topics, final presentations, and technical report writing.…

Keshavarz, Mohsen; Baghdarnia, Mostafa

2013-01-01

69

ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF A DEMAND ASSESSMENT FOR FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of compliance or high levels of problem behavior (low-probability demands) and demands associated with high levels of compliance or low levels of problem behavior (high-probability demands). Results showed that clearer functional analysis outcomes were obtained for 3 of the 4 participants when low-probability rather than high-probability demands were used. PMID:20514188

Roscoe, Eileen M; Rooker, Griffin W; Pence, Sacha T; Longworth, Lynlea J

2009-01-01

70

A Conceptual Scheme for Assessing Treatment Outcome in Suicidality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides a simpIe framework for conceptualizing treatment outcome, distinguishing between direct and indirect\\u000a markers of treatment success. Additionally, normative comparisons and the need for a core assessment battery are discussed.

M. David Rudd

71

Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

2012-01-01

72

Contribution of Functional Parameters to Patient-rated Outcomes after Surgical Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose Outcomes of distal radius fractures can be measured radiographically, functionally, or via patient-rated questionnaires; but previous studies report conflicting results regarding the relationship between these outcomes. Our specific aim was to explore the role that functional outcomes play in the score of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), a patient-rated hand instrument. Methods Data were obtained for 207 patients. Demographic information was collected as part of the MHQ. Function (wrist motion and grip and pinch strength) was assessed 3 and 6 months following fracture fixation. Linear regression analysis was applied to determine each item’s contribution to total MHQ score. Results After linear regression analysis was applied, it was determined that 3 months following fixation all included factors contributed 37% of MHQ score. Only grip strength difference between the injured and uninjured hands was significantly associated, contributing 22% of MHQ score. Six weeks and 6 months after fixation all included factors contributed 43% and 34% of MHQ score, respectively. No individual factors were significant contributors. Conclusions Measured functional outcomes variables account for less than 40% of total MHQ score. Identifying the unmeasured factors that make-up the additional 60% of total MHQ score would be beneficial in the continued examination of patient-rated outcomes. Furthermore the use of multiple outcomes assessment modalities should be considered in any study measuring patient-rated outcomes. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic PMID:24447846

Shauver, Melissa J.; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Chung, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

73

Direct Measures for Course Outcomes Assessment for ABET Accreditation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Direct measures provide for the direct examination or observation of student knowledge or skills against measurable learning outcomes. ABET has been putting increasing emphasis on direct measures for a program to demonstrate its achievement of program outcomes and educational objectives. In this paper, an approach for assessment of course outcomes using direct measures is presented. The knowledge and skills described by the course outcomes are mapped to specific problems on homework and exams. Throughout the semester the instructor keeps track of the performance of each student on each course outcome. At the end of the semester students receive letter grades as usual. But in addition each student receives a score on the scale of 1-to-5 for every course outcome indicating how well he/she achieved each outcome. The data (scores) coming from each course are used at the program level to assess the program outcomes. The paper provides an example and concludes with recommendations for other institutions that may choose to adapt a similar approach.

Gurocak, Hakan

74

Determinants of the subjective functional outcome of total joint arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is three-fold: (i) to analyze association between early subjective functional outcome of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and patient-related risk factors; (ii) to evaluate the six-month subjective functional outcome of TJA as compared with subjective functional status of non-operated outpatients; (iii) to evaluate TJA self-perceived amelioration rates compared to the status of an age-matched sample from

B. Caracciolo; S. Giaquinto

2005-01-01

75

The State of Learning Outcomes Assessment in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, economic and other factors are pressing institutions of higher education to assess student learning to insure that graduates acquire the skills and competencies demanded in the 21st century. This paper summarises the status of undergraduate student learning outcomes assessment at accredited colleges and universities in the United…

Kuh, George D.; Ewell, Peter T.

2010-01-01

76

Investigating ESL Students' Performance on Outcomes Assessments in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes assessments are gaining great attention in higher education because of increased demand for accountability. These assessments are widely used by U.S. higher education institutions to measure students' college-level knowledge and skills, including students who speak English as a second language (ESL). For the past decade, the increasing…

Lakin, Joni M.; Elliott, Diane Cardenas; Liu, Ou Lydia

2012-01-01

77

Student Learning Outcome Assessment Plan: Continuous Quality Improvement  

E-print Network

Student Learning Outcome Assessment Plan: Continuous Quality Improvement Florida Atlantic University A Report to the Team for Assurance of Student Learning and the Associate Provost for Assessment and Instruction By the TASL Best Practices Subcommittee Sharon Dormire, PhD, RN, College of Nursing Diane Green

Fernandez, Eduardo

78

Assessing Outcomes: Practical Methods and Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University counseling center clients' (N = 52) perceptions of precounseling functioning were highly correlated with their actual well-being scores at intake. The magnitude of change based on perceptions of precounseling functioning to current well-being was approximately double of what is found from the difference of actual precounseling…

Moore, Jon; Owen, Jesse

2014-01-01

79

Assessing traumatic brain injury outcome measures for long-term follow-up of community-based individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hall KM, Bushnik T, Lakisic-Kazazic B, Wright J, Cantagallo A. Assessing traumatic brain injury outcome measures for long-term follow-up of community-based individuals. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:367-74. Objectives: To determine which outcome measures are best and least suited for assessing long-term functional outcome of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the community. Design: Survey of participants in the community

Karyl M. Hall; Tamara Bushnik; Bajazeda Lakisic-Kazazic; Jerry Wright; Anna Cantagallo

2001-01-01

80

Functional Outcomes in a Postacute Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional outcomes among individuals with acquired brain injury who received treatment at a postacute brain injury rehabilitation program over a 3-year period (2008 to 2010). Participation in community and\\/or social roles, supervision required, and adaptive functioning outcomes were evaluated in a sample of 109 adults (71% male, 29% female; 88.1% White, 11.9%

Esther Brahmstadt

2012-01-01

81

Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury  

PubMed Central

Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes) test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. PMID:25395854

Ubukata, Shiho; Tanemura, Rumi; Yoshizumi, Miho; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

2014-01-01

82

From Perception to Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia: Modeling the Role of Ability and Motivation  

PubMed Central

Context Schizophrenia remains a highly disabling disorder, but the specific determinants and pathways that lead to functional impairment are not well understood. It is not known whether these key determinants of outcome lie on one or multiple pathways. Objective This study evaluated theoretically-based models of pathways to functional outcome starting with early visual perception. The intervening variables were previously established determinants of outcome drawn from two general categories: ability (i.e., social cognition and functional capacity) and beliefs / motivation (i.e., defeatist beliefs, expressive and experiential negative symptoms). We evaluated an integrative model in which these intervening variables formed a single pathway to poor outcome. Design This was a cross-sectional study that applied structural equation modeling to evaluate the relationships among determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Setting Assessments were conducted at a Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center. Participants One hundred ninety one clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from the community. Results A measurement model showed that the latent variables of perception, social cognition, and functional outcome were well-reflected by their indicators. An initial untrimmed structural model with functional capacity, defeatist beliefs, and expressive and experiential negative symptoms had good model fit. A final trimmed model was a single path running from perception to ability to motivational variables to outcome. It was more parsimonious and had better fit indices than the untrimmed model. Further, it could not be improved by adding or dropping connections that would change the single path to multiple paths. The indirect effect from perception to outcome was significant. Conclusions The final structural model was a single pathway running from perception to ability to beliefs / motivation to outcome. Hence, both ability and motivation appear to be needed for community functioning, and can be modeled effectively on the same pathway. PMID:23026889

Green, Michael F.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Horan, William P.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.

2014-01-01

83

Outcome Assessment Process in a Manufacturing Engineering Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To achieve the goals and objectives of program educational objectives, our Manufacturing Engineering (MANE) program at Virginia State University developed a curriculum that provides students with balanced coverage of ABET and the University core requirements. The program outcomes have been adopted considering the University and school mission, program objectives, (a) through (k) defined by Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and specific outcomes for manufacturing engineering as defined by the Society of Manufacturing Engineering (SME). Our MANE program focuses on the areas of automation, quality, manufacturing process, engineering analysis and manufacturing design to prepare students for successful careers in manufacturing engineering and allied professions. This paper presents a brief description of the major components of our assessment that fulfill the ABET criteria for continuous improvement requirements. The assessment process and evaluation of the program outcomes are discussed along with the results as well.

Ansari, Jahangir

84

Outcome Assessment of the Visiting Fulbright Scholar Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Policy and Evaluation of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Department of State contracted with SRI International to conduct a series of assessments of outcomes and impacts of various specialized exchange programs under the overall umbrella of the Fulbright Educational Exchange Program, the U.S. government's…

US Department of State, 2005

2005-01-01

85

Pastureland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Status and expected outcomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands. A CEAP effort on pastureland, primarily in the eastern and central United States, began in 2008. In this paper we ...

86

Choosing Assessment Instruments for Bulimia Practice and Outcome Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six commonly used instruments for assessment of eating disorders were analyzed. Effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2013) meta-analysis for the treatment of bulimia nervosa were used to compare each scale's ability to measure treatment outcomes for bulimia nervosa. Effect size comparisons indicated higher overall effect sizes using…

Sandberg, Katie; Erford, Bradley T.

2013-01-01

87

Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

2008-01-01

88

Functional MRI and Outcome in Traumatic Coma  

PubMed Central

Advances in task-based functional MRI (fMRI), resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and arterial-spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI have occurred at a rapid pace in recent years. These techniques for measuring brain function have great potential to improve the accuracy of prognostication for civilian and military patients with traumatic coma. In addition, fMRI, rs-fMRI, and ASL have provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of traumatic disorders of consciousness, as well as mechanisms of recovery from coma. However, functional neuroimaging techniques have yet to achieve widespread clinical use as prognostic tests for patients with traumatic coma. Rather, a broad spectrum of methodological hurdles currently limits the feasibility of clinical implementation. In this review, we discuss the basic principles of fMRI, rs-fMRI and ASL and their potential applications as prognostic tools for patients with traumatic coma. We also discuss future strategies for overcoming the current barriers to clinical implementation. PMID:23881623

Giacino, Joseph T.; Wu, Ona

2013-01-01

89

Poststroke Shoulder Pain in Turkish Stroke Patients: Relationship with Clinical Factors and Functional Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to assess the possible causes of hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) in Turkish patients with stroke, to identify the correlation between HSP and clinical factors, and to review the effects of HSP on functional outcomes. A total of 187 consecutive patients with stroke were evaluated for the presence of HSP and for the…

Barlak, Aysegul; Unsal, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Sahin-Onat, Sule; Ozel, Sumru

2009-01-01

90

Critical analysis of outcome measures used in the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Clinicians and researchers are confounded by the various outcome measures used for the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, we critically analysed the conceptual framework, validity, reliability, responsiveness and appropriateness of some of the commonly used CTS outcome measures. Initially, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify all of the outcome measures used in the assessment of CTS patients, which revealed six different carpal tunnel outcome measures [Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ), Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM), clinical rating scale (Historical-Objective (Hi-Ob) scale) and Upper Extremity Functional Scale (UEFS)]. We analysed the construction framework, development process, validation process, reliability, internal consistency (IC), responsiveness and limitations of each of these outcome measures. Our analysis reveals that BCTQ, MHQ and PEM have comprehensive frameworks, good validity, reliability and responsiveness both in the hands of the developers, as well as independent researchers. The UEFS and Hi-Ob scale need validation and reliability testing by independent researchers. Region-specific measures like DASH have good frameworks and, hence, a potential role in the assessment of CTS but they require more validation in exclusive carpal tunnel patients. PMID:17370071

Priyanka, P.; Gul, Arif; Ilango, Balakrishnan

2007-01-01

91

Functional limitations and survival following stroke: Psychological and clinical predictors of 3-year outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies predicting functional outcomes of stroke have mainly used clinical and demographic measures. This study examines\\u000a the additional predictive value of psychological predictors. A cohort of patients were assessed on 6 occasions between admission\\u000a to hospital and 3 years post-stroke, with 40 of the original sample of 101 being available at the final assessment. Demographic\\u000a variables, clinical indexes, and

Marie Johnston; Beth Pollard; Val Morrison; Ron MacWalter

2004-01-01

92

The Impact of Functional Dependency on Outcomes After Complex General and Vascular Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the outcomes of functionally dependent patients who undergo major general or vascular surgery and to determine the relationship between functional health status and early postoperative outcomes. Background In contrast to frailty, functional health status is a relatively easy entity to define and to measure and therefore may be a more practical variable to assess in patients who are being considered for major surgery. To date, few studies have assessed the impact of functional health status on surgical outcomes. Methods Patients undergoing 1 of 10 complex general or vascular operations were extracted from the 2005 to 2010 America College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Propensity score techniques were used to match patients with and without preoperative functional dependency on known patient- and procedure-related factors. The postoperative outcomes of this matched cohort were then compared. Results A total of 10,246 functionally dependent surgical patients were included for analysis. These patients were more acutely and chronically ill than functionally independent patients, and they had higher rates of mortality and morbidity for each of the 10 procedures analyzed. Propensity-matching techniques resulted in the creation of a cohort of functionally independent and dependent patients who were well matched for known patient- and procedure-related variables. Dependent patients from the matched cohort had a 1.75-fold greater odds of postoperative death (95% confidence interval: 1.54–1.98, P < 0.0001) than functionally independent patients. Conclusions Preoperative functional dependency is an independent risk factor for mortality after major operation. Functional health status should be routinely assessed in patients who are being considered for complex surgery. PMID:24887971

Scarborough, John E.; Bennett, Kyla M.; Englum, Brian R.; Pappas, Theodore N.; Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Sandhya A.

2015-01-01

93

High Plasma Glutamate Levels are Associated with Poor Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between acute ischemic stroke and glutamate levels and to determine the prognosis value of plasma glutamate levels to predict the functional outcome. Two hundred and forty-two patients with acute ischemic stroke and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Plasma glutamate levels were determined by HPLC at admission in both groups. Stroke severity was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months was determined to outcomes, and unfavorable outcomes were defined as mRS at 3-6. The prognostic value analyzed by logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for the possible confounders. In the 94 patients with an unfavorable functional outcome, plasma glutamate levels were higher compared with those in patients with a favorable outcome [221(IQR, 152-321) ?M; 176(IQR, 112-226) ?M, respectively; P < 0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, glutamate was an independent predictor of functional outcome, with an adjusted OR of 6.99 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.21-21.23). Receiver operating characteristics to predict functional outcome demonstrated areas under the curve of glutamate of 0.821 (95 % CI 0.733-0.878; P < 0.0001) and combined model (glutamate and NIHSS) improved the NIHSS score alone. Plasma glutamate levels can be seen as an independent short-term prognostic marker of functional outcome in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke even after correcting for possible confounding factors. PMID:25190005

Meng, Xiang-En; Li, Na; Guo, Da-Zhi; Pan, Shu-Yi; Li, Hang; Yang, Chen

2015-03-01

94

Functional Outcome Analysis: Do the Costs Outweigh the Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to previous article (Noell and Gresham, this issue) on Functional Outcome Analysis (FOA) as important construct for evaluation of consultation and prereferral interventions. Notes that, practically speaking, one must wonder if information gleaned from FOA is worth costs. Addresses perceived scientific and practical merits of FOA. (NB)

Sheridan, Susan M.

1993-01-01

95

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40

96

The effectiveness of modified cottle maneuver in predicting outcomes in functional rhinoplasty.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the outcomes of functional rhinoplasty for nasal valve incompetence and to evaluate an in-office test used to select appropriate surgical techniques. Methods. Patients with nasal obstruction due to nasal valve incompetence were enrolled. The modified Cottle maneuver was used to assess the internal and external nasal valves to help select the appropriate surgical method. The rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation (ROE) form and a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) of nasal breathing were used to compare preoperative and postoperative symptoms. Results. Forty-nine patients underwent functional rhinoplasty evaluation. Of those, 35 isolated batten or spreader grafts were inserted without additional procedures. Overall mean ROE score increased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 41.9 ± 2.4 to 81.7 ± 2.5 after surgery. Subjective improvement in nasal breathing was also observed with the VAS (mean improvement of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.2) from baseline (P = 0.000)). Spearman rank correlation between predicted outcomes using the modified Cottle maneuver and postoperative outcomes was strong for the internal nasal valve (Rho = 0.80; P = 0.0029) and moderate for the external nasal valve (Rho = 0.50; P = 0.013). Conclusion. Functional rhinoplasty improved subjective nasal airflow in our population. The modified Cottle maneuver was effective in predicting positive surgical outcomes. PMID:25243085

Fung, Elaine; Hong, Paul; Moore, Corey; Taylor, S Mark

2014-01-01

97

The Effectiveness of Modified Cottle Maneuver in Predicting Outcomes in Functional Rhinoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the outcomes of functional rhinoplasty for nasal valve incompetence and to evaluate an in-office test used to select appropriate surgical techniques. Methods. Patients with nasal obstruction due to nasal valve incompetence were enrolled. The modified Cottle maneuver was used to assess the internal and external nasal valves to help select the appropriate surgical method. The rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation (ROE) form and a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) of nasal breathing were used to compare preoperative and postoperative symptoms. Results. Forty-nine patients underwent functional rhinoplasty evaluation. Of those, 35 isolated batten or spreader grafts were inserted without additional procedures. Overall mean ROE score increased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 41.9 ± 2.4 to 81.7 ± 2.5 after surgery. Subjective improvement in nasal breathing was also observed with the VAS (mean improvement of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8–5.2) from baseline (P = 0.000)). Spearman rank correlation between predicted outcomes using the modified Cottle maneuver and postoperative outcomes was strong for the internal nasal valve (Rho = 0.80; P = 0.0029) and moderate for the external nasal valve (Rho = 0.50; P = 0.013). Conclusion. Functional rhinoplasty improved subjective nasal airflow in our population. The modified Cottle maneuver was effective in predicting positive surgical outcomes. PMID:25243085

Moore, Corey; Taylor, S. Mark

2014-01-01

98

Cost-Optimal Assessment Scheduling for Outcome Management in Psychotherapy  

E-print Network

The random walk model for psychological distress justify the following outcome management strategy: consider prolonging psychotherapy as long as an acceptable distress level is not reached and terminating the therapy if this level is reached. This strategy promises to increase the efficiency of psychotherapy provision by guiding the allocation of therapeutic resources. As the strategy rely on frequent assessments, the question of cost-optimal assessment scheduling arises. In this study the cost effects of two scheduling modes were explored by computer simulations. With fixed schedule the assessments were carried out each S sessions. With adaptive schedule the assessments were carried out at the percentile P of the distribution of predicted time till reaching acceptable distress whereby the prediction were updated at each assessment. S and P influence the sensitivity/specificity ratio of the schedule. To find the costoptimal values, they were varied. The model parameters were based on SCL-90-R GSI courses from an inpatient sample (N=2046). With therapy/assessment cost ratio set to 5 and acceptable distress set to ?0.58, the cost-optimal fixed solution yields a mean therapy length of 52 days and a mean number of 11 assessments. The cost-optimal adaptive solution yields a mean therapy length of 51 days and a mean number of 4 assessments.

Percevic Robert

99

Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Functional Outcome among Postmenopausal Women with Hip Fracture  

PubMed Central

Objective The main objective of the current study was to assess the distribution and its prognostic value of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) levels assessed at admission in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fracture. Methods From January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, all postmenopausal women with first-ever hip fracture were recruited to participate in the study. Serum 25[OH] D levels were measured at admission. The functional evaluation at the time of discharge was performed by the Barthel Index (BI). The prognostic value of 25[OH] D to predict the functional outcome within discharge was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for the possible confounders. Results In our study, 261 patients were included and assessed. In the 76 patients with an unfavorable functional outcome, serum 25(OH) D levels were lower compared with those in patients with a favorable outcome [11.8(IQR, 9.9–16.1)ng/ml; 16.8(IQR, 13.6–21.4)ng/ml, respectively; P<0.0001]. In multivariate analysis, there was an increased risk of unfavorable outcome associated with serum 25(OH) D levels ? 20ng/ml (OR 5.24, 95%CI: 3.11–8.15; P<0.0001) after adjusting for possible confounders. Conclusions Our data support an association between serum 25[OH] D levels and prognosis in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fracture. PMID:25635882

Liu, Lan-Mei; Wang, Shuai-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Sheng; Han, Xiang-Zhen; Wei, Bao-Fu

2015-01-01

100

Social cognition in psychosis: multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome.  

PubMed

Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert S; Green, Michael F

2011-02-01

101

Hearing and facial function outcomes for neurofibromatosis 2 clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Vestibular schwannomas are the hallmark of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), occurring in >95% of patients. These tumors develop on the vestibulocochlear nerve and are associated with significant morbidity due to hearing loss, tinnitus, imbalance, facial weakness, and risk of early mortality from brainstem compression. Although hearing loss and facial weakness have been identified as important functional outcomes for patients with NF2, there is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate endpoints in clinical trials. Methods: The functional outcomes group reviewed existing endpoints for hearing and facial function and developed consensus recommendations for response evaluation in NF2 clinical trials. Results: For hearing endpoints, the functional group endorsed the use of maximum word recognition score as a primary endpoint, with the 95% critical difference as primary hearing outcomes. The group recommended use of the scaled measurement of improvement in lip excursion (SMILE) system for studies of facial function. Conclusions: These recommendations are intended to provide researchers with a common set of endpoints for use in clinical trials of patients with NF2. The use of common endpoints should improve the quality of clinical trials and foster comparison among studies for hearing loss and facial weakness. PMID:24249803

Ardern-Holmes, Simone L.; Barker, Fred G.; Blakeley, Jaishri O.; Evans, D. Gareth; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Hadlock, Tessa A.; Halpin, Chris

2013-01-01

102

Predictors of Improvements in Daytime Function Outcomes with CPAP Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves daytime function in the sleep apnea\\/ hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) but it is unclear which patients benefit and what factors predict this im- provement. To test the hypothesis that brief arousals from sleep predict improvements in daytime functioning with CPAP therapy, we prospectively studied 62 patients with polysomnography-defined SAHS. Each underwent daytime function assessments

RUTH N. KINGSHOTT; MARJORIE VENNELLE; CAROL J. HOY; HEATHER M. ENGLEMAN; IAN J. DEARY; NEIL J. DOUGLAS

2000-01-01

103

To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

2012-06-01

104

Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment

White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

2014-01-01

105

Routine outcome measurement in mental health service consumers: Who should provide support for the self-assessments?  

PubMed

This study examined whether mental health community service users completed outcome self-reports differently when assessments were supervised by internal vs. external staff. The examination of potential differences between the two has useful implications for mental health systems that take upon themselves the challenge of Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM), as it might impact allocation of public resources and managed care program planning. 73 consumers completed the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), a shortened version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), and a functioning questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered, once using support provided by internal staff and once using support provided by external professional staff, with a one-month time interval and in random order. A MANOVA Repeated Measures showed no differences in outcomes of quality of life and recovery between internal and external support. Functioning scores were higher for the internal support when the internal assessments were performed first. Overall, except for the differences in functioning assessment, outcome scores were not determined by the supporting agency. This might indicate that when measuring quality of life and recovery, different supporting methods can be used to gather outcome measures and internal staff might be a good default agency to do this. Differences found in functioning assessment are discussed. PMID:25748604

Gelkopf, Marc; Pagorek-Eshel, Shira; Trauer, Tom; Roe, David

2015-06-01

106

Renal function and oncologic outcomes in nephron sparing surgery for renal masses in solitary kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  With low life expectancy rates in hemodialysis patients, the preservation of renal parenchyma must be weighed against the\\u000a oncological outcomes in considering partial nephrectomy (PN) in solitary kidneys. The main objective of this study was to\\u000a assess the oncologic and functional outcomes after PN in patients with solitary kidneys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective analysis of the Columbia University Medical Center Urologic Oncology

Daniel J. Lee; Greg Hruby; Mitchell C. Benson; James M. McKiernan

2011-01-01

107

Cognitive and functional assessments of stroke patients: An analysis of their relation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To improve the assessment of stroke patients for the purpose of designing rehabilitation treatments and predicting rehabilitation outcomes. Specific objectives included the evaluation of the power of functional scales to properly assess both physical and cognitive disabilities, and the evaluation of the relations between functional, neurological, physical, and cognitive assessments. The hypothesis was that the relations between different assessment

Vlasta E. Hajek; Sylvain Gagnon; James E. Ruderman

1997-01-01

108

Strategies for Assessing Learning Outcomes in an Online Oceanography Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students are informed of the instructor's expectations at the beginning of the course. The level of faculty-student and student-student communication is very high, both in terms of quantity and quality, and exceeds that experienced in classroom sections. Student scores on graded assignments compare favorably to classroom sections. Overall, online courses offer a cost-effective means of addressing top priority issues, including increasing student access to learning, accelerating rates of graduation, and improving outreach to K-12 educators, especially those working on credential requirements.

Reed, D. L.

2003-12-01

109

A Comparison of Functional Outcomes After Metallic and Bioabsorbable Interference Screw Fixations in Arthroscopic ACL Reconstructions  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is as one of the most frequently injured ligaments in the modern contact sports scenario. Graft fixations can be achieved during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions by using either bioabsorbable screws or metal screws. The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes after bioabsorbable and metallic interference screw fixations in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions done by using hamstring grafts. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized study. Patients in Group 1 received bioabsorbable interference screws and patients in Group 2 received metallic interference screws. Arthroscopic assisted, anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with the use of hamstring grafts which were fixed proximally with endobuttons and distally with bioabsorbable or metallic interference screws, were undertaken. Progress in functional outcomes was assessed by using Mann Whitney U- test. Functional outcomes in the two groups were compared by using independent t-test. Observation and Results: In each group, there were statistically significant improvements in functional outcomes over successive follow-ups, which were seen on basis on Mann-Whitney U-test. The comparison of functional outcomes between the two groups, done by using independent t-test, showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year of follow-up. p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant in our study. Conclusion: In our prospective study of comparison of functional outcomes between bioabsorbable and metallic interference screws in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstuctions, which were evaluated by using Tegner activity scale and Lysholm knee scoring scale for a period of 1 year, no statistically significant difference was found. However, further authentication is required by doing long term studies. PMID:24959468

Rai, Deepak K; Kannampilly, Antony J

2014-01-01

110

Assessing outcome in psychoanalysis and long-term dynamic psychotherapy.  

PubMed

The efficacy of psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy remains a fundamentally unresolved issue for lack of methodologically sound studies. This article reviews the shortcomings of prior long-term treatment research, and presents a rationale and justification of the importance of more rigorous outcome studies. An emphasis on process research is premature when efficacy remains uncertain. The modern reconceptualization of psychotherapy in terms of hermeneutic theory is discussed in relation to the empirical model. Although historically the hermeneutic perspective has served to repudiate positivism, the hermeneutic and empirical (but not positivistic) approaches to understanding information actually share common priorities. The clearest of these is that the process is ultimately evaluated and validated by the produced effect. It is argued that the recasting of psychoanalytic technique and theory according to aesthetic and pragmatic principles is not inconsistent with contemporary outcome research paradigms so long as the professed treatment objective is clearly specified in verifiable terms. The specific methodologic problems involved in extending the successful short-term psychotherapy research model to psychoanalysis are discussed. An overview of the major components of the Columbia feasibility study currently underway is presented. Finally, a number of assessment domains-for which reliable and validated instruments exist-that are thought to be relevant to outcome are reviewed. PMID:9220374

Marshall, R D; Vaughan, S C; MacKinnon, R A; Mellman, L A; Roose, S P

1996-01-01

111

State Special Education Outcomes, 1993: A Report on State Activities in the Assessment of Educational Outcomes for Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of the third national survey of state activities in the assessment of educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The report does not contain actual outcomes data on students with disabilities. Twenty-three tables present data on: number of students in general education and special education in each state;…

Shriner, James G.; And Others

112

Ambulatory and admitted laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients have comparable outcomes but different functional health status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is frequently an ambulatory procedure, but some patients are best admitted for a brief hospital\\u000a stay. In this study, we compared the functional health status, symptoms, and outcomes of patients undergoing ambulatory elective\\u000a laparoscopic cholecystectomy to those with brief hospital admission. The purpose was to assess patient satisfaction and to\\u000a identify factors that might assist in selecting patients

R. E. Burney; K. R. Jones

2002-01-01

113

Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ?4% of the annual number for ?2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus <2% of the annual positive isolates for ?2 consecutive weeks. We examined effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were <0.1% for all natural causes mortality, but >0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

2010-04-01

114

Introduction to Outcomes Assessment of Graduate Programs at NC State The Graduate School, NC State University  

E-print Network

University Outcomes assessment is a part of a broader shift in higher education. Traditionally, we have taken, and other attributes we expect of them. An outcomes-based perspective reverses that relationship. Instead #12;of what faculty have learned about their programs based on outcomes assessment and what changes

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

115

Outcome assessment for spasticity management in the patient with traumatic brain injury: the state of the art.  

PubMed

The objective of this article was to (1) review the engineering and medical literature to structure the available information concerning the assessment of spasticity in the neurological population; (2) to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods currently in use in spasticity assessment; and (3) make recommendations for future efforts in spasticity outcome assessment. Spasticity textbooks, Web sites, and OVID, IEEE, and Medline searches from 1966 through 2003 of spasticity, quantitative measure, or outcome assessment in the rehabilitation population were used as data sources. Over 500 articles were reviewed. Articles that discussed outcome measures used to assess interventions and evaluation of spasticity were included. Authors reviewed the articles looking at inclusion criteria, data collection, methodology, assessment methods, and conclusions for validity and relevance to this article. Issues such as clinical relevance, real-world function and lack of objectivity, and time consumed during performance are important issues for spasticity assessment. Some measures such as the Ashworth Scale remain in common use secondary to ease of use despite their obvious functional limitations. More functional outcome goals are plagued by being more time consuming and a general inability to demonstrate changes after an intervention. This may be secondary to the other factors that combine with spasticity to cause dysfunction at that level. Quantitative metrics can provide more objective measurements but their clinical relevance is sometimes problematic. The assessment of spasticity outcome is still somewhat problematic. Further work is necessary to develop measures that have real-world functional significance to both the individuals being treated and the clinicians. A lack of objectivity is still a problem. In the future it is important for clinicians and the engineers to work together in the development of better outcome measures. PMID:15247825

Elovic, Elie P; Simone, Lisa K; Zafonte, Ross

2004-01-01

116

Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

2010-01-01

117

Results From a Prospective Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation Database: Clinical Characteristics and Functional Outcomes using the Functional Independence Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Rehabilitation improves functional outcomes, but there is little data on the profiles and outcomes of patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation in Singapore. The aims of this paper were to document the clinical characteristics and functional outcomes, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), of all patients admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation unit in a tertiary teaching hospital, and to identify and

Yee Sien Ng; Chek Wai Bok; Yi Chiong

2007-01-01

118

Functional outcome and depression in the elderly with or without fatigue.  

PubMed

We evaluated the influence of fatigue on functional outcomes and depression in older people. Fatigue was measured using the fatigue severity scale (FSS). Activity of daily living function was assessed using the functional independence measurement (FIM), the geriatric depression inventory (GDI) was used to assess depression. The average FSS score was 5.66 ± 1.03 for subjects in the fatigue group, with 50 patients (40.3%) having FSS scores ? 4 points. Significant relationships were found between fatigue and GDI (p<0.001, r = 0.363) and FIM (p<0.04, r = -0.183). Binary logistic regression analysis identified GDI as a significant predictor of fatigue (p < 0.001). We found that 40.3% of older people had fatigue. Fatigue showed a significant correlation with depression and functional status. These findings emphasize the need for careful clinical screening of both fatigue and depression in older individuals. PMID:20850877

Soyuer, Ferhan; ?enol, Vesile

2011-01-01

119

Trauma Outcome Process Assessment (TOPA) Model: An Ecological Paradigm for Treating Traumatized Sexually Abusive Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed is a comprehensive, ecologically based paradigm applicable across cultures and created to assess the effects of abusive traumatic experiences, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment (TOPA) model (Rasmussen, 1999, 2004, 2007; Rasmussen, Burton, & Christopherson, 1992). The TOPA model comprehensively assesses the risk and protective factors and trauma outcomes that contribute to self-destructive and\\/or abusive behavior in youth. TOPA interventions

Lucinda A. Rasmussen

2012-01-01

120

Functional and oncological outcomes after limb-salvage surgery for primary sarcomas of the upper limb.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of upper limb sarcoma poses an oncological and reconstructive challenge. Limb-salvage surgery aims to balance adequate excision margins for disease control and preservation of all important structures to retain maximum function. Reported here is an assessment of the functional and oncological outcomes of limb salvage surgery for primary sarcoma of the upper limb and limb girdle in 72 patients referred to a specialist musculoskeletal tumour unit over 9 years. All patients underwent excision of the sarcoma with reconstruction and adjuvant treatment as needed. Functional outcome was assessed using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) after discharge from hospital. The upper limb sarcomas treated by limb-salvage surgery achieved planned margins of excision in 85% of cases with primary surgery. This increased to 100% with re-excision, resulting in local recurrence in 15% and survival of 75% among those at 5 years or more after surgery, while retaining good to excellent function (TESS mean of 87 out of 100). A total of 38 patients completed TESS questionnaires and, as a single group, had a mean TESS of 87. Patient age, anatomical site of tumour and adjuvant treatment made no significant difference to TESS. Liposarcomas had a significantly better TESS than leiomyosarcomas, chondrosarcomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Oncological outcome was assessed in terms of excision margins achieved, local recurrence, re-excision and disease-free survival. Eight patients died of disease, all with high-grade primary tumours. Fourteen had local recurrence, four low-grade disease and the remaining high-grade disease. All four low-grade recurrences were successfully re-excised, as were five of the high-grade recurrences. The remaining five died of disease, with or without further recurrences. Consistently good functional results as measured by TESS were reported by responders, but high-grade disease and early recurrence were identified as predictors of recurrence and death from disease, respectively. PMID:17889633

Wright, E H C; Gwilym, S; Gibbons, C L M H; Critchley, P; Giele, H P

2008-01-01

121

Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.  

PubMed

Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

2015-04-01

122

N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide levels as a predictor of functional outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of the N-amino terminal fragment of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is uncertain. We sought to determine whether NT-proBNP levels were associated with functional outcomes after AIS. From August 2012 to October 2013, consecutive first-ever AIS patients admitted to the Department of Emergency of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, China, were included in this study. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured from admission. Outcomes were measured as 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ('good outcome'=0-2 vs. 'poor'). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between NT-proBNP levels and outcomes. Predictive performance of NT-proBNP as compared with the clinical model was assessed by comparing receiver-operating characteristic curves. During this study period, 217 consecutive patients with AIS were included and completed 90 days of follow-up. There was a strong positive correlation between the plasma level of NT-proBNP and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (r=0.415, P=0.000). Plasma levels of NT-proBNP in patients with an unfavorable outcome were significantly higher than those in patients with a favorable outcome [3432 (interquartile range, 1100-54991) vs. 978 (interquartile range, 123-1705) pg/ml; P=0.000]. In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for all other significant outcome predictors, the NT-proBNP level that remained can be seen as an independent unfavorable outcome predictor, with an adjusted odds ratios of 4.14 (95% confidence interval, 2.72-7.99; P=0.000). Our results show that plasma NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated in patients with an unfavorable outcome and might be of clinical importance as a supplementary tool for the assessment of functional outcomes in patients with AIS. PMID:25102374

Chang, Li; Yan, Haiqing; Li, Hehua; Song, Zhixiu; Gui, Yongkun; Yan, Zhixin; Li, Tong; Duan, Dongyin

2014-09-10

123

Does Childhood Executive Function Predict Adolescent Functional Outcomes in Girls with ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/mid-adolescence. Our aim was to examine the ability of\\u000a measures of childhood executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes in adolescence. Measures of neuropsychological\\u000a functioning comprised the childhood predictors, with academic,

Meghan Miller; Stephen P. Hinshaw

2010-01-01

124

Functional Analysis Outcomes and Comparison of Direct Observations and Informant Rating Scales in the Assessment of Severe Behavior Problems of Infants and Toddlers At-Risk for Developmental Delays.  

PubMed

Severe problem behaviors, like aggression, self-injury, and repetitive behaviors, in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities often appear during early development and may persist without early intervention. The frequencies of self-injurious behavior, aggression, tantrums, property destruction and stereotyped behavior among 17 infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delays and severe behavior problems were assessed using two methods: 1) direct observation of responses during 10 s partial interval recording during analogue functional analysis and 2) the Behavior Problem Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al, 2001), an informant rating scale. Analogue functional analysis results suggested that the most common function for problem behavior was automatic reinforcement, followed by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands. Agreement across the two types of measurement systems as to occurrence of the behaviors reported on the BPI-01 and direct observations during analogue functional analyses was greater than 75% across aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior. Agreement at a more molecular level of the ranking of the most commonly occurring specific behaviors was considerably lower. Results are discussed in terms of future research on identifying conditions that set the occasion for high levels of agreement between indirect and direct measurement systems for severe behavior problems. PMID:24778543

Schroeder, Stephen R; Richman, David M; Abby, Layla; Courtemanche, Andrea B; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa

2014-06-01

125

Neuropeptide Y, social function and long-term outcome in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

There is a lack of biomarkers in schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in social functioning are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to explore whether neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia is correlated to social function and clinical variables. A further aim was to determine whether baseline levels of NPY were associated with subsequent 3-year outcome. Fifty-six consecutively admitted patients with schizophrenia were included and underwent lumbar puncture and symptom ratings before antipsychotic treatment. NPY levels in CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Social function (Social Competence and Social Interest) was assessed by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation while psychiatric symptoms were rated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Three-year outcome was assessed with the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale. Cross-sectional analysis showed a correlation between level of NPY and Social Competence at index admission (r(s)=0.37, p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis (i.e., at the 3-year follow-up) indicated that, for each standard deviation increase in baseline NPY, there was an increased risk of being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.82), having moderate or severe symptoms (OR 3.09, CI 1.30-7.32) or being hospitalized at least 6 months the previous year (OR 3.24, CI 1.09-9.64). However, NPY was not correlated to Social Interest or clinical variables at index admission. In conclusion, NPY levels in CSF are correlated to Social Competence and seem to predict some aspects of longitudinal outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:24799298

Stålberg, Gabriella; Ekselius, Lisa; Lindström, Leif H; Larhammar, Dan; Bodén, Robert

2014-07-01

126

Functional Assessment for Individuals with Problem Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes articles related to functional assessment and its applications for individuals with problem behaviors. The research indicates functional assessment procedures have been established as a standard assessment tool that identifies environmental variables related to problem behaviors with links to the development of effective…

Kim, Ui-Jung; Choi, Hye-Sung

1998-01-01

127

Early Post-Stroke Cognition in Stroke Rehabilitation Patients Predicts Functional Outcome at 13 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. Methods: 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2–3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13

Jørgen Wagle; Lasse Farner; Kjell Flekkøy; Torgeir Bruun Wyller; Leiv Sandvik; Brynjar Fure; Brynhild Stensrød; Knut Engedal

2011-01-01

128

Quality of life measurement: bibliographic study of patient assessed health outcome measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the growth of quality of life measures and to examine the availability of measures across specialties. Design Systematic searches of electronic databases to identify developmental and evaluative work relating to health outcome measures assessed by patients. Main outcome measures Types of measures: disease or population specific, dimension specific, generic, individualised, and utility. Specialties in which measures have

Andrew Garratt; Louise Schmidt; Anne Mackintosh; Ray Fitzpatrick

2002-01-01

129

Assessment Choices to Target Higher Order Learning Outcomes: The Power of Academic Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of higher order learning outcomes such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity has remained a challenge for universities. While newer technologies such as social networking tools have the potential to support these intended outcomes, academics' assessment practice is slow to change. University mission statements and unit…

McNeill, Margot; Gosper, Maree; Xu, Jing

2012-01-01

130

The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

131

Use of Adverse Outcome Pathways for Assessing Effects of the Fungicide Propiconazole on Fish Reproduction  

EPA Science Inventory

Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) are used to describe the linkage of biological events from a molecular initiating point, to individual-level-endpoints relevant to risk assessment. This study was done to assess toxicity outcomes for the conazole fungicide propiconazole based on a p...

132

Implementing ABET outcomes, assessment and remedial techniques in a basic circuits course  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors describe a project undertaken to implement ABET protocols of defining educational outcomes, making definitive assessment of the outcomes, and providing remedial improvement based on the results of the assessment. The project incorporates the results obtained from teaching a basic introductory course in circuit theory over the past three years at the Department of Electrical and

L. P. Huelsman; R. N. Strickland

2001-01-01

133

The Status of Student Outcomes Assessment at NASULGC Member Institutions. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of the member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC) to determine the status of outcomes assessment on their campuses, as well as the usefulness of the NASULGC "Statement of Principles on Outcomes Assessment." Seventy-three institutions (response rate = 49 percent)…

Muffo, John A.

134

The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain internalizing distress (e.g., anxiety, depression), externalizing distress (e.g., aggression), and recovery outcomes following traumatic events.

Susan E. Borja; Jennifer L. Callahan

2009-01-01

135

Correlates of functional outcome among stroke survivors in a developing country--a prospective community-based study from India.  

PubMed

Stroke survivors (SS) are rising with higher incidence of stroke in developing countries. In addition to physical impairment, other factors such as cognition, social interaction, and depression determine the functional outcome after stroke. Considering the paucity of data from developing countries, we planned to determine the change in various functional parameters among SS. This community-based prospective study was carried out in Kolkata, India among 283 SS between 2006 and 2010. Functional outcome was assessed at baseline and at 3 annual follow-up visits using validated tools. A stepwise regression analysis was performed with demographic and stroke-related covariates against various measures of functional outcome. Result showed that mean Barthel Index score at baseline was 76.4 ± 30.8. Bengali version of mental status examination and Geriatric Depression Scale scores trended down over time with a negative regression coefficient of -.2061 (standard error [SE], .0937) and -.4488 (SE, .2145). Other outcomes did not change. Female gender, depression, and cognitive dysfunction had an unfavorable impact, whereas education correlated positively. In conclusions female gender and neuropsychiatric disturbances showed poor functional outcome compared with education, which correlates with better outcome. This information will be helpful for patients in developing countries for planning stroke rehabilitation. PMID:25238928

Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Burman, Prabir; Singh, Vineeta; Das, Sujata; Paul, Neelanjana; Ray, Biman Kanti; Hazra, Avijit; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Basu, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Arijit; Das, Shyamal Kumar

2014-01-01

136

Identification of Vocational Education Outcomes in Illinois. Identification and Assessment of Vocational Education Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statewide survey determined perceptions of the state staff and vocational administrators and teachers regarding time given to categories of vocational education outcomes and the educational level at which outcomes are appropriate. Differences existed between the secondary and postsecondary level regarding classroom time spent on identified…

Wentling, Tim L.; Barnard, Wynette S.

137

Inpatient Rehabilitation Volume and Functional Outcomes in Stroke, Lower Extremity Fracture, and Lower Extremity Joint Replacement  

PubMed Central

Background It is unclear if volume-outcome relationships exist in inpatient rehabilitation. Objectives Assess associations between facility volumes and two patient-centered outcomes in the three most common diagnostic groups in inpatient rehabilitation. Research Design We used hierarchical linear and generalized linear models to analyze administrative assessment data from patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation services for stroke (n=202,423), lower extremity fracture (n=132,194), or lower extremity joint replacement (n=148,068) between 2006 and 2008 in 717 rehabilitation facilities across the U.S. Facilities were assigned to quintiles based on average annual diagnosis-specific patient volumes. Measures Discharge functional status (FIM instrument) and probability of home discharge. Results Facility-level factors accounted for 6–15% of the variance in discharge FIM total scores and 3–5% of the variance in home discharge probability across the 3 diagnostic groups. We used the middle volume quintile (Q3) as the reference group for all analyses and detected small, but statistically significant (p < .01) associations with discharge functional status in all three diagnosis groups. Only the highest volume quintile (Q5) reached statistical significance, displaying higher functional status ratings than Q3 each time. The largest effect was observed in FIM total scores among fracture patients, with only a 3.6-point difference in Q5 and Q3 group means. Volume was not independently related to home discharge. Conclusions Outcome-specific volume effects ranged from small (functional status) to none (home discharge) in all three diagnostic groups. Patients with these conditions can be treated locally rather than at higher-volume regional centers. Further regionalization of inpatient rehabilitation services is not needed for these conditions. PMID:23579350

Graham, James E.; Deutsch, Anne; O’Connell, Ann A.; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Granger, Carl V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

138

Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?  

PubMed

Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes. PMID:24345711

Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

2014-03-01

139

Integrating Outcomes Assessment into Optometry Education: A Strategic Guide for Enhancing Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines eight steps that will help optometry schools transition a faculty from "denial" of the need for assessment to "institutionalization": establish a collaborative environment, establish an infrastructure that makes assessment an integral activity, recruit a leader for full implementation of outcomes assessment, conduct a needs assessment,…

Beck, Diane E.; Daum, Kent M.

2003-01-01

140

Outcome Assessment after Aptis Distal Radioulnar Joint (DRUJ) Implant Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background: Conventional treatments after complicated injuries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) such as Darrach and Kapandji-Sauvé procedures have many drawbacks, which may eventually lead to a painful unstable distal ulna. The development of DRUJ prosthesis has significantly evolved over the past years. In this study, we assessed the outcome results of patients after DRUJ implant arthroplasty using the Aptis (Scheker) prosthesis. Methods: We identified 13 patients with 14 prosthesis during the past 10 years. Patients underwent DRUJ arthroplasty due to persistent symptoms of instability, chronic pain, and stiffness. Records and follow-up visits were reviewed to find the final post-operative symptoms, pain, range of motion, and grip strength with a mean follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-25 months). Also, patients were contacted prospectively by phone in order to administer the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH), patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), and visual analogue scale (VAS), and to interview regarding satisfaction and progress in daily activities. Eleven patients out of 13 could be reached with a median follow-up time of 60 months (range: 2 to 102 months). Results: No patient required removal of the prosthesis. Only two patients underwent secondary surgeries in which both required debridement of the screw tip over the radius. The median DASH score, PRWE score, VAS, and satisfaction were 1.3, 2.5, 0, and 10, respectively. The mean range of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation was 62, 54, 51, and 64, respectively. Conclusions: Distal radioulnar joint injuries are disabling and patients usually undergo one or more salvage surgeries prior to receiving an arthroplasty. The Scheker prosthesis has shown satisfactory results with 100% survival rate in all reports. The constrained design of this prosthesis gives enough stability to prevent painful subluxation. PMID:25386579

Kachooei, Amir Reza; Chase, Samantha M; Jupiter, Jesse B

2014-01-01

141

Mind your hand during the energy crunch: Functional Outcome of Circular Saw Hand Injuries  

PubMed Central

Background Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand injuries due to electric circular saws. Methods Patients treated from 1999 through 2007 for circular saw-related hand injuries were contacted and asked for clinical follow-up assessment. The clinical follow-up protocol consisted of a physical examination and an assessment of static muscle power (grip and pinch strength). For assessment of the subjective experience of the patients regarding their injury-related disability and impairment, the DASH follow-up questionnaire was used. The occupational impact of these injuries was measured by number of lost working days. Finally, safety-related behaviour of the patients was investigated. Results 114 Patients were followed-up on average 52 months after the injury. Average in-house treatment was 8.8 days. Average time lost from work was 14.8 weeks. A significant reduction of static muscle testing parameters compared with the uninjured hand was revealed for grip strength, tip pinch, key pinch, and palmar pinch. Average DASH score was 17.4 (DASH work 15.8, DASH sports/music 17.7). Most patients had more than ten years experience in using these power tools. Conclusion The everyday occurrence of circular saw-related hand injuries followed by relatively short periods of in-house treatment might distort the real dimension of the patients' remaining disability and impairment. While the trauma surgeon's view is generally confined to the patients' clinical course, the outcome parameters in this follow-up investigation, with loss of working time as the key factor, confirm that the whole socioeconomic burden is much greater than the direct cost of treatment. PMID:20819215

2010-01-01

142

Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly.BackgroundThere is a high prevalence of both reduced kidney function as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly. We evaluated whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for CVD outcomes in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort of subjects whose age

Guruprasad Manjunath; Hocine Tighiouart; Josef Coresh; Bonnie Macleod; Deeb N. Salem; John L. Griffith; Andrew S. Levey; Mark J. Sarnak

2003-01-01

143

Assessing Outcome Criteria in Rehabilitation: A Multi-Component Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews approaches for categorizing outcome criterion measures in the human services. Suggests a multidimensional paradigm based on conceptualizations advocated in the literature. Discusses paradigm's implications for rehabilitation practice. (Author/ABL)

Livneh, Hanoch

1988-01-01

144

Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

2013-07-01

145

Development of Performance Criteria for Assessing Program Outcomes in Engineering, Engineering Technology and Computer Science Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents the development and the use of performance criteria that could be used for detailed assessment of specific students performance in the program outcomes listed for Engineering programs (EAC Criterion 3, a-k outcomes), Engineering Technology programs (TAC Criterion 2, a-k outcomes) and Computer Science programs (CAC criterion 1, a-i outcomes). Performance criteria have been used to break down each program outcome into concrete measurable actions students are expected to be able to perform to demonstrate proficiency in the outcome. For each of the listed outcomes for the ABET Accreditation bodies, detailed performance criteria are presented in this paper. Suggestions on how the performance criteria can be used in a program are described in detail to allow selective adoption of the performance criteria for different programs and for different courses. The methodology for defining and using the performance criteria enables faculty to (1) fully understand the outcomes, (2) understand a range of performance criteria that need to be measured for each outcome, and (3) remove any ambiguity in the interpretation of the outcomes. In addition, it makes it possible to identify the critical skill-sets to measure for each outcome and makes assessment meaningful to the various programs.

146

The long-term functional outcome of type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively  

PubMed Central

Odontoid fractures currently account for 9–15% of all adult cervical spine fractures, with type II fractures accounting for the majority of these injuries. Despite recent advances in internal fixation techniques, the management of type II fractures still remains controversial with advocates still supporting non-rigid immobilization as the definitive treatment of these injuries. At the NSIU, over an 11-year period between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 2006, 66 patients (n = 66) were treated by external immobilization for type II odontoid fractures. The medical records, radiographs and CT scans of all patients identified were reviewed. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed using the Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term functional outcome of patients suffering isolated type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively and to correlate patient age and device type with clinical and functional outcome. Of the 66 patients, there were 42 males and 24 females (M:F = 1.75:1) managed non-operatively for type II odontoid fractures. The mean follow-up time was 66 months. Advancing age was highly correlated with poorer long-term functional outcomes when assessing neck pain (r = 0.19, P = 0.1219), shoulder and arm pain (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007), physical symptoms (r = 0.25, P = 0.472), functional disability (r = 0.24, P = 0.0476) and psychological distress (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007). Patients >65 years displayed a higher rate of pseudoarthrosis (21.43 vs. 1.92%) and established non-union (7.14 vs. 0%) than patients <65 years. The non-operative management of type II odontoid fractures is an effective and satisfactory method of treating type II odontoid fractures, particularly those of a stable nature. However, patients of advancing age have been demonstrated to have significantly poorer functional outcomes in the long term. This may be linked to higher rates of non-union. PMID:20364276

Dolan, R. T.; Burbridge, M.; Hurson, C. J.; O’Byrne, J. M.; McCormack, D.; Synnott, K.; Poynton, A. R.

2010-01-01

147

Functional Area Assessments Project Charter Workstream Name Functional Area Assessments  

E-print Network

-level diagnostic will be completed for each of the following functions: - Facilities/Space Management - Purchasing and Payables - Auxiliary Operations - Research Administration - Business Services - Enrollment Management - Internal Budgeting - Human Resources These diagnostics will be performed using interviews, surveys, data

Sheridan, Jennifer

148

Assessment of ?-cell function in human patients.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the methods accessing ?-cell function. ?-cell failure is the critical step in the development of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, assessment of ?-cell function is an important part of the evaluation and treatment of diabetic patients. However, it is not easy because of complex interaction between multiple tissues. Several parameters should be considered, such as glucose level and insulin sensitivity of diverse insulin target tissues to assess ?-cell function. To overcome these difficulties, several invasive or non-invasive methods have been developed to assess ?-cell function for clinical or research purposes. PMID:22627463

Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Mi Yeon; Han, Kyungreem; Lee, Myung-Shik

2012-01-01

149

Dorsolateral prefrontal lobe volume and neurological soft signs as predictors of clinical social and functional outcome in schizophrenia: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a disorder with variable outcome and the ability to predict the outcome has important clinical utility. Neurological soft signs (NSS) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes have been described as trait markers for schizophrenia and their relation to long-term outcome in schizophrenia has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between baseline dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL) volume and NSS scores to clinical and functional outcome variables in a cohort of schizophrenia patients who were anti-psychotic naïve at baseline. Fourteen anti-psychotic naive schizophrenia patients whose baseline magnetic resonance imaging scans, NSS scores and positive and negative signs and symptoms scale (PANSS) scores (assessed in drug naïve state) were available were reevaluated after a mean follow-up period of 74.2±24.2 months. The clinical outcome variables measured was PANSS. The social and functional outcome was assessed comprehensively by the socio occupational functioning scale and the Strauss Carpenter outcome scale. The DLPFL, volume was measured from the baseline scans using the region of interest method. Statistical analysis was done using the paired samples t-test and the Pearson's correlation co-efficient. The results showed that smaller left DLPFL volume and greater primitive reflexes at baseline predicted greater negative symptoms and poorer functional outcome on follow-up. This study also demonstrates the clinical utility of NSS as a simple bedside tool in assessing schizophrenia patients. PMID:23825842

Behere, Rishikesh V.

2013-01-01

150

Prediction of Rat Behavior Outcomes in Memory Tasks Using Functional Connections among Neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Analyzing the neuronal organizational structures and studying the changes in the behavior of the organism is key to understanding cognitive functions of the brain. Although some studies have indicated that spatiotemporal firing patterns of neuronal populations have a certain relationship with the behavioral responses, the issues of whether there are any relationships between the functional networks comprised of these cortical neurons and behavioral tasks and whether it is possible to take advantage of these networks to predict correct and incorrect outcomes of single trials of animals are still unresolved. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a new method of analyzing the structures of whole-recorded neuronal functional networks (WNFNs) and local neuronal circuit groups (LNCGs). The activity of these neurons was recorded in several rats. The rats performed two different behavioral tasks, the Y-maze task and the U-maze task. Using the results of the assessment of the WNFNs and LNCGs, this paper describes a realization procedure for predicting the behavioral outcomes of single trials. The methodology consists of four main parts: construction of WNFNs from recorded neuronal spike trains, partitioning the WNFNs into the optimal LNCGs using social community analysis, unsupervised clustering of all trials from each dataset into two different clusters, and predicting the behavioral outcomes of single trials. The results show that WNFNs and LNCGs correlate with the behavior of the animal. The U-maze datasets show higher accuracy for unsupervised clustering results than those from the Y-maze task, and these datasets can be used to predict behavioral responses effectively. Conclusions/Significance The results of the present study suggest that a methodology proposed in this paper is suitable for analysis of the characteristics of neuronal functional networks and the prediction of rat behavior. These types of structures in cortical ensemble activity may be critical to information representation during the execution of behavior. PMID:24098641

Lu, Hu; Yang, Shengtao; Lin, Longnian; Li, Baoming; Wei, Hui

2013-01-01

151

Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

2013-01-01

152

The feasibility of using electronic clinical outcome assessments in people with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers  

PubMed Central

Many clinical outcome assessments (COAs) were originally developed for completion via pen and paper. However, in recent years there have been movements toward electronic capture of such data in an effort to reduce missing data, provide time-stamped records, minimize administrative burden, and avoid secondary data entry errors. Although established in many patient populations, the implications of using electronic COAs in schizophrenia are unknown. In accordance with International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force recommendations, in-depth cognitive debriefing and usability interviews were conducted with people with schizophrenia (n=12), their informal (unpaid) caregivers (n=12), and research support staff (n=6) to assess the suitability of administration of various electronic COA measures using an electronic tablet device. Minimal issues were encountered by participants when completing or administering the COAs in electronic format, with many finding it easier to complete instruments in this mode than by pen and paper. The majority of issues reported were specific to the device functionality rather than the electronic mode of administration. Findings support data collection via electronic tablet in people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. The appropriateness of other forms of electronic data capture (eg, smartphones, interactive voice response systems, etc) is a topic for future investigation. PMID:25870518

Tolley, Chloe; Rofail, Diana; Gater, Adam; Lalonde, Justine K

2015-01-01

153

Type 2 diabetes is associated with a worse functional outcome of ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess whether ischemic stroke severity and outcome is more adverse in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke between September 2010 and June 2013 were studied prospectively (n = 482; 40.2% males, age 78.8 ± 6.7 years). T2DM was defined as self-reported T2DM or antidiabetic treatment. Stroke severity was evaluated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission. The outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at discharge and with in-hospital mortality. Adverse outcome was defined as mRS score at discharge ? 2 or in-hospital death. The length of hospitalization was also recorded. RESULTS: T2DM was present in 32.2% of the study population. Patients with T2DM had a larger waist circumference, higher serum triglyceride and glucose levels and lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as higher prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure than patients without T2DM. On the other hand, diabetic patients had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reported smaller consumption of alcohol than non-diabetic patients. At admission, the NIHSS score did not differ between patients with and without T2DM (8.7 ± 8.8 and 8.6 ± 9.2, respectively; P = NS). At discharge, the mRS score also did not differ between the two groups (2.7 ± 2.1 and 2.7 ± 2.2 in patients with and without T2DM, respectively; P = NS). Rates of adverse outcome were also similar in patients with and without T2DM (62.3% and 58.5%, respectively; P = NS). However, when we adjusted for the differences between patients with T2DM and those without T2DM in cardiovascular risk factors, T2DM was independently associated with adverse outcome [relative risk (RR) = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.21-4.72, P = 0.012]. In-hospital mortality rates did not differ between patients with T2DM and those without T2DM (9.0% and 9.8%, respectively; P = NS). In multivariate analysis adjusting for the difference in cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups, T2DM was again not associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: T2DM does not appear to affect ischemic stroke severity but is independently associated with a worse functional outcome at discharge. PMID:25512800

Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Spanou, Marianna; Bouziana, Stella D; Papadopoulou, Maria; Giampatzis, Vasilios; Kostaki, Stavroula; Dourliou, Vasiliki; Tsopozidi, Maria; Savopoulos, Christos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

2014-01-01

154

Evaluation of oral glucose tolerance test, ?-cell function and adverse obstetric outcomes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), their effect on pregnancy and their association with adverse obstetric outcomes. A cross-sectional study was performed on 345 pregnant women, who were screened between the 24th and 28th gestational week with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following abnormal results at 1 h after a 50-g oral glucose challenge test. The obstetric outcomes were recorded along with plasma glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function index (HOMA-?CFI) and 50 subjects were excluded due to incomplete data recovery. Of the 295 pregnant women, 18.6% (55/295) were diagnosed with GDM and 32% (95/295) with IGT. The GDM group exhibited significantly higher fasting and 1-h blood glucose concentrations compared to the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and IGT groups (P<0.01). The 2- and 3-h insulin values of the NGT group were significantly lower compared to those of the GDM group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the IGT group, the 2-h insulin values were higher compared to the NGT group and the 3-h values were significantly higher (P<0.01), similar to the GDM group. There was a tendency for progressively decreased ?-cell function and increased HOMA-IR from the NGT to the IGT to the GDM group. The adverse outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, preterm delivery, macrosomia and cesarean delivery indicated an association with HOMA-?CFI and HOMA-IR. In conclusion, these findings suggest a clinical significance of ?-cell dysfunction in women with gestational IGT. PMID:24649033

ZHANG, HONGXIU; ZHAO, DONGMEI; SHEN, JIE; ZHOU, XIAOPING; CHEN, WENWEI; JIANG, SHIWEN

2013-01-01

155

Evaluation of oral glucose tolerance test, ?-cell function and adverse obstetric outcomes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), their effect on pregnancy and their association with adverse obstetric outcomes. A cross-sectional study was performed on 345 pregnant women, who were screened between the 24th and 28th gestational week with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following abnormal results at 1 h after a 50-g oral glucose challenge test. The obstetric outcomes were recorded along with plasma glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function index (HOMA-?CFI) and 50 subjects were excluded due to incomplete data recovery. Of the 295 pregnant women, 18.6% (55/295) were diagnosed with GDM and 32% (95/295) with IGT. The GDM group exhibited significantly higher fasting and 1-h blood glucose concentrations compared to the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and IGT groups (P<0.01). The 2- and 3-h insulin values of the NGT group were significantly lower compared to those of the GDM group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the IGT group, the 2-h insulin values were higher compared to the NGT group and the 3-h values were significantly higher (P<0.01), similar to the GDM group. There was a tendency for progressively decreased ?-cell function and increased HOMA-IR from the NGT to the IGT to the GDM group. The adverse outcomes of pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, preterm delivery, macrosomia and cesarean delivery indicated an association with HOMA-?CFI and HOMA-IR. In conclusion, these findings suggest a clinical significance of ?-cell dysfunction in women with gestational IGT. PMID:24649033

Zhang, Hongxiu; Zhao, Dongmei; Shen, Jie; Zhou, Xiaoping; Chen, Wenwei; Jiang, Shiwen

2013-09-01

156

Functional Outcomes of Mpfl Reconstruction VS. Graft Tissue Placement  

PubMed Central

Background The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is essential for the maintenance of correct biomechanical function of the knee. Reconstruction of the MPFL is commonly used in the restoration of patellofemoral stability after traumatic lateral subluxation of the patella. Although a method to accurately determine the MPFL's insertion point has been described, it remains unclear if anatomic placement of MPFL graft tissue is essential for preservation of knee function after MPFL reconstruction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the importance of anatomic placement of MPFL graft tissue for the preservation of knee function following MPFL reconstruction operations. Methods Twenty-seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction operations were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative radiographs were reviewed. Measurements were taken, and the placement of each patient's MPFL graft tissue was determined to be anatomic or non-anatomic based on radiographic methods previously described in the literature. Each subject's electronic medical record was then reviewed, and clinical data was recorded. Finally, the clinical outcomes of each patient were compared to placement location of the MPFL graft tissue in their procedure. Results Thirteen patients were found to have anatomic MPFL graft tissue placement, and 14 non-anatomic. A significant post-operative difference was found between groups in the following parameters: WOMAC pain (anatomic mean = 85.71 ± 11.34, non-anatomic mean = 75.00 ± 26.35 p = 0.018), function (anatomic mean = 85.85 ± 9.96, non-anatomic mean = 79.09 ± 24.45, p = 0.017) and in KOOS symptom (anatomic mean = 75.63 ± 11.79, non-anatomic mean = 67.83 ± 22.40, p = 0.024), pain (anatomic mean = 77.54 ± 8.61, non-anatomic mean = 71.39 ± 25.18, p = 0.01), ADL (anatomic mean = 85.85 ± 9.97, non-anatomic mean = 79.09 ± 24.45, p = 0.017) and overall (anatomic mean = 74.61 ± 10.33, non-anatomic mean = 69.41 ± 24.25, p = 0.01) scores. No significant difference was observed for post-op instability (p = 0.290) or apprehension (p = 0.496), improvement in WOMAC or KOOS, 2-week, 6-week, or final 1-year range of motion, WOMAC stiffness, or KOOS sport/recreation or QOL. Conclusion Within the range of graft placement values considered by this study, while no reduction in range of motion was seen, non-anatomic placement of MPFL graft tissue in MPFL reconstruction operations caused increased pain and decreased function, evidenced by post-operative KOOS and WOMAC scores. Clinical Relevance It seems that the pivotal step in MPFL reconstruction operations is ensuring correct patellofemoral tracking via intraoperative electrical femoral nerve stimulation. If this step of the procedure is performed correctly, non-anatomic placement will not limit range of motion, lead to continued apprehension, or affect the overall biomechanical functioning of the knee. PMID:25328457

Larson, Evan; Edwards, Alan; Albright, John

2014-01-01

157

How to Tackle the Shift of Educational Assessment from Learning Outcomes to Competencies: One Program's Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the new Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) represent a shift from measuring learning outcomes to core competencies, results from assessments conducted prior to this shift continue to provide useful information for program-level assessment and can serve as a baseline as programs redesign assessments for reaffirmation.…

Meyer-Adams, Nancy; Potts, Marilyn K.; Koob, Jeffrey J.; Dorsey, Catherine J.; Rosales, Anna M.

2011-01-01

158

Beyond Student Learning Outcomes: Developing Comprehensive, Strategic Assessment Plans for Advising Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that while the importance of assessment in academic advising is clear and the current emphasis on defining and measuring student learning outcomes represents an essential component of any comprehensive advising assessment plan, an even more comprehensive understanding of programme assessment is needed. Drawing upon business…

McClellan, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

159

Utility of Two PANSS 5-Factor Models for Assessing Psychosocial Outcomes in Clinical Programs for Persons with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Using symptom factors derived from two models of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) as covariates, change over time in consumer psychosocial functioning, medication adherence/compliance, and treatment satisfaction outcomes are compared based on a randomized, controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of antipsychotic medications for 108 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Random effects regression analysis was used to determine the relative performance of these two 5-factor models as covariates in estimating change over time and the goodness of fit of the regression equations for each outcome. Self-reported psychosocial functioning was significantly associated with the relief of positive and negative syndromes, whereas patient satisfaction was more closely and significantly associated with control of excited/activation symptoms. Interviewer-rated psychosocial functioning was significantly associated with relief of positive and negative symptoms, as well as excited/activation and disoriented/autistic preoccupation symptoms. The VDG 5-factor model of the PANSS represents the best “goodness of fit” model for assessing symptom-related change associated with improved psychosocial outcomes and functional recovery. Five-factor models of the syndromes of schizophrenia, as assessed using the PANSS, are differentially valuable in determining the predictors of psychosocial and satisfaction changes over time, but not of improved medication adherence/compliance. PMID:24381761

Jerrell, Jeanette M.

2013-01-01

160

Undergraduate Student Ethics Outcomes 4/28/14 draft developed by the CSM Assessment Committee  

E-print Network

will demonstrate ethical knowledge: Students will describe professional norms, principles, and ideals related of the Mines Graduate both reference ethical outcomes/behaviors. In response, the Assessment Committee has demonstrate in fulfillment of the numbered outcomes. Departments may also add discipline-specific skills

161

2013-2015 Student Life Assessment Plan Report Tier III: Learning Outcomes  

E-print Network

and improve the quality of one's work and one's organization Demonstrate self-initiative and self2013-2015 Student Life Assessment Plan Report Tier III: Learning Outcomes Student Life Outcomes Through participation in Student Life programs, students are expected to be able to do the following

Missouri-Rolla, University of

162

Using a University-Wide Syllabus Study to Examine Learning Outcomes and Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-disciplinary study examined syllabus quality (n = 280) and the connection of learning outcomes to the Dimensions of a Duquesne Education for two purposes: informing instructional development and writing an accreditation self-study. Three researchers coded the syllabi for learning outcomes, assessment, and the presence of these…

Willingham-McLain, Laurel

2011-01-01

163

The Process/Outcome Evaluation Model: A Conceptual Framework for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Process/Outcome Evaluation Model (POEM) is proposed to guide in the development of more holistic evaluations of both the learning process and the resultant outcomes of that process. POEM consists of four major components that employ multiple evaluation techniques and strategies resulting in a composite assessment of the totality of a learning…

Kovalik, Cindy L.; Dalton, David W.

1999-01-01

164

Longitudinal Assessment of Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes: First-Year Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Longitudinal Assessment of Comprehensive School Reform Implementation and Outcomes (LACIO) responds to the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement for an evaluation of the federal Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program. The legislation stipulates two broad goals for the evaluation: (1) to evaluate the implementation and outcomes achieved by…

Tushnet, Naida C., Flaherty, John, Jr., Smith, And

2004-01-01

165

Assessing Outcomes in an English Authority (The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the "Assessment and Action Record" from the "Looking After Children" materials to identify needs and desired outcomes for youth leaving out-of-home care in 1995 in an English local authority. Found that desired outcomes included providing information and knowledge, providing the means to acquire financial-related skills and to deal with…

Murphy, Imelda; Phillips, Malcolm

1998-01-01

166

Outcomes-Based Education Reexamined: From Structural Functionalism to Poststructuralism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) views itself as a drastic break from current educational practices and a means of providing educational success for all students. Though not stated in overt terms, OBE also positions it self as a means of \\

Colleen A. Capper; Michael T. Jamison

1993-01-01

167

76 FR 45271 - Review and Qualification of Clinical Outcome Assessments; Public Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...workshop to discuss measurement principles for clinical outcome assessments...is separate from the drug marketing application process, qualification...workshop will focus on FDA review principles specific to all type of COAs...evaluation: COA measurement principles; COA...

2011-07-28

168

Mind your hand during the energy crunch: Functional Outcome of Circular Saw Hand Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand

Matthias Frank; Juliane Hecht; Matthias Napp; Joern Lange; Rico Grossjohann; Dirk Stengel; Uli Schmucker; Axel Ekkernkamp; Peter Hinz

2010-01-01

169

Radiological and functional outcome after anterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome after anterior spinal fusion has mainly been studied radiologically and reported fusion rates vary greatly. The aim of this study was to investigate radiological and long-term clinical outcome. The study comprised 120 consecutive patients, operated on during the period 1979–1987, with single-or two-level anterior interbody spinal fusion due to disc degeneration or isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbar instability. In 64

F. B. Christensen; B. Karlsmose; E. S. Hansen; C. E. Bringer

1996-01-01

170

Assessment of Functional Status and Quality of Life in Claudication  

PubMed Central

Background Treadmill walking is commonly used to evaluate walking impairment and efficacy of treatment for intermittent claudication (IC) in clinical and research settings. Although this is an important measure, it does not provide information about how patients perceive the effects of their treatments on more global measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods PubMed/Medline was searched to find publications about the most commonly used questionnaires to assess functional status and/or general and disease-specific HRQOL in patients with PAD who experience IC. Inclusion criteria for questionnaires were based on existence of a body of literature in symptomatic PAD. Results Six general questionnaires and 7 disease-specific questionnaires are included with details about the number of domains covered and how each tool is scored. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 item questionnaire and Walking Impairment Questionnaire are currently the most used general and disease-specific questionnaires at baseline and following treatment for IC, respectively. Conclusions The use of tools which assess functional status and HRQOL has importance in both the clinical and research areas to assess treatment efficacy from the patient perspective. Therefore, assessing HRQOL in addition to treadmill-measured walking ability provides insight as to effects of treatments on patient outcomes and may help guide therapy. PMID:21334172

Mays, Ryan J.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Ho, P. Michael; Hiatt, William R.; Nehler, Mark R.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

2012-01-01

171

Assessing performance outcomes of new graduates utilizing simulation in a military transition program.  

PubMed

This multi-site, quasi-experimental study examined the performance outcomes of nurses (n = 152) in a military nurse transition program. A modified-performance instrument was used to assess participants in two high-fidelity simulation scenarios. Although results indicated a significant increase in scores posttraining, only moderate interrater reliability results were found for the new instrument. These findings have implications for nurse educators assessing performance-based outcomes of new nurses completing transition programs. PMID:23703274

Hughes, Robie V; Smith, Sherrill J; Sheffield, Clair M; Wier, Grady

2013-01-01

172

Examinable course assessment tool based on outcome based education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering program offered in Malaysia nowadays, has to be accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) which represents the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) in order to be recognized by Washington Accord signatories' country. Such accreditation would benefit the graduates to look for jobs globally. Outcome-based education (OBE) has become a critical aspect of accreditation requirement and Faculty of Electrical

Hadzli Hashim Mohd Fuad Latip

2009-01-01

173

Assessing Individual Support Needs to Enhance Personal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education and human service organizations providing services to people with intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities are increasingly being impacted by the supports paradigm, the quality of life concept, and the evaluation of personal outcomes. In this article the authors discuss the relationship among these three areas,…

van Loon, Jos; Claes, Claudia; Vandevelde, Stijn; Van Hove, Geert; Schalock, Robert L.

2010-01-01

174

Assessment of Student Outcomes Using a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the scientific concept of evaporation. Attempts to show how students develop their understanding through the levels of the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Shows how designing learning experiences to suit the learners' developmental stages in understanding a concept is paramount to the overall growth of the…

Levins, Lesley

1997-01-01

175

Assessing Medication Effects in the MTA Study Using Neuropsychological Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…

Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

2006-01-01

176

Social Cognition as a Mediator between Neurocognition and Functional Outcome in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis  

PubMed Central

In schizophrenia, neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome are all inter-related, with social cognition mediating the impact that impaired neurocognition has on functional outcome. Less clear is the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. 137 CHR participants completed a neurocognitive test battery, a battery of social cognition tasks and the Social Functioning Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all social cognition tasks were reliable and valid measures of the latent variable. The path from neurocognition to functioning was statistically significant (standardized coefficient ? = 0.22, p <0.01). The path from social cognition to functioning was also statistically significant (?= 0.27, p<0.05). In the mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a nonsignificant indirect effect that was the association of social cognition with neurocognition and with functional outcome (? =0.20, 95% CI =?0.07 to 0.52, p=0.11). However, social cognition was significantly associated with neurocognition (? = 0.80, p < 0.001) and the path from neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as soon as the mediator (social cognition) was entered into the mediation model (? = 0.02, p = 0.92). All of the model fit indices were very good. Unlike what has been observed with psychotic patients, social cognition does not seem to mediate the pathway from neurocognition to functional outcome when assessed with a measure of social attainment in individuals at CHR for psychosis. PMID:24012459

Barbato, Mariapaola; Liu, Lu; Penn, David L.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Perkins, Diana O.; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean

2013-01-01

177

Effect of retaining a patellar prosthesis on pain, functional, and satisfaction outcomes after revision total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

It remains controversial whether patients' pain, function, and satisfaction are affected in revision total knee arthroplasty by patellar prosthetic resurfacing. This is a retrospective, comparative cohort study to evaluate this. One hundred twenty-six patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty revision were identified. After revision, the presence or absence of a patellar prosthesis was ascertained. At a minimum of 2 years' follow-up, pain and function were assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Oxford-12, Short-Form 12, and patient satisfaction questionnaires in 110 patients (58 with patellar component, 52 bony shell). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated no significant difference between the 2 cohorts for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain, function, Oxford-12, and satisfaction outcomes. The absence of a patellar prosthesis does not appear to significantly affect pain, function, or satisfaction outcomes after revision total knee arthroplasty. PMID:17162177

Masri, Bassam A; Meek, R M Dominic; Greidanus, Nelson V; Garbuz, Donald S

2006-12-01

178

Neurocognitive and Social Cognitive Approaches for Improving Functional Outcome in Early Psychosis: Theoretical Considerations and Current State of Evidence  

PubMed Central

Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed. PMID:22966447

Bartholomeusz, Cali F.; Allott, Kelly

2012-01-01

179

Grade 3 open tibial shaft fractures treated with a circular frame, functional outcome and systematic review of literature.  

PubMed

We report on the surgical and functional outcome of 22 patients with Grade 3 open tibial fractures treated with circular frame. All cases united and there were no re-fractures or amputations. All patients were assessed at a minimum of 1-year post frame removal. Assessment included clinical examination, IOWA ankle and knee scores, Olerud and Molander ankle score and EuroQol EQ-5D. Clinical scores were either good or excellent in over half of the patients in all knee and ankle scores. There was a significant positive correlation between functional outcomes and the EQ-5D score. The EQ-5D mean health state visual analogue score was comparable to the general UK population despite patients scoring less than the average UK population in three of the five domains. 36% reported some difficulties in walking and 41% had problems with pain. 14% had difficulties with self-care and 46% had difficulties with their usual activities. 14% had problems with anxiety or depression. Systematic review of the literature suggests, in the management of open tibial fractures, circular frames provide equivalent or superior surgical outcomes in comparison with other techniques. Our study finds the application of a circular frame also results in a good functional outcome in the majority of cases. PMID:25648287

Dickson, D R; Moulder, E; Hadland, Y; Giannoudis, P V; Sharma, H K

2015-04-01

180

Brain immune cell composition and functional outcome after cerebral ischemia: comparison of two mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory cells may contribute to secondary brain injury following cerebral ischemia. The C57Bl/6 mouse strain is known to exhibit a T helper 1-prone, pro-inflammatory type response to injury, whereas the FVB strain is relatively T helper 2-prone, or anti-inflammatory, in its immune response. We tested whether stroke outcome is more severe in C57Bl/6 than FVB mice. Male mice of each strain underwent sham surgery or 1 h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by 23 h of reperfusion. Despite no difference in infarct size, C57Bl/6 mice displayed markedly greater functional deficits than FVB mice after stroke, as assessed by neurological scoring and hanging wire test. Total numbers of CD45+ leukocytes tended to be larger in the brains of C57Bl/6 than FVB mice after stroke, but there were marked differences in leukocyte composition between the two mouse strains. The inflammatory response in C57Bl/6 mice primarily involved T and B lymphocytes, whereas neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages were more prominent in FVB mice. Our data are consistent with the concept that functional outcome after stroke is dependent on the immune cell composition which develops following ischemic brain injury. PMID:25477780

Kim, Hyun Ah; Whittle, Stephanie C.; Lee, Seyoung; Chu, Hannah X.; Zhang, Shenpeng R.; Wei, Zihui; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Vinh, Anthony; Drummond, Grant R.; Sobey, Christopher G.

2014-01-01

181

Long-term functional outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.  

PubMed

Although the elderly represent a substantial proportion of the population, limited information exists on postdischarge long-term outcomes of elderly burn survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess elderly burn patient outcomes 2 to 10 years after discharge. This study was a prospective cross-sectional survey assessment of quality of life and retrospective trauma registry for the American College of Surgeons review of patients ? 60 years of age discharged alive after acute burn from 1997 to 2007. In-hospital treatment and burn demographic information were obtained from database and chart review. Surviving patients or their families were contacted, and the Short-Form-12 and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) administered. Of the 344 patients discharged, 232 participated. Mean age was 72.3 (60-85.8) years, TBSA burn was 7.8% (1-79), and length of stay was 11.2 ± 0.9 days (1-51). Most patients were discharged home (71%) or to a skilled nursing facility (SNF; 20%). Mean interval between discharge and survey administration was 46.1 months. In all, 24% of patients sent home died after discharge and prior to interview compared with 58% of patients sent to an SNF. On multivariate analysis, mortality increased with age (confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.09), and government insurance (CI 0.34-0.94), but decreased with discharge to home (CI 1.68-4.47). There were no differences in FIM or Short-Form-12 scores between groups. Long-term mortality after discharge in elderly burn survivors is substantial. Patients sent to an SNF or with government insurance had increased mortality postdischarge. These data suggest that issues that may influence disposition status of elderly burn patients should be optimized prior to discharge to mitigate adverse outcomes associated with SNF placement. PMID:22777398

Palmieri, Tina L; Molitor, Fred; Chan, Grace; Phelan, Elizabeth; Shier, Brian J; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G

2012-01-01

182

Facial dog bite injuries in children: treatment and outcome assessment.  

PubMed

Dog bite injuries to a child's face are not an infrequent occurrence. They may require primary and revisional surgery. All result in permanent facial scars. This report describes the treatment and outcomes of dog bites of the face, scalp, and neck based on a case series of 107 children over a 10-year period.The average children's age was 5.9 years. In cases where the dog was identified (95%), it was known to the victim and their family. The events leading to the dog bite were categorized as provoked (77%) in the majority of the cases.The majority of wounds could be closed primarily without a significant risk of wound infection. Complex reconstructions were required in more severe cases. The majority of families (77%) opted for scar revision between 9 and 18 months after initial treatment to improve the aesthetic outcome.Lawsuit actions resulted in 39 of the cases making good documentation an essential part of treatment. Dogbite injuries to the face in children frequently require multiple scar revisions to obtain the best possible aesthetic outcome, and the family should be so counseled at the onset of treatment. PMID:23524699

Eppley, Barry L; Schleich, Arno Rene

2013-03-01

183

Student Learning Outcomes Assessment and Institutional Effectiveness Activities at Bellevue Community College. Report of the 1996-97 Assessment Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to recommendations from an accreditation visit regarding improvements in the utilization of research findings, Washington's Bellevue Community College (BCC) developed this assessment inventory to give faculty and staff a more complete understanding of student outcomes and assessment efforts at the college. Following an executive…

Hodge, Valerie

184

Assessing the Dimensions and Outcomes of an Effective Teammate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though teamwork is a mainstay of corporate America and business academia, individual assessment and compensation are problematic in disciplining and removing teammates who are free-riders and rewarding high performing team members who bear a disproportionate burden of the project. Therefore, the authors set out to develop and test an assessment

Crutchfield, Tammy N.; Klamon, Kimberly

2014-01-01

185

Exploring Alternative Approaches to Child Outcome Assessments in Children's Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In England, early years education services and the children and who attend them are the subject of increasing scrutiny and assessment. While these assessments offer a number of benefits in terms of tracking child development and ensuring the efficient use of public monies, they also impose restrictions to practice, limits to understandings of…

Campbell-Barr, Verity; Lavelle, Marie; Wickett, Karen

2012-01-01

186

The Outcomes of Statewide Assessment: Implications for Curriculum Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State Departments of Education are turning to the use of criterion referenced, as opposed to norm referenced, models for statewide assessment. The underlying assumption in this turn of events is that results generated by criterion referenced tests within the statewide assessment context permit the drawing of value inferences about the…

Rubinstein, Sherry Ann; Nassif-Royer, Paula

187

The Case for Assessing Complex General Education Student Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of general education has a long history, although relative to the age of liberal education and educational evaluation it is a very recent development. One of the first recorded efforts to comprehensively assess student achievement in higher education in the United States occurred in the late 1920s and early 1930s, when many institutions…

Penn, Jeremy D.

2011-01-01

188

Outcomes of Synergetic Peer Assessment: First-Year Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Active participation in learning activities and reviewing assessment activity can facilitate learners engaged in these processes. This case study reports student experiences of the process of peer assessment with teacher guidance in a group project for a first-year nursing course with 153 students. Twenty groups of students were assigned roles in…

Hodgson, Paula; Chan, Kitty; Liu, Justina

2014-01-01

189

Three-Year Outcomes of Cultured Limbal Epithelial Allografts in Aniridia and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Evaluated Using the Clinical Outcome Assessment in Surgical Trials Assessment Tool  

PubMed Central

Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is an eye disorder in which the stem cells responsible for forming the surface skin of the cornea are destroyed by disease. This results in pain, loss of vision, and a cosmetically unpleasant appearance. Many new treatments, including stem cell therapies, are emerging for the treatment of this condition, but assessment of these new technologies is severely hampered by the lack of biomarkers for this disease or validated tools for assessing its severity. The aims of this study were to design and test the reliability of a tool for grading LSCD, to define a set of core outcome measures for use in evaluating treatments for this condition, and to demonstrate their utility. This was achieved by using our defined outcome set (which included the Clinical Outcome Assessment in Surgical Trials of Limbal stem cell deficiency [COASTL] tool) to evaluate the 3-year outcomes for allogeneic ex vivo cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (allo-CLET) in patients who had bilateral total LSCD secondary to aniridia or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The results demonstrate that our new grading tool for LSCD, the COASTL tool, is reliable and repeatable, and that improvements in the biomarkers used in this tool correlate positively with improvements in visual acuity. The COASTL tool showed that following allo-CLET there was a decrease in LSCD severity and an increase in visual acuity up to 12 months post-treatment, but thereafter LSCD severity and visual acuity progressively deteriorated. PMID:24443006

Bunce, Catey; Levis, Hannah J.; Blows, Peter; Doré, Caroline J.; Vernon, Amanda; Secker, Genevieve A.; Tuft, Stephen J.; Daniels, Julie T.

2014-01-01

190

Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later.  

PubMed

CONTEXT Prospective studies of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not extended beyond early adulthood. OBJECTIVE To examine whether children diagnosed as having ADHD at a mean age of 8 years (probands) have worse educational, occupational, economic, social, and marital outcomes and higher rates of ongoing ADHD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), substance use disorders (SUDs), adult-onset psychiatric disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations, and incarcerations than non-ADHD comparison participants at a mean age of 41 years. DESIGN Prospective, 33-year follow-up study, with masked clinical assessments. SETTING Research clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 135 white men with ADHD in childhood, free of conduct disorder, and 136 men without childhood ADHD (65.2% and 76.4% of original cohort, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Occupational, economic, and educational attainment; marital history; occupational and social functioning; ongoing and lifetime psychiatric disorders; psychiatric hospitalizations; and incarcerations. RESULTS Probands had significantly worse educational, occupational, economic, and social outcomes; more divorces; and higher rates of ongoing ADHD (22.2% vs 5.1%, P < .001), ASPD (16.3% vs 0%, P < .001), and SUDs (14.1% vs 5.1%, P = .01) but not more mood or anxiety disorders (P = .36 and .33) than did comparison participants. Ongoing ADHD was weakly related to ongoing SUDs (? = 0.19, P = .04), as well as ASPD with SUDs (? = 0.20, P = .04). During their lifetime, probands had significantly more ASPD and SUDs but not mood or anxiety disorders and more psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations than comparison participants. Relative to comparisons, psychiatric disorders with onsets at 21 years or older were not significantly elevated in probands. Probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders had worse social, but not occupational, functioning. CONCLUSIONS The multiple disadvantages predicted by childhood ADHD well into adulthood began in adolescence, without increased onsets of new disorders after 20 years of age. Findings highlight the importance of extended monitoring and treatment of children with ADHD. PMID:23070149

Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Olazagasti, María A Ramos; Roizen, Erica; Hutchison, Jesse A; Lashua, Erin C; Castellanos, F Xavier

2012-12-01

191

Morbidity and functional mid-term outcomes using Prolift pelvic floor repair systems  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We assess midterm morbidity and functional outcomes using the Prolift (Gynecare/Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) system and identify potential related risk factors. The Prolift mesh system to treat genital prolapse was introduced in 2005. It was withdrawn from the market in early 2013 after rising doubts about safety. Methods: Over a 7-year period, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 112 consecutive patients who underwent the Prolift procedure since 2006. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, anatomical and functional outcomes were recorded. Results: The median follow-up was 49.5 months (range: 16–85). The mean age was 64.7 ± 10.9 years (range: 40–86). Of the 112 patients, 74 patients had stage 3 (66.1%) and 8 patients had stage 4 (7.14%) vaginal prolapse. Prolift surgery was performed for pro-lapse recurrence for 26 patients (23.2%). Total mesh was used in 32 patients (29%), an isolated anterior mesh in 57 patients (51%) and an isolated posterior mesh in 23 patients (21%). Concomitant surgical procedures were performed for 44 patients (39.3%). Overall, 72% (18/25) of the complications were managed medically. We reported a failure rate of 8% (n = 9) occurring after a median follow-up of 9.5 months (range: 1–45). Among the 64 patients who had preoperative sexual activity (57.1%), de novo dyspareunia occurred in 9 patients (16.07%). We extracted predictive factors concerning failure, complications and sexuality. Conclusion: Despite its market withdrawal, the Prolift system was associated with good midterm anatomic outcomes and few severe complications. Long-term follow-up data are still lacking, but surgeons and patients may be reassured. PMID:25295130

Kozal, Sébastien; Ripert, Thomas; Bayoud, Younes; Menard, Johan; Nicolacopoulos, Ioannis; Bednarzyck, Laurence; Staerman, Frederic; Larré, Stéphane

2014-01-01

192

A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the short-term effects of physiotherapy triage assessments on self-reported pain, functioning, and general well-being and quality of life in people with low back-related disorders. Methods: Participants with low back–related complaints were recruited from those referred to a spinal triage assessment program delivered by physiotherapists (PTs). Before undergoing the triage assessment, the participants completed a battery of questionnaires covering a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial features. The study used the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Medical Outcomes Survey 36-item short-form version 2 (SF-36v2) to assess self-reported pain, function, and quality of life. Baseline measures and variables were analyzed using a descriptive analysis method (ie, proportions, means, medians). Paired samples t-tests or Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests were used to analyze the overall group differences between the pretest and posttest outcome measures where appropriate. Results: A total of 108 out of 115 (93.9%) participants completed the posttest survey. The Physical Component Summary of the SF36v2 was the only measure that demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A spinal triage assessment program delivered by PTs can be viewed as a complex intervention that may have the potential to affect a wide range of patient-related outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes and explore potential mechanisms of improvement using a biopsychosocial framework. PMID:22915980

Bath, Brenna; Pahwa, Punam

2012-01-01

193

Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

194

Outcomes-Based Education Reexamined: From Structural Functionalism to Poststructuralism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outcomes-based education (OBE) views itself as drastic break from current inequitable educational practices and means of providing educational success for all students. Reexamines OBE from a multiparadigm perspective of organizations and educational administration. Although certain OBE facets may be empowering to students and teachers, much of the…

Capper, Colleen A.; Jamison, Michael T.

1993-01-01

195

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

2009-01-01

196

The importance of team functioning to natural resource planning outcomes.  

PubMed

In its recent history, the U.S. Forest Service is among many federal land management agencies struggling with questions concerning why its planning procedures are sometimes inefficient, perform poorly in the eyes of the public, and fail to deliver outputs that advance agency mission. By examining a representative sample of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) processes conducted by the agency between 2007 and 2009, we provide new insights into what drives outcomes in these planning processes. We examined team leaders' perceptions of the following outcomes: achievement of agency goals and NEPA mandates, process efficiency, public relations, and team outcomes. The most consistently important predictors of positive outcomes were team harmony and a clearly empowered team leader. Other factors, such as perceptions of the use of best science, a clear and unambiguous purpose and need, team turnover (personnel changes during the process), extra-agency engagement, and intra-agency relations, were also important, but played a less consistent role. The findings suggest the importance of empowering team leaders and team members through enhancing elements of discretion, responsibility, clear role definition, collaborative interdisciplinary deliberation, and perceived self-efficacy. The results also suggest the importance of genuine concern and respect for participating publics and effective inter-agency coordination. PMID:22562009

Stern, Marc J; Predmore, S Andrew

2012-09-15

197

Functional Mentoring: A Practical Approach with Multilevel Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Mentoring is a central component of professional development. Evaluation of "successful" mentoring programs, however, has been limited and mainly focused on measures of satisfaction with the relationship. In today's environment, mentoring programs must produce tangible outcomes to demonstrate success. To address this issue, the…

Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Gusic, Maryellen E.; Milner, Robert J.

2008-01-01

198

MANUAL FOR ASSESSMENT OF BOTTOMLAND HARDWOOD FUNCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual outlines a procedure for qualitatively assessing the functions and values of bottomland hardwoods (BLH). he procedure is based on the Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET) and for this reason is referred to as WET-BLH. etland functions are the physical, chemical, and bio...

199

Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations  

PubMed Central

A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781

Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.

2012-01-01

200

The echocardiographic assessment of functional mitral regurgitation.  

PubMed

Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is common, clinically important, and mechanistically complex. Its assessment by echocardiography can be challenging, and particular care is needed in the quantification of severity. Echocardiographers need to be aware of the potential limitations of flow convergence and vena contracta methods in assessing severity and alert to the prognostic importance of even moderate functional MR. Three-dimensional echocardiography has the potential to improve both the understanding of the mechanisms of functional MR and the accuracy of its quantification. PMID:21078834

Ray, Simon

2010-12-01

201

Combining the Tasks of Grading Individual Assignments and Assessing Student Outcomes in Project-Based Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ABET requires that engineering programs demonstrate continuous assessment and continuous improvement in order to be accredited. Central to the process is establishing and assessing measurable "student outcomes" that reflect whether the goals and objectives of the program are being met. This paper examines effective strategies for…

Dahm, Kevin

2014-01-01

202

Using Mobile Technologies for Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings: Outcomes of Five Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the outcomes of the Mobile Technologies Pilot Project for the Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL). ALPS is a partnership of five Higher Education Institutions (HEI) that aims to develop and improve assessment, and thereby learning, in practice settings for…

Dearnley, Christine; Taylor, Jill; Hennessy, Scott; Parks, Maria; Coates, Catherine; Haigh, Jackie; Fairhall, John; Riley, Kevin; Dransfield, Mark

2009-01-01

203

Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

2008-01-01

204

Towards a Model and Methodology for Assessing Student Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to introduce a conceptual model for assessing undergraduate student learning outcomes and satisfaction that involves concepts drawn from the services marketing and assessment literatures; second, to illustrate the utility of the model as implemented in an academic department (geography)…

Duque, Lola C.; Weeks, John R.

2010-01-01

205

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, analyze and critique written discourse  

E-print Network

written discourse in Spanish at the intermediate level Exams and/or Quizzes (These will assess reading discourse in Spanish at the intermediate level ; Analyze underlying assumptions affect- ing the demographicSPANISH202 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, analyze and critique

Barrash, Warren

206

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read and understand written discourse in  

E-print Network

discourse in Spanish at the elementary level Exams and/or Quizzes (These will assess reading skills- mation sources in both written and spoken discourse in Spanish at the elementary level. PresentationsSPANISH101 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read and understand written

Barrash, Warren

207

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, analyze and critique written discourse  

E-print Network

written discourse in Spanish at the intermediate level Exams and/or Quizzes (These will assess reading discourse in Spanish at the intermediate level ; Analyze underlying assumptions affect- ing the demographicSPANISH203 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, analyze and critique

Barrash, Warren

208

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read and understand written discourse in  

E-print Network

discourse in Spanish at the elementary level Exams and/or Quizzes (These will assess reading skills Spanish in both written and spoken discourse in Spanish at the elementary level. Presentations ; Exams. PortionsSPANISH102 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read and understand written

Barrash, Warren

209

SPANISH111-112 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy  

E-print Network

written discourse in Spanish at the elementary level Exams and/or Quizzes (These will assess reading appropriate infor- mation sources in both written and spoken discourse in Spanish at the elementary levelSPANISH111-112 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read and understand

Barrash, Warren

210

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, analyze and critique written discourse  

E-print Network

written discourse in Spanish at the intermediate level Exams and/or Quizzes (These will assess reading culturally appropriate infor- mation sources in both written and spoken discourse in SpanishSPANISH201 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, analyze and critique

Barrash, Warren

211

Perspectives to performance of environment and health assessments and models--from outputs to outcomes?  

PubMed

The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. The perspectives to assessment and model performance in the scientific literature can be called: (1) quality assurance/control, (2) uncertainty analysis, (3) technical assessment of models, (4) effectiveness and (5) other perspectives, according to what is primarily seen to constitute the goodness of assessments and models. The categorization is not strict and methods, tools and frameworks in different perspectives may overlap. However, altogether it seems that most approaches to assessment and model performance are relatively narrow in their scope. The focus in most approaches is on the outputs and making of assessments and models. Practical application of the outputs and the consequential outcomes are often left unaddressed. It appears that more comprehensive approaches that combine the essential characteristics of different perspectives are needed. This necessitates a better account of the mechanisms of collective knowledge creation and the relations between knowledge and practical action. Some new approaches to assessment, modeling and their evaluation and management span the chain from knowledge creation to societal outcomes, but the complexity of evaluating societal outcomes remains a challenge. PMID:23803642

Pohjola, Mikko V; Pohjola, Pasi; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T

2013-07-01

212

Perspectives to Performance of Environment and Health Assessments and Models—From Outputs to Outcomes?  

PubMed Central

The calls for knowledge-based policy and policy-relevant research invoke a need to evaluate and manage environment and health assessments and models according to their societal outcomes. This review explores how well the existing approaches to assessment and model performance serve this need. The perspectives to assessment and model performance in the scientific literature can be called: (1) quality assurance/control, (2) uncertainty analysis, (3) technical assessment of models, (4) effectiveness and (5) other perspectives, according to what is primarily seen to constitute the goodness of assessments and models. The categorization is not strict and methods, tools and frameworks in different perspectives may overlap. However, altogether it seems that most approaches to assessment and model performance are relatively narrow in their scope. The focus in most approaches is on the outputs and making of assessments and models. Practical application of the outputs and the consequential outcomes are often left unaddressed. It appears that more comprehensive approaches that combine the essential characteristics of different perspectives are needed. This necessitates a better account of the mechanisms of collective knowledge creation and the relations between knowledge and practical action. Some new approaches to assessment, modeling and their evaluation and management span the chain from knowledge creation to societal outcomes, but the complexity of evaluating societal outcomes remains a challenge. PMID:23803642

Pohjola, Mikko V.; Pohjola, Pasi; Tainio, Marko; Tuomisto, Jouni T.

2013-01-01

213

Assessing Adult Learning within a Doctor of Physical Therapy Program: Student Outcomes and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This applied dissertation was a program evaluation study, which was conducted to assess the educational outcomes of the adult learners compared to the traditional learners, as well as the satisfaction with learning while enrolled in the program. The level of satisfaction of all graduates was assessed for comparison between the traditional learners…

Greiner, Ann W. B.

2011-01-01

214

Self-Assessment as a Tool for the Evaluation of Learning Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation study of learning outcomes for secondary art education in The Netherlands is described. A student self-assessment questionnaire (learner report), based on De Groot's Self-Assessment Theories, was sent to 1150 students after final exams. Students wrote learning effect sentences, ranked 30 possible learning effects, and answered…

Von der Kamp, Max

1984-01-01

215

Learning in a comfort zone: cultural and social capital inside an outcome?based assessment regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous problems with outcome?based assessment systems, claims that they enhance learners' motivation and autonomy resonate with research interest in how young people develop cultural and social capital. However, research has not yet explored the ways in which assessment systems affect the forms of capital embedded within them. This paper applies concepts from a growing body of work on social

Kathryn Ecclestone

2004-01-01

216

Student Outcomes Assessment, 2000-01: A Progress Report to the Virginia Community College System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the activities, findings, and actions that have made up Germanna Community College's (Virginia) student outcomes assessment program in specific reporting areas for 2000-2001. The following sections comprise the report: (1) an executive summary; (2) a report on assessment activities in five general education areas, including…

Germanna Community Coll., Locust Grove, VA.

217

Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

2002-01-01

218

Determinants of revision and functional outcome following unicompartmental knee replacement  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (UKR) has important advantages over total knee replacement (TKR) but has a higher revision rate. Outcomes vary between centres, suggesting that risk factors for revision may be modifiable with changes to patient selection or operative technique. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting revision, patient-reported outcome and satisfaction following UKR. Method 25,982 cases from three national databases were analysed. Multilevel multivariable regression models were used to examine the effect of patient and surgical factors on implant survival, patient-reported outcome and satisfaction at 6 months and 8 years following UKR. Results Of the 25,982 cases, 3862 (14.9%) had pre-operative and 6-month Oxford Knee Scores (OKS). Eight-year survival was 89.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 88.3–89.9). OKS increased from 21.9 (SD 7.6) to 37.5 (SD 9.5). Age (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.96–0.97) per year), male gender (HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.76–0.96)), unit size (HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.86–0.97) per case up to 40 cases/year) and operating surgeon grade (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.67–0.91) if consultant) predicted improved implant survival. Older patients (?75 years), and those with lower deprivation levels had superior OKS and satisfaction (adjusted mean difference 0.14 (95% CI 0.09–0.20) points per year of age and 0.93 (95% CI 0.60–1.27) per quintile of deprivation). Ethnicity, anxiety and co-morbidities also affected patient-reported outcome. Conclusions This study has identified important predictors of revision and patient-reported outcome following UKR. Older patients, who are least likely to be offered UKR, may derive the greatest benefits. Improved understanding of these factors may improve the long-term outcomes of UKR. PMID:25042552

Liddle, A.D.; Judge, A.; Pandit, H.; Murray, D.W.

2014-01-01

219

Long-Term Intellectual Functioning and School-Related Behavioural Outcomes in Children and Adolescents after Invasive Treatment for Congenital Heart Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, long-term intellectual functioning and school-related behavioural outcomes were assessed in a patient sample that underwent invasive treatment for congenital heart disease (ConHD) between 1990 and 1995. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was used to measure intellectual functioning and the Teacher's Report Form to…

Spijkerboer, A. W.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Bogers, A. J. J. C.; Verhulst, F. C.; Helbing, W. A.

2008-01-01

220

Outcomes Research Branch | Assessing Patients' Experiences of Cancer Care  

Cancer.gov

Two ORB studies have addressed the need for comprehensive, psychometrically sound, cancer-specific measures of patients' experience of and satisfaction with the care they receive during the post-treatment, survivorship phase of the cancer care continuum. The Assessment of Patients' Experience of Cancer Care (APECC) Study, funded as a SEER Rapid Response Surveillance Study (RRSS), developed and pilot tested a survey instrument to assess patients' experiences and satisfaction with care for colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and leukemia.

221

Renal tumour anatomical characteristics and functional outcome after partial nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Anatomical features of renal tumours may be useful in predicting glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after partial nephrectomy. In this study, anatomical classification systems (ACSs) were compared to predict changes in renal function after surgery. Materials and methods. A group of 294 patients with T1 renal tumours receiving partial nephrectomy between January 2006 and June 2013 were identified from the institutional kidney tumour database. Preoperative images from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed to assess diameter, PADUA (preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical) classification score, RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumour, nearness of tumour deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior descriptor and location relative to polar lines) nephrometry score, centrality index (C index) and renal tumour invasion index (RTII). GFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation preoperatively and 3 months after operation. Linear and logistic regression were applied as statistical methods. Results. Mean tumour diameter was 3.0 ± 2.2 cm (range 1.0-7.0 cm). GFR was 85 ± 22?ml/min/1.73?m² before the operation and 77 ± 21 ml/min/1.73 m² (-8% change) 3 months after the operation. In univariate linear regression, the percentage change in GFR was weakly but statistically significantly associated with surgical approach (p = 0.04), indication for nephron sparing (p = 0.02), preoperative GFR (p < 0.001), PADUA (p = 0.02), RENAL (p = 0.01) and RTII (p = 0.003). In multivariate logistic regression analysis among patients with tumours 3?cm or larger, PADUA (odds ratio 1.55, p = 0.021) and RTII (odds ratio 3.87, p = 0.037) predicted at least a 20% reduction in GFR. Conclusions. Renal tumour ACSs may be clinically useful in predicting changes in renal function after partial nephrectomy in patients with larger tumours. The performance of RTII is equal to that of other ACSs in predicting changes in GFR. PMID:25385687

Nisen, Harry; Heimonen, Petri; Kenttä, Lauri; Visapää, Harri; Nisen, Jessica; Taari, Kimmo

2014-11-11

222

The measurement properties of modified Rivermead mobility index and modified functional ambulation classification as outcome measures for Chinese stroke patients.  

PubMed

Valid, reliable, responsive and practical outcome measures are essential for treatment planning and outcome assessment. This study aimed to examine the measurement properties of Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI) and Modified Functional Ambulation Classification (MFAC) in Chinese stroke patients. The content validity, responsiveness, predictive validity, test-retest reliability, internal consistency and factor structure of the MRMI were examined. The content validity, discriminative power and inter-rater agreement of the MFAC were investigated. A total of 456 Chinese stroke patients were recruited. Evidence of good content validity, high responsiveness, adequate predictive validity, excellent test-retest reliability with 1.3-point as minimum detectable change in 95% confidence interval, high internal consistency and unidimensionality was obtained for the MRMI. Good content validity, sufficient discriminative power and excellent inter-rater agreement were demonstrated for the MFAC. Both the MRMI and MFAC have good to excellent measurement properties and are recommended as routine outcome measures for Chinese stroke patients. PMID:24400683

Tsang, Raymond Chi-Chung; Chau, Rosanna Mei-Wa; Cheuk, Terence Hau-Wai; Cheung, Benny Shu-Pui; Fung, Donna Mei-Yee; Ho, Ester Yuk-Lai; Ip, Ellen Mei-Lun; Ko, Betty Pik-Ha; Lee, Jimson Yuk-Lam; Liu, Alan Kin-Lun; Ng, Vivien Pui-Ling; Tang, Robert Shun-Keung; To, Karen Wing-Sau; Tsang, Claudia Pui-Ling

2014-07-01

223

Anatomical and functional outcomes in contusion injuries of posterior segment  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate the clinical features, and anatomical and visual outcomes in patients with closed-globe contusion injury involving the posterior segment.MethodsRetrospective review of posterior segment contusion injuries admitted to our tertiary referral center.ResultsIn all, 115 patients (115 eyes) with complete data were reviewed. Surgery had been performed in 79 (69%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range, 2–34 months).

F Cuneyt Erdurman; G Sobaci; C H Acikel; M O Ceylan; A H Durukan; V Hurmeric

2011-01-01

224

Executive Function Following Focal Frontal Lobe Lesions: Impact of Timing of Lesion on Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is generally agreed that outcome following cerebral insult during childhood differs from that seen following similar pathology in adulthood, the specific relationship between timing of cerebral lesion and outcome, and the mechanism associated with observed neurobehavioral changes, remains controversial. Data from children with focal lesions suggests a non-linear relationship between age at injury and language function (e.g., Bates

Rani Jacobs; A. Simon Harvey; Vicki Anderson

2007-01-01

225

Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the effects of the type of mentoring relationship and the gender composition of the relationship on mentoring functions and career outcomes reported by 352 female and 257 male proteges. Proteges of informal mentors viewed their mentors as more effective and received greater compensation than proteges of formal mentors. Proteges with informal mentors also received more career outcomes

Belle Rose Ragins; John L. Cotton

1999-01-01

226

Effects of "Right" and "Wrong" as a Function of Recalling Either the Response or the Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the outcomes "right" and "wrong" upon subsequent correct responding in paired-associate learning have recently been interpreted as a function of subject's memory of previous responses and their outcomes. Tests that interpretation in two experiments of recall procedures. (Editor/RK)

d'Ydewalle, Gery; Buchwald, Alexander M.

1976-01-01

227

Some implications of the technology assessment function for the effective public decision-making process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary provisional assessment of the prospects for the establishment of an adequate technology assessment function and the implications of the assessment function for the public decision process are presented. Effects of the technology assessment function on each phase of the public decision process and briefly explored. Significant implications during the next decade are projected with respect to the following phases: invention and development of alternative means (technological configurations); evaluation, selection and promotion of preferred courses of action; and modification of statutory scheme or social action program as an outcome of continuing monitoring and appraisal.

Mayo, L. H.

1971-01-01

228

Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians.  

PubMed

This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of multicomponent training on muscle power output, muscle mass, and muscle tissue attenuation; the risk of falls; and functional outcomes in frail nonagenarians. Twenty-four elderly (91.9?±?4.1 years old) were randomized into intervention or control group. The intervention group performed a twice-weekly, 12-week multicomponent exercise program composed of muscle power training (8-10 repetitions, 40-60 % of the one-repetition maximum) combined with balance and gait retraining. Strength and power tests were performed on the upper and lower limbs. Gait velocity was assessed using the 5-m habitual gait and the time-up-and-go (TUG) tests with and without dual-task performance. Balance was assessed using the FICSIT-4 tests. The ability to rise from a chair test was assessed, and data on the incidence and risk of falls were assessed using questionnaires. Functional status was assessed before measurements with the Barthel Index. Midthigh lower extremity muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration were assessed using computed tomography. The intervention group showed significantly improved TUG with single and dual tasks, rise from a chair and balance performance (P?functional outcomes. Routine multicomponent exercise intervention should be prescribed to nonagenarians because overall physical outcomes are improved in this population. PMID:24030238

Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

2014-04-01

229

The outcome at ten years of lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy: determinants of survival and functional outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the functional outcome at ten years following lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee and to define pre-operative predictors of survival and determinants of functional outcome. 164 consecutive patients underwent high tibial osteotomy between 2000 and 2002. A total of 100 patients (100 knees) met the inclusion criteria and 95 were available for review at ten years. Data were collected prospectively and included patient demographics, surgical details, long leg alignment radiographs, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) and Knee Society scores (KSS) pre-operatively and at five and ten years follow-up. At ten years, 21 patients had been revised at a mean of five years. Overall Kaplan-Meier survival was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI) 81 to 94) and 79% (95% CI 71 to 87) at five and ten years, respectively. When compared with unrevised patients, those who had been revised had significantly lower mean pre-operative WOMAC Scores (47 (21 to 85) vs 65 (32 to 99), p < 0.001), higher mean age (54 yrs (42 to 61) vs 49 yrs (26 to 66), p = 0.006) and a higher mean BMI (30.2; 25 to 39 vs 27.9; 21 to 36, p = 0.005). Each were found to be risk factors for revision, with hazard ratios of 10.7 (95% CI 4 to 28.6; pre-operative WOMAC < 45), 6.5 (95% CI 2.4 to 17.7; age > 55) and 3.0 (95%CI 1.2 to 7.6; BMI > 30). Survival of patients with pre-operative WOMAC > 45, age < 55 and BMI < 30 was 97% at five and ten years. WOMAC and KSS in surviving patients improved significantly between pre-operative (mean 61; 32 to 99) and five (mean 88; 35 to 100, p = 0.001) and ten years (mean 84; 38 to 100, p = 0.001). Older patients had better functional outcomes overall, despite their higher revision rate. This study has shown that improved survival is associated with age < 55 years, pre-operative WOMAC scores > 45 and, a BMI < 30. In patients over 55 years of age with adequate pre-operative functional scores, survival can be good and functional outcomes can be significantly better than their younger counterparts. We recommend the routine use of pre-operative functional outcome scores to guide decision-making when considering suitability for high tibial osteotomy. PMID:25371462

Howells, N R; Salmon, L; Waller, A; Scanelli, J; Pinczewski, L A

2014-11-01

230

Major adverse events, pretransplant assessment and outcome prediction.  

PubMed

Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension pose enormous loss of lives and resources throughout the world, especially in endemic areas of chronic viral hepatitis. Although the pathophysiology of cirrhosis is not completely understood, the accumulating evidence has paved the way for better control of the complications, including gastroesophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. Modern pharmacological and interventional therapies have been designed to treat these complications. However, liver transplantation (LT) is the only definite treatment for patients with preterminal end-stage liver disease. To pursue successful LT, the meticulous evaluation of potential recipients and donors is pivotal, especially for living donor transplantation. The critical shortage of cadaveric donor livers is another concern. In many Asian countries, cultural and religious concerns further limit the number of the donors, which lags far behind that of the recipients. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system has recently become the prevailing criterion for organ allocation. Initial results showed clear benefits of moving from the Child-Turcotte-Pugh-based system toward the MELD-based organ allocation system. In addition to the MELD, serum sodium is another important prognostic predictor in patients with advanced cirrhosis. The incorporation of serum sodium into the MELD could enhance the performance of the MELD and could become an indispensable strategy in refining the priority for LT. However, the feasibility of the MELD in combination with sodium in predicting the outcome for patients on transplant waiting list awaits actual outcome data before this becomes standard practice in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:20136958

Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huo, Teh-Ia

2009-11-01

231

Assessment of coronary hemodynamics and vascular function.  

PubMed

Coronary blood flow closely matches to metabolic demands of heart and myocardial oxygen consumption and is conditioned by function of coronary resistance vessels. The microvascular endothelium of coronary resistance vessels is exposed to a spatially and temporally regulated input from cardiomyocytes and the haemodynamic forces of the cardiac cycle. Functional measurements of coronary pressure and flow are important approaches that provide complementary information on the function of coronary vessel function that could not be assessed by the methods utilized for the anatomic characterization of coronary disease, such as coronary angiography. The goal of this paper is to review the methodologies for assessment of coronary vascular function and haemodynamics which are utilized in research and to discuss their potential applicability in the clinical settings. PMID:25460847

Drenjancevic, Ines; Koller, Akos; Selthofer-Relatic, Kristina; Grizelj, Ivana; Cavka, Ana

2015-01-01

232

Optimising outcome in congenital hypothyroidism; current opinions on best practice in initial assessment and subsequent management.  

PubMed

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), usually of the primary and permanent variety, is an eminently preventable cause of growth retardation and mental handicap whose outlook has been transformed by newborn screening, usually involving the measurement of capillary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Severe primary CH, due for example to athyreosis, may result in subtle cognitive, behavioural and sensori-motor deficits, but the extent to which these can be offset by optimal postnatal diagnosis and management remains uncertain. This is because the available adult follow-up data reflect the outcome of previous management in the 1970's and 1980's, and also because the accurate neuro-psychological assessment of children is difficult, particularly in the preschool population. There is an urgent need to develop new consensus guidelines and to ensure that the children managed according to such guidelines are systematically and prospectively assessed so that good quality outcome data become available. In this review, key recommendations in the management of CH include: screening at day 3 so that severely affected infants can begin treatment within the first 10 days of life; setting the TSH referral cut-off at 8-10 mU/L; adopting a disciplined diagnostic algorithm to evaluate referred cases, with measurement of venous free thyroxine (T4), TSH and thyroglobulin combined with dual ultrasound and radioisotope imaging; initial treatment with a T4 dose of 50 ?g daily in infants weighing ? 2.5 kg and 15 ?g/kg/day in infants weighing < 2.5 kg followed by weekly review until thyroid function is normalised; and maintenance of free T4 levels between 15-26 pmol/L and TSH between 0.5-5 mU/L thereafter to avoid both under- and overtreatment. PMID:23154163

Donaldson, Malcolm; Jones, Jeremy

2013-01-01

233

Mouse models of osteoarthritis: modelling risk factors and assessing outcomes.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent musculoskeletal disease that results in pain and low quality of life for patients, as well as enormous medical and socioeconomic burdens. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of OA are still poorly understood. As such, mouse models of the disease are having increasingly important roles in OA research owing to the advancements of microsurgical techniques and the use of genetically modified mice, as well as the development of novel assessment tools. In this Review, we discuss available mouse models of OA and applicable assessment tools in studies of experimental OA. PMID:24662645

Fang, Hang; Beier, Frank

2014-07-01

234

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Process of Inqui-  

E-print Network

to bicycle system. Example: Introduce web-based bicycle design software and computer-aid- ed-design. Emphasis on course) Develop engineering intuition in four diverse engineering areas; Statics, Computer Aided Design of the ideas of design, statics, material science and data acquisition. Assessment :4: Excellent: Student

Barrash, Warren

235

Research on AT Outcomes and Large Scale Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational policies require the participation of students with disabilities in state assessments. Their participation has raised a number of issues, among them the need for accommodations. In this article we consider the role that assistive technology (AT) can play to alleviate current accommodations demands, and highlight research and…

Thurlow, Martha; Tindal, Gerald; Powers, Richard; Lewis, Preston; Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Breslin-Larson, Joan

2007-01-01

236

DISTORTIONS IN STATE LEVEL PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES ON HIGH STAKES ASSESSMENTS  

E-print Network

growth equation that subtracts the two scores and divides that by the maximum score on that test in that year, from the first score. This calculation produces a Practical Normed Growth (PNG) for the state assessment as well as the NAEP. To determine...

Hornback, Joseph Edward

2013-05-31

237

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Understanding  

E-print Network

. American national government. 11-02 Understanding of historical and/or cultural forces Demonstrates demonstrate such under- standing within the context of. American national government. Instructors will assess an understanding of the historical and / or social forces that shape individuals and institutions. Analyzes

Barrash, Warren

238

Distortions in State Level Performance Outcomes on High Stakes Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation addresses two research questions: 1. Do states misrepresent their progress on their own state assessments? 2. If states do distort their progress, are their predictors to suggest why this distortion occurs? The first research question requires that distortion be defined. For the purposes of this dissertation I calculated the…

Hornback, Joseph E.

2013-01-01

239

Biochemical Visual Literacy with Constructive Alignment: Outcomes, Assessment, and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several contributions in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education" have highlighted the role of visualization tools and the importance of developing students' visual literacy in biochemistry education. In this forum, the authors suggest that more focus is needed on the assessment of student learning, and they advance…

Herraez, Angel; Costa, Manuel Joao

2013-01-01

240

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Process of Inqui-  

E-print Network

-03 Communication of Scientific and/ or Technological Understandings Develop a terminology and fact base so and Technology with Humans and Environment Identify and assess the impact of mod- ern technology on humans lectures on biotechnology and human impact on the environment Laboratory presentations and proce- dures

Barrash, Warren

241

Functional outcome following a large head total hip arthroplasty: A retrospective analysis of mid term results  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the reasons that hip resurfacing and large head metal on metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) became popular in Asia was the possible increased range of movement and thereby improved function of the hip joint. Due to concerns of MOM articulation an alternative bearing was sought. Hence, a shift from large head MOM to large head ceramic on ceramic (COC) was made. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome including range of motion (ROM) and dislocation rates following large head MOM and large head COC THA. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, 39 primary THA with large head MOM with a mean age of 56 years (range 36-72 years) and average followup of 54 months (range 38-70 months) were compared with 23 primary THA with large head COC bearing with a mean age of 48 years (range 36-68 years) and an average followup of 18 months (range 12-26 months). Functional outcome was assessed using the Modified Harris Hip Score. Dislocation rate and ROM were compared. Results: Global ROM averaged 248 degrees with MOM group and 252 degrees with the COC group. One patient with metal bearing had dislocation at an average 3 year followup which required revision THA while there were no complications in the COC group. MHHS averaged 89 points in MOM and 94 in COC THR. Conclusion: This study has shown that large head ceramic on ceramic THA is a good alternative to large head metal on metal THA with comparable dislocation rates and range of movements and without complications of metallosis in Asian patients. PMID:25143647

Agarwala, Sanjay; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

2014-01-01

242

The assessment of outcome after total knee arthroplasty: are we there yet?  

PubMed

The routine use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in evaluating the outcome after arthroplasty by healthcare organisations reflects a growing recognition of the importance of patients' perspectives in improving treatment. Although widely embraced in the NHS, there are concerns that PROMs are being used beyond their means due to a poor understanding of their limitations. This paper reviews some of the current challenges in using PROMs to evaluate total knee arthroplasty. It highlights alternative methods that have been used to improve the assessment of outcome. PMID:25568406

Hossain, F S; Konan, S; Patel, S; Rodriguez-Merchan, E C; Haddad, F S

2015-01-01

243

Brain lesion size and location: Effects on motor recovery and functional outcome in stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chen C-L, Tang F-T, Chen H-C, Chung C-Y, Wong M-K. Brain lesion size and location: effects on motor recovery and functional outcome in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:447-52. Objective: To investigate effects of brain lesion profiles that combined sizes and locations on motor recovery and functional outcome after stroke in hemiplegic patients. Design: Delimiting sizes (a threshold lesion

Chia-Ling Chen; Fuk-Tan Tang; Hsieh-Ching Chen; Chia-Ying Chung; May-Kuen Wong

2000-01-01

244

Are Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Improving? Impact of Bayley Assessment on Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare 18- to 22-month cognitive scores and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in 2 time periods using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Neonatal Research Network assessment of extremely low birth weight infants with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (Bayley II) in 2006–2007 (period 1) and using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley III), with separate cognitive and language scores, in 2008–2011 (period 2). Study design Scores were compared with bivariate analysis, and regression analyses were run to identify differences in NDI rates. Results Mean Bayley III cognitive scores were 11 points higher than mean Bayley II cognitive scores. The NDI rate was reduced by 70% (from 43% in period 1 to 13% in period 2; P < .0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that Bayley III contributed to a decreased risk of NDI by 5 definitions: cognitive score <70 and <85, cognitive or language score <70; cognitive or motor score <70, and cognitive, language, or motor score <70 (P < .001). Conclusion Whether the Bayley III is overestimating cognitive performance or whether it is a more valid assessment of emerging cognitive skills than the Bayley II is uncertain. Because the Bayley III identifies significantly fewer children with disability, it is recommended that all extremely low birth weight infants be offered early intervention services at the time of discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, and that Bayley scores be interpreted with caution. PMID:22421261

Vohr, Betty R.; Stephens, Bonnie E.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bann, Carla M.; Hintz, Susan R.; Epi, MS; Das, Abhik; Newman, Jamie E.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Yolton, Kimberly; Dusick, Anna M.; Evans, Patricia W.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Pappas, Athina; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Bauer, Charles R.; Bodnar, Anna; Heyne, Roy J.; Vaucher, Yvonne E.; Dillard, Robert G.; Acarregui, Michael J.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Myers, Gary J.; Fuller, Janell

2013-01-01

245

Functional outcome following an ankle or subtalar arthrodesis in adults.  

PubMed

Arthrodesis surgery aims to give pain relief by abolishing the movement of the joint concerned. Few studies describe the outcome as appreciated by the patient. This was the major concern of the authors, when they set up this retrospective study about the outcome after ankle fusion or subtalar fusion. Inclusion criteria were: pre-existing idiopathic and posttraumatic osteoarthritis, leading to joint pain unresponsive to conservative treatment, clinically and radiologically fused with an open approach between 2007 and 2011. Exclusion criteria were: preexisting joint infection, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, nonunion, age below 18 years, decease, and arthroscopic fusion. Fifteen ankle fusions and 18 subtalar fusions fulfilled the criteria. The mean age of the patients was 77 and 69 years, respectively; the average follow-up period was 3 and 4 years. A telephone questionnaire showed that the average patients' satisfaction was 7.86/10 in the ankle group and 7.94/10 in the subtalar group. All patients driving a car prior to surgery were able to do so afterwards. Forty percent walked unaided and without problems (excellent). Fifty-one percent were able to mobilise, but their walking distance was limited and a stick was required (good or fair). Nine percent were unable to mobilise out of their homes (poor), however it was generalized osteoarthritis which limited their mobility. Forty-five percent were involved in sports including judo, swimming, cycling, jogging, gardening, bowling, golf, and boules. PMID:25090803

Faraj, Adnan A; Loveday, David T

2014-06-01

246

Calibrated peer reviewTM and assessing learning outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for more focused and less-labor intensive assessment practices has brought new challenges, both for institutions and for individual educators. We elaborate on Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR™) - an end- to-end computer-mediated learning environment that seamlessly integrates writing as a vehicle for critical thinking into a technical or content course. Developed as a tool to help incorporate writing into

Patricia A. Carlson; Frederick C. Berry

2003-01-01

247

Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism.  

PubMed

Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment. PMID:25241118

MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William

2014-12-01

248

Functional and Aesthetic Outcome Enhancement of Head and Neck Reconstruction through Secondary Procedures  

PubMed Central

The foundation of head and neck reconstruction is based on two pillars: the restoration of function and the restoration of aesthetics. The objective of this article is to provide insight into how to prevent undesirable functional and aesthetic outcome after the initial procedure and also to provide solutions for enhancement of functional and aesthetic outcome with secondary procedures. Functional and aesthetic outcome enhancement is discussed in relation to the individual structures within the oral cavity, for the mandible, and for facial reconstruction. Normal prerequisites for all individual structures are described, and key points for restoration of these functional and aesthetic issues are proposed. In addition, further suggestions to improve suboptimal results after initial reconstructive surgery are presented. Understanding the function and aesthetics of the area to be reconstructed will allow appropriate planning and management of the initial reconstruction. Secondary enhancement should be attainable by minor procedures rather than a requirement to redo the initial reconstruction. PMID:22550452

Hofer, Stefan O.P.; Payne, Caroline E.

2010-01-01

249

Real-time functional mapping: potential tool for improving language outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery.  

PubMed

Accurate language localization expands surgical treatment options for epilepsy patients and reduces the risk of postsurgery language deficits. Electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered to be the clinical gold standard for language localization. While ESM affords clinically valuable results, it can be poorly tolerated by children, requires active participation and compliance, carries a risk of inducing seizures, is highly time consuming, and is labor intensive. Given these limitations, alternative and/or complementary functional localization methods such as analysis of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in high gamma frequency band in real time are needed to precisely identify eloquent cortex in children. In this case report, the authors examined 1) the use of real-time functional mapping (RTFM) for language localization in a high gamma frequency band derived from ECoG to guide surgery in an epileptic pediatric patient and 2) the relationship of RTFM mapping results to postsurgical language outcomes. The authors found that RTFM demonstrated relatively high sensitivity (75%) and high specificity (90%) when compared with ESM in a "next-neighbor" analysis. While overlapping with ESM in the superior temporal region, RTFM showed a few other areas of activation related to expressive language function, areas that were eventually resected during the surgery. The authors speculate that this resection may be associated with observed postsurgical expressive language deficits. With additional validation in more subjects, this finding would suggest that surgical planning and associated assessment of the risk/benefit ratio would benefit from information provided by RTFM mapping. PMID:24995815

Korostenskaja, Milena; Chen, Po-Ching; Salinas, Christine M; Westerveld, Michael; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Cook, Jane C; Baumgartner, James; Lee, Ki H

2014-09-01

250

Real-time functional mapping: potential tool for improving language outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

Accurate language localization expands surgical treatment options for epilepsy patients and reduces the risk of postsurgery language deficits. Electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered to be the clinical gold standard for language localization. While ESM affords clinically valuable results, it can be poorly tolerated by children, requires active participation and compliance, carries a risk of inducing seizures, is highly time consuming, and is labor intensive. Given these limitations, alternative and/or complementary functional localization methods such as analysis of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in high gamma frequency band in real time are needed to precisely identify eloquent cortex in children. In this case report, the authors examined 1) the use of real-time functional mapping (RTFM) for language localization in a high gamma frequency band derived from ECoG to guide surgery in an epileptic pediatric patient and 2) the relationship of RTFM mapping results to postsurgical language outcomes. The authors found that RTFM demonstrated relatively high sensitivity (75%) and high specificity (90%) when compared with ESM in a “next-neighbor” analysis. While overlapping with ESM in the superior temporal region, RTFM showed a few other areas of activation related to expressive language function, areas that were eventually resected during the surgery. The authors speculate that this resection may be associated with observed postsurgical expressive language deficits. With additional validation in more subjects, this finding would suggest that surgical planning and associated assessment of the risk/benefit ratio would benefit from information provided by RTFM mapping. PMID:24995815

Korostenskaja, Milena; Chen, Po-Ching; Salinas, Christine M.; Westerveld, Michael; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Cook, Jane C.; Baumgartner, James; Lee, Ki H.

2015-01-01

251

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Process of Inqui-  

E-print Network

. Describe the structure of the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems in the human body and explain how health and well-being. Describe how physiological mecha- nisms work in the functioning of the human body. Analyze the roles that var- ious organ systems of the body play in establishing and maintaining homeosta

Barrash, Warren

252

Histological, cellular and behavioral assessments of stroke outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischemia in adult mice  

PubMed Central

Background Following the onset of focal ischemic stroke, the brain experiences a series of alterations including infarct evolvement, cellular proliferation in the penumbra, and behavioral deficits. However, systematic study on the temporal and spatial dependence of these alterations has not been provided. Results Using multiple approaches, we assessed stroke outcomes by measuring brain injury, dynamic cellular and glial proliferation, and functional deficits at different times up to two weeks after photothrombosis (PT)-induced ischemic stroke in adult mice. Results from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Nissl staining showed a maximal infarction, and brain edema and swelling 1–3 days after PT. The rate of Bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu)-labeled proliferating cell generation is spatiotemporal dependent in the penumbra, with the highest rate in post ischemic days 3–4, and higher rate of proliferation in the region immediate to the ischemic core than in the distant region. Similar time-dependent generation of proliferating GFAP+ astrocytes and Iba1+ microglia/macrophage were observed in the penumbra. Using behavioral tests, we showed that PT resulted in the largest functional deficits during post ischemic days 2–4. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that first a few days is a critical period that causes brain expansion, cellular proliferation and behavioral deficits in photothrombosis-induced ischemic model, and proliferating astrocytes only have a small contribution to the pools of proliferating cells and reactive astrocytes. PMID:24886391

2014-01-01

253

Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research with URSSA, the Undergraduate Student Self-Assessment Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

URSSA is the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, an online survey instrument for programs and departments to use in assessing the student outcomes of undergraduate research (UR). URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. The online questionnaire includes both multiple-choice and open-ended items that focus on students' gains from undergraduate research. These gains include skills, knowledge, deeper understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science, growth in confidence, changes in identity, and career preparation. Other items probe students' participation in important research-related activities that lead to these gains (e.g. giving presentations, having responsibility for a project). These activities, and the gains themselves, are based in research and thus constitute a core set of items. Using these items as a group helps to align a particular program assessment with research-demonstrated outcomes. Optional items may be used to probe particular features that are augment the research experience (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The URSSA items are based on extensive, interview-based research and evaluation work on undergraduate research by our group and others. This grounding in research means that URSSA measures what we know to be important about the UR experience The items were tested with students, revised and re-tested. Data from a large pilot sample of over 500 students enabled statistical testing of the items' validity and reliability. Optional items about UR program elements were developed in consultation with UR program developers and leaders. The resulting instrument is flexible. Users begin with a set of core items, then customize their survey with optional items to probe students' experiences of specific program elements. The online instrument is free and easy to use, with numeric results available as raw data, summary statistics, cross-tabs, and graphs, and as raw, downloadable data. Finally, URSSA has high content validity based on its research grounding and rigorous development. We will present examples of how URSSA has been used in evaluations of UR programs. A multi-year evaluation of a university-based UR program shows that URSSA items are sensitive to differences in students' prior level of experience with research. For example, experienced student researchers reported greater gains than did their peers new to UR in understanding the process of research and in coming to see themselves as scientists. These differences are consistent with interview data that suggest a developmental progression of gains as students pursue research and gain confidence in their ability to contribute meaningfully. A second example comes from a multi-site evaluation of sites funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Biology. This study acquired data from nearly 800 students at some 60 Bio REU sites in 2010 and 2011. Results reveal differences in gains among demographic groups, and the general strength of these well-planned programs relative to a comparison sample of UR programs that are not part of REU. Our presentation will demonstrate the evaluative use of URSSA and its potential applications to undergraduate research in the geosciences.

Laursen, S. L.; Weston, T. J.; Thiry, H.

2012-12-01

254

Anorectal functional outcome after repeated transanal endoscopic microsurgery  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the status of anorectal function after repeated transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). METHODS: Twenty-one patients undergoing subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis were included. There were more than 5 large (> 1 cm) polyps in the remaining rectum (range: 6-20 cm from the anal edge). All patients, 19 with villous adenomas and 2 with low-grade adenocarcinomas, underwent TEM with submucosal endoscopic excision at least twice between 2005 and 2011. Anorectal manometry and a questionnaire about incontinence were carried out at week 1 before operation, and at weeks 2 and 3 and 6 mo after the last operation. Anal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure, maximum tolerable volume (MTV) and rectoanal inhibitory reflexes (RAIR) were recorded. The integrity and thickness of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and external anal sphincter (EAS) were also evaluated by endoanal ultrasonography. We determined the physical and mental health status with SF-36 score to assess the effect of multiple TEM on patient quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: All patients answered the questionnaire. Apart from negative RAIR in 4 patients, all of the anorectal manometric values in the 21 patients were normal before operation. Mean anal resting pressure decreased from 38 ± 5 mmHg to 19 ± 3 mmHg (38 ± 5 mmHg vs 19 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.000) and MTV from 165 ± 19 mL to 60 ± 11 mL (165 ± 19 mL vs 60 ± 11 mL, P = 0.000) at month 3 after surgery. Anal resting pressure and MTV were 37 ± 5 mmHg (38 ± 5 mmHg vs 37 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.057) and 159 ± 19 mL (165 ± 19 mL vs 159 ± 19 mL, P = 0.071), respectively, at month 6 after TEM. Maximal squeeze pressure decreased from 171 ± 19 mmHg to 62 ± 12 mmHg (171 ± 19 mmHg vs 62 ± 12 mmHg, P = 0.000) at week 2 after operation, and returned to normal values by postoperative month 3 (171 ± 19 vs 166 ± 18, P = 0.051). RAIR were absent in 4 patients preoperatively and in 12 (?2 = 4.947, P = 0.026) patients at month 3 after surgery. RAIR was absent only in 5 patients at postoperative month 6 (?2 = 0.141, P = 0.707). Endosonography demonstrated that IAS disruption occurred in 8 patients, and 6 patients had temporary incontinence to flatus that was normalized by postoperative month 3. IAS thickness decreased from 1.9 ± 0.6 mm preoperatively to 1.3 ± 0.4 mm (1.9 ± 0.6 mm vs 1.3 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.000) at postoperative month 3 and increased to 1.8 ± 0.5 mm (1.9 ± 0.6 mm vs 1.8 ± 0.5 mm, P = 0.239) at postoperative month 6. EAS thickness decreased from 3.7 ± 0.6 mm preoperatively to 3.5 ± 0.3 mm (3.7 ± 0.6 mm vs 3.5 ± 0.3 mm, P = 0.510) at month 3 and then increased to 3.6 ± 0.4 mm (3.7 ± 0.6 mm vs 3.6 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.123) at month 6 after operation. Most patients had frequent stools per day and relatively high Wexner scores in a short time period. While actual fecal incontinence was exceptional, episodes of soiling were reported by 3 patients. With regard to the QoL, the physical and mental health status scores (SF-36) were 56.1 and 46.2 (50 in the general population), respectively. CONCLUSION: The anorectal function after repeated TEM is preserved. Multiple TEM procedures are useful for resection of multi-polyps in the remaining rectum. PMID:23155324

Zhang, Hong-Wei; Han, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Pin; Jin, Zhi-Ming

2012-01-01

255

A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

Shen, Linjun

256

Relationship between procalcitonin serum levels and functional outcome in stroke patients.  

PubMed

To determine whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels at admission were associated with short-term functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a cohort Chinese sample. We prospectively studied 378 patients with AIS who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. PCT and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) were measured at the time of admission. Short-term functional outcome was measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after admission. The results indicated that the serum PCT levels were significantly higher in AIS patients as compared to normal controls (P < 0.0001). In the 114 patients with an unfavorable functional outcome, serum PCT levels were higher compared with those in patients with a favorable outcome (2.40 (IQR, 1.10-3.69) ng/mL and 0.42 (IQR, 0.10-1.05) ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.001). PCT was an independent prognostic marker of functional outcome [odds ratio (OR) 3.45 (2.29-4.77), adjusted for the NIHSS and other possible confounders] in patients with ischemic stroke, added significant additional predictive value to the clinical NIHSS score. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the prognostic accuracy of PCT was higher compared to Hs-CRP and NIHSS score. PCT is an independent predictor of short-term functional outcome after ischemic stroke in Chinese sample even after correcting for possible confounding factors. PMID:25370803

Deng, Wen-Jing; Shen, Rui-Le; Li, Meng; Teng, Jun-Fang

2015-04-01

257

Laryngeal transplantation in minipigs: vascular, myologic and functional outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no effective way of replacing all the functions of the larynx in those requiring laryngectomy. Regenerative medicine\\u000a offers promise, but cannot presently deliver implants with functioning neuromuscular units. A single well-documented laryngeal\\u000a transplant in man was a qualified success, but more information is required before clinical trials may be proposed. We studied\\u000a the early response of the larynx

M. A. Birchall; P. J. Kingham; P. J. Murison; S. M. Ayling; R. Burt; L. Mitchard; A. Jones; P. Lear; C. R. Stokes; G. Terenghi; M. Bailey; P. Macchiarini

2011-01-01

258

Functional Assessment for Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Significant improvement in survival of children with congenital cardiac malformations has resulted in an increasing population of adolescent and adult patients with congenital heart disease. Of the long-term cardiac problems, ventricular dysfunction remains an important issue of concern. Despite corrective or palliative repair of congenital heart lesions, the right ventricle, which may be the subpulmonary or systemic ventricular chamber, and the functional single ventricle are particularly vulnerable to functional impairment. Regular assessment of cardiac function constitutes an important aspect in the long-term follow up of patients with congenital heart disease. Echocardiography remains the most useful imaging modality for longitudinal monitoring of cardiac function. Conventional echocardiographic assessment has focused primarily on quantification of changes in ventricular size and blood flow velocities during the cardiac cycles. Advances in echocardiographic technologies including tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography have enabled direct interrogation of myocardial deformation. In this review, the issues of ventricular dysfunction in congenital heart disease, conventional echocardiographic and novel myocardial deformation imaging techniques, and clinical applications of these techniques in the functional assessment of congenital heart disease are discussed. PMID:24653734

2014-01-01

259

Functional outcome of nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder and elbow function in upper brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer (XI-SSN) done for restoration of shoulder function and partial transfer of ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps muscle for the recovery of elbow flexion (Oberlin transfer). METHODS: This is a prospective study involving 15 consecutive cases of upper plexus

Hari Venkatramani; Praveen Bhardwaj; Sajedur Reza Faruquee; S Raja Sabapathy

2008-01-01

260

Assessing English literacy as a predictor of postschool outcomes in the lives of deaf individuals.  

PubMed

Lower English literacy achievement of deaf students is often hypothesized to be an impediment for successful adult life experiences. Yet, literacy practices that individuals engage in throughout their daily lives are much more complex than what school-based measures of English can capture and particularly so for deaf individuals. A national large-scale data set with a sample of over 1,000 deaf youths was used to assess what, precisely, standardized measures of literacy may predict in terms of postschool outcomes in three domains: life, employment, and education. Regression analyses indicate that these measures predicted some postschool outcomes, but not all, and if significant, only a small amount of variation in the outcomes was explained. Findings suggest that English literacy, particularly the narrow conceptualization of English literacy skills that are measured through school-based assessments, may not play a significant role in the lives of deaf individuals, contrary to expectations. PMID:24077877

Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Bond, Mark

2014-01-01

261

Evaluating Cognitive Training Outcomes: Validity and Utility of Structural Knowledge Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional approaches to evaluating cognitive outcomes of training typically use paper-and-pencil tests that emphasize gains or differences in declarative knowledge. Yet a key factor in differentiating expert and novice performance is the way individuals organize their knowledge. Accordingly, the acquisition of meaningful knowledge structures and methods of assessing structural knowledge are potentially important issues for designing and evaluating training programs.

Mark A. Davis; Mary B. Curtis; Jeffrey D. Tschetter

2003-01-01

262

Transitioning into Cohabitation Early in a Relationship: Associations With Family of Origin Assessments and Couple Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present authors used data from 1,920 heterosexual, never-married individuals to assess the differences on couple outcomes and family of origin evaluations between early cohabiters and early daters. Early cohabiters were individuals who were living with their romantic partner in relationships that were less than 1 year old. Results suggested that once common demographic controls were factored in, the dating

Brian J. Willoughby; Eunicia Jones

2012-01-01

263

Motivating Learning and Assessing Outcomes in Continuing Medical Education Using a Personal Learning Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Although there is increasing focus on provider behavior change as an outcome of continuing medical education (CME), it has long been known that an increase in knowledge alone is rarely sufficient to induce such change. The Personal Learning Plan (PLP), designed to motivate and assess CME learning, was partly derived from SMART goals…

Reed, Virginia A.; Schifferdecker, Karen E.; Turco, Mary G.

2012-01-01

264

Assessing the Relationship between Prosody and Reading Outcomes in Children Using the PEPS-C  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between both receptive and expressive prosody and each of three reading outcomes: accuracy of reading aloud words, accuracy of reading aloud nonwords, and comprehension. Participants were 63 children aged 7 to 12 years. To assess prosody, we used the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech Communication…

Lochrin, Margaret; Arciuli, Joanne; Sharma, Mridula

2015-01-01

265

Designing a Student Assessment Study: The CIRP Surveys and the Input-Environment-Outcome Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how the Input-Environment-Outcome (IEO) model of A. Astin can be used with the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey and the College Student Survey (CSS) to assess student change during college. The CIRP Freshman Survey, given to entering students, provides pretest data. The CSS, given to continuing…

Higher Education Research Inst., Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

266

Assessment Plan for M.S. students in the Field of Plant Breeding 1. Learning outcomes  

E-print Network

Assessment Plan for M.S. students in the Field of Plant Breeding 1. Learning outcomes When students breeding/genetics 2. Demonstrate broad understanding about plant breeding/genetics 3. Write and speak complete the M.S. they should be able to: 1. Assist in conducting original, publishable research in plant

Walter, M.Todd

267

Assessment Plan for Ph.D, students in the Field of Plant Breeding 1. Learning outcomes  

E-print Network

Assessment Plan for Ph.D, students in the Field of Plant Breeding 1. Learning outcomes When breeding/genetics 2. Demonstrate in-depth knowledge about plant breeding/genetics and at least one other students complete the Ph.D., they should be able to: 1. Conduct original, publishable research in plant

Walter, M.Todd

268

Assessing Extreme Outcomes: The Strategic Treatment of Low Probability Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many assessments of climate change fail to consider the possibility of low probability, yet catastrophic, outcomes of greenhouse warming. A noteworthy example is the potential rapid deterioration of the West Antarctic ice sheet. If the ice sheet were to melt, as a minority of scientists believe it may, sea levels could rise by five meters or more in the next

A. Patt

1997-01-01

269

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Use written communication to summarize  

E-print Network

-01 Use oral communication to effectively and succinctly present key aspects of a scientific findingBIOL323 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Use written communication of sources. Discussion and examples of effective writ- ing for scientific communication Students prepare

Barrash, Warren

270

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ASSESSMENT REPORT 2005-2006 Student Learning Outcomes Committee  

E-print Network

and Critical Thinking Skills - Demonstrate effective analytical and critical thinking skills to make and Critical Thinking Skills) 2006-2007 (To be discussed in 4-1-08 Assessment Re Goal #3 (Ethical Reasoning an appropriate decision in a complex situation. Learning Outcomes: · Collect and organize critical data

Gallo, Linda C.

271

USE OF CASE REPORTS IN ASSESSING ADVERSE OUTCOMES OF HUMAN PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURES: AN APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of case reports for assessing the developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure is limited by the inability to determine the incidence of adverse outcomes and by the high likelihood for bias. Yet, because it is impossible to conduct clinical trials for the assessme...

272

Learning Outcomes Assessment Step-By-Step: Enhancing Evidence-Based Practice in Career Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What difference do your career programs and services make in clients' lives? How do you know? Answer these questions and more. Learn a practical approach to learning outcomes assessment that helps you tell the story of your career programs and services, celebrate your successes, and continuously improve your practice. Within this monograph, you…

Makela, Julia Panke; Rooney, Gail S.

2012-01-01

273

An Outcome Evaluation of an Inpatient Crisis Stabilization and Assessment Program for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe characteristics and outcomes of youth aged 7 to 17 who received inpatient psychiatric and mental health services along different clinical pathways of a new service delivery model. Method: Participants included 211 admissions to an inpatient crisis stabilization and assessment program over a one-year period. Standardized…

Greenham, Stephanie L.; Bisnaire, Lise

2008-01-01

274

Developing a Rubric to Assess Student Learning Outcomes Using a Class Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a rubric to assess several of our department's undergraduate student learning outcomes (SLOs). Target SLOs include applications of principles of research methodology, using appropriate statistics, adherence to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, and written communication skills. We randomly sampled 20…

Thaler, Nicholas; Kazemi, Ellie; Huscher, Crystal

2009-01-01

275

Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

2011-01-01

276

Factors affecting cosmetic outcome in breast-conserving cancer treatment — objective quantitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A battery of objective measurements of cosmetic outcome was performed on 114 patients who had been treated by breast-preservation techniques for breast cancer. Cosmetic breast retraction, as determined by Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) measurements, was significantly greater in patients who underwent extensive primary tumor resection, were more than 60 years old, weighed more than 150 lbs, or had a

Richard D. Pezner; Mary P. Patterson; James A. Lipsett; Tamara Odom-Maryon; Nayana L. Vora; Jeffrey Y. C. Wong; Kenneth H. Luk

1991-01-01

277

Wave of the Future?: Integrating IR, Outcomes Assessment, Planning, Program Review, and Accreditation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating institutional research, outcomes assessment, program review, strategic planning, and accreditation can be a powerful means of creating a culture of evidence-based decision making and continuous improvement. This study examined how this "integrated" model is organized in practice, how such offices began, why this approach was chosen,…

Leimer, Christina

2010-01-01

278

Career Preparedness Survey Outcomes of Food Science Graduates--A Follow-Up Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-eight recent graduates (1998-2008) from the joint Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI) BiState School of Food Science program and 27 of their employers participated in a survey assessing learning outcomes based on the 2001 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) core competencies for undergraduate food science…

Bohlscheid, Jeffri; Clark, Stephanie

2012-01-01

279

Program Assessment Report for MS-EC, 2012/2013 Program Outcomes  

E-print Network

version of the course remains. The material on hypervisor security may haveProgram Assessment Report for MS-EC, 2012/2013 Program Outcomes 1 of CS 594 Enterprise and Cloud Security as a new core course in the program

Kamberov, George

280

An Outcomes-Based Assessment of Quality of Life in Social Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article consists of describing the calibration of an instrument to assess quality of life-related personal outcomes using Rasch analysis. The sample was composed of 3.029 recipients of social services from Catalonia (Spain) and was selected using a probabilistic polietapic sample design. Results related to unidimensionality, item…

Gomez, Laura Elisabet; Arias, Benito; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Navas, Patricia

2012-01-01

281

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes The Department of Modern Languages & Cultures  

E-print Network

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes The Department of Modern Languages & Cultures The Department of Modern Languages and Cultures offers students a carefully integrated approach to the study of language, literature, and culture. Students acquire linguistic knowledge in the context of living cultures

Cantlon, Jessica F.

282

Institutionalizing Student Outcomes Assessment: The Need for Better Research to Inform Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the organizational impediments and facilitators that influence the implementation of student learning outcomes assessment (SLOA). This review points to the importance of culture, leadership, and organizational policies to the implementation of SLOA. However, we need to approach research differently, both conceptually and…

Kezar, Adrianna

2013-01-01

283

Assessing outcome after a modified vaginal wall sling for stress incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty women with stress incontinence, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated or not with urethral hypermobility, a Valsalva leak point pressure (VLLP) 20 and a maximum urethral closure pressure 20 underwent in situ vaginal wall sling. The main modification to the technique was the use of two small Marlex meshes placed at the lateral edges of the sling. Outcome was assessed

Elisabetta Costantini; Luigi Mearini; Ettore Mearini; Cinzia Pajoncini; Federico Guercini; Vittorio Bini; Massimo Porena

2005-01-01

284

From Process to Outcome: The Effect of Portfolio Assessment on Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three findings emerged from 12 Hong Kong student nurses' descriptions of their experiences of portfolio assessment: (1) despite initial anxiety, all favored portfolio use; (2) portfolios had positive academic and affective outcomes; and (3) unexpectedly, spontaneous collaborative learning and increased motivation resulted. (Contains 35…

Tiwari, Agnes; Tang, Catherine

2003-01-01

285

Identifying Low-Effort Examinees on Student Learning Outcomes Assessment: A Comparison of Two Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes a study that compares two approaches (self-reported effort [SRE] and response time effort [RTE]) for identifying low-effort examinees in student learning outcomes assessment. Although both approaches equally discriminated from measures of ability (e.g., SAT scores), RTE was found to have a stronger relationship with test…

Rios, Joseph A.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent

2014-01-01

286

Assessment of risk factors for culling dairy cows using logistic regression. Definition of outcome  

E-print Network

/ réforme / trouble de santé / risque INTRODUCTION Health disorders of dairy cows may have a significantAssessment of risk factors for culling dairy cows using logistic regression. Definition of outcome; The culling of dairy cows can occur either early or late during lactation. Furthermore, the farmers decision

Boyer, Edmond

287

Program Evaluation and Outcome Assessment Documenting the Worth of Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National concerns regarding quality education make program evaluation and outcomes assessment more important than ever. Traditionally, however, educators have failed to hold their programs and services accountable, or to provide evidence that selected activities were achieving intended results. The purpose of this chapter is to give educators the…

Erford, Bradley T.; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

288

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Plan lessons and instructional units that  

E-print Network

MATH400 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Plan lessons and instructional of and proficiency with mathematics ; Articulate a personal philosophy for teaching Lesson plans ; Philosophy strategies ; Short lecture 04-01 Plan lessons and instructional units that address appropriate learning goals

Barrash, Warren

289

Assessing Intermediate Outcomes of a Faith-Based Residential Prisoner Reentry Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined intermediate outcomes of a faith-based prisoner reentry program by assessing how client spirituality related to client- and program-level characteristics, investigating differences between completers and terminators, and examining how religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, religious salience, and…

Roman, Caterina G.; Wolff, Ashley; Correa, Vanessa; Buck, Janeen

2007-01-01

290

Clinical outcomes and safety assessment in elderly patients undergoing decompressive laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background To assess safety, risk factors and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with spinal stenosis after decompressive laminectomy. Methods A prospective cohort of patients 70 years and older with spinal stenosis undergoing conventional laminectomy without fusion (n = 101) were consecutively enrolled from regular clinical practice and reassessed at 3 and 12 months. Primary outcome was change in health related quality of life measured (HRQL) with EuroQol-5 D (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes were safety assessment, changes in Oswestry disability index (ODI), Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) score for self reported health, VAS score for leg and back pain and patient satisfaction. We used regression analyses to evaluate risk factors for less improvement. Results The mean EQ-5 D total score were 0.32, 0.63 and 0.60 at baseline, 3 months and 12 months respectively, and represents a statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement. Effect size was > 0.8. Mean ODI score at baseline was 44.2, at 3 months 25.6 and at 27.9. This represents an improvement for all post-operative scores. A total of 18 (18.0%) complications were registered with 6 (6.0%) classified as major, including one perioperative death. Patients stating that the surgery had been beneficial at 3 months was 82 (89.1%) and at 12 months 73 (86.9%). The only predictor found was patients with longer duration of leg pain had less improvement in ODI (P < 0.001). Increased age or having complications did not predict a worse outcome in any of the outcome variables. Conclusions Properly selected patients of 70 years and older can expect a clinical meaningful improvement of HRQL, functional status and pain after open laminectomy without fusion. The treatment seems to be safe. However, patients with longstanding leg-pain prior to operation are less likely to improve one year after surgery. PMID:21092227

2010-01-01

291

Mnk kinase pathway: Cellular functions and biological outcomes  

PubMed Central

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (Mnk1 and Mnk2) play important roles in controlling signals involved in mRNA translation. In addition to the MAPKs (p38 or Erk), multiple studies suggest that the Mnk kinases can be regulated by other known kinases such as Pak2 and/or other unidentified kinases by phosphorylation of residues distinct from the sites phosphorylated by the MAPKs. Several studies have established multiple Mnk protein targets, including PSF, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, Sprouty 2 and have lead to the identification of distinct biological functions and substrate specificity for the Mnk kinases. In this review we discuss the pathways regulating the Mnk kinases, their known substrates as well as the functional consequences of engagement of pathways controlled by Mnk kinases. These kinases play an important role in mRNA translation via their regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and their functions have important implications in tumor biology as well as the regulation of drug resistance to anti-oncogenic therapies. Other studies have identified a role for the Mnk kinases in cap-independent mRNA translation, suggesting that the Mnk kinases can exert important functional effects independently of the phosphorylation of eIF4E. The role of Mnk kinases in inflammation and inflammation-induced malignancies is also discussed. PMID:25225600

Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C

2014-01-01

292

Magnetic resonance volumetric assessments of brains in fetuses with ventriculomegaly correlated to outcome  

PubMed Central

Objective To correlate MR 2D measurements of lateral ventricular width and 3D measures of lateral ventricular and supratentorial parenchymal volumes to postnatal outcomes in fetuses with ventriculomegaly (VM). Methods 307 fetuses (mean gestational age 26.0 weeks, range 15.7-39.4 weeks) had MR volumetry after referral for VM. Fetuses were grouped into those with (N=114) or without (N=193) other CNS anomalies. Pregnancy outcome and postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes up to age 3 were obtained. A subgroup analysis was performed excluding fetuses with other CNS anomalies. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess which measure was most predictive of outcome. Results There were 50 terminations and 2 stillbirths. There were 255 live births. 75 were lost to follow-up. Among 180 liveborn infants with follow-up, 140 had an abnormal and 40 had normal outcome. Atrial diameter (p<0.0001), frontal horn diameter (p<0.0001), and ventricular volume (p=0.04) were each predictive of live-birth, with each having 92% specificity at 60% sensitivity. Among fetuses without other CNS anomalies, 180/193 (93%) pregnancies resulted in live deliveries, with atrial diameter (p<0.0001), frontal horn diameter (p=0.003), and ventricular volume (p=0.008) associated with live birth, and with atrial diameter having highest specificity of >99% at 60% sensitivity. Parenchymal volume was not associated with normal or abnormal outcome (either livebirth vs. demise or normal vs. abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome). Among live-borns, there was no age-adjusted threshold for any of the measures that reliably distinguished between normal and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Conclusions Ventricular volume and diameter, but not parenchymal volume, correlate with live birth in fetuses with VM. However, once live-born, neither 2D nor 3D measurements can distinguish a fetus that will go on to have a normal outcome. PMID:21527607

Pier, Danielle B; Levine, Deborah; Kataoka, Miliam L; Estroff, Judy A.; Werdich, Xiang Q.; Ware, Janice; Beeghly, Marjorie; Poussaint, Tina Y; DuPlessis A, Adre; Li, Y; Feldman, Henry A.

2013-01-01

293

Age of seizure onset, functional reorganization, and neuropsychological outcome in temporal lobectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with early onset seizure disorder tend to have less cognitive decline following surgical resection than patients with late onset seizure disorder. Differential opportunity for presurgical cerebral functional reorganization has been proposed to account for this “age of onset” effect. However, the relationships between age of seizure onset, functional organization, and neuropsychological outcome remain incompletely understood. To shed additional light

Stefanie Griffin; Daniel Tranel

2007-01-01

294

In it for the long haul: the integration of outcomes assessment, clinical services, and management decision-making.  

PubMed

Behavioral health providers are increasingly called upon to develop outcomes strategies that highlight opportunities for performance improvement and assess in turn the impact of applying total quality management (TQM) principles to treatment outcomes. This article describes the evolution of an outcomes assessment program at a private psychiatric facility, and presents two case studies of the integration of outcomes data into clinical decision-making. In Study I, outcomes data were used to identify patterns in the responsiveness to treatment of child/adolescent patients with behavioral disorders and document changes in improvement rates following the application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) principles within the inpatient services. In Study II, improvements sought in the outcomes methodology resulted in improved response rates, improved data quality, and new opportunities for both clinical intervention and staff development. Benefits of committing to outcomes assessment over the long haul to facilitate empirically driven planning processes are described. PMID:24011414

Hoffmann, F L; Leckman, E; Russo, N; Knauf, L

1999-05-01

295

Heart Failure and Preserved Left Ventricular Function: Long Term Clinical Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients with heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis. The proportion of patients with HF and preserved left ventricular function (LVF) is increasing. Long term prognosis of HF with preserved LVF may not be so benign.ObjectivesTo evaluate the long term clinical outcome of patients with HF and preserved LVF and predictors of outcome.MethodsWe prospectively evaluated 309 patients hospitalized with a

Israel Gotsman; Donna Zwas; Chaim Lotan; Andre Keren

2012-01-01

296

Patients’ Expectations of Functional Outcomes Following Rectal Cancer Surgery: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal cancer patients’ expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of post-surgery function has received little study. Objective We used a qualitative approach to explore patients’ expectations of outcomes related to bowel function following sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS) for rectal cancer. Design and Setting Individual telephone interviews with patients who were about to undergo SPS for rectal cancer. Patients 26 patients (14 men, 12 women) with clinical stage (cTNM) I to III disease. Main Outcome Measures The semi-structured interview script contained open-ended questions on patients’ expectations of post-operative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Results Participants’ expectations of bowel function reflected three major themes: (1) information sources, (2) personal attitudes, and (3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants’ descriptions of the certainty, importance and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer-free and getting through surgery. Limitations This study is limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Conclusions Patients’ expectations of long term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer-experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the expectation formation process offers opportunities to develop strategies to enhance patient education and appropriately manage expectations, attend to immediate and long term concerns, and support patients through the treatment and recovery process. PMID:24401875

Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P. Terry; Wong, W. Douglas; Temple, Larissa K.

2014-01-01

297

Clinimetrics & determinants of outcome after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is based on findings of the Functional Prognostication and disability study on stroke, which had two main objectives: (1) to examine which outcome measures are most appropriate, and especially most responsive, for the assessment of functional outcome in stroke patients and (2) to study prognostic determinants of functional outcome and recovery after stroke. A total of 308 patients

V. P. M. Schepers

2006-01-01

298

Vascular function assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts survival in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) permits assessment of the central arteries to measure aortic function. METHODS: We studied the relationship between central haemodynamics and outcome using CMR in 144 chronic kidney disease patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 ml\\/min (110 on dialysis). Aortic distensibilty and volumetric

Patrick B Mark; Arthur Doyle; Kevin G Blyth; Rajan K Patel; Robin AP Weir; Tracey Steedman; John E Foster; Henry J Dargie; Alan G Jardine

2008-01-01

299

Evaluation of a pre-treatment assessment to select mand topographies for functional communication training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that variables related to specific mand topographies targeted during functional communication training (FCT) can affect treatment outcomes. These include effort, novelty of mands, previous relationships with problem behavior, and preference. However, there is little extant research on procedures for identifying which mand topographies to incorporate into FCT. In the current study, a mand topography assessment was

Joel E. Ringdahl; Terry S. Falcomata; Tory J. Christensen; Sandie M. Bass-Ringdahl; Alison Lentz; Anuradha Dutt; Jessica Schuh-Claus

2009-01-01

300

Self-Reported versus Professionally Assessed Functional Limitations in Community-Dwelling Very Old Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported and professionally assessed functional limitations in community-dwelling very old individuals. In total, 306 single-living adults aged 81-90 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the presence and absence of self-reported and…

Carlsson, Gunilla; Haak, Maria; Nygren, Carita; Iwarsson, Susanne

2012-01-01

301

CMR for Assessment of Diastolic Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction amounts to 50% of all cases with heart failure.\\u000a Diagnosis assessment requires evidence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Currently, echocardiography is the method\\u000a of choice for diastolic function testing in clinical practice. Various applications are in use and recommended criteria are\\u000a followed for classifying the severity of dysfunction. Cardiovascular magnetic

Jos J. M. Westenberg

2011-01-01

302

COMT Val158Met and cognitive and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

There is significant variability in long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), making accurate prognosis difficult. In seeking to enhance understanding of outcomes, this study aimed to investigate whether COMT Val(158)Met allele status was associated with performance on neuropsychological measures of attention and working memory, executive functioning, learning and memory, and speed of information processing in the early rehabilitation phase. The study also aimed to examine whether the COMT polymorphism was associated with longer-term functional outcomes. A total of 223 participants (71.3% male) with moderate-to-severe TBI were recruited as rehabilitation inpatients to participate in a prospective, longitudinal head injury outcome study. The three COMT genotype groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met) were well matched for estimated full-scale IQ, years of education, age at injury, and injury severity. Results showed no significant difference between genotypes on neuropsychological measures (all p>0.05) or functional outcome, as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), after controlling for age, education, and severity of injury. The presence of frontal lobe pathology was also not associated with cognitive performance. Those with greater injury severity (i.e., longer duration of post-traumatic amnesia) performed more poorly on measures of processing speed and verbal new learning and recall. It was concluded that there was little support for the influence of COMT Val(158)Met on cognitive function, or functional outcome measures, in the acute rehabilitation phase after TBI. PMID:24786534

Willmott, Catherine; Withiel, Toni; Ponsford, Jennie; Burke, Richard

2014-09-01

303

Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty.  

PubMed

To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

2015-03-18

304

Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

2015-01-01

305

ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet  

E-print Network

solutions in the context of a complex natural environment #12;(C) COURSE OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT MATRIX Dept and impacts of wastes in an environmental medium. a,b,e,k Assigned problems Class quizzes Problems 2, 5, 6, 7ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent

Walter, M.Todd

306

Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

2014-01-01

307

Long-term functional outcomes and patient perspective following altered fractionation radiotherapy with concomitant boost for oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

With no long-term data available in published research to date, this study presents details of the swallowing outcomes as well as barriers to and facilitators of oral intake and weight maintenance at 2 years after altered fractionation radiotherapy with concomitant boost (AFRT-CB). Twelve patients with T1-T3 oropharyngeal cancer who received AFRT-CB were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 2 years post-treatment for levels of dysphagia and salivary toxicity, food and fluid tolerance, functional swallowing outcomes, patient-reported function, and weight. At 2 years, participants were also interviewed to explore barriers and facilitators of oral intake. Outcomes were significantly worse at 2 years when compared to baseline for late toxicity, functional swallowing, and patient-rated physical aspects of swallowing. Most patients (83%) tolerated a full diet pretreatment, but the rate fell to 42% (remainder tolerated soft diets) at 2 years. Multiple barriers to oral intake that impacted on activity and participation levels were identified. Participants lost 11 kg from baseline to 2 years, which was not regained between 6 months and 2 years. Global, social, and emotional domains of patient-reported function returned to pretreatment levels. At 2 years post AFRT-CB, worsening salivary and dysphagia toxicity, declining functional swallowing, and multiple reported ongoing barriers to oral intake had a negative impact on participants' activity and participation levels relating to eating. These ongoing deficits contributed to significant deterioration in physical swallowing functioning determined by the MDADI. In contrast, patients perceived their broader functioning had improved at 2 years, suggesting long-term adjustment to ongoing swallowing deficits. PMID:22362547

Cartmill, Bena; Cornwell, Petrea; Ward, Elizabeth; Davidson, Wendy; Porceddu, Sandro

2012-12-01

308

Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

2013-01-01

309

Functional outcome of arthroscopic assisted fixation of distal radius fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Many studies in literature have supported the role of wrist arthroscopy as an adjunct to the stable fixation of unstable intraarticular distal radial fractures. This article focuses on the surgical technique, indications, advantages, and results using wrist arthroscopy to assess articular reduction and evaluates the treatment of carpal ligament injuries and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries in conjunction with the stable fixation of distal radial fractures. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 27 patients (16 males and 11 females), who underwent stable fixation of intraarticular distal radial fractures with arthroscopic evaluation of the articular reduction and repair of associated carpal injuries. As per the AO classification, they were 9 C 1, 12 C2, 2 C3, 3 B 1, and 1 B2 fractures. The final results were evaluated by modified Mayo wrist scoring system. The average age was 41 years (range: 18-68 years). The average followup was of 26 months (range 24-52 months). Results: Five patients needed modification of the reduction and fixation after arthroscopic joint evaluation. Associated ligament lesions found during the wrist arthroscopy were TFCC tears (n=17), scapholunate ligament injury (n=8), and luno-triquetral ligament injury (n=1). Five patients had combined injuries i.e. included TFCC tear, scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral ligament tear. There were 20 excellent, 3 good, and 4 fair results using this score. Conclusion: The radiocarpal and mid carpal arthroscopy is a useful adjunct to stable fixation of distal radial fractures. PMID:23798761

Khanchandani, Prakash; Badia, Alejandro

2013-01-01

310

Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

2013-01-01

311

Assessment of adrenal function in liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent times, there are reports of adrenal dysfunction in whole spectrum of liver disease. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) has been shown to correlate with progression of liver disease. Hence this study was conducted to assess adrenal function in subjects with acute liver disease (ALD), chronic liver disease (CLD) and post liver transplantation (LT). Material and Methods: This study included 25 healthy controls, 25 patients of ALD, 20 subjects of CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and 30 with Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and 10 subjects with LT. All subjects were assessed clinically, biochemically and for adrenal functions. Results: AI was present in 9 (34.6%) patients with ALD, 20 (40%) patients with CLD and 4 (40%) in subjects with LT. AI was more common in CLD-2 (18 patients – 60%) than CLD-1 (2 patients – 10%). All patients with chronic liver disease had significantly lower basal cortisol (8.8±4.8, P=0.01), stimulated cortisol (18.2±6.3, P <0.00001) and incremental cortisol (9.4±4.6, P <0.00001) as compared to controls. There was increase in percentage of subjects with adrenal dysfunction with progression of liver disease as assessed by Child-Pugh staging. AI was predicted by lower levels of serum protein, serum albumin, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and higher levels of serum bilirubin and INR. Adrenal functions showed recovery following liver transplantation. Conclusions: AI forms important part of spectrum of acute and chronic liver disease. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of AI, and these patients should be evaluated for adrenal dysfunction periodically. PMID:23869304

Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Nandi, Bhaskar; Brar, Karninder S.; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Pandit, Aditi

2013-01-01

312

Uncertainty and the decision maker: assessing and managing the risk of undesirable outcomes.  

PubMed

We present an approach to rank order new programs in ways that accommodate uncertainty of different outcomes occurring, on the basis of the size and nature ('bad' or 'good') of those outcomes. This represents an improvement on the way uncertainty has been accommodated in existing approaches (e.g., threshold approach to cost-effectiveness analysis). We illustrate the approach using the decision making plane, which explicitly incorporates opportunity costs and relaxes the assumptions of perfect divisibility and constant returns to scale of the cost-effectiveness plane. The nature of the bad (or good) outcome is determined by the quadrant that it falls into (i.e., a 'quadrant effect') and its magnitude by its location within the quadrant (i.e., 'within quadrant effect'). By explicitly defining the loss function, the process of accepting (or rejecting) a new program becomes transparent. We illustrate the approach using a loss function and a net gain function. We show that by recognizing that, not all bad (or good) outcomes are equal and the choice of a loss or a net gain function can result in different ranking of resource allocation options. Further implications of the proposed approach are discussed. PMID:23280702

Gafni, Amiram; Walter, Stephen; Birch, Stephen

2013-11-01

313

Does percutaneous nephrolithotomy and its outcomes have an impact on renal function? Quantitative analysis using SPECT-CT DMSA.  

PubMed

To assess the functional effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and its outcomes in the operated kidney, we prospectively studied 30 consecutive cases undergoing PCNL. Kidney function was evaluated preoperatively and 3 months after surgery with serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and with (99m)Tc-DMSA SPECT-CT scans to determine the differential renal function (DRF). PCNL effects in the operated kidney DRF were considered globally (DRFPLANAR, DRFSPECT) and in the region of percutaneous access (DRFACCESS). PCNL functional impact was also assessed depending on its outcomes, namely success (stone-free status) and the development of perioperative complications. PCNL has rendered 73 % of the cases completely stone free with a 33 % complication rate. After PCNL, serum creatinine and GFR did not change significantly, whereas DRFPLANAR and DRFSPECT dropped 1.2 % (p = 0.014) and 1.0 % (p = 0.041), respectively. The highest decrease was observed in DRFACCESS (1.8 %, p = 0.012). Stone-free status after PCNL did not show any impact on kidney function. Conversely, cases that suffered from a complication showed impairment in serum creatinine (0.1 mg/dL, p = 0.028), in GFR (11.1 mL/min, p = 0.036) as well as in DRFPLANAR (2.7 %, p = 0.018), DRFSPECT (2.2 %, p = 0.023) and DRFACCESS (2.7 %, p = 0.049). We conclude that PCNL has a minimal impact on global kidney function, which is mainly located in the region of percutaneous access. The advent of perioperative complications increased PCNL functional damage, whereas the stone-free status did not show any meaningful effect. PMID:25074714

Pérez-Fentes, Daniel; Cortés, Julia; Gude, Francisco; García, Camilo; Ruibal, Alvaro; Aguiar, Pablo

2014-10-01

314

Assessment of murine lung mechanics outcome measures: alignment with those made in asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Although asthma is characterized as an inflammatory disease, recent reports highlight the importance of pulmonary physiology outcome measures to the clinical assessment of asthma control and risk of asthma exacerbation. Murine models of allergic inflammatory airway disease have been widely used to gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of asthma; however, several aspects of murine models could benefit from improvement. This review focuses on aligning lung mechanics measures made in mice with those made in humans, with an eye toward improving the translational utility of these measures. A brief description of techniques available to measure murine lung mechanics is provided along with a methodological consideration of their utilization. How murine lung mechanics outcome measures relate to pulmonary physiology measures conducted in humans is discussed and we recommend that, like human studies, outcome measures be standardized for murine models of asthma. PMID:23408785

Walker, Julia K. L.; Kraft, Monica; Fisher, John T.

2013-01-01

315

Functional outcome following colon interposition in total pharyngoesophagectomy with or without laryngectomy.  

PubMed

Our study compares deglutition between a group who had undergone total esophagopharyngolaryngectomy and a group who had esophagectomy and partial pharyngectomy with preserved larynx, after reconstruction of the upper digestive tract with pedicled colon interposition. In four patients the laryngeal structures could be preserved (three caustic burns and one proximal esophageal tumor). Six patients underwent a total laryngopharyngectomy for large pharyngeal tumors. Swallowing was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, and videofluoroscopy. All patients had normal intake of semisolid foods and fluids. All patients but three experienced some feeling of "narrowing" of the tract: four at the level of the hypopharynx, two at the oropharyngeal level, one at the oral level. In the laryngectomy group, solid food caused some degree of delayed swallowing in three patients. Dumping occurred in one case out of the nonlaryngectomy group. On clinical examination a tense motility in all laryngectomy patients appeared, food remnants in five and repeated swallowing movements in four. The videofluoroscopy confirmed repeated swallowing movements and presence of residual food in the oral cavity. Temporal stagnation occurred at the anastomosis site in all patients and in two patients at a place of colon redundancy. Colon interposition is a reliable reconstruction and gives the possibility of a good functional outcome. Although preservation of the larynx facilitates swallowing even in this reconstructive procedure, it may be better to perform a total laryngopharyngectomy and colon interposition in oncological cases where the pharyngeal remnant is borderline for primary closure. PMID:12825900

Moerman, Mieke; Fahimi, Hossein; Ceelen, Wim; Pattyn, Piet; Vermeersch, Hubert

2003-01-01

316

Retrospective agreement and consent to neurocritical care is influenced by functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Only limited data are available on consent and satisfaction of patients receiving specialized neurocritical care. In this study we (i) analyzed the extent of retrospective consent to neurocritical care--given by patients or their relatives--depending on functional outcome one year after hospital stay, and (ii) identified predisposing factors for retrospective agreement to neurocritical care. Methods We investigated 704 consecutive patients admitted to a nonsurgical neurocritical care unit over a period of 2 years (2006 through 2007). Demographic and clinical parameters were analyzed, and the patients were grouped according to their diagnosis. Functional outcome, retrospective consent to neurocritical care, and satisfaction with hospital stay was obtained by mailed standardized questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were calculated to determine independent predictors for consent. Results High consent and satisfaction after neurointensive care (91% and 90%, respectively) was observed by those patients who reached an independent life one year after neurointensive care unit (ICU) stay. However, only 19% of surviving patients who were functionally dependent retrospectively agreed to neurocritical care. Unfavorable functional outcome and the diagnosis of stroke were independent predictors for missing retrospective consent. Conclusions Retrospective agreement to neurocritical care is influenced by functional outcome. Especially in severely affected stroke patients who cannot communicate their preferences regarding life-sustaining therapy, neurocritical care physicians should balance the expected burdens and benefits of treatment to meet the patients' putative wishes. Efforts should be undertaken to identify predictors for severe disability after neurocritical care. PMID:20673358

2010-01-01

317

Paper tools for assessing visual function.  

PubMed

Instruments for assessing visual function are valuable tools for optometry, ophthalmology, vision science, education, and public health. Inspired by my observations in the Teller lab, with Dobson, on the process of developing a useful clinical tool from laboratory work, I present four examples of functional vision tests that are made of paper and currently used in the field: the Amsler Grid, the Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart, the Teller Acuity Cards, and the Developmental Eye Movement Test. All are characterized by ease of use and rigorous design. All are either being used with children or have the potential to be so. Each tool is reviewed in terms of its development, with a view toward similarities in the steps or process taken. The goal is to encourage the further development of the functional vision assessments already in existence, and to urge scientists and clinicians alike to consider ways in which their own work can be translated into clinically useful, simple paper tools. PMID:19483511

Powers, Maureen K

2009-06-01

318

Evidence for the validity of grouped self-assessments in measuring the outcomes of educational programs.  

PubMed

There is compelling empirical evidence in support of the use of grouped self-assessment data to measure program outcomes. However, other credible research has clearly shown that self-assessments are poor predictors of individual achievement such that the validity of self-assessments has been called into question. Based on the reanalysis of two previously published studies and an analysis of two original studies, we show that grouped self-assessments may be good predictors of and hence valid measures of performance at the group level, an outcome commonly used in program evaluation studies. We found statistically significant correlation coefficients (between 0.56 and 0.87), when comparing across performance items using the group means of self-assessments with the group means of individual achievement on criterion tests. We call for further research into the conditions and circumstances in which grouped self-assessments are used, so that they can be employed more effectively and confidently by program evaluators, decision makers, and researchers. PMID:23396128

D'Eon, Marcel F; Trinder, Krista

2014-12-01

319

Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

2014-01-01

320

Assessing health care needs and clinical outcome with urological case complexity: a study using INTERMED.  

PubMed

Urinary tract symptoms and, particularly, urinary incontinence are often chronic and complex conditions that cause diagnosis, treatment, and management problems. In many cases, psychosocial factors contribute to the development of a chronic condition. The authors investigated whether INTERMED, an instrument for assessing case complexity and health care needs, was able to identify such complex cases, to estimate the amount of comorbidity, and to predict clinical outcome for 31 consecutive patients suffering from urinary tract symptoms. To assess clinical outcome, the authors used the American Urologic Association Symptom Score, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. On the basis of the patients' INTERMED scores, the authors distinguished between low-complexity patients (INTERMED score <21, N=25, 80.6%) and high-complexity patients (INTERMED score >or=21, N=6; 19.4%). Low-complexity patients had fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms, less distress, and better clinical outcome at their 3-month follow-up than high-complexity patients. The data confirmed the ability of the instrument to detect patients at risk of complex urinary tract symptoms and to predict clinical outcome. PMID:12724500

Di Gangi Herms, Alida M R; Pinggera, Germar M; De Jonge, Peter; Strasser, Hannes; Söllner, Wolfgang

2003-01-01

321

Gait analysis at multiple speeds reveals differential functional and structural outcomes in response to graded spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Open-field behavioral scoring is widely used to assess spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes, but has limited usefulness in describing subtle changes important for posture and locomotion. Additional quantitative methods are needed to increase the resolution of locomotor outcome assessment. This study used gait analysis at multiple speeds (GAMS) across a range of mild-to-severe intensities of thoracic SCI in the rat. Overall, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores and subscores were assessed, and detailed automated gait analysis was performed at three fixed walking speeds (3.5, 6.0, and 8.5?cm/sec). Variability in hindpaw brake, propel, and stance times were analyzed further by integrating across the stance phase of stepping cycles. Myelin staining of spinal cord sections was used to quantify white matter loss at the injury site. Varied SCI intensity produced graded deficits in BBB score, BBB subscores, and spinal cord white matter and total volume loss. GAMS measures of posture revealed decreased paw area, increased limb extension, altered stance width, and decreased values for integrated brake, propel, and stance. Measures of coordination revealed increased stride frequency concomitant with decreased stride length, resulting in deviation from consistent forelimb/hindlimb coordination. Alterations in posture and coordination were correlated to impact severity. GAMS results correlated highly with functional and histological measures and revealed differential relationships between sets of GAMS dynamics and cord total volume loss versus epicenter myelin loss. Automated gait analysis at multiple speeds is therefore a useful tool for quantifying nuanced changes in gait as an extension of histological and observational methods in assessing SCI outcomes. PMID:24405378

Krizsan-Agbas, Dora; Winter, Michelle K; Eggimann, Linda S; Meriwether, Judith; Berman, Nancy E; Smith, Peter G; McCarson, Kenneth E

2014-05-01

322

Functional Outcomes and Efficiency of Rehabilitation in a National Cohort of Patients with Guillain - Barré Syndrome and Other Inflammatory Polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hospital rehabilitation for a UK cohort of inpatients with complex rehabilitation needs arising from inflammatory polyneuropathies. Subjects and Setting 186 patients consecutively admitted to specialist neurorehabilitation centres in England with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (n?=?118 (63.4%)) or other inflammatory polyneuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n?=?15 (8.1%) or critical illness neuropathy (n?=?32 (17.2%)). Methods Cohort analysis of data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative national clinical dataset. Outcome measures include the UK Functional Assessment Measure, Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS) and Care Needs Assessment (NPCNA). Patients were analysed in three groups of dependency based on their admission NPDS score: ‘low’ (NPDS<10), ‘medium’ (NPDS 10–24) and ‘high’ (NPDS ?25). Cost-efficiency was measured as the time taken to offset the cost of rehabilitation by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of on-going care in the community. Results The mean rehabilitation length of stay was 72.2 (sd?=?66.6) days. Significant differences were seen between the diagnostic groups on admission, but all showed significant improvements between admission and discharge, in both motor and cognitive function (p<0.0001). Patients who were highly dependent on admission had the longest lengths of stay (mean 97.0 (SD 79.0) days), but also showed the greatest reduction in on-going care costs (£1049 per week (SD £994)), so that overall they were the most cost-efficient to treat. Conclusions Patients with polyneuropathies have both physical and cognitive disabilities that are amenable to change with rehabilitation, resulting in significant reduction in on-going care-costs, especially for highly dependent patients. PMID:25402491

Alexandrescu, Roxana; Siegert, Richard John; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

2014-01-01

323

Hemodialysis patient-assessed functional health status predicts continued survival, hospitalization, and dialysis-attendance compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We asked patients to assess their functional health status by completing the SF-36. Over 2 years, we studied 1,000 patients (average age, 58 years; 50% male; 25% white; 36% diabetic) in three outpatient, staff-assisted hemodialysis units. We used both the eight-scale scores and two-component summary scores to study the relationship between baseline functional health status and clinical outcomes. The physical

Peter B. DeOreo

1997-01-01

324

Modern Control Systems in Electrical Engineering course assessment using the Outcome Based Education approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ahstract-In the year 2004, Outcome-Based Education (OBE) has been adopted by the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) in accrediting Electrical Engineering Programmes for universities in Malaysia. To fulfill the requirement, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) has taken necessary steps to implement OBE in each programme offered. An OBE measurement tool known as Summative Assessment Dynamic Model with

A. A. Ab Rahim; N. M. Thamrin; N. E. Abdullah; H. Hashim

2010-01-01

325

Using Qualitative Research to Inform the Development of a Comprehensive Outcomes Assessment for Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Qualitative research can inform the development of asthma patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and user-friendly technologies through defining measurement constructs, identifying potential limitations in measurement and sources of response error, and evaluating usability. Abstract: Objective: To inform the development of a comprehensive asthma PRO assessment with input from patients and clinical experts. Abstract: Methods: Self-reported adult asthma patients recruited from

Diane M. Turner-Bowker; Renee N. Saris-Baglama; Michael A. DeRosa; Christine A. Paulsen; Christopher P. Bransfield

2009-01-01

326

Outcomes of a 5-day physiotherapy programme for functional (psychogenic) motor disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with functional motor disorder (FMD) are commonly seen by physiotherapists and there is growing evidence to support a physical rehabilitation approach. There are, however, few descriptions in the literature of the content of successful physiotherapy treatment. This prospective cohort study reports the practicalities and outcomes of a pilot 5-day physiotherapy programme. Patients were referred from a specialist movement disorders clinic. The treatment consisted of education and movement retraining, with a long-term self-management focus. Education and movement retraining was based on a pathophysiological model for FMD that stresses the importance of self-focussed attention and illness belief. Patients were assessed at baseline, end of treatment and 3-month follow-up. 47 patients completed the programme, mean symptom duration was 5.5 years, 64 % were unemployed due to ill health. At the end of treatment, 65 % rated their symptoms as "very much improved" or "much improved", this reduced to 55 % at 3 months. At follow-up, there was a significant improvement in physical domains of the SF-36, Berg Balance Scale and 10 Metre Timed Walk. Measures of mental health did not change. This prospective cohort study adds to the growing evidence that supports the use of specialist physiotherapy treatment for FMD. Improvements here were made despite the cohort having characteristics associated with poor prognosis. We argue that specific treatment techniques are important and have the potential to improve physical function, quality of life and may prove to be a cost-effective treatment for selected patients with FMD. PMID:25557282

Nielsen, G; Ricciardi, L; Demartini, B; Hunter, R; Joyce, E; Edwards, M J

2015-03-01

327

Complications and functional outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Restorative proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for intractable or complicated ulcerative colitis (UC). Debate exists concerning outcomes of IPAA in the elderly and literature data are scarce. We report our experience of IPAA in older population. Methods We gathered data on a prospective database of patients undergoing IPAA for UC over 70 years of age in our Unit from January 1990 through January 2010. Patients were compared with randomly selected younger controls on a 1:3 ratio. Patients underwent IPAA in 2 or 3 stages. Demographical data, disease characteristics, comorbidities, concomitant medications, peri-operative management, intra- and post-operative complications were analyzed. Function and quality of life were assessed by clinical visit and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire 1 and 3 years after ileostomy takedown. Results Twenty-seven elderly patients underwent IPAA for UC in the study period; these were compared with 81 younger controls. The former had more comorbidities and higher ASA score. All patients underwent loop-ileostomy closure. There were no differences between groups concerning the rate of major complications, but elderly patients more frequently had nuisances due to stoma output. Younger patients experienced significantly more episodes of small bowel obstruction. No significant differences in bowel control and health-related quality of life was observed, except for an higher rate of elderly patients taking antidiarrhoeals at 1-year follow-up; this observation was not confirmed at 3-year follow-up. A minimal decrease in continence was observed, but this did not affect overall satisfaction. Conclusions IPAA can be safely offered to selected elderly UC patients who are strongly motivated and with no clinical disturbances of continence. In experienced hands no differences are likely to be expected concerning complications, quality of life and function. Results are stable with time and comparable to those of younger patients. PMID:24267006

2013-01-01

328

Anterior Temporal Lobe Connectivity Correlates with Functional Outcome after Aphasic Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focal brain lesions are assumed to produce language deficits by two basic mechanisms: local cortical dysfunction at the lesion site, and remote cortical dysfunction due to disruption of the transfer and integration of information between connected brain regions. However, functional imaging studies investigating language outcome after aphasic…

Warren, Jane E.; Crinion, Jennifer T.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Wise, Richard J. S.

2009-01-01

329

Level of kidney function as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcomes in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe goal of this study was to determine whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective cohort study of subjects aged 45 to 64 years.

Guruprasad Manjunath; Hocine Tighiouart; Hassan Ibrahim; Bonnie MacLeod; Deeb N Salem; John L Griffith; Josef Coresh; Andrew S Levey; Mark J Sarnak

2003-01-01

330

Functional Outcome Analysis: A Good Heuristic That Went a Bridge Too Far.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to previous article (Noell and Gresham, this issue) on Functional Outcome Analysis (FOA) as important construct for evaluation of consultation and prereferral interventions. Sees core question being utility of most prominent alternative service delivery model for school psychologists, that of prereferral interventions/problem-solving…

Barnett, David; Lentz, Francis E., Jr.

1993-01-01

331

The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: what's the evidence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the evidence for physical therapy interventions aimed at improving functional outcome after stroke.Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, PEDro, EMBASE and DocOnline were searched for controlled studies. Physical therapy was divided into 10 intervention categories, which were analysed separately. If statistical pooling (weighted summary effect sizes) was not

R PS Van Peppen; G Kwakkel; S Wood-Dauphinee; H JM Hendriks; Ph J Van der Wees; J Dekker

2004-01-01

332

Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

333

Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

2014-01-01

334

Patterns in Cortical Connectivity for Determining Outcomes in Hand Function after Subcortical Stroke  

E-print Network

recovery. Moreover, subgroups of stroke patients with different outcomes in hand function have rarely been studied. Materials and Methods: We selected 24 patients who had a subcortical stroke in the left motor. Although a full recovery may occur after a stroke, more than 50% of the patients are left with residual

335

The online measurement of hemodialysis dose (Kt): Clinical outcome as a function of body surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online measurement of hemodialysis dose (Kt): Clinical outcome as a function of body surface area.BackgroundRecent advances enable the direct measurement of small molecule clearance, Kecn, during each dialysis. Average Kecn and treatment length, t, are multiplied giving total clearance, Kt. The body surface area (BSA) is a fixed transformation of height and weight and is a well recognized measure

Edmund G. Lowrie; ZHENSHENG LI; NORMA OFSTHUN; J. Michael Lazarus

2005-01-01

336

Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

2013-01-01

337

Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures  

E-print Network

locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius...

Phadnis, Joideep; Trompeter, Alex; Gallagher, Kieran; Bradshaw, Lucy; Elliott, David S; Newman, Kevin J

2012-01-26

338

Prognosis and outcome in a cohort of patients with non-affective functional psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Over a period of 3 years since the first in a lifetime onset of an episode of non-affective functional psychosis a cohort of 82 Dutch patients was studied at set intervals with regard to prognosis and outcome. Prognostic statements on remission, relapse, duration of episode, length of stay in hospital, and occupational, family and overall social adjustment were checked

Robert Giel; Durk Wiersmal; Peter A. de Jong; Cees Slooff

1984-01-01

339

Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

2007-01-01

340

Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks  

PubMed Central

Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social outcomes of HIV interventions. This limits knowledge about social drivers and inhibits the institutionalization of social approaches within the HIV/AIDS response. We conclude that indicator frameworks should expand to offer a more comprehensive range of social indicators for monitoring and evaluation and to include indicators of organizational capacity to tackle social drivers. While such expansion poses challenges for standardization and coordination, we argue that the complexity of interventions producing social outcomes necessitates capacity for flexibility and local tailoring in monitoring and evaluation. PMID:25160645

Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

2014-01-01

341

Methodological aspects in the assessment of treatment effects in observational health outcomes studies.  

PubMed

Prospective observational studies, which provide information on the effectiveness of interventions in natural settings, may complement results from randomised clinical trials in the evaluation of health technologies. However, observational studies are subject to a number of potential methodological weaknesses, mainly selection and observer bias. This paper reviews and applies various methods to control for selection bias in the estimation of treatment effects and proposes novel ways to assess the presence of observer bias. We also address the issues of estimation and inference in a multilevel setting. We describe and compare the use of regression methods, propensity score matching, fixed-effects models incorporating investigator characteristics, and a multilevel, hierarchical model using Bayesian estimation techniques in the control of selection bias. We also propose to assess the existence of observer bias in observational studies by comparing patient- and investigator-reported outcomes. To illustrate these methods, we have used data from the SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) study, a large, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with the treatment of schizophrenia. The methods used to adjust for differences between treatment groups that could cause selection bias yielded comparable results, reinforcing the validity of the findings. Also, the assessment of observer bias did not show that it existed in the SOHO study. Observational studies, when properly conducted and when using adequate statistical methods, can provide valid information on the evaluation of health technologies. PMID:16774289

Haro, Josep Maria; Kontodimas, Stathis; Negrin, Miguel Angel; Ratcliffe, Mark; Suarez, David; Windmeijer, Frank

2006-01-01

342

Programmatic Curricular Outcomes Assessment at Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objectives To categorize the manner in which programmatic curricular outcomes assessment is accomplished, identify the types of assessment methodologies used, and identify the persons or groups responsible for assessment. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 89 institutions throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. Results Sixty-eight of 89 surveys (76%) were returned. Forty-one respondents (60%) had a written and approved plan for programmatic curricular outcomes assessment, 18% assessed the entire curriculum, and 57% had partial activities in place. Various standardized and institution-specific assessment instruments were employed. Institutions differed as to whether an individual or a committee had overall responsibility for assessment. Conclusion To move the assessment process forward, each college and school should identify a person or group to lead the effort. Additional validated assessment instruments might aid programmatic assessment. Future studies should identify the reasons for selecting certain assessment instruments and should attempt to identify the most useful ones. PMID:17136151

Kirschenbaum, Harold L.; Brown, Martin E.; Kalis, Michelle M.

2006-01-01

343

Cardiac Function and Outcome in Patients with Cardio-Embolic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between whole spectrum of Ejection fraction (EF) and cardioembolic stroke (CES) outcome has not been fully described yet. Notably, it remains unclear whether borderline EF (41?49%) is related with poor outcome after CES. We sought to evaluate whether lower ejection fraction and borderline EF could predict the outcome in patients with CES. Method and Results We evaluated the relationship between EF and functional outcome in 437 consecutive patients with CES. EF was introduced as continuous and categorical (EF?40%, EF 41?49%, EF?50%) variable. Patients with CES and the subgroup with AF were evaluated separately. Poor short-term outcome (modified Rankin Score?3at discharge or death within 90 days after stroke onset) and long-term mortality were evaluated. A total of 165 patients (37.8%) had poor short-term outcomes. EF tends to be lower in patients with poor short-term outcome (56.8±11.0 vs. 54.8±12.0, p-value 0.086). Overall cumulative death was136 (31.1%) in all CES patients and 106 (31.7%) in the AF subgroup. In a multivariable model adjusted for possible covariates, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly decreased by 3% for every 1% increase in ejection fraction in CES patients and 2% for every 1% increase in the AF subgroup. Reduced EF (EF?40%) showed higher mortality (HR 2.61), and those with borderline EF (41?49%) had a tendency of higher mortality (HR 1.65, p-value 0.067)compared with those with normal EF. Conclusion We found a strong association between lower EF and CES outcome. Echocardiographic evaluation helps to better determine the prognosis in CES patients, even in subgroup of patients with AF. PMID:24760037

Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Kim, Young-Dae; Kim, Jeong-Min; Roh, Jae-Kyu

2014-01-01

344

Developing an assessment tool for intended learning outcomes in clinical practice for nursing students.  

PubMed

This report describes the development of a new criterion based reference tool to assess nursing knowledge and competence in clinical practice. Nursing education has changed from educating a profession, based on tested experience, to being based on a scientific approach and research based knowledge. Assessment should be capable of measuring whether intended learning outcomes have been reached or not, and if the aims of a course have been fulfilled in order to ensure safe and competent nursing care. The intended learning outcomes from a first year course syllabus were integrated and formed into a three-graded criterion-referenced assessment tool, Assessment of Clinical Education, (AClEd). The AClEd is to be seen as a template, and may be tailor-made in accordance to the objectives, level and criteria of a specific course. The tool showed validity in assessing nursing skills not only the nursing student's ability to perform a task but also, most importantly, the quality of nursing care. PMID:22051102

Ulfvarson, Johanna; Oxelmark, Lena

2012-08-01

345

Correlates of subjective and functional outcomes in outpatient clinic attendees with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome in schizophrenia is multidimensional and, thus, consists of clinical,humanitarian, rehabilitative and cost domains.\\u000a Accordingly, recovery is conceptualized as the ability to function in the community, socially and vocationally, as well as\\u000a being relatively free of disease–related psychopathology. The present cross–sectional study examined the relationship of premorbid\\u000a functioning, psychopathology, insight, attitudes toward medication and side–effects, as well as sociodemographic factors

Alex Hofer; Maria A. Rettenbacher; Christian G. Widschwendter; Georg Kemmler; Martina Hummer; W. Wolfgang Fleischhacker

2006-01-01

346

Coronary microvascular dysfunction: mechanisms and functional assessment.  

PubMed

Obstructive disease of the epicardial coronary arteries was recognized as the cause of angina pectoris >2 centuries ago, and sudden thrombotic occlusion of an epicardial coronary artery has been established as the cause of acute myocardial infarction for >100 years. In the past 2 decades, dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature emerged as an additional mechanism of myocardial ischaemia that bears important prognostic implications. The coronary microvasculature (vessels <300 ?m in diameter) cannot be directly imaged in vivo, but a number of invasive and noninvasive techniques, each with relative advantages and pitfalls, can be used to assess parameters that depend directly on coronary microvascular function. These methods include invasive or noninvasive measurement of Doppler-derived coronary blood flow velocity reserve, assessment of myocardial blood flow and flow reserve using noninvasive imaging, and calculation of microcirculatory resistance indexes during coronary catheterization. These advanced techniques for assessment of the coronary microvasculature have provided novel insights into the pathophysiological role of coronary microvascular dysfunction in the development of myocardial ischaemia in different clinical conditions. PMID:25311229

Camici, Paolo G; d'Amati, Giulia; Rimoldi, Ornella

2015-01-01

347

In Support of Prior Learning Assessment and Outcomes Assessment of Prior Learning Assessment Programs. Proceedings of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning (Princeton, New Jersey, June 12-15, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains two papers from the 1993 National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. "In Support of Prior Learning Assessment" (Rebecca C. Hull) highlights arguments in opposition to the acceptance of prior learning assessment and the responses that might best counter these arguments. "Outcomes Assessment of Prior…

Dagavarian, Debra A., Ed.

348

MRI Default Mode Network Connectivity is Associated with Functional Outcome after Cardiopulmonary Arrest  

PubMed Central

Introduction We hypothesized that the degree of preserved functional connectivity within the DMN during the first week after cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) would be associated with functional outcome at hospital discharge. Methods Initially comatose CPA survivors with indeterminate prognosis at 72 hours were enrolled. Seventeen CPA subjects between 4–7 days after CPA and 17 matched controls were studied with task-free fMRI. Independent component analysis was performed to delineate the DMN. Connectivity strength in the DMN was compared between CPA subjects and controls, as well as between CPA subjects with good outcome (discharge Cerebral Performance Category or CPC 1–2) and those with bad outcome (CPC 3–5). The relationship between connectivity strength in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PC) within the DMN with discharge CPC was evaluated using linear regression. Results Compared to controls, CPA subjects had significantly lower connectivity strength in subregions of the DMN, the PCC and PC (p <0.0001). Furthermore, connectivity strength in the PCC and PC was greater in CPA subjects with good outcome (n=8) than those with bad outcome (n=9) (p <0.003). Among CPA subjects, the connectivity strength in the PCC and PC showed strong linear correlations with the discharge CPC (p <0.005). Conclusion Among initially comatose CPA survivors with indeterminate prognosis, task-free fMRI demonstrated graded disruption of DMN connectivity, especially in those with bad outcomes. If confirmed, connectivity strength in the PC/PCC may provide a clinically useful prognostic marker for functional recovery after CPA. PMID:24464830

Koenig, Matthew A.; Holt, John L.; Ernst, Thomas; Buchthal, Steven D.; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Stenger, Victor A.; Chang, Linda

2014-01-01

349

The Promise of mHealth: Daily Activity Monitoring and Outcome Assessments by Wearable Sensors  

PubMed Central

Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew

2014-01-01

350

The promise of mHealth: daily activity monitoring and outcome assessments by wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew

2011-01-01

351

URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence-based thinking is essential both to science and to the development of effective educational programs. Thus assessment of student learning—gathering evidence about the nature and depth of students’ learning gains, and about how they arise—is a centerpiece of any effective undergraduate research (UR) program. Assessment data can be used to monitor progress, to diagnose problems, to strengthen program designs, and to report both good outcomes and strategies to improve them to institutional and financial stakeholders in UR programs. While the positive impact of UR on students’ educational, personal and professional development has long been a matter of faith, only recently have researchers and evaluators developed an empirical basis by which to identify and explain these outcomes. Based on this growing body of evidence, URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, is a survey tool that departments and programs can use to assess student outcomes of UR. URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. Both multiple-choice and open-ended items focus on students’ gains from UR, including: (1) skills such as lab work and communication; (2) conceptual knowledge and linkages among ideas in their field and with other fields; (3) deepened understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science; (4) growth in confidence and adoption of the identity of scientist; (5) preparation for a career or graduate school in science; and (6) greater clarity in understanding what career or educational path they might wish to pursue. Other items probe students’ participation in important activities that have been shown to lead to these gains; and a set of optional items can be included to probe specific program features that may supplement UR (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The poster will describe URSSA's content, development, validation, and use. For more information about URSSA and how to use it, visit our web site.

Laursen, S. L.; Hunter, A.; Weston, T.; Thiry, H.

2009-12-01

352

Functional assessment of communication: Merging public policy with clinical views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional assessment—the measurement of an individual's ability to perforni daily life activities despite disease, disorder, or impairment-is becoming a vital supplement to traditional clinical assessment batteries in rehabilitation. From a clinical perspective, functional assessment seems to bridge the gap between identifying specific behaviours, and evaluating how those behaviours affect an individual's ability to function in natural contexts (Holland 1980; Sarno

Carol M. Frattali

1992-01-01

353

Assessment of cardiovascular function by digital angiocardiography.  

PubMed

A methodology for computerized digital videoangiocardiography is briefly described. Single or biplane projection image series from the cardiovascular system are combined with the corresponding physiologic (electrocardiogram, blood pressure, etc.) reference data, digitized and stored as a block of simultaneously available information representing anatomic and functional aspects of the cardiovascular system. Simple mask mode and more complex modes of digital subtraction, image combination and manipulation techniques, as developed during the last decade, are mentioned. These techniques are primarily useful to separate the contrast bolus from the background, thereby allowing contrast enhancement with less contrast medium injected selectively, or so-called noninvasive intravenous angiocardiography. Ventricular function can be assessed by these simple digital image processing techniques. This has been proved for determining right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with respect to reproducibility and accuracy using conventional biplane angiocardiography as reference. More complex techniques for the assessment of function, in particular blood flow distributions in the systemic circulation, are described using information from the whole digitized angiocardiographic image series by extracting time and volume parameters from the complete matrix of pixel densograms. Various modes of extraction and display of time parameters allow a generation of parametric images that display heretofore unavailable flow patterns reflecting the progress of the contrast bolus within the arterial tree. Based on an adequate temporal segmentation (for example, time segments of one cardiac cycle) and simultaneous volume determination of the circulatory structure from the area of the densogram, relative and absolute flow as well as regional flow distribution in a branching arterial system can be determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3965530

Heintzen, P H; Bürsch, H J; Hahne, H J; Brennecke, R; Budach, W; Lange, P

1985-01-01

354

The Incremental Value of Self-Reported Mental Health Measures in Predicting Functional Outcomes of Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on patient-centered care supports use of patient\\/consumer self-report measures in monitoring health outcomes. This\\u000a study examined the incremental value of self-report mental health measures relative to a clinician-rated measure in predicting\\u000a functional outcomes among mental health service recipients. Participants (n?=?446) completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Veterans\\/Rand Short\\u000a Form-36 at enrollment in

Susan V. Eisen; Kathryn A. Bottonari; Mark E. Glickman; Avron Spiro; Mark R. Schultz; Lawrence Herz; Robert Rosenheck; Ethan S. Rofman

2011-01-01

355

Usefulness of induced sputum eosinophil count to assess severity and treatment outcome in asthma patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Currently treatment decisions in asthma are governed by clinical assessment and spirometry. Sputum eosinophil, being a marker of airway inflammation, can serve as a tool for assessing severity and response to treatment in asthma patients. Aims: To establish correlation between change in sputum eosinophil count and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)% predicted value of asthma patients in response to treatment. In this study, we also predicted prognosis and treatment outcome of asthma patients from baseline sputum eosinophil count. Settings and Design: A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome among newly diagnosed asthma patients who were classified into A (n = 80) and B (n = 80) groups on the basis of initial sputum eosinophil count (A ? 3% and B < 3%). Materials and Methods: After starting treatment according to Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline, both A and B groups were evaluated every 15 days interval for the 1st month and monthly thereafter for a total duration of 12 months. In each follow-up visit detailed history, induced sputum eosinophil count and spirometry were done to evaluate severity and treatment outcome. Results: FEV1% predicted of group A asthma patients gradually increased and sputum eosinophil count gradually decreased on treatment. Longer time was required to achieve satisfactory improvement (FEV1% predicted) in asthma patients with sputum eosinophil count ?3%. There was statistically significant negative correlation between FEV1% predicted and sputum eosinophil count (%) in of group A patients in each follow-up visit, with most significant negative correlation found in 8th visit (r = ?0.9237 and P = < 0.001). Change in mean FEV1% (predicted) from baseline showed strong positive correlation (r = 0.976) with change in reduction of mean sputum eosinophil count at each follow-up visits in group A patients. Conclusions: Sputum eosinophil count, being an excellent biomarker of airway inflammation, can serve as a useful marker to assess disease severity, treatment outcome, and prognosis in asthma patients. PMID:23741092

Bandyopadhyay, Ankan; Roy, Partha P.; Saha, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Semanti; Jash, Debraj; Saha, Debabrata

2013-01-01

356

Management and functional outcome of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: A prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Aim: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare neoplasms of central nervous system but require proper evaluation and management to ensure a good outcome. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional outcome of IMSCT following surgery and to decipher the factors affecting optimal outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A prospective clinical study was carried out at a tertiary care center from 2003 to 2012. Forty three patients with intramedullary tumors diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging were included. Their clinical details, neurological findings and demographic data were recorded. The patients were then subjected to surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. The patients were followedup clinically and radiologically, and all parameters examined and recorded. Results: Sensory and motor impairment was present preoperatively in majority of patients (n = 39 and n = 38, 90.7% and 88.4%, respectively). Gross total excision was performed in 30 cases (69.76%). The most common histological diagnosis was ependymoma (n = 21, 48.8%). Postoperatively 32 patients (74.4%) were in McCormick functional Grade I or II improving from 13 cases (30.2%) in Grade I or II preoperatively. Fifteen of 17 patients in Medical Research Council (MRC) Grade III and 10 out of 12 patients in Grade MRC IV improved. No mortality was recorded during the entire period of follow-up (mean: 22, range: 3-96 months). Eight patients (18.6%) had recurrence till the last follow-up visit. Conclusions: Preoperative neurological grade was the most important predictor of functional outcome. Gross tumor excision was the best surgical modality to improve event free survival. High-grade tumors had higher rates of recurrence but no effect on functional outcome. PMID:25685212

Kumar, Raj; Banerjee, Sumit

2014-01-01

357

Functional outcomes in children with abusive head trauma receiving inpatient rehabilitation compared with children with non-abusive head trauma  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare clinical features and functional outcomes of age and sex matched children with abusive and non-abusive head trauma receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Study design Children with abusive head trauma (n = 28) and age, sex matched children with non-abusive head trauma (n = 20) admitted to one inpatient pediatric rehabilitation unit from 1995–2012 were studied. Acute hospitalization and inpatient rehabilitation records were retrospectively reviewed for pertinent clinical data: initial GCS score, signs of increased intracranial pressure, neuroimaging findings, and presence of associated injuries. Functional status at admission to and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). Outcome at discharge and outpatient follow-up was described based on attainment of independent ambulation and expressive language. Results Children with abusive and non-abusive head trauma had similar levels of injury severity although associated injuries were greater in abusive head trauma. Functional impairment upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation was comparable and functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation were similar between groups. More children with non-abusive than abusive head trauma attained independent ambulation and expressive language after discharge from rehabilitation; the difference was no longer significant when only children greater than 12 months of age at injury were examined. There was variability in delay to obtain these skills and quality of gained skills in both groups. Conclusions Despite more associated injuries, children with abusive head trauma make significant functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation comparable with an age and sex matched sample with non-abusive head trauma. Key functional skills may be gained by children in both groups following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:24321537

Risen, Sarah R; Suskauer, Stacy J; DeMatt, Ellen J; Slomine, Beth S; Salorio, Cynthia F

2013-01-01

358

Assessing Outcomes and Perceived Benefits of a Professional Development Seminar Series  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the outcomes of alumni who were enrolled in a professional development seminar series during their doctor of pharmacy program. Design. A weekly development seminar series was administered over 5 semesters with the goal of bringing academic advisees together to help develop performance-based abilities, prepare them for entry into the profession after graduation, and provide exposure to different career opportunities. Assessment. A survey instrument containing 39 Likert-type scale items, 2 open-ended questions, and a 10-item demographic survey was created and content-validated to assess the effect of the seminar series on alumni advisees’ perceived outcomes and professional development since their graduation. The survey was electronically forwarded to advisees from the graduating classes of 2005 to 2012, and response data was collected with Qualtrics, a web-based survey service. A total of 36 percent of alumni responded to the survey. Respondents cited exposure to career alternatives and opportunities, development of presentation and communication skills, networking, and the importance of advisor/mentor relationships as benefits of the seminar series. Conclusion. The professional development seminar series has demonstrated a positive impact on alumni advisees’ career development and professional outcomes, most notably relating to career path exposure, communication skills, and advisor/mentor relationships. PMID:25386015

Zueger, Patrick M.; Katz, Norman L.

2014-01-01

359

Outcome Based Education Performance Measurement: A Rasch-based Longitudinal Assessment Model to measure Information Management Courses LO's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia Qualification Framework, 2005 (MQF) promotes outcome based education (OBE) learning process. OBE calls for the evaluation of the course's Learning Outcomes (CLO) as specified in the Program Specification. This good practice is implemented in the Faculty of Information Technology and Quantitative Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (FTMSK) teaching and learning processes which was duly certified to ISO 9001:2000. Assessment methods

AZLINAH MOHAMED; ISO QMS

360

Clinical outcomes and safety assessment in elderly patients undergoing decompressive laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess safety, risk factors and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with spinal stenosis after decompressive laminectomy. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients 70 years and older with spinal stenosis undergoing conventional laminectomy without fusion (n = 101) were consecutively enrolled from regular clinical practice and reassessed at 3 and 12 months. Primary outcome was change in health related

Asgeir S Jakola; Andreas Sørlie; Sasha Gulati; Øystein P Nygaard; Stian Lydersen; Tore Solberg

2010-01-01

361

Respondent-driven sampling to assess outcomes of sexual violence: a methodological assessment.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is pervasive in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Survivors of sexual violence encounter numerous challenges, and women with a sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP) face even more complex sequelae. Because of the stigma associated with SVRP, there is no conventional sampling frame and, therefore, a paucity of research on SVRP outcomes. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), used to study this "hidden" population, uses a peer recruitment sampling system that maintains strict participant privacy and controls and tracks recruitment. If RDS assumptions are met and the sample attains equilibrium, sample weights to correct for biases associated with traditional chain referral sampling can be calculated. Questionnaires were administered to female participants who were raising a child from a SVRP and/or who terminated a SVRP. A total of 852 participants were recruited from October 9, 2012, to November 7, 2012. There was rapid recruitment, and there were long referral chains. The majority of the variables reached equilibrium; thus, trends established in the sample population reflected the target population's trends. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use RDS to study outcomes of sexual violence. RDS was successfully applied to this population and context and should be considered as a sampling methodology in future sexual violence research. PMID:25073471

Greiner, Ashley L; Albutt, Katherine; Rouhani, Shada A; Scott, Jennifer; Dombrowski, Kirk; VanRooyen, Michael J; Bartels, Susan A

2014-09-01

362

The Early Functional Outcome of Mau Osteotomy for the Correction of Moderate-Severe Hallux Valgus  

PubMed Central

Hallux valgus is one of the commonest conditions of the foot and has been reported to affect nearly half of the adult population. It is most effectively treated by a corrective osteotomy of which there a numerous subtypes. The Mau osteotomy confers the greatest structural stability but is not thought to provide adequate correction of moderate-severe deformities. Accordingly, complications such as under correction and non-union are common. The aim of this study was to determine the functional outcome in patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus following a Mau osteotomy. A retrospective review of 23 patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus treated by Mau osteotomy was conducted. Patients were assessed clinically by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system and radiologically by measuring the first intermetatarsal (IM) and hallux abductovalgus angles (HAV). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 47 preoperatively to 92 postoperatively (P<0.01). Additionally, preoperative HAV and IM angles improved from 39o and 15o respectively to 15o and 9o respectively (P<0.01). There were no cases of undercorrection or non-union. In this series, the Mau osteotomy was able to achieve good correction of the IM and HAV angles in patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus. This was reflected in a significantly higher postoperative AOFAS score. Contrary to other studies there were no cases of undercorrection and despite allowing patients to fully weight-bear postoperatively there were no cases of non-union. PMID:24416481

Thangarajah, Tanujan; Ahmed, Usman; Malik, Shahbaz; Tillu, Abhay

2013-01-01

363

Distal Radial Fractures in the Superelderly: Does Malunion Affect Functional Outcome?  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The management of unstable distal radial fractures in the superelderly (?80 years old) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome of super-elderly patients with and without malunion after a distal radial fracture. Methods. We identified 51 superelderly patients living independently with displaced fractures from a prospective database of 4024 patients with distal radial fractures. Activities of daily living, presence of wrist pain, whether the wrist had returned to its normal level function, grip strength and ROM were recorded. The dorsal angulation was measured radiographically. Results. There were 17 (33.3%) patients defined to have a malunion. The outcomes of the independent patients with and without malunion were compared at a mean follow-up of 15 months. No difference was observed in activities of daily living (P = 0.28), wrist pain (P = 0.14), whether the wrist had returned to its normal level function (P = 0.25), grip strength (P = 0.31), or ROM (P = 0.41). An increasing degree of dorsal angulation correlated with diminished ROM (P = 0.038), but did not correlate with activities of daily living (P = 0.10). Conclusions. Malunion of the distal radius does not influence the functional outcome of independent superelderly patients. PMID:24967123

Clement, N. D.; Duckworth, A. D.; Court-Brown, C. M.; McQueen, M. M.

2014-01-01

364

Relationship between peripheral airway function and patient-reported outcomes in COPD: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Health status, dyspnea and psychological status are important clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measured by spirometry, the standard measurement of airflow limitation, has only a weak relationship with these outcomes in COPD. Recently, in addition to spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS) measuring lung resistance (R) and reactance (X) is increasingly being used to assess pulmonary functional impairment. Methods We aimed to identify relationships between IOS measurements and patient-reported outcomes in 65 outpatients with stable COPD. We performed pulmonary function testing, IOS, high-resolution computed tomography (CT), and assessment of health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), dyspnea using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and psychological status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We then investigated the relationships between these parameters. For the IOS measurements, we used lung resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20, respectively) and reactance at 5 Hz (X5). Because R5 and R20 are regarded as reflecting total and proximal airway resistance, respectively, the fall in resistance from R5 to R20 (R5-R20) was used as a surrogate for the resistance of peripheral airways. X5 was also considered to represent peripheral airway abnormalities. Results R5-R20 and X5 were significantly correlated with the SGRQ and the MRC. These correlation coefficients were greater than when using other objective measurements of pulmonary function, R20 on the IOS and CT instead of R5-R20 and X5. Multiple regression analyses showed that R5-R20 or X5 most significantly accounted for the SGRQ and MRC scores. Conclusions IOS measurements, especially indices of peripheral airway function, are significantly correlated with health status and dyspnea in patients with COPD. Therefore, in addition to its simplicity and non-invasiveness, IOS may be a useful clinical tool not only for detecting pulmonary functional impairment, but also to some extent at least estimating the patient's quality of daily life and well-being. PMID:20205936

2010-01-01

365

Serum albumin at admission for prediction of functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum albumin at admission, measured within 24 h after stroke onset, on the\\u000a functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients. The medical records of 76 first-ever hemiplegic ischaemic stroke patients\\u000a were reviewed. Collected data included age, sex, initial stroke severity, cerebrovascular risk factors, lesion-related variables,\\u000a aetiologic subtype of stroke and serum albumin at

Yoon-Mi Cho; In-Sung Choi; Ren-Xiu Bian; Jae-Hyung Kim; Jae-Young Han; Sam-Gyu Lee

2008-01-01

366

Long-Term Outcome from Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment of Functional Chest Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antidepressants are of demonstrated value inshort-term treatment of functional chest pain, butlong-term outcome data are unavailable. Follow-upinformation over a median of 2.7 years (0.8-8.6 years)was systematically obtained from 21 outpatientstreated with tricyclic antidepressants after incompleteresponse to antireflux therapy. Initial treatmentproduced at least moderate symptom reduction orremission in 17 subjects (81.0%). Of these, 7 (41.2%)were successfully treated continuously or for symptomrelapses

Chandra Prakash; Ray E. Clouse

1999-01-01

367

Effect of Intravenous Thrombolysis on MRI Parameters and Functional Outcome in Acute Stroke <6 Hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The goals of this study were to examine MRI baseline characteristics of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and to study the influence of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on MR parameters and functional outcome using a multicenter approach. Methods—In this open-label, nonrandomized study of AIS patients with suspected anterior circulation stroke, subjects received a multiparametric stroke MRI

J. Röther; P. D. Schellinger; A. Gass; M. Siebler; A. Villringer; J. B. Fiebach; J. Fiehler; O. Jansen; T. Kucinski; V. Schoder; K. Szabo; G. J. Junge-Hülsing; M. Hennerici; H. Zeumer; K. Sartor; C. Weiller; W. Hacke

2002-01-01

368

Bladder evisceration in a child with antenatally detected gastroschisis: outcome of bladder function.  

PubMed

In patients with gastroschisis, evisceration of the bladder is rare. To date, little is known about functional outcome of the antenatally eviscerated bladder. We present a case of antenatally detected gastroschisis associated with entire bladder evisceration and fetal hydronephrosis. Full urological evaluation was carried out after primary closure of the abdominal wall defect. The postoperative period was uneventful and there were no abnormal findings in the kidney or urinary tract. This indicated good prognosis of the antenatally eviscerated bladder. PMID:18036052

Matsumoto, Fumi; Matsui, Futoshi; Kawagoe, Mari; Shimada, Kenji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Kubota, Akio

2007-12-01

369

Functional outcome and discharge destination in elderly patients with spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective cohort study.Objective:To describe functional outcome and discharge destination of elderly patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries.Setting:National Spinal Injuries Unit, Glasgow, UK.Methods:We collected data for 5 years on all patients >65 years old with a traumatic spinal cord injury treated at the National Spinal Injuries Unit.Results:We identified 39 patients. Of these, nine patients died during admission; all had cervical

A Gulati; C J Yeo; A D Cooney; A N McLean; M H Fraser; D B Allan

2011-01-01

370

Reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Part 1: Systematic review of clinical and functional outcomes  

PubMed Central

Many factors influence the outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and functional outcomes of RSA depending on the surgical approach, type of prosthesis, and indication for surgery through a comprehensive, systematic review. A literature search was conducted (1985 to June 2012) using PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCO–SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Levels I–IV evidence, in-vivo human studies (written in English with minimum of 2 years of follow-up and sample size of 10 patients) reporting clinical and/or functional outcomes after RSA were included. The outcomes were analyzed depending on the surgical approach, type of prosthesis (with medialized or lateralized center of rotation), or indication for surgery. A total of 35 studies were included involving 2049 patients (mean [SD] percentage of females, age, and follow-up of 71.6% [13.4], 71.5 years [3.7], and 43.1 months [18.8], respectively). Studies using deltopectoral approach with lateralized prostheses demonstrated greater improvement in external rotation compared with medialized prostheses with the same approach (mean 22.9° and 5°, respectively). In general, RSA for cuff tear arthropathy demonstrated higher improvements in Constant and American Shoulder and Elbow Society scores, and range of motion compared with revision of anatomic prosthesis, failed rotator cuff repair, and fracture sequelae. Lateralized prostheses provided more improvement in external rotation compared to medialized prostheses. Indications of RSA for cuff tear arthropathy demonstrated higher improvements in the outcomes compared with other indications. RSA demonstrated high patient's satisfaction regardless of the type of prosthesis or indication for surgery. Level of Evidence: Level IV. PMID:25709242

Samitier, Gonzalo; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Torrens, Carlos; Wright, Thomas W.

2015-01-01

371

Mechanomyogram for Muscle Function Assessment: A Review  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanomyography (MMG) has been extensively applied in clinical and experimental practice to examine muscle characteristics including muscle function (MF), prosthesis and/or switch control, signal processing, physiological exercise, and medical rehabilitation. Despite several existing MMG studies of MF, there has not yet been a review of these. This study aimed to determine the current status on the use of MMG in measuring the conditions of MFs. Methodology/Principal Findings Five electronic databases were extensively searched for potentially eligible studies published between 2003 and 2012. Two authors independently assessed selected articles using an MS-Word based form created for this review. Several domains (name of muscle, study type, sensor type, subject's types, muscle contraction, measured parameters, frequency range, hardware and software, signal processing and statistical analysis, results, applications, authors' conclusions and recommendations for future work) were extracted for further analysis. From a total of 2184 citations 119 were selected for full-text evaluation and 36 studies of MFs were identified. The systematic results find sufficient evidence that MMG may be used for assessing muscle fatigue, strength, and balance. This review also provides reason to believe that MMG may be used to examine muscle actions during movements and for monitoring muscle activities under various types of exercise paradigms. Conclusions/Significance Overall judging from the increasing number of articles in recent years, this review reports sufficient evidence that MMG is increasingly being used in different aspects of MF. Thus, MMG may be applied as a useful tool to examine diverse conditions of muscle activity. However, the existing studies which examined MMG for MFs were confined to a small sample size of healthy population. Therefore, future work is needed to investigate MMG, in examining MFs between a sufficient number of healthy subjects and neuromuscular patients. PMID:23536834

Islam, Md. Anamul; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin

2013-01-01

372

Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.  

PubMed

Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

2014-08-01

373

Effects of a Summer Treatment Program on Functional Sports Outcomes in Young Children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children’s sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N.

2015-01-01

374

Impact of outcome-based assessment on student learning and faculty instructional practices.  

PubMed

Increased accountability has been a catalyst for the reformation of curriculum and assessment practices in postsecondary schools throughout North America, including veterinary schools. There is a call for a shift in assessment practices in clinical rotations, from a focus on content to a focus on assessing student performance. Learning is subsequently articulated in terms of observable outcomes and indicators that describe what the learner can do after engaging in a learning experience. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which a competency-based program in an early phase of implementation impacted student learning and faculty instructional practices. Findings revealed that negative student perceptions of the assessment instrument's reliability had a detrimental effect on the face validity of the instrument and, subsequently, on students' engagement with competency-based assessment and promotion of student-centered learning. While the examination of faculty practices echoed findings from other studies that cited the need for faculty development to improve rater reliability and for a better data management system, our study found that faculty members' instructional practices improved through the alignment of instruction and curriculum. This snap-shot of the early stages of implementing a competency-based program has been instrumental in refining and advancing the program. PMID:23709109

Dawson, Susan D; Miller, Tess; Goddard, Sally F; Miller, Lisa Maag

2013-01-01

375

Environmental justice, impact assessment and the politics of knowledge: The implications of assessing the social distribution of environmental outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.

Walker, Gordon, E-mail: g.p.walker@lancaster.ac.u [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

376

Improving functional outcomes for schizophrenia patients in the Netherlands using Cognitive Adaptation Training as a nursing intervention - A pilot study.  

PubMed

Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) improves functional outcomes in schizophrenia outpatients living in the United States. The effectiveness of CAT for patients living outside the US as well as for long-term hospitalized patients remains to be determined. In addition, it has not yet been studied whether CAT can be successful if patients receive the treatment from psychiatric nurses. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness and feasibility of CAT as a nursing intervention in the Netherlands. Thirty schizophrenia patients (long-term hospitalized patients: 63%) participated in this study. Sixteen patients received treatment as usual (TAU)+CAT, and fourteen patients received TAU. Patients in CAT participated in the treatment for eight months, consisting of weekly home-visits by a psychiatric nurse, supervised by a psychologist. After eight months, CAT interventions were integrated in the usual treatment. Outcome measures were the Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS), the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-Motivation subscale (NSA-M). For inpatients, work-related activities were also tracked for 16 months after baseline. Patients receiving TAU+CAT had better scores on the MCAS (trend), compared to TAU patients. Moreover, inpatients' work-related activities increased in TAU+CAT, relative to TAU inpatients, reaching significance after ten months. Improvements on the SOFAS and NSA-M were not significant. These results indicate that CAT as a nursing intervention may improve outcomes in patients with schizophrenia living in the Netherlands, including long-term hospitalized patients. However, since the current study was designed for exploratory purposes, larger randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the long-term effects of CAT as a nursing intervention systematically. PMID:25000912

Quee, Piotr J; Stiekema, Annemarie P M; Wigman, Johanna T W; Schneider, Harald; van der Meer, Lisette; Maples, Natalie J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Velligan, Dawn I; Bruggeman, Richard

2014-09-01

377

Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors’ heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (<2.1 compared with precontrast image, determined by previous receiver operator characteristic analysis). FRVs were correlated with treatment outcome (follow-up: 0.2–9.4, mean 6.8 years) and compared with ATVs (Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analyses). Results Before and during therapy at 2–2.5 and 4–5 weeks of RT, FRVs >20, >13, and >5 cm3, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 × 10?8, 2.0 × 10?8) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 × 10?4, 2.1 × 10?6, 2.5 × 10?7, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2–5 weeks into treatment. PMID:22208967

Mayr, Nina A.; Huang, Zhibin; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon S.; Fan, Joline M.; Grecula, John C.; Sammet, Steffen; Sammet, Christina L.; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C.

2015-01-01

378

Quantitative Liver Function Tests Improve the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Hepatitis C: Results from the HALT-C Trial  

PubMed Central

Risk for future clinical outcomes is proportional to the severity of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We measured disease severity by quantitative liver function tests (QLFTs) to determine cutoffs for QLFTs that identified patients who were at low and high risk for a clinical outcome. Two hundred twenty seven participants in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial underwent baseline QLFTs and were followed for a median of 5.5 years for clinical outcomes. QLFTs were repeated in 196 patients at month 24 and in 165 patients at month 48. Caffeine elimination rate (k), antipyrine (AP) clearance (Cl), MEGX concentration, methionine breath test (MBT), galactose elimination capacity (GEC), dual cholate (CA) clearances and shunt, and perfused hepatic mass (PHM) and liver and spleen volumes (SPECT) were measured. Baseline QLFTs were significantly worse (p=0.0017 to <0.0001) and spleen volumes larger (p<0.0001) in the 54 patients who subsequently experienced clinical outcomes. QLFT cutoffs that characterized patients as “low” and “high risk” for clinical outcome yielded hazard ratios ranging from 2.21 (95%CI 1.29–3.78) for GEC to 6.52 (95%CI 3.63–11.71) for CA Cloral. QLFTs independently predicted outcome in models with Ishak fibrosis score, platelet count, and standard laboratory tests. In serial studies, patients with “high risk” results for CA Cloral or PHM had a nearly 15-fold increase in risk for clinical outcome. Less than 5% of patients with “low risk” QLFTs experienced a clinical outcome. Conclusion QLFTs independently predict risk for future clinical outcomes. By improving risk assessment, QLFTs could enhance noninvasive monitoring, counseling, and management of patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22030902

Everson, Gregory T.; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Hoefs, John C.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Sterling, Richard K.; Wagner, David A.; Lauriski, Shannon; Curto, Teresa M.; Stoddard, Anne; Wright, Elizabeth C.

2011-01-01

379

APPROACHES TO LUNG FUNCTION ASSESSMENT IN SMALL MAMMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The review chapter of pulmonary function assessment in small mammals first discusses basic principles and methods such as assessment of various pressures, volumes and flows. The three types of plethysmographs (pressure, flow and barometric) used by animal physiologists are evalua...

380

Validation of a patient reported outcome questionnaire for assessing success of endoscopic prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several international committees involved in establishing standards of care have recommended that patients undergoing surgery for bladder outlet obstruction should be assessed with patient reported outcomes (PRO). The Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) is an instrument designed to measure a patients interpretation of symptom changes following intervention. The objective of this study was to validate the PGI-I as a PRO assessment following surgery for bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Men undergoing photoselective vaporisation of the prostate were followed prospectively. Pre- and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of life (QoL) index, peak urinary flow (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) assessments were done. The PGI-I was conducted and correlated at 3 months postoperatively to changes in IPSS, QoL, Qmax, and PVR. Results One hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients were included. Following surgery, IPSS and QoL improved by 11 and 2.4 points (P<0.0001). PGI-I was found to correlate with postoperative changes in IPSS and QoL (Pearson correlation, 0.47 and 0.58, respectively; P<0.0001). Conclusions This is the first study to validate the PGI-I as a PRO measure to surgery for BOO. This suggests a potential for the PGI-I to be used to assess surgical therapies for BPH and may be a valuable addition for measuring outcomes in clinical trials evaluating surgical interventions for BPH. PMID:25599074

Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry

2014-01-01

381

An Exploratory Investigation of the Assessment Practices of Selected Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business--Accredited Business Programs and Linkages with General Education Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study investigated the assessment practices of five different undergraduate business programs. It examines the learning outcomes required for the business programs and their linkages with general education outcomes. Specific assessment methods, the results from assessments, and how business program faculty use assessment findings to…

Vitullo, Elizabeth; Jones, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

382

Effect of Inpatient Quality of Care on Functional Outcomes in Patients With Hip Fracture  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to examine the relationship between functional outcome and process of care for patients with hip fracture. Research Design and Participants We undertook a prospective cohort study in 4 hospitals of 554 patients treated with surgery for hip fracture. Measurements Information on patient characteristics and processes of hospital care collected from the medical record, interviews, and bedside observations. Follow-up information obtained at 6 months on function (using the Functional Independence Measure [FIM]), survival, and readmission. Results Individual processes of care were generally not associated with adjusted outcomes. A scale of 9 processes related to mobilization was associated with improved adjusted locomotion (P = 0.006), self care (P = 0.022), and transferring (P = 0.007) at 2 months, but the benefits were smaller and not significant by 6 months. These processes were not associated with mortality. The predicted value for the FIM locomotion measure (range, 2–14) at 2 months was 5.9 (95% confidence interval 5.4–6.4) for patients at the 10th percentile of performance on these processes compared with 7.1 (95% confidence interval 6.6, 7.6) at the 90th percentile. Patients who experienced no hospital complications and no readmissions retained the benefits in locomotion at 6 months. Anticoagulation processes were associated with improved transferring at 2 months (P = 0.046) but anticoagulation and other processes of care were not otherwise associated with improved function. Discussion Our findings indicate the need to attend to all steps in the care of patients with hip fracture. Additionally, functional outcomes were more sensitive markers of improved process of care, compared with 6-month mortality, in the case of hip fracture. PMID:16932138

Boockvar, Kenneth S.; Penrod, Joan D.; Morrison, R. Sean; Halm, Ethan A.; Litke, Ann; Silberzweig, Stacey B.; Teresi, Jeanne; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Magaziner, Jay

2006-01-01

383

Interhemispheric functional connectivity following prenatal or perinatal brain injury predicts receptive language outcome.  

PubMed

Early brain injury alters both structural and functional connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres. Despite increasing knowledge on the individual hemispheric contributions to recovery from such injury, we know very little about how their interactions affect this process. In the present study, we related interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity to receptive language outcome following early left hemisphere stroke. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 14 people with neonatal brain injury, and 25 age-matched controls during passive story comprehension. With respect to structural connectivity, we found that increased volume of the corpus callosum predicted good receptive language outcome, but that this is not specific to people with injury. In contrast, we found that increased posterior superior temporal gyrus interhemispheric functional connectivity during story comprehension predicted better receptive language performance in people with early brain injury, but worse performance in typical controls. This suggests that interhemispheric functional connectivity is one potential compensatory mechanism following early injury. Further, this pattern of results suggests refinement of the prevailing notion that better language outcome following early left hemisphere injury relies on the contribution of the contralesional hemisphere (i.e., the "right-hemisphere-take-over" theory). This pattern of results was also regionally specific; connectivity of the angular gyrus predicted poorer performance in both groups, independent of brain injury. These results present a complex picture of recovery, and in some cases, such recovery relies on increased cooperation between the injured hemisphere and homologous regions in the contralesional hemisphere, but in other cases, the opposite appears to hold. PMID:23536076

Dick, Anthony Steven; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L

2013-03-27

384

Long-term functional outcome and satisfaction of patients with hypospadias repaired in childhood  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential long-term sequelae of hypospadias and its surgical correction include difficulties in voiding, sexual function, psychosexual adjustment and self-appraisal. These difficulties often evolve long after surgical repair as children grow to adulthood. Despite this, patient-driven data on long-term functional outcomes and satisfaction are limited, leaving the true success of hypospadias surgery essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to address these deficiencies. Methods We conducted a chart review for all patients operated on by a single urologist from 1981 to 1988. Extensive efforts were made to obtain accurate current address information for patients. A database of patient demographics and pathology, operative details and complications was created. A 22-item questionnaire was mailed to study subjects. Telephone follow-up by an independent research nurse bolstered response rates. Responses from returned questionnaires were pooled and analyzed. Results The chart review included 115 patients. Of 100 patients (with address information) who were sent questionnaires, 28 ultimately responded. The chart review group was comparable to groups in other published studies. Despite a slightly higher initial major complication rate (57.2%), respondents reported few long-term complications (11% fistula, 29% persistent chordee and 10% stricture) and excellent urinary and sexual functional results. The most common functional complaints were spraying and hesitancy during micturition. Overall, 86% of patients were satisfied with their surgical result, and 52% wished they had been provided longer follow-up. Conclusion Long-term outcomes data are critical to an honest account of success rates for hypospadias surgery. Obtaining these data remains challenging. In this series, despite high initial complication rates, most patients reported excellent long-term functional results and were quite satisfied with their overall outcome. PMID:18542723

Hoag, Chris C; Gotto, Geoff T; Morrison, Kevin B; Coleman, Gerald U; MacNeily, Andrew E

2008-01-01

385

Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA).  

PubMed

Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. PMID:25261300

Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace

2014-12-01

386

Patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer trials: taking stock, moving forward.  

PubMed

To evaluate and improve the use of cancer trial end points that reflect the patient's own perspective, the National Cancer Institute organized an international conference, Patient-Reported Outcomes Assessment in Cancer Trials (PROACT), in 2006. The 13 preceding articles in this special issue of the Journal were commissioned in preparation for or in response to the PROACT conference, which was cosponsored by the American Cancer Society. Drawing from these articles and also commentary from the conference itself, this concluding report takes stock of what has been learned to date about the successes and challenges in patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in phase III, phase II, and symptom management trials in cancer and identifies ways to improve the scientific soundness, feasibility, and policy relevance of PROs in trials. Building on this synthesis of lessons learned, this article discusses specific administrative policies and management procedures to improve PRO data collection, analysis, and dissemination of findings; opportunities afforded by recent methodologic and technologic advances in PRO data collection and analysis to enhance the scientific soundness and cost efficiency of PRO use in trials; and the importance of better understanding the usefulness of PRO data to the full spectrum of cancer decision makers, including patients and families, health providers, public and private payers, regulatory agencies, and standards-setting organizations. PMID:17991933

Lipscomb, Joseph; Reeve, Bryce B; Clauser, Steven B; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Burke, Laurie B; Denicoff, Andrea M; Ganz, Patricia A; Gondek, Kathleen; Minasian, Lori M; O'Mara, Ann M; Revicki, Dennis A; Rock, Edwin P; Rowland, Julia H; Sgambati, Maria; Trimble, Edward L

2007-11-10

387

Assessing Spatial Relationships between Axonal Integrity, Regional Brain Volumes, and Neuropsychological Outcomes after Traumatic Axonal Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterized predominantly by white matter damage. While TAI is associated with cerebral atrophy, the relationship between gray matter volumes and TAI of afferent or efferent axonal pathways remains unknown. Moreover, it is unclear if deficits in cognition are associated with post-traumatic brain volumes in particular regions. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between markers of TAI and volumes of cortical and subcortical structures, while also assessing the relationship between cognitive outcomes and regional brain volumes. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed in 24 patients with TAI within 1 week of injury and were repeated 8 months later. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct prominent white matter tracts and calculate their fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values. Regional brain volumes were computed using semi-automated morphometric analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between brain volumes, white matter integrity (i.e., FA and MD), and neuropsychological outcomes. Post-traumatic volumes of many gray matter structures were associated with chronic damage to related white matter tracts, and less strongly associated with measures of white matter integrity in the acute scans. For example, left and right hippocampal volumes correlated with FA in the fornix body (r?=?0.600, p?=?0.001; r?=?0.714, p?outcome after injury. PMID:20874032

Warner, Matthew A.; de la Plata, Carlos Marquez; Spence, Jeffrey; Wang, Jun Yi; Harper, Caryn; Moore, Carol; Devous, Michael

2010-01-01

388

Oil Red O-assessed macrosteatosis in liver transplant donor biopsies predicts ischemia-reperfusion injury and clinical outcome.  

PubMed

Steatosis in donor livers is an accepted adverse prognostic factor after liver transplantation. While its semiquantitative assessment shows varying reproducibility, it is questioned as a standard method. Additionally, the influence of hepatic steatosis on ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) has not been evaluated in biopsies after reperfusion. We compared different staining and analyzing methods for the assessment of donor liver steatosis in order to predict I/R injury and clinical outcome after transplantation. To do this, 56 paired pre- and post-reperfusion liver biopsies were analyzed for macro- (MaS)/micro- (MiS) and total steatosis in cryo and permanent sections by special fat (Oil Red O or ORO) and standard stains. Computerized morphometrical analyses were compared to the semiquantitative assessment by a pathologist. I/R injury was determined histopathologically and by M30 immunohistochemistry. We found ORO to be more sensitive in detecting hepatic steatosis with higher reproducibility for MaS. Semiquantitative analyses were highly reproducible and not inferior to computerized morphometry. Categorized MaS as determined by ORO correlated with the extent of I/R injury, initial poor function, liver enzymes, and survival. Therefore fat stains like ORO are a reliable and easy method comprising significant advantages in the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and are thereby of prognostic value. Computerized analysis is a precise tool though not superior to semiquantitative analyses. PMID:24297629

Reis, Henning; Peterek, Patricia T; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Kaiser, Gernot M; Mathe, Zoltan; Juntermanns, Benjamin; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Beckhove, Ulrich; Canbay, Ali; Wirges, Ulrike; Scherag, Andre; Treckmann, Juergen-Walter; Paul, Andreas; Baba, Hideo Andreas

2014-02-01

389

Factors that Influence Functional Outcome after Total or Subtotal Scapulectomy: Japanese Musculoskeletal Oncology Group (JMOG) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Scapulectomy requires not only joint resection but also wide resection of the shoulder girdle muscles. Even the significance of reconstruction has not yet been determined because of the difficulties in comparing the different conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence functional outcomes after scapulectomy in a multicenter study. Methods This retrospective study comprised 48 patients who underwent total or subtotal scapulectomy and were followed for at least one year after surgery. Patients were registered at the Japanese Musculoskeletal Oncology Group affiliated hospitals. Soft tissue reconstruction for joint stabilization was performed when there was enough remaining tissue for reconstruction of the rotator cuff and tendons. In 23 cases, humeral suspension was performed. The average follow-up period was 61.9 months. Multivariate analysis was performed using the patient’s background to determine which factors influence the Enneking functional score or active range of motion. Results The average functional score was 21.1 out of 30. Active shoulder range of motion was 42.7 degree in flexion, 39.7 degree in abduction, 49.6 degree of internal rotation and 16.8 degree of external rotation. The amount of remaining bone influenced functional outcome, which means that preserving the glenoid or the acromion lead to better function compared to total scapulectomy (p<0.01). Factors that influenced each functional measure include the amount of remaining bone, soft tissue reconstruction, the length of the resected humerus and nerve resection (p<0.05). Conclusion Although shoulder function was almost eliminated following total or subtotal scapulectomy, minimal resection of bone, and soft tissue reconstruction should lead to better function. PMID:24937254

Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Shintaro; Ogose, Akira; Kawai, Akira; Ueda, Takafumi; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

390

Deconstructing Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Avolition-Apathy and Diminished Expression Clusters Predict Clinical Presentation and Functional Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies indicate that negative symptoms reflect a separable domain of pathology from other symptoms of schizophrenia. However, it is currently unclear whether negative symptoms themselves are multi-faceted, and whether sub-groups of patients who display unique negative symptom profiles can be identified. Methods A data-driven approach was used to examine the heterogeneity of negative symptom presentations in two samples: Study 1 included 199 individuals with schizophrenia assessed with a standard measure of negative symptoms and Study 2 included 169 individuals meeting criteria for deficit schizophrenia (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) assessed with a specialized measure of deficit symptoms. Cluster analysis was used to determine whether different groups of patients with distinct negative symptoms profiles could be identified. Results Across both studies, we found evidence for two distinctive negative symptom sub-groups: one group with predominantly Avolition-Apathy (AA) symptoms and another with a predominantly Diminished Expression (DE) profile. Follow-up discriminant function analyses confirmed the validity of these groups. AA and DE negative symptom sub-groups significantly differed on clinically relevant external validators, including measures of functional outcome, premorbid adjustment, clinical course, disorganized symptoms, social cognition, sex, and ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that distinct subgroups of patients with elevated AA or DE can be identified within the broader diagnosis of schizophrenia and that these subgroups show clinically meaningful differences in presentation. Additionally, AA tends to be associated with poorer outcomes than DE, suggesting that it may be a more severe aspect of psychopathology. PMID:23453820

Strauss, Gregory P.; Horan, William P.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Fischer, Bernard A.; Keller, William R.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Green, Michael F.; Carpenter, William T.

2013-01-01

391

Physical therapy clinical management recommendations for children with cerebral palsy - spastic diplegia: achieving functional mobility outcomes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this special report is to present recommendations for the clinical management of children with cerebral palsy, spastic diplegia when increased functional mobility is the identified outcome. These recommendations provide a framework that allows physical therapists to increase their accountability and promote effective interventions for improved patient outcomes. The key components of this special report on clinical management are: a) the Major Recommendations that provide the background and evidence for clinical management; b) a flow chart to assist in clinical decision-making; and c) a Table of Tests and Measures for information on useful tools in the management of children with spastic diplegia. These recommendations are suggestions for clinical management, not an all-inclusive document on physical therapy for children with cerebral palsy. These recommendations may help therapists develop systematic approaches to service delivery and documentation. PMID:16508534

O'Neil, Margaret E; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Westcott, Sarah L; Martin, Karen; Chiarello, Lisa A; Valvano, Joanne; Rose, Rachel Unanue

2006-01-01

392

The Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Cognitive Outcomes Study: long-term neuropsychological function in survivors of acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Expanded abstract Citation Mikkelsen ME, Christie JD, Lanken PN, Biester RC, Thompson BT, Bellamy SL, Localio AR, Demissie E, Hopkins RO, Angus DC: The adult respiratory distress syndrome cognitive outcomes study: long-term neuropsychological function in survivors of acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012, 185:1307-1315. Background Cognitive and psychiatric morbidity is common and potentially modifiable after acute lung injury (ALI). However, practical measures of neuropsychological function for use in multicenter trials are lacking. Methods Objective The objectives were to determine whether a validated telephone-based neuropsychological test battery is feasible in a multicenter trial and to determine the frequency and risk factors for long-term neuropsychological impairment. Design A prospective, multicenter cohort study of a subset of survivors from the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) was conducted. Setting The FACTT enrolled patients from 38 North American hospitals between June 2000 and October 2005. Subjects To be eligible for the ALI Cognitive Outcomes Study (ACOS), subjects had to be enrolled in the FACTT and the EA-PAC (Economic Assessment of the Pulmonary Artery Catheter) trial. The FACTT enrolled mechanically ventilated adults who met the American-European Consensus Conference criteria for ALI. Intervention In an adjunct study to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials Network Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial, neuropsychological function at 2 and 12 months after hospital discharge was assessed. Outcomes The primary outcome was the result of a validated telephone battery of standardized neuropsychological tests administered to consenting, English-speaking subjects at 2 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Results Of 406 eligible survivors, 261 patients were approached to participate and 213 consented. One hundred twenty-two subjects, including 102 subjects at 12 months, were tested at least once. Memory, verbal fluency, and executive function were impaired in 13% (12 of 92), 16% (15 of 96), and 49% (37 of 76) of long-term survivors, respectively. Long-term cognitive impairment was present in 41 (55%) of the 75 survivors who completed cognitive testing. Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety were present in 36% (37 of 102), 39% (40 of 102), and 62% (63 of 102) of long-term survivors, respectively. Enrollment in a conservative fluid management strategy (P <0.005) was associated with cognitive impairment, and lower partial pressure of arterial oxygen during the trial was associated with cognitive (P <0.02) and psychiatric (P <0.02) impairment. Conclusions Neuropsychological function can be assessed by telephone in a multicenter trial. Long-term neuropsychological impairment is common in survivors of ALI. Hypoxemia is a risk factor for long-term neuropsychological impairment. A fluid management strategy is a potential risk factor for long-term cognitive impairment; however, given the select population studied and an unclear mechanism, this finding requires confirmation. PMID:23714655

2013-01-01

393

Development of Items that Assess Physical Function in Children who Use Wheelchairs  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the content, format, and comprehension of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric physical function related to mobility items for children who use wheelchairs (WCs). Methods During a cognitive interview, 14 children, ages 8 to 12 years, who use WCs, verbalized their thoughts when answering PROMIS items. Questionnaire Appraisal System was used to code summarized text from the interviews. Results The children requested items be more specific and include options for reporting adaptive ways of performing and participating. How they would answer the item depended on the situation and specific environmental supports and constraints they may have experienced. Conclusions As rehabilitation professionals develop and use self-reported outcome measures, they should explore what is important to children who use WCs regarding their views on physical functioning, the influences of the environment, and variability in the use of devices to assist with functional mobility. PMID:23542193

Kerfeld, Cheryl I; Dudgeon, Brian J; Engel, Joyce M; Kartin, Deborah

2013-01-01

394

Data Collection Strategies and Measurement Tools for Assessing Academic and Therapeutic Outcomes in Recovery Schools  

PubMed Central

Accurate evaluation and documentation of the efficacy of recovery schools can be vital to the continuation and expansion of these beneficial resources. A very limited data set currently exists that examines the value of specific schools established to support adolescents and young adults in recovery; additional research is necessary. The following article outlines the methodology utilized in a current quasi-experimental study evaluating both academic and therapeutic outcomes of adolescents attending recovery high schools as compared to traditional (non-recovery-based) high schools. The developmental considerations in assessing adolescents in recovery and their parents is delineated in this article, which underscores the need for extensive knowledge of adolescent substance abuse and other mental health issues. In addition, sensitivity around privacy among adolescents, parents, schools, and health providers is highlighted, as well as the validity of assessment. Key assessment strategies, including protocol of recruitment and interviewing techniques, are also presented along with a list of parent and adolescent assessment instruments and their corresponding interpretive variables. Protocol recommendations for future research are also outlined. PMID:25018573

Botzet, Andria M.; McIlvaine, Patrick W.; Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Dittel, Christine

2014-01-01

395

[ Comparison of BESA and RAI: evaluating the outcomes of two assessment instruments for long-term residential care needs].  

PubMed

In Switzerland, the level of nursing care required for residents in nursing homes is either assessed by the BESA Catalogue 2010 or by the Minimum Data Set (MDS) of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI). Within both instruments the nursing care need is represented in minutes. According to these minutes, the resident is allocated to a tariff level. The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of the two assessment instruments BESA Catalogue 2010 and MDS. For this purpose data were collected in two nursing homes. At each facility 60 nursing home residents were assessed with the BESA Catalogue 2010 and the MDS. The assessments were independently performed by nurses of the facility (internal assessment) and by system experts (external assessment). Descriptive data analysis and a comparison of the outcome in minutes and with regard to tariff level were carried out. In average, internal assessments were higher than external assessments. In both nursing homes, half or 54 % of residents were allocated into a higher tariff level by means of internal assessment. Comparing the outcomes in total and within tariff level, significant differences were found. Different classifications may occur, especially for residents with high nursing care needs. As a result, higher or lower costs of nursing care may arise. PMID:24571846

Gattinger, Heidrun; Ott, Stefan; Saxer, Susi

2014-02-01

396

Functional outcome in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: design of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Joint pain is a highly prevalent condition in the older population. Only a minority of the older adults consult the general practitioner for joint pain, and during consultation joint pain is often poorly recognized and treated, especially when other co-existing chronic conditions are involved. Therefore, older adults with joint pain and comorbidity may have a higher risk of poor functional outcome and decreased quality of life (QoL), and possibly need more attention in primary care. The main purpose of the study is to explore functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity, in terms of mobility, functional independence and participation and to identify possible predictors of poor functional outcome. The study will also identify predictors of decreased QoL. The results will be used to develop prediction models for the early identification of subgroups at high risk of poor functional outcome and decreased QoL. This may contribute to better targeting of treatment and to more effective health care in this population. Methods/Design The study has been designed as a prospective cohort study, with measurements at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months. For the recruitment of 450 patients, 25 general practices will be approached. Patients are eligible for participation if they are 65 years or older, have at least two chronic conditions and report joint pain on most days. Data will be collected using various methods (i.e. questionnaires, physical tests, patient interviews and focus groups). We will measure different aspects of functioning (e.g. mobility, functional independence and participation) and QoL. Other measurements concern possible predictors of functioning and QoL (e.g. pain, co-existing chronic conditions, markers for frailty, physical performance, psychological factors, environmental factors and individual factors). Furthermore, health care utilization, health care needs and the meaning and impact of joint pain will be investigated from an older person's perspective. Discussion In this paper, we describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study in Dutch older adults with joint pain and comorbidity and discuss the potential strengths and limitations of the study. PMID:22024146

2011-01-01

397

Using Qualitative Research to Inform the Development of a Comprehensive Outcomes Assessment for Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research can inform the development of asthma patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and user-friendly technologies through defining measurement constructs, identifying potential limitations in measurement and sources of response error, and evaluating usability. Objective The goal of the current study was to inform the development of a comprehensive asthma PRO assessment with input from patients and clinical experts. Method Self-reported adult asthma sufferers recruited from a 3,000 member New England-area research panel participated in either one of three focus groups (N=21) or individual cognitive item debriefing interviews (N=20) to discuss how asthma impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and provide feedback on a preliminary set of asthma impact survey items and prototype patient report. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted using traditional research principles (e.g., semi-structured interview guide, probing, and think aloud techniques). An Expert Advisory Panel (N=12) including asthma clinical specialists and measurement professionals was convened to review results from the focus group and cognitive interview studies and make recommendations for final survey and report development. Results Domains of health impacted by asthma included physical (recreation, play, competitive sports, and exercise), social (activities, family relationships), emotional (anger, upset, frustration, anxiety, worry), sleep, role (recreational/leisure activities; work), and sexual functioning. Most items in the impact survey were easily understood, covered important content, and included relevant response options. Items with contradictory examples and multiple concepts were difficult to comprehend. Suggestions were made to expand survey content by including additional items on physical and sexual functioning, sleep, self-consciousness, stigma, and finances. Reports were considered useful and participants saw value in sharing the results with their doctor. Graphic presentation of scores was not always understood; participants preferred tabular presentation of score levels with associated interpretative text. Display of inverse scores for different measures (higher scores equaling better health on one scale and worse health on another) shown on a single page was confusing. The score history section of the report was seen as helpful for monitoring progress over time, particularly for those recently diagnosed with asthma. Expert panelists agreed that displaying inverse scores in a single summary report may be confusing to patients and providers. They also stressed the importance of comprehensive interpretation guidelines for patients, with an emphasis on what they should do next based on scores. Panelists made recommendations for provider and aggregate-level reports (e.g., “red flags” to indicate significant score changes or cut-points of significance; identification of subgroups that have scored poorly or recently gotten worse). Conclusion Incorporating input from patients, clinicians, and measurement experts in the early stages of product development should improve the construct validity of this PRO measure and enhance its practical application in healthcare. PMID:20508735

Turner-Bowker, Diane M.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; DeRosa, Michael A.; Paulsen, Christine A.; Bransfield, Christopher P.

2009-01-01

398

Integrating real-time feedback of outcome assessment for individual patients in an inpatient psychiatric setting: a case study of personalized psychiatric medicine.  

PubMed

Routine assessment of psychiatric patient outcomes is rare, despite growing evidence that feedback to clinicians and patients concerning patient progress improves treatment outcomes. The authors present a case in which real-time feedback proved beneficial in the treatment of a woman with a personality disorder admitted for inpatient treatment due to worsening depression, anxiety, severe suicide risk, and decline in functioning. During the course of her 10-week hospitalization, she completed standardized assessments of symptoms/functioning at admission, at 2 week intervals, and at discharge. The distinctive feature of this case is the way in which real-time feedback to the treatment team, psychiatrist, and patient exposed hidden treatment barriers. In the midst of an improving profile with decreasing symptom severity, the patient experienced a spike in distress and symptoms, prompting her treatment team to examine the treatment plan and to engage the patient around understanding the decline in functioning. This intervention revealed a replay of a familiar pattern in the patient's life that led to the identification and repair of a rupture in the therapeutic alliance and to an improvement in the patient's functioning. This case expands on previous research concerning the integration of individualized assessments into outpatient treatment and it illustrates the need to extend outpatient research to inpatient settings. PMID:25603454

Confer, Jacob R; White, Melissa; Groat, Michael M; Madan, Alok; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher; Kahn, David A

2015-01-01

399

Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the "right stuff"?  

PubMed

There has been a surge of interest in the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The published literature in this area has doubled in the last few years. In this paper, we will attempt to confirm the conclusions from a previous review that certain neurocognitive domains (secondary verbal memory, immediate memory, executive functioning as measured by card sorting, and vigilance) are associated with functional outcome. In addition to surveying the number of replicated findings and tallying box scores of results, we will approach the review of the studies in a more thorough and empirical manner by applying a meta-analysis. Lastly, we will discuss what we see as a key limitation of this literature, specifically, the relatively narrow selection of predictor measures. This limitation has constrained identification of mediating variables that may explain the mechanisms for these relationships. PMID:10755673

Green, M F; Kern, R S; Braff, D L; Mintz, J

2000-01-01

400

A Community Assessment of Functional Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community assessment for literacy action was conducted in Salinas, California. Service agencies were surveyed to assess literacy programs and materials. The agencies were asked questions regarding awareness of the illiteracy problem, knowledge of existing or retired programs, and agency commitment to support of a community-wide program. Research…

Holian, Barbara L.

401

Alternative and traditional assessments: Their comparative impact on students' attitudes and science learning outcomes. An exploratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This probing study focused on alternative and traditional assessments, their comparative impacts on students' attitudes and science learning outcomes. Four basic questions were asked: What type of science learning stemming from the instruction can best be assessed by the use of traditional paper-and pencil test? What type of science learning stemming from the instruction can best be assessed by the use of alternative assessment? What are the differences in the types of learning outcomes that can be assessed by the use of paper-pencil test and alternative assessment test? Is there a difference in students' attitude towards learning science when assessment of outcomes is by alternative assessment means compared to traditional means compared to traditional means? A mixed methodology involving quantitative and qualitative techniques was utilized. However, the study was essentially a case study. Quantitative data analysis included content achievement and attitude results, to which non-parametric statistics were applied. Analysis of qualitative data was done as a case study utilizing pre-set protocols resulting in a narrative summary style of report. These outcomes were combined in order to produce conclusions. This study revealed that the traditional method yielded more concrete cognitive content learning than did the alternative assessment. The alternative assessment yielded more psychomotor, cooperative learning and critical thinking skills. In both the alternative and the traditional methods the student's attitudes toward science were positive. There was no significant differences favoring either group. The quantitative findings of no statistically significant differences suggest that at a minimum there is no loss in the use of alternative assessment methods, in this instance, performance testing. Adding the results from the qualitative analysis to this suggests (1) that class groups were more satisfied when alternative methods were employed, and (2) that the two assessment methodologies are complementary to each other, and thus should probably be used together to produce maximum benefit.

Century, Daisy Nelson

402

Post-injury baicalein improves histological and functional outcomes and reduces inflammatory cytokines after experimental traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a complex series of inflammatory responses that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalein, a flavonoid possessing potent anti-inflammatory properties, on functional and histological outcomes and inflammatory cytokine expression, following TBI in rats. Experimental approach: Rats subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were injected with baicalein (30?mg?kg?1) or vehicle immediately after injury or daily for 4 days. Neurological status was evaluated using the rotarod, adhesive removal, modified neurological severity scores and beam walk tests. Contusion volume and neuronal degeneration were measured using cresyl violet and FluoroJade B (FJB) histochemistry. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and protein were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Key results: Single-dose and multiple-dose treatment with baicalein significantly improved functional recovery and reduced contusion volumes up to day 28 post-injury, although multiple-dose baicalein was the more effective treatment. Single-dose baicalein also significantly reduced the number of degenerating neurons (31%) on post-injury day 1 as indicated by FJB staining. These changes were associated with significantly decreased levels, at the contusion site, of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA at 6?h, and cytokine protein on day 1 post-injury. Conclusions and implications: Post-injury treatment with baicalein improved functional and histological outcomes and reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines in rat TBI. The neuroprotective effect of baicalein may be related to a decreased inflammatory response following the injury. PMID:18776918

Chen, S-F; Hsu, C-W; Huang, W-H; Wang, J-Y

2008-01-01

403

Resection of gliomas in the cingulate gyrus: functional outcome and survival.  

PubMed

Functional outcome after resection of tumors arising from the gyrus cinguli (GC), part of the limbic system, is not well analyzed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and functional outcome of surgical treatment for a series of 65 patients with gliomas involving the GC. Preoperative data, extent of resection, functional outcome (Karnofsky performance index, KPI, and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS), and survival of 65 patients with gliomas arising from the GC were analyzed on the basis of a prospectively conducted database of gliomas between 06/1999 and 07/2010. Extent of resection (complete, subtotal, or partial) was based on early postoperative MRI. Eighty-six percent of the gliomas were located in the anterior part of the GC and 14 % in the posterior part. Fifty-five percent of the patients presented with seizures and 17 % with hemiparesis (mean preoperative KPI = 86 ± 17, NIHSS = 1.4 ± 1.7). Histologically, the tumors were WHO Grade II in 25 %, Grade III in 26 %, and Grade IV in 49 %. Complete resection was achieved for 59 %, subtotal resection for 32%, and partial resection for 9 %. Postoperative transient deficits included SMA lesion (14 %) and new or worsened hemiparesis (8 %), which resolved within 30 days (NIHSS early postoperatively 1.7 ± 1.4, late postoperatively 0.8 ± 1.4, and after 6 months 0.6 ± 1.4). According to histopathological grading, median survival was 67 months (WHO°II), 87 months (WHO°III), and 16.5 months (WHO°IV), and overall survival was 34 months. Microsurgical resection of gliomas arising from the GC is feasible; gross total resection can be achieved for 90 % of gliomas arising from the GC with 5 % long-term morbidity. PMID:22660921

Oszvald, Ági; Quick, Johanna; Franz, Kea; Güresir, Erdem; Szelényi, Andrea; Vatter, Hartmut; Seifert, Volker

2012-09-01

404

Implications of Apathy for Everyday Functioning Outcomes in Persons Living with HIV Infection†  

PubMed Central

Apathy is a relatively common clinical feature of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, but little is known about its implications for everyday functioning outcomes. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and self-reported instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and neurocognitive complaints in 75 participants with HIV infection and 52 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects. All volunteers completed the apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as part of a comprehensive neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluation. When compared with the seronegative comparison participants, the HIV+ group reported significantly higher current levels of apathy, but did not differ in self-report of prior (i.e., pre-seroconversion) apathy. Higher current apathy self-ratings were associated with greater severity of IADL declines and more numerous cognitive complaints in the HIV+ sample, even after adjusting for potential psychiatric (e.g., depression), medical (e.g., hepatitis C co-infection), and neurocognitive predictors. Cognitive complaints, but not IADLs, were also uniquely associated with ratings of executive dysfunction and disinhibition. All told, these findings suggest that apathy may make a unique contribution to important everyday functioning outcomes among persons living with HIV infection. The clinical detection of apathy may help identify HIV-infected individuals at particular risk for functional impairments who may require additional support to maintain independence. PMID:22705481

Kamat, Rujvi; Woods, Steven Paul; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

2012-01-01

405

Assessing Executive Functioning: A Pragmatic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the common usage of the term "executive functioning" in neuropsychology, several aspects of this concept remain unsettled. In this paper, we will address some of the issues surrounding the notion of executive functioning and how an understanding of executive functioning and its components might assist school-based practitioners…

Hass, Michael R.; Patterson, Ashlea; Sukraw, Jocelyn; Sullivan, Brianna M.

2014-01-01

406

Assessment of Electrode Placement and Audiologic Outcomes in Bilateral Cochlear Implantation  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to use highly accurate, non-rigid algorithms to locate the position of cochlear implant electrodes and correlate this with audiological performance. Patients After obtaining IRB approval, adult, bilateral CI patients were identified and those with pre-operative temporal bone CT scans were asked to return for a post-intervention CT. Sixteen adult patients agreed. Demographics, etiology of deafness, length of auditory deprivation and audiological performance were recorded. Intervention Using a non-rigid model of the shape variations of intracochlear anatomy, the location of the basilar membrane was specified in relationship to the electrode array. Number of electrodes within each compartment of the cochlea was correlated with HINT and CNC scores for the known confounding variable, length of deafness. Main Outcomes Mann-Whitney tests of differences were used to compare the hearing performance resulting from implants completely in the ST versus those not completely in the ST. Results 62.5% implants were fully inserted in ST; 34.4% were partially inserted into the ST and 3.1% was fully inserted in SV. Controlling for the known contributing variable of length of auditory deprivation our results show that location of electrodes in relationship to the scala is not predictive of audiological performance. Conclusions We have assessed electrode placement and correlated it with audiological outcome. Presence of the electrodes solely in ST was not predictive of outcome. We estimate that is would take analysis of thousands of CI patients data before any valid correlations could be made. PMID:21283037

Noble, Jack H.; McRrackan, Theodore R.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Watkins, Linsey; Rivas, Alejandro; Schuman, Theodore A.; Labadie, Robert F.

2011-01-01

407

Assessing the effectiveness of mental health care in routine clinical practice. Characteristics, development, and uses of patient outcomes modules.  

PubMed

The health care delivery system faces continually increasing pressure to be accountable for the historically unparalleled amount of resources it utilizes. This article discusses one set of recently developed tools known as outcomes modules that are used to assess how treatment affects outcomes in patients with a given disorder. These tools currently are being used to inform administrative decisions about how to improve the quality of care, and can potentially influence decisions by patients, providers, and payers of care as well. The critical components of outcomes modules, as well as their administration and applications are described, using modules for psychiatric conditions as examples. PMID:10183313

Smith, G R; Rost, K M; Fischer, E P; Burnam, M A; Burns, B J

1997-03-01

408

A functional outcomes survey of elderly patients who sustained distal radius fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aims to examine the subjective functional outcomes of patients 70 years or older who sustained distal radius fractures\\u000a through the use of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-8 Health (SF-8) surveys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients at least 70 years old with a distal radius fracture between 2000 and 2004 were identified and their charts reviewed.\\u000a They were

Louis F. Amorosa; Mark A. Vitale; Shervondalonn Brown; Robert A. Kaufmann

409

Stapled transanal rectal resection for symptomatic intussusception: morphological and functional outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) was developed to correct intussusception causing obstructed defecation. Some patients,\\u000a however, do not profit from this operation as anticipated. We aimed to study the relationship between functional outcome and\\u000a rectal morphology after STARR.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifteen consecutive female patients with median age of 64 years [interquartile range (IQR) 58–71 years] were studied before\\u000a and after STARR. All patients had

Reinhold A. Lang; Sonja Buhmann; Christine Lautenschlager; Mario H. Müller; Andreas Lienemann; Karl-Walter Jauch; Martin E. Kreis

2010-01-01

410

Daily Automated Telephone Assessment and Intervention Improved 1-Month Outcome in Paroled Offenders.  

PubMed

This randomized trial evaluates whether automated telephony could be used to perform daily assessments in paroled offenders (N = 108) during their first 30 days after leaving prison. All subjects were called daily and answered assessment questions. Based on the content of their daily assessments, subjects in the intervention group received immediate feedback and a recommendation by automated telephony, and their probation officers also received a daily report by email. The outcome variables were analyzed using linear mixed models. The intervention group showed greater improvement than the control group in the summary scores (M = 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.5, 18.7], p = .038), in mental symptoms (M = 4.6, CI = [0.2, 9.0], p = .042), in alcohol drinking (M = 0.8, CI = [0.1, 1.4], p = .031), in drug use (M = 1.0, CI = [0.5, 1.6], p = .000), and in most stressful daily event (M = 1.9, CI = [1.1, 2.7], p = .000). In conclusion, automated telephony may be used to follow up and to give interventions, resulting in reduced stress and drug use, in paroled offenders. PMID:24626145

Andersson, Claes; Vasiljevic, Zoran; Höglund, Peter; Ojehagen, Agneta; Berglund, Mats

2014-03-13

411

Assessing the quality of studies supporting genetic susceptibility and outcomes of ARDS  

PubMed Central

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disease manifested as a result of pulmonary and systemic responses to several insults. It is now well accepted that genetic variation influences these responses. However, little is known about the genes that are responsible for patient susceptibility and outcome of ARDS. Methodological flaws are still abundant among genetic association studies with ARDS and here, we aimed to highlight the quality criteria where the standards have not been reached, to expose the associated genes to facilitate replication attempts, and to provide quick-reference guidance for future studies. We conducted a PubMed search from January 2008 to September 2012 for original articles. Studies were considered if a statistically significant association was declared with either susceptibility or outcomes of all-cause ARDS. Fourteen criteria were used for evaluation and results were compared to those from a previous quality assessment report. Significant improvements affecting study design and statistical analysis were detected. However, major issues such as adjustments for the underlying population stratification and replication studies remain poorly addressed. PMID:24567738

Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Perez-Mendez, Lina; Villar, Jesús; Flores, Carlos

2014-01-01

412

Progress since OMERACT 6 on including patient perspective in rheumatoid arthritis outcome assessment.  

PubMed

The first OMERACT Patient Perspective Workshop took place at OMERACT 6 in 2002. Through a series of meetings and discussion sessions a research agenda emerged and this report outlines progress made on this agenda. Work on identifying novel outcomes, instruments, and methods has shown similarities across European countries in the importance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) attach to specific outcomes, in particular fatigue. Validation of an appropriate instrument to measure fatigue in patients with RA is currently being investigated. Frequent or repeated real-time assessment of symptoms such as pain and fatigue is becoming possible using electronic systems. An OMERACT Patient Panel has been established, and has produced a glossary for patients involved in supporting clinical research. In some centers, efforts are being made to provide Patient Research Partners with knowledge and skills that will enhance their contribution, and some of these approaches will be incorporated into OMERACT 7. The research agenda that was developed during the first Patient Perspective Workshop has stimulated new work in several areas. In addition, international attention has been drawn to the need to make sure that the patient's perspective is not lost among the technical expertise of rheumatology. PMID:16265711

Kirwan, John R; Ahlmén, Monica; de Wit, Maarten; Heiberg, Turid; Hehir, Maggie; Hewlett, Sarah; Katz, Patricia P; Minnock, Patricia; Quest, Enid M; Richards, Pam

2005-11-01

413

Statistical issues in risk assessment of reproductive outcomes with chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications.

Hertzber, V.S.; Lemasters, G.K.; Hansen, K. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Zenick, H.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1991-01-01

414

Effect of platelet reactivity, endothelial function, and inflammatory status on outcomes in patients with stable angina pectoris on clopidogrel therapy.  

PubMed

Although high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is an important predictor of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary stenting, it is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction and HTPR are associated. We examined the platelet function, peripheral vascular function, endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number, platelet activation markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and clinical outcomes in patients receiving chronic clopidogrel therapy. We consecutively enrolled 91 patients who underwent follow-up angiography because of chest discomfort. All patients took aspirin and clopidogrel for an average of 498 ± 138 days. Platelet reactivity was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry (maximal platelet aggregation by 5 ?mol/L of adenosine diphosphate ?50% in group 1 [optimal response] and >50% as group 2 [HTPR]). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV), numbers of EPCs isolated from peripheral blood, platelet activation markers (soluble CD40 ligand and soluble P-selectin), and hs-CRP levels were assessed before follow-up angiography. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) data between groups 1 (n = 59) and 2 (n = 32). Group 2 showed poorer flow-mediated dilation (6.1 ± 4.1% vs 12.9 ± 6.2%, p <0.001), pulse wave velocity (1925.4 ± 362.2 vs 1571.0 ± 306.5 ms, p <0.001), and lower circulating EPCs by flow cytometry (21.9 ± 14.7 vs 65.2 ± 30.1 per 10 fields, p <0.001) compared with group 1. Significantly higher levels of soluble CD40 ligand, soluble P-selectin, and hs-CRP were observed in group 2. In multivariate analysis, elevated hs-CRP level, but not HTPR, was independently associated with repeated PCI. In patients with angina, HTPR was associated endothelial dysfunction and elevated hs-CRP, although elevated hs-CRP level was significantly associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:24388620

Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Jang, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

2014-03-01

415

High-Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome in Schools: Assessment and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meeting a growing need for school-based practitioners, this book provides vital tools for improving the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of students with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Research-based best practices are presented for conducting meaningful assessments; collaborating with teachers, students, and…

Sansosti, Frank J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Cowan, Richard J.

2010-01-01

416

A Dirichlet process mixture model for survival outcome data: assessing nationwide kidney transplant centers.  

PubMed

Mortality rates are probably the most important indicator for the performance of kidney transplant centers. Motivated by the national evaluation of mortality rates at kidney transplant centers in the USA, we seek to categorize the transplant centers based on the mortality outcome. We describe a Dirichlet process model and a Dirichlet process mixture model with a half-cauchy prior for the estimation of the risk-adjusted effects of the transplant centers, with strategies for improving the model performance, interpretability, and classification ability. We derive statistical measures and create graphical tools to rate transplant centers and identify outlying groups of centers with exceptionally good or poor performance. The proposed method was evaluated through simulation and then applied to assess kidney transplant centers from a national organ failure registry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25620744

Zhao, Lili; Shi, Jingchunzi; Shearon, Tempie H; Li, Yi

2015-04-15

417

Defining and assessing quality improvement outcomes: a framework for public health.  

PubMed

We describe an evidence-based framework to define and assess the impact of quality improvement (QI) in public health. Developed to address programmatic and research-identified needs for articulating the value of public health QI in aggregate, this framework proposes a standardized set of measures to monitor and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public health programs and operations. We reviewed the scientific literature and analyzed QI initiatives implemented through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Public Health Improvement Initiative to inform the selection of 5 efficiency and 8 effectiveness measures. This framework provides a model for identifying the types of improvement outcomes targeted by public health QI efforts and a means to understand QI's impact on the practice of public health. PMID:25689185

McLees, Anita W; Nawaz, Saira; Thomas, Craig; Young, Andrea

2015-04-01

418

Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with

Joseph Biederman; Michael C. Monuteaux; Alysa E. Doyle; Larry J. Seidman; Timothy E. Wilens; Frances Ferrero; Christie L. Morgan; Stephen V. Faraone

2004-01-01

419

Use of Standardized Mastery Content Assessments Given during the First Year of a Baccalaureate Nursing Program for Predicting NCLEX-RN Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized content specific mastery assessments and NCLEX-RN outcomes. Three content-specific standardized assessments testing Fundamentals, Pharmacology and Mental Health concepts were used to explain the dichotomous NCLEX-RN outcome of pass or fail. The three assessments were…

Emory, DeAnna Jan

2012-01-01

420

Assessing severity of illness and outcomes of treatment in children with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).  

PubMed

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in children is characterized by persistent or recurrent debilitating fatigue which results in a substantial reduction in activity. There is a growing interest in the use of questionnaires, or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), to assess how patients function and feel in relation to their health and associated healthcare. However, guidance for PROM selection for children with CFS/ME does not exist. We reviewed the quality and acceptability of PROMs used with children with CFS/ME to inform recommendations for practice. We conducted a systematic review of PROMs completed by children with CFS/ME. The quality of the evaluative studies and the reviewed measures were assessed against recommended criteria using an appraisal framework and the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. We sought evidence of measurement (reliability, validity, responsiveness, interpretability, data quality) and practical properties (acceptability, relevance, feasibility). Sixteen articles were included in the review, providing evidence of reliability and/or validity for 13 PROMs. Of these, five were child-specific (one health-related quality-of-life; four emotional well-being) and eight were not (four emotional well-being, three fatigue-specific; and one generic). All measures had limited evidence of measurement properties and no evidence of practical properties. Recommendations for patient-reported assessment are difficult to make because of limited evidence of the quality and acceptability of PROMs for children with CFS/ME. The appraisal method highlighted significant methodological and quality issues which must be addressed in future research. There is a lack of qualitative evidence describing the outcomes of healthcare that are important to children with CFS/ME, and the relevance or appropriateness of available measures. Future PROM development and evaluation in this group must seek to involve children collaboratively to ensure that the outcomes that children care about are assessed in an acceptable way. PMID:24661148

Haywood, K L; Collin, S M; Crawley, E

2014-11-01

421

Perioperative, Functional, and Oncologic Outcomes of Partial Adrenalectomy for Multiple Ipsilateral Pheochromocytomas  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: Managing patients with multiple adrenal masses is technically challenging. We present our experience with minimally invasive partial adrenalectomy (PA) performed for synchronous multiple ipsilateral pheochromocytomas in a single setting. Materials and Methods: We reviewed records of patients undergoing PA for pheochromocytoma at the National Cancer Institute between 1994 and 2010. Patients were included if multiple tumors were excised from the ipsilateral adrenal gland in the same operative setting. Perioperative, functional, and oncologic outcomes of PA for multiple pheochromocytomas are shown. Results: Of 121 partial adrenalectomies performed, 10 procedures performed in eight patients for synchronous multiple ipsilateral pheochromocytomas were identified. All eight patients were symptomatic at presentation. The mean patient age was 30.6 years, median follow up was 12 months. The average surgical time was 228 minutes, average blood loss of 125?mL, and average number of tumors removed was 2.6 per adrenal. In total, 26 tumors were removed, 24 were pathologically confirmed pheochromocytomas, while two were adrenal cortical hyperplasia. After surgery, all patients had resolution of their symptoms, one patient required steroid replacement postoperatively. On postoperative imaging, one patient had evidence of ipsilateral adrenal nodule at the prior resection site 2 months postoperatively, which was consistent with incomplete resection. Conclusions: Minimally invasive surgical resection of synchronous multiple pheochromocytomas is feasible with acceptable perioperative, functional, and short-term oncologic outcomes. PMID:23998199

Benson, Jonas S.; Ross, Michael J.; Sundaram, Vani S.; Lin, Kelly Y.; Pinto, Peter A.; Linehan, W. Marston; Bratslavsky, Gennady

2014-01-01

422

Prenatal infarction of the left middle cerebral artery: A case report of excellent functional outcome.  

PubMed

Extensive cortical-subcortical damage of the left hemisphere, most likely due to prenatal infarction of the left middle cerebral artery, was accidentally detected in a 12-year-old left-handed girl. Since clinical symptoms were minimal, the lesion had not been discovered for more than a decade. Meticulous examination revealed some slowness and somatosensory deficits of the right hand. Yet, independent finger movements were preserved, and functional skills such as reaching and grasping were unimpaired, as documented with optoelectronic motion analysis. There were no mirror movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation indicated that the right hand was controlled by spared cortical areas of the damaged hemisphere. Gait was normal. Neuropsychological examination confirmed regular development of language, intellect, and visuospatial abilities. This case report demonstrates exceptionally good functional outcome after early brain damage. PMID:11455093

Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P.; Dreesmann, Mona; Gölge, Mukaddes; Stephani, Ulrich

2000-01-01

423

Fluorescently Labeled Peptide Increases Identification of Degenerated Facial Nerve Branches during Surgery and Improves Functional Outcome  

PubMed Central

Nerve degeneration after transection injury decreases intraoperative visibility under white light (WL), complicating surgical repair. We show here that the use of fluorescently labeled nerve binding probe (F-NP41) can improve intraoperative visualization of chronically (up to 9 months) denervated nerves. In a mouse model for the repair of chronically denervated facial nerves, the intraoperative use of fluorescent labeling decreased time to nerve identification by 40% compared to surgeries performed under WL alone. Cumulative functional post-operative recovery was also significantly improved in the fluorescence guided group as determined by quantitatively tracking of the recovery of whisker movement at time intervals for 6 weeks post-repair. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an injectable probe that increases visibility of chronically denervated nerves during surgical repair in live animals. Future translation of this probe may improve functional outcome for patients with chronic denervation undergoing surgical repair. PMID:25751149

Hussain, Timon; Mastrodimos, Melina B.; Raju, Sharat C.; Glasgow, Heather L.; Whitney, Michael; Friedman, Beth; Moore, Jeffrey D.; Kleinfeld, David; Steinbach, Paul; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

2015-01-01

424

Functional variants in TNFAIP8 associated with cervical cancer susceptibility and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-?-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is an anti apoptotic and pro-oncogenic signaling molecule involved in the process of immunity, carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at microRNA-binding sites may change messenger RNA target gene function, thus leading to cancer susceptibility and tumor progression. In this study of 1584 cervical cancer cases and 1394 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between three potentially functional SNPs in TNFAIP8 family genes and cervical cancer risk as well as platinum resistance and clinical outcomes in Eastern Chinese women. We found that the TNFAIP8-rs11064 variant GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer compared with AA/AG genotypes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-4.03, P = 0.015). Further in vitro and ex vivo functional experiments demonstrated that the TNFAIP8-rs11064 variant G allele weakened the binding affinity of miR-22 to the TNFAIP8 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in four cancer cell lines, resulting in increased production of the TNFAIP8 protein in the patients' cervical tissues. In the survival subset, the high TNFAIP8 protein expression was significantly associated with both resistance to cisplatin and nedaplatin, recurrence and death from cervical cancer. Taken together, in the absence of information on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the TNFAIP8-rs11064 SNP may function by affecting the affinity of miR-22 binding to the 3'-UTR of TNFAIP8 and regulating TNFAIP8 expression, thus contributing to cervical cancer risk. Additionally, the increased TNFAIP8 protein expression may predict platinum resistance and clinical outcomes in cervical cancer patients. Larger, prospective studies with detailed HPV infection data are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:23299407

Shi, Ting-Yan; Cheng, Xi; Yu, Ke-Da; Sun, Meng-Hong; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Meng-Yun; Zhu, Mei-Ling; He, Jing; Li, Qiao-Xin; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Xiaohua; Wei, Qingyi

2013-04-01

425

Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with GCT.

Odagiri, Kazumasa, E-mail: t086016a@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan) [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan) [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hata, Masaharu [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kigasawa, Hisato [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ito, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Adachi, Masataka [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

2012-11-01

426

Positive aspects of patients’ state: A measure for assessing outcome and predicting follow-up of treatment for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most psychotherapy outcome studies in the field of depression focus on changes in depressive symptoms and impairment of functioning. The present article reports on the General Life Functioning Scale (GLF), a measure of more positive aspects of a patient's experience, specifically the patient's sense of well-being and feeling that he or she can cope with problems that arise. The development

Irene Elkin; Alisa Ainbinder; Sun-Young Park; Jane Yamaguchi

2006-01-01

427

Electrocortical features of depression and their clinical utility in assessing antidepressant treatment outcome.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily characterized by decreased affect and accompanying behavioural consequences, but it is also associated with cognitive dysfunction. Assessment of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and associated event-related potentials (ERPs; derived from averaged EEG activity in response to a stimulus) in the context of MDD has provided insights into the electrocortical abnormalities associated with the disorder. Importantly, EEG and ERPs also have emerged as candidates for predicting and optimizing antidepressant (AD) treatment outcome. This is critical in light of relatively low remission rates or a limited response to initial AD interventions. In contrast to other neuroimaging approaches, EEG and ERPs may be superior for predicting and monitoring AD response, as electrocortical measures are relatively inexpensive, easy to use, and have excellent temporal (that is, millisecond) resolution, enabling fine-grained assessment of basic cognitive and emotive processes. This review aims to highlight the most consistently noted EEG and ERP features in MDD, which may one day assist with diagnostic confirmation, as well as the potential clinical utility of specific electrocortical measures in aiding with response prediction. PMID:24099498

Jaworska, Natalia; Protzner, Andrea

2013-09-01

428

Outcome assessment of 603 cases of concomitant inferior turbinectomy and Le Fort I osteotomy  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study assessed the outcome of 603 patients undergoing partial inferior turbinectomies (PIT) in association with Lefort I osteotomy. The study included 1234 patients from a single private practice; these patients had dentofacial deformities and underwent Lefort I osteotomy procedures. For the full patient group, 888 patients (72%) were women; in the turbinectomy group, 403 (67%) were women. The anteroposterior, transverse, and vertical dimensions of the mandible, maxilla, and occlusal plane of each subject were assessed, in addition to cephalometric analysis and determination of the presence or absence of temporomandibular joint disorders. PIT, when indicated, was performed after downfracture of the maxilla, providing access to the turbinates where approximately two thirds of the total turbinate volume was removed and septoplasty was completed if indicated. Hypertrophied turbinates causing significant nasal airway obstruction were present in 603 (49%) of the 1234 patients undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy. The results of this study showed that PIT performed simultaneously with Le Fort I osteotomy is a safe method of managing nasal airway obstruction related to hypertrophied turbinates with minimal complications. PMID:24082413