Sample records for assess functional outcome

  1. Measuring Assistive Technology Outcomes in Schools Using Functional Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michelle Kaye; Stratman, Kristine Freiberg; Smith, Roger O.

    2000-01-01

    Activities of Project OATS (Outcomes of Assistive Technology in the Schools) are described, including identification and piloting of existing assessment instruments for use as an outcome measure, examining the validity of the School Function Assessment, and field testing the School Function Assessment-Assistive Technology Version, an adaptation of…

  2. Objective Integrated Assessment of Functional Outcomes in Reduction Mammaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Ilaria; Malovini, Alberto; Faga, Angela; Toffola, Elena Dalla

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was an objective integrated assessment of the functional outcomes of reduction mammaplasty. Methods: The study involved 17 women undergoing reduction mammaplasty from March 2009 to June 2011. Each patient was assessed before surgery and 2 months postoperatively with the original association of 4 subjective and objective assessment methods: a physiatric clinical examination, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Berg Balance Scale, and a static force platform analysis. Results: All of the tests proved multiple statistically significant associated outcomes demonstrating a significant improvement in the functional status following reduction mammaplasty. Surgical correction of breast hypertrophy could achieve both spinal pain relief and recovery of performance status in everyday life tasks, owing to a muscular postural functional rearrangement with a consistent antigravity muscle activity sparing. Pain reduction in turn could reduce the antalgic stiffness and improved the spinal range of motion. In our sample, the improvement of the spinal range of motion in flexion matched a similar improvement in extension. Recovery of a more favorable postural pattern with reduction of the anterior imbalance was demonstrated by the static force stabilometry. Therefore, postoperatively, all of our patients narrowed the gap between the actual body barycenter and the ideal one. The static force platform assessment also consistently confirmed the effectiveness of an accurate clinical examination of functional impairment from breast hypertrophy. Conclusions: The static force platform assessment might help the clinician to support the diagnosis of functional impairment from a breast hypertrophy with objectively based data. PMID:25289256

  3. Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Charles; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Seven characteristics of an effective outcomes assessment program are identified: Outcomes assessment is a curricular rather than a measurement issue, yields information useful to decision-makers in gauging the quality of the curriculum, institutional purpose drives decisions on how outcomes are assessed, etc. (MLW)

  4. Myocardial Infarction and Functional Outcome Assessment in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Koudstaal, Stefan; Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; van Hout, Gerardus P.J; Jansen, Marlijn S.; Gründeman, Paul F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Doevendans, Pieter A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of newly discovered cardiovascular therapeutics into first-in-man trials depends on a strictly regulated ethical and legal roadmap. One important prerequisite is a good understanding of all safety and efficacy aspects obtained in a large animal model that validly reflect the human scenario of myocardial infarction (MI). Pigs are widely used in this regard since their cardiac size, hemodynamics, and coronary anatomy are close to that of humans. Here, we present an effective protocol for using the porcine MI model using a closed-chest coronary balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), followed by reperfusion. This approach is based on 90 min of myocardial ischemia, inducing large left ventricle infarction of the anterior, septal and inferoseptal walls. Furthermore, we present protocols for various measures of outcome that provide a wide range of information on the heart, such as cardiac systolic and diastolic function, hemodynamics, coronary flow velocity, microvascular resistance, and infarct size. This protocol can be easily tailored to meet study specific requirements for the validation of novel cardioregenerative biologics at different stages (i.e. directly after the acute ischemic insult, in the subacute setting or even in the chronic MI once scar formation has been completed). This model therefore provides a useful translational tool to study MI, subsequent adverse remodeling, and the potential of novel cardioregenerative agents. PMID:24796715

  5. Utilization of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) for Assessing Program and Clinical Outcomes. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Kay; Landsverk, John; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Simpkins, Celeste G.; Daniels, La Vonne; Clements, Lisa

    The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) provides information on psychological impairment, including a score for the child's overall functioning as well as scale scores for eight psychosocial areas: school, work, home, community relationships, moods, self-harmful behavior, substance use, and abnormal thinking. This symposium…

  6. Optimizing functional imaging protocols for assessing the outcome of fetal cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials aiming to assess the safety and efficacy of fetal cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease rely on the hypothesis that the grafted tissue will survive and grow, restore striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission, improve the connectivity between striatum, thalamus and cortex and, thereby, produce long-lasting clinical improvement while avoiding the development of adverse effects. Although transplantation of human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue has been reported as one of the most effective reparative therapies in Parkinson's disease patients to date, different studies have shown inconsistent results causing a paucity of new trials over the last decade. However, during this period, functional imaging alongside other scientific developments from clinical observations and animal work has significantly aided in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the success or failure of grafting human fetal tissue. Recent advances in functional imaging including both positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging could be proven useful in vivo tools for the development and assessment of new clinically competitive trials. In this commentary we discuss how an optimized functional imaging protocol could assist new clinical trials using fetal cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease. PMID:21569273

  7. Assessing effects of environmental chemicals on neuroendocrine systems: potential mechanisms and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Carro, Tiffany; Bohannon, Meredith; Baltos, Leah; Marcell, Allegra M; McKernan, Moira; Dean, Karen M; Lavoie, Emma; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Environmental pollutants encompass a vast array of compounds. Most studies in birds have focused on toxicological effects, with little attention to non-lethal effects. Consequently, it has proven difficult to assess potential risk associated with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Assessing potential adverse effects due to exposure is further complicated by the great variation that occurs across avian species. These include variations in reproductive strategies, life span, sexual differentiation, and migration. Differences in reproductive strategies, particularly in the developmental patterns and mechanisms for precocial and altricial chicks, predispose birds to wide variations in response to steroids and steroid-like EDCs. We have investigated the effects of EDCs in precocial birds including Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as well as in wild altricial songbirds. Studies in Japanese quail characterized endogenous steroid hormone changes during development and have demonstrated that the developing embryo uses the yolk as a 'steroid hormone depot'. It appears that actual embryonic exposure is quantitatively lower than indicated by the treatment in egg injections and that the true amount of compound necessary for bioactivity may be quite low relative to the actual dosage delivered. Additionally, embryonic exposure to specific EDCs adversely affected sexual differentiation in quail, especially impacting male sexual behavior as well as neural systems, immune response, and thyroid hormones. Many of these studies considered single compounds; however, wild birds are exposed to complex mixtures and multiple compounds. We tested complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at concentrations that bracketed those found in eggs in contaminated regions. Results indicated that the predictive value of the toxic equivalency (TEQ), based on comparative activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) relative to dioxin was not as accurate as expected. We discuss the potential of developing an endocrine disruption index (EDI) to bridge the inconsistencies observed between responses predicted by the TEQ and those observed in vivo following exposure to EDCs. Further, we will discuss how an EDI would complement the adverse outcome pathways analyses to consider the range of effects of endocrine disruptors in birds. PMID:23773971

  8. Outcomes Assessment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Bill; Walcerz, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Outcomes assessment and continuous improvement are essential elements of educational programs. Emphasis on assessment is based primarily upon the requirements of accrediting agencies, but also on the perceived value of assessment in satisfying the demands for accountability in an increasingly competitive environment. Educational research has shown…

  9. Assessment of outcome in hypospadias surgery - a review.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

  10. Assessment of Outcome in Hypospadias Surgery – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery with different techniques being currently used. Modern surgery claims that it is possible to create a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Continuous re-evaluation and assessment of outcome may have a major impact on future clinical practice. Assessment of outcome includes: complication rate, cosmetic appearance of the penis, functional outcome (micturition, sexuality), and psychological factors such as quality of life and psychosexual life. This article briefly reviews current strategies of outcome assessment. Somehow in the future, we will be able to give an accurate estimation of the long-term consequences of being born with hypospadias. PMID:24479107

  11. Clinical application of optical coherence tomography in combination with functional diagnostics: advantages and limitations for diagnosis and assessment of therapy outcome in central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schliesser, Joshua A; Gallimore, Gary; Kunjukunju, Nancy; Sabates, Nelson R; Koulen, Peter; Sabates, Felix N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While identifying functional and structural parameters of the retina in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) patients, this study investigated how an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based diagnosis can be significantly supplemented with functional diagnostic tools and to what degree the determination of disease severity and therapy outcome can benefit from diagnostics complementary to OCT. Methods CSCR patients were evaluated prospectively with microperimetry (MP) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to determine retinal sensitivity function and retinal thickness as outcome measures along with measures of visual acuity (VA). Patients received clinical care that involved focal laser photocoagulation or pharmacotherapy targeting inflammation and neovascularization. Results Correlation of clinical parameters with a focus on functional parameters, VA, and mean retinal sensitivity, as well as on the structural parameter mean retinal thickness, showed that functional measures were similar in diagnostic power. A moderate correlation was found between OCT data and the standard functional assessment of VA; however, a strong correlation between OCT and MP data showed that diagnostic measures cannot always be used interchangeably, but that complementary use is of higher clinical value. Conclusion The study indicates that integrating SD-OCT with MP provides a more complete diagnosis with high clinical relevance for complex, difficult to quantify diseases such as CSCR. PMID:25473259

  12. Assessment from Functional Perspectives: Using Sensorimotor Control in the Hand as an Outcome Indicator in the Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Su, Fong-Chin; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Jou, I-Ming; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether sensorimotor control of the hand could be an outcome indicator after carpal tunnel release (CTR), this work examined changes in the results of patients’ manual tactile test (MTT), pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA), two-point discrimination (2PD) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) tests. Participants included 30 predominantly sensory neuropathy CTS patients, as confirmed by a nerve conduction study. The MTT, precision pinch performance in PHUA and traditional sensibility (2PD and SWM) tests were used to examine different aspects of sensory status at the time-points of two weeks before operation and one month post-operation, with a single-blind design. The results showed significant improvements in the sensory function as detected by the 2PD and SWM tests (p<0.001) and sensorimotor function as detected by the MTT (p<0.001) and PHUA test (p<0.05) for patients receiving CTR. The responsiveness of the SWM, MTT and PHUA tests (effect size>0.5, p<0.01) are better than that of two-point discrimination test (effect size<0.5, p<0.001). However, pinch strength saw a decline compared to baseline with a moderate effect sizes (effect size = 0.7, p<0.001). This cohort study found that the MTT and PHUA test can both meet all the statistical criteria with regard to assessing treatment outcomes for patients with CTS. In addition, the results of this work provide clinicians with the information that the sensorimotor functions of the hands, as assessed by MTT and PHUA, are responsive to clinical changes due to CTR. PMID:26053242

  13. Interviews to Assess Learners' Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, Ileana; Pearson, P. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents open-ended and semistructured interviews to assess reading comprehension. Highlights the potential value of interviews in aligning assessment practices with instruction and learning theory. (MG)

  14. Assessing outcomes in body contouring.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie; Tsangaris, Elena; Pusic, Andrea L

    2014-10-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are questionnaires designed to measure outcomes of importance to patients from their perspective. This article describes the methods used to develop a new PRO instrument for obese patients and patients having bariatric and cosmetic body contouring surgery. The BODY-Q is composed of 19 newly designed scales that measure: (1) appearance; (2) health-related quality of life; and (3) process of care. Recommended guidelines for PRO instrument development were followed to ensure that the BODY-Q meets requirements of regulatory bodies. The BODY-Q is currently being field-tested in an international study. PMID:25283452

  15. [Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].

    PubMed

    Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

  16. Alternative approaches to outcomes assessment: beyond psychometric tests.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jack M

    2014-10-01

    Outcomes assessments in clinical trials involving cognition and behavior rely upon IQ and neuropsychological assessments. These procedures provide limited evaluations of everyday functions. Some participants cannot perform cognitive tasks because they are low functioning or may represent missing data because of inability to travel. Interview-based assessments of adaptive behavior yield results that reflect everyday functions and can be done by telephone regardless of level of cognitive functioning. The design of the neurobehavioral component of the follow-up study for the management of myelomeningocele fetal surgery trial is as an example of a clinical trial that incorporates these alternatives. PMID:24174385

  17. Best evidence in multimodal pain management in spine surgery and means of assessing postoperative pain and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Multimodal approaches to pain management have arisen with the goal of improving postoperative pain and reducing opioid analgesic use. We performed a comprehensive literature review to determine grades of recommendation for commonly used agents in multimodal pain management and provide a best practice guideline. To evaluate common drugs used in multimodal treatment of pain, a search was performed on English language publications on Medline (PubMed; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manuscripts were rated as Level I-V according to the North American Spine Society's (NASS) standardized levels of evidence tables. Grades of recommendation were assigned for each drug based on the NASS Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care. There is good (Grade A) evidence gabapentinoids, acetaminophen, neuraxial blockade and extended-release local anesthetics reduce postoperative pain and narcotic requirements. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that preemptive analgesia and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) result in reduced postoperative pain. There is insufficient and/or conflicting (Grade I) evidence that muscle relaxants and ketamine provide a significant reduction in postoperative pain or narcotic usage. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that short-term use of NSAID result in no long-term reduction in bone healing or fusion rates. Comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of perioperative pain control can be accomplished through the use of validated measures. Multimodal pain management protocols have consistently been demonstrated to allow for improved pain control with less reliance on opioids. There is good quality evidence that supports many of the common agents utilized in multimodal therapy, however, there is a lack of evidence regarding optimal postoperative protocols or pathways. PMID:25766366

  18. Multiple-Respondent Anecdotal Assessments: An Analysis of Interrater Agreement and Correspondence with Analogue Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carla M.; Smith, Richard G.; Dracobly, Joseph D.; Pace, Amy Peterson

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated interrater agreement across multiple respondents on anecdotal assessments and compared cases in which agreement was obtained with outcomes of functional analyses. Experiment 1 evaluated agreement among multiple respondents on the function of problem behavior for 27 individuals across 42 target behaviors using the Motivation Assessment

  19. Outcome Assessments in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Part II: Discriminatory Ability of Outcome Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M; Gorton, George; Oeffinger, Donna; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Nicholson, Diane; Damiano, Diane; Abel, Mark; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Discriminatory ability of several pediatric outcome tools was assessed relative to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in patients with cerebral palsy. Five hundred and sixty-two patients (400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]), classified as GMFCS Levels I to…

  20. Using Outcomes Assessment to Change Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle D.; Wiedenhoeft, Mary H.; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance R.; Pogranichniy, Sherry; Mullen, Russ E.

    2006-01-01

    How can student outcomes assessment (SOA) be incorporated into ones courses and teaching? The purposes of this article are to explore a process enacted in the Department of Agronomy at Iowa State University using SOA to: (i) develop a clearer understanding of what students should learn in a course, (ii) determine how a course or courses fit within…

  1. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes: Performance Accountability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    Prepared to document Howard Community College's (HCC's) progress in implementing its plan for assessing student learning outcomes, this performance accountability report describes the implementation of the plan as of November 1991, covering information gathered, actions taken, and proposed activities. Four strategic priorities which apply either…

  2. Assessing Early Intervention Outcomes: Beyond Program Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Kofi; Dinero, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that efficacy of early intervention must be assessed in relation to both program and extra-program variables. A framework outlining five classes of independent variables and two classes of outcomes to be considered in efficacy research is presented, and regression and path analytic techniques are suggested as tools for addressing…

  3. Outcomes Assessment in Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)

  4. Functional outcome after centralization for radius dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Goldfarb; Steven J. Klepps; Loray A. Dailey; Paul R. Manske

    2002-01-01

    Centralization for radius dysplasia purportedly offers a more normal appearance, provides length to a shortened forearm, and improves upper-extremity function. Limited objective outcome data, however, exist to substantiate its use. To better define functional status after centralization, the Jebsen-Taylor hand test and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) were administered to 21 patients (25 wrists) at

  5. Assessing local outcomes in heterogeneous gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowson, Nicholas; Thomas, Paul; Gal, Yaniv; Fay, Michael; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Winter, Craig; Coulthard, Alan; Smith, Jye; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Crozier, Stuart; Rose, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Tumours are known to be heterogeneous, yet typical treatment plans consider them as a single unit. This may influence treatment outcomes. However, treatment cannot be customised to intra-tumour variation without a method to establish outcomes at an intra-tumour scale. This work proposes a method to both assess and measure outcomes locally within tumours. Methods: Four patients were scanned at two post-surgery time points using contrast enhanced MRI and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-DOPA) PET. The shell of active tumour tissue is divided into a set of small subregions at both time points. Local outcome is measured from changes in subregion volume over time. The utility of the proposed approach is evaluated by measuring the correlation between PET uptake and documented growth. Correlation with overall survival time was also examined. Results: Local outcomes were heterogeneous and evidence of a positive correlation between local 18F-DOPA uptake and local progression was observed. Conclusions: Given that intra-tumour outcomes are heterogeneous the consistently positive correlation between FDOPA uptake and progression, local analysis of tumours could prove useful for treatment planning.

  6. The Ohio Scales: Practical Outcome Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin M. Ogles; Gregorio Melendez; Diane C. Davis; Kirk M. Lunnen

    2001-01-01

    The development and initial psychometric studies for the Ohio Youth Problems, Functioning, and Satisfaction Scales (Ohio Scales) are described. The Ohio Scales were developed to be practical yet rigorous, multi-content, multi-source measures of outcome for children and adolescents receiving mental health services. Initial studies suggest that the Ohio Scales are promising (reliable, valid, and sensitive to change) measures that can

  7. Science Outcomes Assessment Plan (SOAP): Design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Zodiac T.; Gurkas, P.; Shaw, K.

    2009-01-01

    Columbus State University is under pressure to reduce the number of "unproductive grades” in its introductory science classes, to increase the number of STEM majors, and to assess the level of attainment of science outcomes in its general education courses for accreditation documentation. The authors designed a study to examine affective, cognitive, social, and classroom factors as predictors of success in science while also attempting to document the link between introductory "gateway to science major” course outcomes and the general education program. One of the factors probed is the match between students’ understanding of important learning outcomes of the course and the instructor's stated priorities. A very real risk in content focused courses (e.g., astronomy) is the mismatch between the university's stated outcomes for a general education science course (e.g., critical thinking) and the instructor's content related outcomes. This mismatch may become a barrier for students taking `required’ courses as they may not comprehend the rationale for the requirement, fail to engage in the course, and consequently receive a failing grade. Another possible factor affecting student success in science is the student reasoning level. Students who are concrete thinkers may not be as successful in introductory science classes that require advanced logical thinking about unfamiliar concepts. The authors hope to use the results of this study to help inform university practices such as placement into introductory science courses and for future faculty development.

  8. Functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with brain tumors: A preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Huang; Jennifer E. Wartella; Jeffery S. Kreutzer

    2001-01-01

    Huang ME, Wartella JE, Kreutzer JS. Functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with brain tumors: a preliminary report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1540-6. Objectives: To determine the relationship between functional outcome and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain tumors receiving inpatient rehabilitation, and to assess the sensitivity of 4 assessment tools in measuring changes in that

  9. Predictors of Functional Outcome Among Stroke Patients in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Abanto, Carlos; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Tirschwell, David L.; Montano, Silvia; Quispe, Yrma; Gonzales, Isidro; Valencia, Ana; Calle, Pilar; Garate, Arturo; Zunt, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aging population in low- and middle-income countries, cerebrovascular disease is expected to remain a leading cause of death. Little has been published about stroke in Peru. Aims We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized stroke patients at a referral center hospital in Lima, Peru to explore factors associated with functional outcome among stroke patients. Methods We identified 579 patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage stroke at the National Institute of Neurologic Sciences in Lima, Peru in 2008 and 2009. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score of ?2 at discharge. Results The mean age was 63.3 years; 75.6% had ischemic stroke; the average length of stay was 17.3 days. At hospital discharge, 231 (39.9%) had a favorable outcome. The overall mortality rate was 5.2%. In multivariate models, the likelihood of having a favorable outcome decreased linearly with increasing age (p=0.02) and increasing NIHSS (p=0.02). Favorable outcome was also associated with male gender (relative risk [RR]=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.5) and divorced status (RR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7). Patients on Salud Integral de Salud (public assistance-type insurance, SIS) (RR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,1.0) were also less likely to have a favorable outcome. Conclusions Favorable outcome after stroke was independently associated with younger age, lower NIHSS score, male gender, being divorced, and not being on SIS insurance. These findings suggest further study of worse functional outcomes in patients with SIS insurance and confirm the importance of risk adjustment for age, stroke severity (NIHSS) and other socioeconomic factors in outcomes studies. Future studies should preferentially assess outcome at 30-days and 6-months to provide more reliable comparisons and allow additional study of Peruvian end-of-life decision-making and care. PMID:23352681

  10. Combining multiple data bases for outcomes assessment.

    PubMed

    Patterson, L; Weiss, H; Schano, P

    1996-01-01

    Often, information from a single database cannot answer important clinical outcomes or research questions. This article describes efforts to link multiple databases to extract useful health care information. One project, conducted by the Keystone Peer Review Organization (KePRO), focused on the number of combined right and left heart catheterizations done in patients, who were admitted to the hospital for a diagnostic left heart catheterization, for primary coronary artery disease. The study linked data from hospital billing records, patient records, and insurance companies' records. Another effort involves two studies of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) by KePRO and Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. The final case study describes the Crash Outcomes Data Evaluations Systems (CODES) project, conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Health. To determine if seat belts help to prevent injuries, cut costs, and save lives, it was necessary to build a complete record across multiple sights of care from the crash until final outcome. These examples illustrate the challenges and the advantages of using multiple databases to assess health care outcomes. PMID:8763241

  11. Clinical Outcomes Assessment of Three Similar Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Christopher; Batson, Ryan; Reighard, Shane; Tanner, Stephanie; Snider, Becky; Pace, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    This report examines the clinical performance of three very similar total hip arthroplasty designs with distinctly different bearing surfaces used over the course 10-17 years. Clinical outcomes assessments for each group are compared in the context of varying implant related costs related to the latest technology at the time of surgery. Eighty-one surgeries were studied and differ by bearing surface. In this study, 36 hips are ceramic on polyethylene, 27 are metal on polyethylene and 18 are metal on metal. All polyethylene components are nonhighly cross-linked. The ceramic on polyethylene group has younger patients, on average, and higher percentage of patients with significant polyethylene wear. These groups have an average follow-up time of 8.6 years when assessing functional hip scores, thigh pain, groin pain, revision surgeries and radiographic osteolysis. The implant purchasing cost at the time of surgery was assessed to determine if a correlation exists between outcomes and the more technologically advanced implants use at the time of surgery. Based on midterm clinical outcome assessment, no correlation between initial hospital cost and clinical outcomes of one bearing surface over another can be found. PMID:25002938

  12. A systematic review of outcomes assessed in randomized controlled trials of surgical interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Jerosch-Herold; José Leite; Fujian Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A wide range of outcomes have been assessed in trials of interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), however there appears to be little consensus on what constitutes the most relevant outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the outcomes assessed in randomized clinical trials of surgical interventions for CTS and to compare these to the concepts

  13. Therapist effects on functional analysis outcomes with young children.

    PubMed

    Huete, John M; Kurtz, Patricia F

    2010-01-01

    Analog functional analyses (FAs) are commonly used to assess factors that maintain problem behavior of individuals with intellectual disabilities. These analyses are usually conducted by trained staff in clinic settings. However, recent research suggests that FAs conducted by unfamiliar individuals, such as hospital or clinic staff, may result in inaccurate or at least different outcomes. This finding, though, has not been sufficiently examined with young children (i.e., under 5 years of age), where therapist familiarity likely has more influence. The current study compared the outcomes of FAs conducted by unfamiliar staff with FAs conducted by parents for five children ages 2-5 years. Results demonstrate that FAs conducted by unfamiliar therapists may result in a number of differing outcomes, including no responding from the child, failure to identify a particular behavioral function, and decreased rates of responding. PMID:20211539

  14. Relation of executive functioning and social communication measures to functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Struchen, Margaret A; Clark, Allison N; Sander, Angelle M; Mills, Monique R; Evans, Gina; Kurtz, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to provide recommendations regarding functional abilities based on test results, particularly within the rehabilitation setting. Yet, the empirical basis for making such recommendations is limited. The current study examines relationships between executive functioning and social communication measures and concurrently measured occupational and social integration outcomes. Participants were 121 individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) recruited from participants in a longitudinal study of outcome following TBI who had all received comprehensive brain injury rehabilitation. As part of a larger study designed to evaluate social communication abilities following TBI, participants completed measures of executive functioning, affect perception, perceived communication ability, and functional outcome. After adjusting for age, education, and performance on executive functioning measures, social communication performance accounted for a unique 5.6% of the variance in occupational outcomes and 7.9% of variance in social integration outcomes. Executive functioning performance accounted for a unique 13.3% of the variance in occupational functioning and 16.0% of explained variance in social integration. These results provide evidence of the value of executive functioning and social communication measures in the prediction of functional outcomes. Additionally, such results provide preliminary support for the addition of social communication measures to assessment of TBI in neuropsychological practice. PMID:18525140

  15. Annual Outcomes Assessment Report, 1997-98. Student Learning Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokane Community Coll., WA.

    This document describes the 1997-98 Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) Initiative at Spokane Community College (SCC) in Washington. The SLO mission is to define and integrate critical Student Learning Objectives and Abilities into college-wide, outcomes-based curricula so that students in all courses of study show understanding and proficiency in…

  16. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition for pelvic malignancies: indications and functional outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Morice; Damienne Castaigne; Christine Haie-Meder; Patricia Pautier; Janah El Hassan; Pierre Duvillard; Alain Gerbaulet; Guy Michel

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To assess the indications and effectiveness of laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic irradiation for a gynecologic cancer.Design: Prospective study.Setting: A gynecologic oncology department in a French anti-cancer center.Patient(s): Twenty-four patients treated for pelvic cancer.Intervention(s): Laparoscopic ovarian transposition to paracolic gutters. Uterine conservation in 18 patients.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical and laboratory follow-up tests of ovarian function.Result(s): Bilateral laparoscopic ovarian transposition

  17. Assessment of Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Janice N.; Askew, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Assessment of patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been shown to provide important information to assist with clinical decision-making. There has been significant progress in the field of PROs over the last two decades with the introduction of a variety of validated disease- and symptom-specific instruments. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Melanoma (FACT-M) is a melanoma-specific module to accompany the FACT-General which has been validated to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for patients with all stages of melanoma. Melanoma-specific health state utilities, which are essential for calculating quality adjusted life years and performing cost-effectiveness studies, have also been reported from a number of studies. Assessment of PROs should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to inform clinicians and researchers of the patient perspective for clinical decision-making and to evaluate the effects of psychosocial and medical interventions. PMID:21111967

  18. A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

  19. ASSESSMENTS AND OUTCOMES OF AN ERP\\/SAP FUNDAMENTAL COURSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Wang; El-Hussein E. El-Masry

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive approach to teaching ERP\\/SAP with the course assessments and learning outcomes. The course emphasizes on teaching SAP implementation as the whole process of transforming ERP business procedures to organization wide requirements. The learning outcomes were assessed via the course assessment exam and the course survey questionnaire at the end of the quarter. SAP is utilized

  20. Assessing Treatment Outcome in Psychogeriatric Inpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtney C. Kennedy; Paul Madra; John R. Reddon

    1999-01-01

    Ratings on the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale were obtained preand post-treatment from 37 male and 67 female psychogeriatric inpatients (age mean = 74.9, range = 54-91). Results indicated that a large treatment effect occurred, as GAF scores were significantly higher upon discharge than on admission (p < .0005, ES = 1.83). Pre-treatment GAF scores were also significantly correlated

  1. Outcome measurement in sleep medicine practice and research. Part 1: assessment of symptoms, subjective and objective daytime sleepiness, health-related quality of life and functional status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri E Weaver

    2001-01-01

    The documentation of treatment outcomes has gained increased importance as those responsible for paying for healthcare focus on the delivery of cost-effective care. The practitioner and researcher, challenged with documenting the clinical significance of their endeavors, must depend on conceptually appropriate, valid and reliable instruments. Outcomes of particular relevance for sleep disorders include self-reported general symptoms, subjective and objective daytime

  2. Obstacles in Outcomes Assessment: Identifying and Overcoming Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldt, Janet L.

    The obstacles encountered in an outcomes assessment process were studied, focusing on the specific obstacles that prevent program administration from successfully completing the outcomes assessment process and the degree to which these obstacles operate. Of 135 dental hygiene education program directors surveyed, 107 responded, completing a…

  3. Outcomes Assessment Planning: An Overview with Applications in Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Ava M.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the process of outcomes assessment and examples of its application in professional health science education. Provides a background for other articles in this issue describing ongoing activities in outcomes assessment in veterinary education and for programs considering developing a plan. Focuses on health professions…

  4. Apathy in schizophrenia: clinical correlates and association with functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Michael; Christensen, Bruce K; Remington, Gary; Kapur, Shitij

    2003-09-01

    Apathy is considered one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, but its natural history and relationship to other clinical characteristics have not been systematically studied. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to measure the level of apathy in schizophrenia and its relation to other symptoms and functional outcome. Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia, and receiving antipsychotic treatment, were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). The mean level of apathy of patients with schizophrenia, as rated by the AES, was significantly higher than that of matched healthy control subjects. In the patients, apathy was not significantly correlated with positive symptoms or depressive symptoms. It was significantly correlated with the item "emotional withdrawal" on the negative subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), but was not correlated with the overall negative subscale score. Apathy was more highly associated with functional outcome than were other symptom measures, and it was independently associated with functional outcome above and beyond other negative symptoms. It was not associated with observed interest in playing a video game or performance on a simulated clerical task. PMID:12892861

  5. Modified supracricoid laryngectomy: oncological and functional outcomes in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, Eugenia; Franco, Teresa; Trapasso, Serena; Domanico, Rossana; La Boria, Alessandro; Garozzo, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Background Supracricoid laryngectomy is an organ preservation surgical technique for early-stage glottic tumors. Modified supracricoid laryngectomy using sternohyoid muscles for neoglottis reconstruction is a new surgical technique. This report evaluates oncological and functional outcomes of this new technique and its feasibility in elderly patients. Methods Clinical records from 21 consecutive patients affected by glottic cancer and treated by modified SCL between 2004 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative parameters and quality of voice after modified SCL were retrospectively reviewed. Actuarial overall survival, disease-specific survival rates, and recurrence-free survival rates were assessed. The functional and oncological outcomes of patients over 65 years were compared with those of patients younger than 65 years of age. Results There were no postoperative complications and all of the patients had complete swallowing rehabilitation. Twenty of the 21 patients had decannulation. Two patients received total laryngectomy for locoregional relapse. Overall survival and disease-specific survival rates were 100%. Recurrence-free survival rates were 90.1% and 90% in patients younger and older than 65 years of age, respectively. The larynx preservation index was lower in patients who were older than 65 years of age. The postoperative courses with regard to functional outcome and voice quality in elderly patients were similar to those of patients younger than 65 years of age. Conclusion Modified SCL is a new open organ preservation surgical technique that is oncologically safe. The positive functional and oncological outcomes of this surgical procedure allow it to be performed in elderly patients. PMID:23152678

  6. Functional outcomes and quality of life after anorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Grucela, Alexis; Gurland, Brooke; Kiran, Ravi P

    2012-09-01

    There is a paucity of information examining quality of life (QOL) and functional results after anorectal surgery. We aim to prospectively evaluate postoperative QOL, pain, functional outcomes, and satisfaction for a large cohort of patients undergoing anorectal surgery. Data were prospectively accrued for consecutive patients undergoing anorectal operations from June 2009 to September 2010. Preoperative and postoperative electronic questionnaires were completed. QOL was evaluated by the European QOL index (EQ-5D) and functional results with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Satisfaction was assessed: 1) Are you satisfied with surgery? 2) Would you recommend surgery to others? Responses were reported: 1 to 5 (1 = not at all; 5 = a lot). Pain was scored: 1 (no pain) to 10 (worst). One hundred ninety-five patients, 111 (56.9%) females, median age 44 years (range, 18 to 93 years), underwent anorectal surgery for abscess, condyloma, fissure, fistula, hemorrhoids, incontinence, pilonidal disease, pouch problems, tumors, and prolapse. Overall, pain improved significantly with improved QOL (P = 0.03). This correlated with overall postoperative satisfaction (92.4%). A total of 87.7 per cent of patients would recommend their surgery to others. The FISI was similar pre- and postoperatively (P = 0.18) and did not worsen postoperatively irrespective of surgical indication and procedure. Most patients were satisfied after anorectal surgery, which correlated with improved pain and QOL. Functional outcomes did not worsen. This will help counsel patients preoperatively and allay anxiety about postoperative function. PMID:22964203

  7. Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Finnish Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Anu; Räkköläinen, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an outline and critical review of assessment, an evaluation of learning outcomes, in vocational education and training (VET) in Finland. Assessment of VET is formative, development-orientated and criteria-based. There are no national tests and information from vocational skills demonstrations is used instead. Assessment

  8. Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report

    E-print Network

    Missouri-Rolla, University of

    issues. VII. a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in, life-long learning. b knowledge acquired through life-long learning. Program Outcome 10 The S&T Chemical Engineering Program1 Chemical and Biological Engineering Student Learning Outcome Assessment Report 1. Department

  9. Assessment of Student Professional Outcomes for Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohsen; Baghdarnia, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a method for the assessment of professional student outcomes (performance-type outcomes or soft skills). The method is based upon group activities, research on modern electrical engineering topics by individual students, classroom presentations on chosen research topics, final presentations, and technical report writing.…

  10. Outcomes Assessment and Accreditation in US Engineering Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachterle, Lance

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how outcome-based assessment is used by the accreditation organizations for universities in the United States. Suggests that adoption of similar procedures may help European engineering institutions measure programs across boundaries and foster transnational recognition. (Author/CCM)

  11. Design and Implementation of a Program Outcome Assessment Process

    E-print Network

    Kurdahi, Fadi J.

    for and ability to engage in lifelong learning. EECS 115 X X (j) Knowledge of contemporary issues. EECS 115 X X (kDesign and Implementation of a Program Outcome Assessment Process for an ABET-accredited Computer

  12. Impact of weather and climate scenarios on conservation assessment outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews selected watershed studies of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) and interprets findings from the perspective of potential climate change impacts on conservation outcomes. Primary foci are runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, watershed sediment yield, and asso...

  13. Clinical and Functional Outcome of Childhood ADHD 33 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Ramos Olazagasti, María A.; Roizen Belsky, Erica; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Context Prospective studies of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not extended beyond early adulthood. Objective To test whether children diagnosed with ADHD at mean age 8 (probands) have worse educational, occupational, economic, social, marital outcomes; higher rates of ongoing ADHD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), substance disorders (SD); adult onset psychiatric disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations, than non-ADHD comparisons, at mean age 41. To test for: positive associations between probands’ ongoing ADHD and ASPD, and SD’s; and for worse social and occupational functioning in probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders, than comparisons. Design Prospective, 33 year follow-up study, with blind clinical assessments. Setting Research clinic. Participants 135 Caucasian males with ADHD in childhood, free of conduct disorder, and 136 male comparisons without childhood ADHD (65% and 76% of original cohort, respectively). Main Outcome Measures Occupational, economic, and educational attainment; marital history; occupational and social functioning; ongoing and lifetime psychiatric disorders; psychiatric hospitalizations, and incarcerations. Results Probands had significantly worse educational, occupational, economic, social outcomes, and more divorces than comparisons; higher rates of ongoing ADHD (22% vs 5%, p<.001), ASPD (16% vs 0%, p<.001)and SD (14% vs 5%, p<.01), but not more mood or anxiety disorders (p’s=.36 and .33). Ongoing ADHD was weakly related to ongoing SD (phi=.19, p=.04), and ASPD+SD (phi=.20, p=.04). Lifetime, probands had significantly more ASPD and SD’s, but not mood or anxiety disorders, and more psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations than comparisons. Relative to comparisons, psychiatric disorders with onsets at age 21 or beyond were not significantly elevated in probands. Probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders had worse social, but not occupational, functioning. Conclusions The multiple disadvantages predicted by childhood ADHD well into adulthood began in adolescence, without increased onsets of new disorders after age 20. Findings highlight the importance of extended monitoring and treatment of children with ADHD. PMID:23070149

  14. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rajendra; Middha, Sanjay; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Nath, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Background: The long term outcomes of decompressive surgery on relief of pain and disability in degenerative lumbar canal stenosis are unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical management of secondary degenerative lumbar canal stenosis and to analyze the effect on outcome variables using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis managed surgically were included in this study. Laminectomy (n=2), laminectomy with disectomy (n=23), laminectomy and disectomy with instrumental stabilization (n=5), and laminectomy, disectomy with posterior interbody fusion (n=2) were performed. JOA scoring system for low backache was used to assess the patients. The recovery rate was calculated as described by Hirabayashi et al. (1981). Surgical outcome was assessed based on the recovery rate and was classified using a four-grade scale: Excellent, improvement of >90%; good, 75–89% improvement; fair, 50–74% improvement; and poor, below 49% improvement. The patients were evaluated at 3 months, one year and at last followup. Results: At 3-month followup, 18.75% patients showed excellent outcome, 62.50% patients showed good outcome, and 18.75% showed fair outcome. At 1-year followup, 64% patients showed excellent outcome and 36% patients showed good outcome. At >1 year followup (average 34.2 months, range: 2–110 months), 64% patients showed excellent outcome, 28% showed good outcome, and 8% showed fair outcome. No patient had poor outcome. Outcome of the patients improved as the time after surgery increased till 1 year and was sustained thereafter till the last followup. Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression. PMID:22719114

  15. Assessing Effective Teaching of Psychology: A Meta-Analytic Integration of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Teaching researchers can assess learning outcome effectiveness as a function of students' graded performance or changes in knowledge, skills and behaviors, or attitudes. We meta-analyzed 197 studies to determine the effectiveness of teaching activities in "Teaching of Psychology (ToP)" both overall and also as a function of type of learning…

  16. Functional and radiological outcome of periprosthetic fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Tsitsilonis, S; Schaser, K D; Wichlas, F; Haas, N P; Manegold, S

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of periprosthetic fractures of the ankle is increasing. However, little is known about the outcome of treatment and their management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of periprosthetic fractures on the functional and radiological outcome of patients with a total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). A total of 505 TAAs (488 patients) who underwent TAA were retrospectively evaluated for periprosthetic ankle fracture: these were then classified according to a recent classification which is orientated towards treatment. The outcome was evaluated clinically using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and a visual analogue scale for pain, and radiologically. A total of 21 patients with a periprosthetic fracture of the ankle were identified. There were 13 women and eight men. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (48 to 74). Thus, the incidence of fracture was 4.17%. There were 11 intra-operative and ten post-operative fractures, of which eight were stress fractures and two were traumatic. The prosthesis was stable in all patients. Five stress fractures were treated conservatively and the remaining three were treated operatively. A total of 17 patients (81%) were examined clinically and radiologically at a mean follow-up of 53.5 months (12 to 112). The mean AOFAS score at follow-up was 79.5 (21 to 100). The mean AOFAS score in those with an intra-operative fracture was 87.6 (80 to 100) and for those with a stress fracture, which were mainly because of varus malpositioning, was 67.3 (21 to 93). Periprosthetic fractures of the ankle do not necessarily adversely affect the clinical outcome, provided that a treatment algorithm is implemented with the help of a new classification system. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:950-6. PMID:26130351

  17. Assessing student performance outcomes in an information security risk assessment, service learning course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Jane Dark

    2004-01-01

    This focus of this paper is on the assessment of student performance in an information security risk assessment, service learning course. The paper provides a brief overview of the information security risk assessment course as background information and a review of relevant educational assessment theory with a focus on outcomes assessment. An example of how assessment theory was applied to

  18. Executive Function Mediates Effects of Gestational Age on Functional Outcomes and Behavior in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of executive function (EF) skills, measured by parent-rating and performance-based instruments, as mediators of the effects of gestational age on functional outcomes and behavior symptoms in preterm and full term preschoolers. Patients and methods Children born preterm (n=70; mean gestational age 29.6 weeks and mean birth weight 1365g) were compared to children born full term (n=79) on composite measures of EF (using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and a performance-based EF battery), adaptive function, prereading skills, and behavior symptoms. For the entire sample, mediation analyses examined the effect of gestational age on outcomes with EF as mediator. Results Compared to children born full term, children born preterm had significantly higher parent-rated EF scores and lower performance-based EF scores, both indicating more problems; further, children born preterm had lower adaptive function and prereading scores and more problematic behavior. Gestational age contributed to adaptive function, prereading skills, and behavior symptoms for all children. EF acted as a mediator of gestational age for all three outcomes; different patterns emerged for parent-rated and performance-based EF evaluations. For adaptive function, both EF measures significantly mediated effects of gestational age; for prereading skills, only performance-based EF was significant; for behavior symptoms, only parent-rated EF was significant. Conclusions We propose standard assessment of EF, using both parent-rating and performance-based EF measures, in young preterm children and other children at risk of EF impairments. EF skills are measurable, mediate important functional outcomes, and may serve as intervention targets. PMID:24906034

  19. Cognitive and functional outcome in spina bifida–Chiari II malformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Jenkinson; Sophie Campbell; Caroline Hayhurst; Simon Clark; Jothy Kandasamy; Maggie K. Lee; Ann Flynn; Peter Murphy; Conor L. Mallucci

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  The long-term outcome in spina bifida–Chiari II–hydrocephalus complex is poorly understood. Traditional neurosurgical outcome\\u000a measures are crude. Neuropsychological testing is increasingly important in outcome assessment. We investigated the health,\\u000a disability, lifestyle and cognitive function in adults who had myelomeningocoele closure at birth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adult patients under routine follow-up were assessed in a joint neurosurgery\\/neuropsychology clinic. Patients completed lifestyle\\u000a questionnaires, the hydrocephalus

  20. Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Materials Guidebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American College Personnel Association's (ACPA's) Sustainability Task Force partnered with the Commission on Assessment and Evaluation with the goal of creating assessment tools to help ACPA members effectively measure student learning around sustainability. Towards these ends, Kimberly Yousey-Elsener (StudentVoice), Diana Richter Keith…

  1. Direct Measures for Course Outcomes Assessment for ABET Accreditation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gurocak, Hakan

    Direct measures provide for the direct examination or observation of student knowledge or skills against measurable learning outcomes. ABET has been putting increasing emphasis on direct measures for a program to demonstrate its achievement of program outcomes and educational objectives. In this paper, an approach for assessment of course outcomes using direct measures is presented. The knowledge and skills described by the course outcomes are mapped to specific problems on homework and exams. Throughout the semester the instructor keeps track of the performance of each student on each course outcome. At the end of the semester students receive letter grades as usual. But in addition each student receives a score on the scale of 1-to-5 for every course outcome indicating how well he/she achieved each outcome. The data (scores) coming from each course are used at the program level to assess the program outcomes. The paper provides an example and concludes with recommendations for other institutions that may choose to adapt a similar approach.

  2. Investigating ESL Students' Performance on Outcomes Assessments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.; Elliott, Diane Cardenas; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes assessments are gaining great attention in higher education because of increased demand for accountability. These assessments are widely used by U.S. higher education institutions to measure students' college-level knowledge and skills, including students who speak English as a second language (ESL). For the past decade, the increasing…

  3. The State of Learning Outcomes Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; Ewell, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, economic and other factors are pressing institutions of higher education to assess student learning to insure that graduates acquire the skills and competencies demanded in the 21st century. This paper summarises the status of undergraduate student learning outcomes assessment at accredited colleges and universities in the United…

  4. Outcomes Assessment and Program Improvement Master of Science in Finance

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Outcomes Assessment and Program Improvement Master of Science in Finance SECTION 1 ­ PAST ASSESSMENT RESULTS The Master of Science in Finance is a terminal professional degree that is designed to provide students a strong foundation in the principles and practices of finance. The program also

  5. Assessing Outcomes: Practical Methods and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jon; Owen, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    University counseling center clients' (N = 52) perceptions of precounseling functioning were highly correlated with their actual well-being scores at intake. The magnitude of change based on perceptions of precounseling functioning to current well-being was approximately double of what is found from the difference of actual precounseling…

  6. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of oral function in head–neck cancer patients with dental implants placed simultaneously during ablative tumour surgery: an assessment of treatment outcomes and quality of life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Schoen; G. M. Raghoebar; J. Bouma; H. Reintsema; F. R. Burlage; J. L. N. Roodenburg; A. Vissink

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess treatment outcome and impact on quality of life of prosthodontic rehabilitation with implant-retained prostheses in head–neck cancer patients. Fifty patients were evaluated by standardized questionnaires and clinical assessment. All received the implants during ablative tumour surgery in native bone in the interforaminal area. About two-thirds of the patients (n=31) needed radiotherapy

  7. DAILY LIVING ACTIVITIES (DLA) FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT Beyond Global Assessment of Functioning: Ensuring Valid Scores and Consistent Utilization for Healthcare Report Cards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willa S. Presmanes

    The Daily Living Activities (DLA) Functional Assessment is a functional assessment, proven to be reliable and valid, designed to assess what daily living areas are impacted by mental illness or disability. The assessment tool quickly identifies where outcomes are needed so clinicians can address those functional deficits on individualized service plans. The DLA is intended to be used by all

  8. Beyond the Basics of Clinical Outcomes Assessment: Selecting Appropriate Patient-Rated Outcomes Instruments for Patient Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valier, Alison R.; Lam, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" emphasizes the concepts of clinical outcomes assessment. In athletic training, clinical outcomes assessment, especially as it relates to patient-rated outcomes (PRO) instruments, is new, which produces uncertainty with regard to how to integrate PROs into athletic…

  9. Student Outcomes Assessment: What Makes it Work? Assessment Practices & Experiences in the California State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach. Inst. for Teaching and Learning.

    This monograph is a collection of papers that emerged from a project evaluating the implementation of college outcomes assessment at the campuses of the California State University (CSU) system. Fifteen pilot projects integrated their outcomes assessment in the academic majors and in general education from 1986 to 1990 and the projects were then…

  10. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ubukata, Shiho; Tanemura, Rumi; Yoshizumi, Miho; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes) test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. PMID:25395854

  11. Predictors of functional outcome following treatment of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wuyang; Wang, Joanna Y; Caplan, Justin M; Braileanu, Maria; Shang, Hanbing; Upadhyay, Urvashi; Zenonos, Georgios A; Rigamonti, Daniele; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2015-02-01

    Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVM) present particular therapeutic challenges. Studies aimed at clarifying risk of hemorrhage focus on obliteration rates, but few have addressed functional outcomes in these patients. In this study, we aim to explore the predictors of good functional outcome for posterior fossa AVM after treatment. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with posterior fossa AVM at our institution from 1990 to 2013 was performed, and 61 patients met the inclusion criteria. Functional outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and mRS ? 1 was defined as good outcome. Within our cohort, 39 patients presented with hemorrhage (64.0%). Spetzler-Martin grades were I (n = 9, 14.8%), II (n = 20, 32.8%), III (n = 22, 36.1%), IV (n = 8, 13.1%), and V (n = 2, 3.3%). Patients were treated with surgery (n = 8), radiosurgery (n = 34), embolization (n = 2) or multimodal therapies (n = 8). Nine patients did not undergo treatment. Average follow-up was 41.9 months. Obliteration of AVM was confirmed in 44.3% of patients (n = 27). Forty-three patients (70.5%) achieved good functional outcomes (mRS ? 1). The absence of pre-treatment symptoms (p < 0.01) and AVM obliteration (p = 0.04) were predictive of good functional outcomes. In contrast, non-hemorrhagic presentation was not a significant predictor (p = 0.60). Asymptomatic presentation and AVM obliteration are associated with good functional outcomes in patients with posterior fossa AVM. Non-hemorrhagic presentation does not necessarily predict good functional outcome. Therefore treatment should not be considered only for those who present with hemorrhage. Posterior fossa AVM should be considered for definitive treatment in order to prevent future hemorrhages and subsequent poor functional outcomes. PMID:25439748

  12. Outcome assessment of implant-supported prostheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyne S. Feine; Eric Dufresne; Pierre Boudrias; James P. Lund

    1998-01-01

    Statement of problem. From the dental professional’s standpoint, implant rehabilitation offers dramatically improved treatment alternatives to orally disabled patients. However, what a patient perceives as important to their function and satisfaction with their prostheses may be quite different from what the dentist believes are significant health-related improvements. Purpose. To resolve this problem, a series of investigations were designed to measure

  13. Biosignal analysis techniques for weaning outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Vasilios; Dragoumanis, Christos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis

    2010-03-01

    Discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients is a challenging task and involves a careful weighting of the benefits of early extubation and the risks of premature spontaneous breathing trial. Recently, apart from studying different physiological variables by means of descriptive statistical tests, breathing pattern variability analysis has been performed for the assessment of weaning readiness. A limited number of clinical studies implementing different weaning protocols in heterogeneous groups of patients and using a variable set of signal processing techniques have appeared in the critical care literature, with varying results. The purpose of this review article is 3-fold: (1) to describe the different signal processing techniques being implemented for the assessment of weaning readiness, (2) to provide insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms that may govern breath-to-breath variability/complexity in health and disease, and (3) to present results from the critical care literature derived from the application of biosignal analysis tools for the identification of possible weaning indices. PMID:19592203

  14. From Perception to Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia: Modeling the Role of Ability and Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael F.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Horan, William P.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Context Schizophrenia remains a highly disabling disorder, but the specific determinants and pathways that lead to functional impairment are not well understood. It is not known whether these key determinants of outcome lie on one or multiple pathways. Objective This study evaluated theoretically-based models of pathways to functional outcome starting with early visual perception. The intervening variables were previously established determinants of outcome drawn from two general categories: ability (i.e., social cognition and functional capacity) and beliefs / motivation (i.e., defeatist beliefs, expressive and experiential negative symptoms). We evaluated an integrative model in which these intervening variables formed a single pathway to poor outcome. Design This was a cross-sectional study that applied structural equation modeling to evaluate the relationships among determinants of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Setting Assessments were conducted at a Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center. Participants One hundred ninety one clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from the community. Results A measurement model showed that the latent variables of perception, social cognition, and functional outcome were well-reflected by their indicators. An initial untrimmed structural model with functional capacity, defeatist beliefs, and expressive and experiential negative symptoms had good model fit. A final trimmed model was a single path running from perception to ability to motivational variables to outcome. It was more parsimonious and had better fit indices than the untrimmed model. Further, it could not be improved by adding or dropping connections that would change the single path to multiple paths. The indirect effect from perception to outcome was significant. Conclusions The final structural model was a single pathway running from perception to ability to beliefs / motivation to outcome. Hence, both ability and motivation appear to be needed for community functioning, and can be modeled effectively on the same pathway. PMID:23026889

  15. Outcome Assessment Process in a Manufacturing Engineering Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ansari, Jahangir

    To achieve the goals and objectives of program educational objectives, our Manufacturing Engineering (MANE) program at Virginia State University developed a curriculum that provides students with balanced coverage of ABET and the University core requirements. The program outcomes have been adopted considering the University and school mission, program objectives, (a) through (k) defined by Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and specific outcomes for manufacturing engineering as defined by the Society of Manufacturing Engineering (SME). Our MANE program focuses on the areas of automation, quality, manufacturing process, engineering analysis and manufacturing design to prepare students for successful careers in manufacturing engineering and allied professions. This paper presents a brief description of the major components of our assessment that fulfill the ABET criteria for continuous improvement requirements. The assessment process and evaluation of the program outcomes are discussed along with the results as well.

  16. Information Literacy in the University Curriculum: Challenges for Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a role for the academic library in the campus outcomes assessment process and reports on a study to determine the impact of the Ohio State University (OSU) Libraries' instructional program on several required general education courses. Although university curriculum documents prescribe research-related learning objectives…

  17. The Reading Behavior Inventory: An Outcome Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…

  18. Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes in FCS Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Kaulis, Amy; Crutsinger, Christy

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation, budget, and accountability pressures at the institution and program levels lead to the involvement of faculty in assessment-based activities. Increasingly, programs are being expected to document student learning beyond traditional course grades. The use of outcomes as a tool to improve learning relies heavily on the active…

  19. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Process of Inqui-

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    capapcity (resource vs poluation) proj- ects; Changes through time learning activity; Boise water and air Point talks/demonstrations, online videos, use of internet resources 08-03 Communication of ScientificENVSTD121 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 08-01 Process of Inqui- ry

  20. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Apply quantita-

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    MATH257 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 07-01 Apply quantita- tive reasoning methods to draw appropriate con- clusions Use various systems of measurement, including the English system and justifications for them 07-05 Use appropriate technology as a tool for problem solving Use technology as a tool

  1. USING TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE OUTCOME ASSESSMENT IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack McGourty; Larry Shuman; Mary Besterfield-Sacre; Ray Hoare; Harvey Wolfe; Barbara Olds; Ronald Miller

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes on-going research at sev- eral major universities on the design, development, and ap- plication of outcome assessment methodologies enhanced by information technologies. Several applications are described as well as advantages and disadvantages. Future research objectives are discussed.

  2. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Critical reading

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    HUM207 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Critical reading skills within Assign- ments. Instructor Lectures ; Quizzes/Free- writes ; Textbook reading ; Discussion/ Discussion. Instructor Lectures ; Quizzes/Free- writes ; Textbook reading ; Discussion/ Discussion Board 10-04 Cultural

  3. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy Critical reading

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    ENGL210 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Critical reading skills within literature with attention to style and form. - In class reading responses- Blackboard Discussions- Take- ing literary terms and ideas- Assigned Readings with a focus on specific criti- cal ideas within

  4. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  5. Predicting functional outcome and survival after acute ischemic stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Weimar; Andreas Ziegler; Inke R. König; Hans-Christoph Diener

    2002-01-01

    .\\u000a Objective:   Disability and mortality represent the most relevant clinical outcome after acute ischemic stroke. However, validated and\\u000a comprehensive prognostic models for recovery have not been developed. An accurate model including all previously suggested\\u000a independent outcome predictors could improve the design and analysis of clinical trials. We therefore developed prognostic\\u000a models for functional dependence and death after 100 days in

  6. Functional Outcome Analysis: Do the Benefits of Consultation and Prereferral Intervention Justify the Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, George H.; Gresham, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents theoretical integration of recent contributions to psychological intervention literature as they relate to consultation. Describes synthesis under rubric of Functional Outcome Analysis. Describes methods of assessing intervention costs and benefits and their distribution. Describes quantification of intervention efficiency and potential…

  7. Free function muscle transfers for upper extremity reconstruction: a review of indications, techniques, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, John P; Elliott, River M; Kozin, Scott H; Levin, L Scott

    2013-12-01

    Free functional muscle transfer (FFMT) replaces destroyed, denervated, or resected skeletal muscle units in the upper extremity with functioning skeletal muscle from other locations in the body. Common indications for FFMT include brachial plexus injuries, ischemic contracture, tumor resection, and extensive direct muscle trauma. Recent studies have focused on improving patient outcomes through refinements in muscle flap harvest and inset, donor nerve selection, and postoperative management. In this review, we assess and summarize the current literature on FFMT, with emphasis on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, postoperative management, and clinical outcomes. PMID:24210720

  8. The Impact of Functional Dependency on Outcomes After Complex General and Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, John E.; Bennett, Kyla M.; Englum, Brian R.; Pappas, Theodore N.; Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Sandhya A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the outcomes of functionally dependent patients who undergo major general or vascular surgery and to determine the relationship between functional health status and early postoperative outcomes. Background In contrast to frailty, functional health status is a relatively easy entity to define and to measure and therefore may be a more practical variable to assess in patients who are being considered for major surgery. To date, few studies have assessed the impact of functional health status on surgical outcomes. Methods Patients undergoing 1 of 10 complex general or vascular operations were extracted from the 2005 to 2010 America College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Propensity score techniques were used to match patients with and without preoperative functional dependency on known patient- and procedure-related factors. The postoperative outcomes of this matched cohort were then compared. Results A total of 10,246 functionally dependent surgical patients were included for analysis. These patients were more acutely and chronically ill than functionally independent patients, and they had higher rates of mortality and morbidity for each of the 10 procedures analyzed. Propensity-matching techniques resulted in the creation of a cohort of functionally independent and dependent patients who were well matched for known patient- and procedure-related variables. Dependent patients from the matched cohort had a 1.75-fold greater odds of postoperative death (95% confidence interval: 1.54–1.98, P < 0.0001) than functionally independent patients. Conclusions Preoperative functional dependency is an independent risk factor for mortality after major operation. Functional health status should be routinely assessed in patients who are being considered for complex surgery. PMID:24887971

  9. Predictors of drinking and functional outcomes for men and women following inpatient alcohol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Dawn E.; Kaufman, Julia S.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Brown, Jodi C.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives This prospective study uses path analytic models to examine baseline characteristics associated with both functioning and drinking outcomes 12 months after inpatient alcohol treatment. Methods Alcohol dependent participants (N = 101) were recruited during inpatient alcohol treatment and assessed monthly one year after discharge. Results Alcohol severity was negatively associated with education and self-efficacy; marital status was positively associated with self-efficacy; and education and self-efficacy were negatively associated with drinking outcomes. Low alcohol severity, not having a depression diagnosis, and being married were associated with less social support impairment, which was in turn associated with better drinking outcomes. Having a history of sexual abuse did not influence drinking outcomes. However, having a history of sexual abuse was negatively associated with global functioning. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Drinking outcomes were associated with education, self-efficacy, social support, and diagnosis of depression at baseline; however, global functioning one year following treatment was primarily and negatively associated with sexual abuse history. Future treatment research should include measures of both functioning and drinking behavior outcomes. PMID:24724879

  10. Cognition and functional outcome among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M

    2007-08-01

    Recent research has highlighted the relationships between impairments in cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcomes among people with schizophrenia (PWS). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend this work by testing the relationships between cognition and functional outcome among deaf adults with schizophrenia. Empirical findings from deafness-oriented research reveals enhanced abilities in certain aspects of visual-spatial processing compared to hearing people. Sixty-five PWS (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, and visual processing. The first hypothesis tested whether cognition predicted functional outcome in a similar fashion for both deaf and hearing subjects (n=63). For all subjects, higher levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of functional outcome, and the strongest predictors of outcome were verbal memory and visual-spatial memory (recall condition) (VSM recall). However, the deaf and hearing groups did show different patterns of relationships between cognition and functioning when all cognitive variables were examined. The second hypothesis was that deaf subjects would display superior performance in early visual processing, visual-spatial memory (copy condition) (VSM copy), and VSM recall. Deaf subjects displayed superior performance on each task; however, no significant differences emerged. Deaf subjects outperformed hearing subjects in an unexpected domain (word memory/recognition). This study extends prior work in the area of cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions that address different domains of cognition. PMID:17560083

  11. Assessing Treatment Outcomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review measures used to assess treatment response in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. Data Sources: Keyword searches of English-language articles in the PubMed database up to and including the May 4, 2011, index date were performed with the search strings (1) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (outcome assessment [MeSH] OR adaptation of life skills OR executive function [MeSH]) and (2) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (function OR functioning OR quality of life [MeSH]). Study Selection: Articles found through this search were then selected based on relevance to the topic area; no specific quality criteria were applied. Data Extraction: Narrative review. Results: The vast majority of studies assessing ADHD treatments have measured treatment response using ADHD symptom measures. Additional domains relevant for assessing treatment response among children and adults with ADHD include functional impairment, quality of life, adaptive life skills, and executive function. Validated rating scales exist for assessing these additional domains, but there has been minimal research evaluating the sensitivity of these instruments for detecting treatment response in pediatric and adult samples. Conclusions: Assessment of treatment outcomes in ADHD should move beyond symptom assessment to incorporate measures of functioning, quality of life, adaptive skills, and executive function, especially when assessing long-term treatment response. The authors recommend a potential battery and schedule of measures that could be used to more comprehensively assess treatment response in patients with ADHD. PMID:23585986

  12. Assessing outcomes in probe ablative therapies for small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Leveridge, Michael J; Mattar, Kamal; Kachura, John; Jewett, Michael A S

    2010-05-01

    The increasing incidence of renal-cell carcinoma can be largely attributed to the increased detection of small renal masses (SRMs) via abdominal imaging. These lesions tend to have a slow rate of growth and low malignant potential, and hence, minimally invasive treatments and active surveillance have been developed for these low-risk tumors to minimize treatment-related morbidity. Radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy are the principal less-invasive approaches, and their initial oncologic efficacy and complication profiles have been favorable. Suboptimal definition of the relevant outcomes of treatment, a dearth of prospective and randomized data, and relatively short follow-up in the context of the natural history of SRMs pose challenges in the assessment of the efficacy and outcomes of thermal ablation of renal-cell carcinoma. Better pretreatment characterization of the biology of these tumors, more effective real-time treatment monitoring, and standardization of outcome definitions and follow-up are needed to better clarify the effectiveness and role of these treatments. This review highlights these potential pitfalls in the assessment of outcomes of probe ablation of SRMs. PMID:20477542

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Relation to Cognitive and Functional Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Harvey S.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Chia, Jon; Vasquez, Carmen; Hunter, Jill V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to cognitive and functional outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Design Prospective observational study of children who had sustained moderate to severe TBI and a comparison group of children who had sustained orthopedic injury (OI). Participants Thirty-two children who had sustained moderate to severe TBI and 36 children with OI were studied. Methods Fiber tracking analysis of DTI acquired at 3-month postinjury and assessment of global outcome and cognitive function within 2 weeks of brain imaging. Global outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Flanker task was used to measure cognitive processing speed and resistance to interference. Results Fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values differentiated the groups and both cognitive and functional outcome measures were related to the DTI findings. Dissociations were present wherein the relation of Fractional anisotropy to cognitive performance differed between the TBI and OI groups. A DTI composite measure of white matter integrity was related to global outcome in the children with TBI. Conclusions DTI is sensitive to white matter injury at 3 months following moderate to severe TBI in children, including brain regions that appear normal on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. DTI measures reflecting diffusion of water parallel and perpendicular to white matter tracts as calculated by fiber tracking analysis are related to global outcome, cognitive processing speed, and speed of resolving interference in children with moderate to severe TBI. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether these relations between DTI and neurobehavioral outcome of TBI in children persist at longer follow-up intervals. PMID:18650764

  14. Assessing environment and development outcomes in conservation landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Sayer; Bruce Campbell; Lisa Petheram; Mark Aldrich; Manuel Ruiz Perez; Dominque Endamana; Zacharie-L Nzooh Dongmo; Louis Defo; Stephen Mariki; Nike Doggart; Neil Burgess

    2007-01-01

    An approach to assessing the environmental outcomes and changes in peoples’ livelihoods resulting from landscape-scale conservation\\u000a interventions was developed for three locations in Africa. Simple sets of performance indicators were developed through participatory\\u000a processes that included a variety of stakeholders. The selection of indicators was designed to reflect wider landscape processes,\\u000a conservation objectives and as local peoples’ preferred scenarios. This

  15. Implementing clinical outcomes assessment in everyday school mental health practice.

    PubMed

    Bohnenkamp, Jill Haak; Glascoe, Tracy; Gracey, Kathy A; Epstein, Richard A; Benningfield, Margaret M

    2015-04-01

    Evidence-based assessment (EBA) has been shown to improve clinical outcomes, but this practice is frequently not implemented in school mental health practice. This article reviews potential barriers to implementation and offers practical strategies for addressing these challenges. Several valid and reliable tools for assessment are reviewed, and information is provided on clinical use. Case examples of EBA implementation in school mental health settings are provided to illustrate how these tools can be used in everyday practice by school mental health clinicians. PMID:25773332

  16. Hyperfibrinogenemia and Functional Outcome From Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Levy, David E.; Wasiewski, Warren W.; Pancioli, Arthur M.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Trammel, James; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Kaste, Markku; Albers, Gregory W.; Ringelstein, Eric B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Epidemiological studies have found strong correlations between elevated plasma fibrinogen levels and both ischemic stroke incidence and stroke mortality. Little is known about the influence of fibrinogen levels on functional stroke outcome. Methods Placebo data from the Stroke Treatment with Ancrod Trial (STAT) and European Stroke Treatment with Ancrod Trial (ESTAT) were analyzed. Fibrinogen levels were determined within 3 hours (STAT) or 6 hours (ESTAT) of stroke onset and at preset intervals throughout 5 days of intravenous infusions. Barthel Index scores at 90 days quantified functional outcomes. The association between initial fibrinogen levels and functional outcomes was evaluated using a multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Fibrinogen levels increased gradually over the first 24 hours from a pretreatment median value of 340 mg/dL to a 24-hour median value of 376 mg/dL. In a univariate analysis, the proportion of patients with good functional outcome decreased with increasing quartiles of initial fibrinogen levels in both STAT (36.0% to 26.2%) and ESTAT (53.8% to 24.8%). In a multifactorial analysis, the same trend was observed. Patients with initial fibrinogen levels <450 mg/dL had better outcomes in both studies; the difference (42.0% versus 21.6%) was significant in ESTAT (P = 0.0006), even when corrected for age and initial stroke severity. Conclusion The independent association of higher initial fibrinogen levels with poor outcome needs to be verified using a larger acute stroke dataset. Even in the present small populations, the apparent association of these 2 variables suggests that treatments designed to reduce fibrinogen levels could potentially be important in treating acute ischemic stroke. PMID:19299642

  17. Albuminuria prediction of kidney function outcome in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    El Minshawy, Osama; El-Bassuoni, Eman

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of albuminuria and kidney function outcome in kidney transplant recipients, we studied 161 kidney transplant recipients; 95 (59%) of them were males and the mean age of the patients was 46 ± 13 years (range 18-70 years). All the patients received allografts from living related kidney donors. The mean body mass index of the patients was 25 ± 4 kg/m 2 . Forty (25%) patients were diabetic and 72 (45%) patients were hypertensive. All the patients had glomerular filtration rate (iGFR) determination by ( 99m Tc-DTPA) clearance and albumiuria was assessed using the first voided morning urine samples. According to the results of albuminuria, the patients were subdivided into three groups: One group of 90 (56%) patients with normoalbuminuria (<30 mg albumin/g. creatinine), a second group of 52 (32%) patients with microalbuminuria (30-300 mg albumin/g. creatinine) and a third group of 19 (12%) patients with macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/g. creatinine). There was a significant increase in the time post transplantation in the patients with macroalbumiuria in comparison with microalbuminuria and normoalbuminuria (90 ± 28, 60 ± 22 and 18 ± 6 months, respectively), P <0.05. There was a significant decrease of iGFR in the macroalbumiuria group as compared with the microalbumiuria and normoalbuminuria groups (57 ± 24, 74 ± 20 and 74 ± 28 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively), P <0.05. We conclude that there was an association between albuminuria and the status of the renal function in our transplant population, which may reflect renal injury due to proteinuria. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of albuminuria on the prognosis of the kidney allografts. PMID:25758867

  18. Evaluation of Effect Profiles: Functional Observational Battery Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra J. S. Baird; Paul J. Catalano; Louise M. Ryan; John S. Evans

    1997-01-01

    The Functional Observational Battery (FOB) is a neurotoxicity screening assay composed of 25–30 descriptive, scalar, binary, and continuous endpoints. These outcomes have been grouped into six biologically logical domains as a means to interpret the neuroactive properties of tested chemicals (V. C. Moser, 1992,J. Am. Coll. Toxicol.10(6), 661–669). However, no data-based exploration of these functional domains has been done. We

  19. Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

  20. Department of Communication Outcomes Assessment Plan 1 Unit Plan for Assessing and Improving

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    are spoken, but many of which are not. We also include the study of nonverbal communication, written a broad understanding of communication theory, research, and practices through their courseworkDepartment of Communication Outcomes Assessment Plan 1 Unit Plan for Assessing and Improving

  1. Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Richey, J Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary outcomes, participants with ASDs showed hyperactivation in left midfrontal and anterior cingulate gyrus. Groups did not differ in nucleus accumbens responses to faces. The ASD group demonstrated hyperactivation in bilateral amygdala during face anticipation that predicted social symptom severity and in bilateral insular cortex during face outcomes. These results add to the growing body of evidence that autism is characterized by altered functioning of reward circuitry. Additionally, atypical amygdala activation during the processing of social rewards may contribute to the development or expression of autistic features. PMID:22187105

  2. Predictors of Improvements in Daytime Function Outcomes with CPAP Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH N. KINGSHOTT; MARJORIE VENNELLE; CAROL J. HOY; HEATHER M. ENGLEMAN; IAN J. DEARY; NEIL J. DOUGLAS

    2000-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves daytime function in the sleep apnea\\/ hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) but it is unclear which patients benefit and what factors predict this im- provement. To test the hypothesis that brief arousals from sleep predict improvements in daytime functioning with CPAP therapy, we prospectively studied 62 patients with polysomnography-defined SAHS. Each underwent daytime function assessments

  3. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment

  4. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  5. Self-conscious emotions? role in functional outcomes within clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Rebecca; Cohen, Alex

    2014-04-30

    Patients with severe mental illnesses (SMI) often experience dysfunction in their ability to efficiently carry out everyday roles and/or skills. These deficits are seen across many domains of daily functioning. We suggest that the "self-conscious emotions" of pride and shame play a role in these functional outcomes. Pride and shame appear to facilitate individuals? ability to evaluate their group status, detect social threats, and to adjust their behaviors accordingly. This study utilized an objective performance measure of functional capacity and a self-report of quality of life (QoL) to examine the respective roles of pride and shame in functional outcomes within two SMI patient groups (schizophrenia and affective disorder) and a community control group. The influence of neurocognition, affect and symptomatology on functional outcomes was also assessed. The patient groups did not differ in cognitive functioning, QoL, or shame. The schizophrenia group reported significantly higher pride and displayed worse objective performance than the other groups. Within each of the groups, shame had an inverse relationship with QoL, while pride positively associated with QoL. Shame associated with worse functional capacity in the schizophrenia group. Shame associated with better functional capacity, while pride associated with worse functional capacity within the affective disorder group. PMID:24508025

  6. A Comparison of Functional Outcomes After Metallic and Bioabsorbable Interference Screw Fixations in Arthroscopic ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Deepak K; Kannampilly, Antony J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is as one of the most frequently injured ligaments in the modern contact sports scenario. Graft fixations can be achieved during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions by using either bioabsorbable screws or metal screws. The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes after bioabsorbable and metallic interference screw fixations in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions done by using hamstring grafts. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized study. Patients in Group 1 received bioabsorbable interference screws and patients in Group 2 received metallic interference screws. Arthroscopic assisted, anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with the use of hamstring grafts which were fixed proximally with endobuttons and distally with bioabsorbable or metallic interference screws, were undertaken. Progress in functional outcomes was assessed by using Mann Whitney U- test. Functional outcomes in the two groups were compared by using independent t-test. Observation and Results: In each group, there were statistically significant improvements in functional outcomes over successive follow-ups, which were seen on basis on Mann-Whitney U-test. The comparison of functional outcomes between the two groups, done by using independent t-test, showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year of follow-up. p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant in our study. Conclusion: In our prospective study of comparison of functional outcomes between bioabsorbable and metallic interference screws in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstuctions, which were evaluated by using Tegner activity scale and Lysholm knee scoring scale for a period of 1 year, no statistically significant difference was found. However, further authentication is required by doing long term studies. PMID:24959468

  7. Therapist and setting influences on functional analysis outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L; Iwata, Brian A; Fritz, Jennifer N

    2013-01-01

    Functional analyses (FAs) of problem behavior typically are conducted in controlled settings to minimize potential sources of confounding. Several studies have reported that results of FAs conducted in controlled settings occasionally differ from those conducted under more naturalistic conditions, although little is known about factors that may contribute to the different outcomes. We examined correspondence between FAs conducted by staff in a clinic and those conducted either by caregivers as therapists or in the home setting. If results of the 2 analyses were dissimilar, we conducted further analyses to identify variables responsible for the different outcomes. Results showed that, in most cases, correspondence of function was observed across familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and clinical practice for the evaluation of problem behavior. PMID:24114087

  8. Treatment assessment of radiotherapy using MR functional quantitative imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Chunhao

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in magnetic resonance (MR) functional quantitative imaging have made it a potentially powerful tool to assess treatment response in radiation therapy. With its abilities to capture functional information on underlying tissue characteristics, MR functional quantitative imaging can be valuable in assessing treatment response and as such to optimize therapeutic outcome. Various MR quantitative imaging techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, have been investigated and found useful for assessment of radiotherapy. However, various aspects including data reproducibility, interpretation of biomarkers, image quality and data analysis impose challenges on applications of MR functional quantitative imaging in radiotherapy assessment. All of these challenging issues shall be addressed to help us understand whether MR functional quantitative imaging is truly beneficial and contributes to future development of radiotherapy. It is evident that individualized therapy is the future direction of patient care. MR functional quantitative imaging might serves as an indispensable tool towards this promising direction. PMID:25628799

  9. INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING UNCERTAINTY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF NEONATAL OUTCOME

    E-print Network

    Garibaldi, Jon

    subse- quent neonatal care. Current methods are inadequate as they fail to distinguish damageINTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING UNCERTAINTY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF NEONATAL OUTCOME by JONATHAN of Neonatal Outcome by Jonathan Mark Garibaldi Objective assessment of the neonatal outcome of labour

  10. Learning Outcomes Assessment: Extrapolating from Study Abroad to International Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Donald L.; Matthews, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    For international service-learning to thrive, it must document student learning outcomes that accrue to participants. The approaches to international service-learning assessment must be compelling to a variety of stakeholders. Recent large-scale projects in study abroad learning outcomes assessment--including the Georgia Learning Outcomes of…

  11. Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

  12. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ?4% of the annual number for ?2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus <2% of the annual positive isolates for ?2 consecutive weeks. We examined effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were <0.1% for all natural causes mortality, but >0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

  13. Functional Outcomes of Persons Undergoing Dysvascular Lower Extremity Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Carley N.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Dillingham, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of post-acute rehabilitation setting on functional outcomes among patients undergoing major lower extremity dysvascular amputations. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Maryland and Wisconsin. Data collected from medical records and patient interviews conducted during acute hospitalization following amputation and at six-month following the acute care discharge were analyzed using multivariate models and instrumental variable techniques. Results A total of 297 patients were analyzed based on post-acute care rehabilitation setting: acute inpatient rehabilitation (IRF), skilled nursing facility (SNF) or home. The majority (43.4%) received care in IRF, 32% in SNF, and 24.6% at home. On SF-36 subscales, significantly improved outcomes were observed for patients receiving post-acute care at an IRF relative to those cared for at a SNF in physical function (PF), role physical (RF) and physical component score (PCS). Patients receiving post-acute care in IRFs also experienced better RF and PCS outcomes compared to those discharged directly home. In addition, patients receiving post-acute care at an IRF were significantly more likely to score in the top quartile for general health in IRF compared to SNF or home, and less likely to score in the lowest quartile for PF, RF and PCS in IRF compared to SNF. Lower ADL impairment was observed in IRF compared to SNF. Conclusions Among this large and diverse cohort of patients undergoing major dysvascular lower limb amputations, receipt of interdisciplinary rehabilitation services at an IRF yielded improved functional outcomes six months after amputation relative to care received at SNFs or home. PMID:23291599

  14. Linking Mission, Strategy and Student Outcomes Assessment: A Cost-Effective Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holoviak, Stephen J.; Verney, Thomas P.; Weigle, Jerry A.; Holoviak, Justin S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to provide a demonstration of the assessment methods and processes that are used by the John L. Grove College of Business to assess student outcomes and how these assessments relate to mission and strategy.

  15. Plasma Midregional Pro-Adrenomedullin Improves Prediction of Functional Outcome in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gattringer, Thomas; Simmet, Nicole E.; Scharnagl, Hubert; Bocksrucker, Christoph; Lampl, Christian; Storch, Maria K.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fazekas, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate if plasma levels of midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) improve prediction of functional outcome in ischemic stroke. Methods In 168 consecutive ischemic stroke patients, plasma levels of MR-proADM were measured within 24 hours from symptom onset. Functional outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days following stroke. Logistic regression, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were applied. Results Plasma MR-proADM levels were found significantly higher in patients with unfavourable (mRS 3–6) compared to favourable (mRS 0–2) outcomes. MR-proADM levels were entered into a predictive model including the patients' age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and the use of recanalization therapy. The area under the ROC curve did not increase significantly. However, category-free NRI of 0.577 (p<0.001) indicated a significant improvement in reclassification of patients. Furthermore, MR-proADM levels significantly improved reclassification of patients in the prediction of outcome by the Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS-100 (SPAN-100; NRI?=?0.175; p?=?0.04). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a rising risk of death with increasing MR-proADM quintiles. Conclusions Plasma MR-proADM levels improve prediction of functional outcome in ischemic stroke when added to the patients' age, NIHSS on admission, and the use of recanalization therapy. Levels of MR-proADM in peripheral blood improve reclassification of patients when the SPAN-100 is used to predict the patients' functional outcome. PMID:23894342

  16. FLiGS Score: A New Method of Outcome Assessment for Lip Carcinoma–Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Rita; Toia, Francesca; Di Rosa, Luigi; Cordova, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lip cancer and its treatment have considerable functional and cosmetic effects with resultant nutritional and physical detriments. As we continue to investigate new treatment regimens, we are simultaneously required to assess postoperative outcomes to design interventions that lessen the adverse impact of this disease process. We wish to introduce Functional Lip Glasgow Scale (FLiGS) score as a new method of outcome assessment to measure the effect of lip cancer and its treatment on patients’ daily functioning. Methods: Fifty patients affected by lip squamous cell carcinoma were recruited between 2009 and 2013. Patients were asked to fill the FLiGS questionnaire before surgery, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. The subscores were used to calculate a total FLiGS score of global oral disability. Statistical analysis was performed to test validity and reliability. Results: FLiGS scores improved significantly from preoperative to 12 months postoperative values (P = 0.000). Statistical evidence of validity was provided through rs (Spearman correlation coefficient) that resulted >0.30 for all surveys and for which P < 0.001. FLiGS score reliability was shown through examination of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Conclusions: FLiGS score is a simple way of assessing functional impairment related to lip cancer before and after surgery; it is sensitive, valid, reliable, and clinically relevant: it provides useful information to orient the physician in the postoperative management and in the rehabilitation program.

  17. Assessing Technical Writing in Institutional Contexts: Using Outcomes-Based Assessment for Programmatic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Michael; Anson, Chris M.; Miller, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that technical writing instruction often operates in isolation from other components of students' communication education. Argues for altering this isolation by moving writing instruction to a place of increased programmatic perspective, which may be attained through a means of assessment based on educational outcomes. Discusses two models…

  18. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  19. CD99 isoforms expression dictates T cell functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Isabelle; Bernard, Ghislaine; Rouquette-Jazdanian, Alexandre K; Pelassy, Claudette; Pourtein, Monique; Aussel, Claude; Bernard, Alain

    2002-12-01

    CD99, a unique integral membrane protein present on the surface of all human T cells, has previously been shown to regulate cell function and fate. In peripheral T cells, it triggers immediate activation of alpha4b1 integrin and cell arrest on inflamed vascular endothelium, whereas it mediates an apoptotic signal in double-positive thymocytes undergoing the selection process. Two isoforms of CD99 exist, a long form corresponding to the full-length protein and a short form harboring a deletion in the intracytoplasmic segment. Here, we show that while peripheral T cells display exclusive expression of the long form, double-positive thymocytes express both isoforms. Moreover, differential expression of these two CD99 molecules can lead to distinct functional outcomes. Expression of the long form in a CD99-deficient Jurkat T cell line is sufficient to promote CD99-induced cell adhesion, whereas coexpression of the two isoforms is required to trigger T-cell death. When coexpressed, the two proteins form covalent heterodimers, which locate within glycosphingolipidic rafts and induce sphingomyelin degradation. Cholesterol depletion experiments show that this localization is required for the induction of apoptosis. Thus, the surface expression pattern of CD99 isoforms determines T-cell functional outcomes. PMID:12368226

  20. Achieving Faculty Buy-In: Motivation Performance in Learning Outcome Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sujitparapitaya, Sutee

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great value of student learning outcome assessment (SLOA), faculty have not fully embraced the assessment movement, and many remain locked in debates on its merits. To gain faculty buy-in and explain why many faculty were motivated to engage in outcome assessment, the modified CANE (Commitment And Necessary Effort) model was used to…

  1. Development and Applications of an Outcomes Assessment Framework for Care Management Programs in Learning Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Kuntz-Melcavage, Kara; Forrest, Christopher B.; Lu, Yanyan; Piet, Leslie; Evans, Kathy; Uriyo, Maria; Sherry, Melissa; Richardson, Regina; Hawkins, Michelle; Neale, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and apply an outcomes assessment framework (OAF) for care management programs in health care delivery settings. Background: Care management (CM) refers to a regimen of organized activities that are designed to promote health in a population with particular chronic conditions or risk profiles, with focus on the triple aim for populations: improving the quality of care, advancing health outcomes, and lowering health care costs. CM has become an integral part of a care continuum for population-based health care management. To sustain a CM program, it is essential to assure and improve CM effectiveness through rigorous outcomes assessment. To this end, we constructed the OAF as the foundation of a systematic approach to CM outcomes assessment. Innovations: To construct the OAF, we first systematically analyzed the operation process of a CM program; then, based on the operation analysis, we identified causal relationships between interventions and outcomes at various implementation stages of the program. This set of causal relationships established a roadmap for the rest of the outcomes assessment. Built upon knowledge from multiple disciplines, we (1) formalized a systematic approach to CM outcomes assessment, and (2) integrated proven analytics methodologies and industrial best practices into operation-oriented CM outcomes assessment. Conclusion: This systematic approach to OAF for assessing the outcomes of CM programs offers an opportunity to advance evidence-based care management. In addition, formalized CM outcomes assessment methodologies will enable us to compare CM effectiveness across health delivery settings. PMID:25992387

  2. AMEE Guide No. 25: The assessment of learning outcomes for the competent and reflective physician.

    PubMed

    Shumway, J M; Harden, R M

    2003-11-01

    Two important features of contemporary medical education are recognized. The first is an emphasis on assessment as a tool to ensure quality in training programmes, to motivate students and to direct what they learn. The second is a move to outcome-based education where the learning outcomes are defined and decisions about the curriculum are based on these. These two trends are closely related. If teachers are to do a better job of assessing their students, they need an understanding of the assessment process, an appreciation of the learning outcomes to be assessed and a recognition of the most appropriate tools to assess each outcome. Assessment tools selected should be valid, reliable, practical and have an appropriate impact on student learning. The preferred assessment tool will vary with the outcome to be assessed. It is likely to be some form of written test, a performance test such as an OSCE in which the student's competence can be tested in a simulated situation, and a test of the student's behaviour over time in clinical practice, based on tutors' reports and students' portfolios. An assessment profile can be produced for each student which highlights the learning outcomes the student has achieved at the required standard and other outcomes where this is not the case. For educational as well as economic reasons, there should be collaboration across the continuum of education in test development as it relates to the assessment of learning outcomes and in the implementation of a competence-based approach to assessment. PMID:15369904

  3. Prediction of Functional Outcome in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Carrión, Ricardo E.; McLaughlin, Danielle; Goldberg, Terry E.; Auther, Andrea M.; Olsen, Ruth H.; Olvet, Doreen M.; Correll, Christoph U.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance A major public health concern associated with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders is the long-term disability that involves impaired cognition, lack of social support, and an inability to function independently in the community. A critical goal of early detection and intervention studies in psychosis is therefore to understand the factors leading to this often profound impairment. Objective To develop a predictive model of functional (social and role) outcome in a clinical high-risk sample for psychosis. Design Prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal 3- to 5-year follow-up study. Setting The Recognition and Prevention Program in New York, a research clinic located in the Zucker Hillside Hospital in New York. Participants One hundred one treatment-seeking patients at clinical high risk for psychosis. Ninety-two (91%) were followed up prospectively for a mean (SD) of 3 (1.6) years. Intervention Neurocognitive and clinical assessment. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome variables were social and role functioning at the last follow-up visit. Results Poor social outcome was predicted by reduced processing speed (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.050-1.823; P = .02), impaired social functioning at baseline (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.258-2.732; P = .002), and total disorganized symptoms (OR, 5.06; 95% CI, 1.548-16.527; P = .007). Reduced performance on tests for verbal memory (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.169-2.594; P = .006), role functioning at baseline (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.053-1.711; P = .02), and motor disturbances (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.060-2.969; P = .03) predicted role outcome. The areas under the curve for the social and role prediction models were 0.824 (95% CI, 0.736-0.913; P < .001) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87; P < .001), respectively, demonstrating a high discriminative ability. In addition, poor functional outcomes were not entirely dependent on the development of psychosis, because 40.3% and 45.5% of nonconverters at clinical high risk had poor social and role outcomes, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance Results from this study support the increasing emphasis on functional decline as a critically important outcome that parallels conversion to psychosis and suggest that both psychosis and long-term functional disability are equally important targets for prevention. Reduced neurocognitive performance, functional impairments, and nonpositive attenuated symptoms at baseline were associated with an increased risk of poor functional outcomes in our sample. Poor functional outcomes were not entirely dependent on positive symptoms and the development of psychosis, further highlighting the need for intervention at this early stage of development for those who do and do not convert to a full-blown psychotic disorder. PMID:24006090

  4. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

  5. Therapist Effects on Functional Analysis Outcomes with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huete, John M.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2010-01-01

    Analog functional analyses (FAs) are commonly used to assess factors that maintain problem behavior of individuals with intellectual disabilities. These analyses are usually conducted by trained staff in clinic settings. However, recent research suggests that FAs conducted by unfamiliar individuals, such as hospital or clinic staff, may result in…

  6. False-Positive Tangible Outcomes of Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooker, Griffin W.; Iwata, Brian A.; Harper, Jill M.; Fahmie, Tara A.; Camp, Erin M.

    2011-01-01

    Functional analysis (FA) methodology is the most precise method for identifying variables that maintain problem behavior. Occasionally, however, results of an FA may be influenced by idiosyncratic sensitivity to aspects of the assessment conditions. For example, data from several studies suggest that inclusion of a tangible condition during an FA…

  7. Functional and oncological outcomes after total claviculectomy for primary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxu; Ye, Zhaoming; Zhang, Miaofeng

    2012-04-01

    Primary malignancies of the clavicle are very rare, and scarce data are available regarding the functional and oncologic outcome after total claviculectomy. This is a retrospective review of 9 patients with primary clavicular malignancy, between 2000 and 2010, treated with total claviculectomy. There were 5 females and 4 males with a mean age of 29 years (range, 16 to 56). After a mean follow-up period of 46 months (range, 24-102 months) all patients were alive and without local recurrence or metastases. Patients had almost a full range of motion without pain, without significant functional deficit. The mean Constant-Murley score (best possible score = 100) improved from 26 to 79 (p < 0.001), while the VAS for pain improved from 8.7 to 2.4 (p < 0.001). Therefore, total claviculectomy may be a useful salvage procedure for primary clavicular malignancy. PMID:22696985

  8. Five-year functional outcome analysis of ankle fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Shah, N H; Sundaram, R O; Velusamy, A; Braithwaite, I J

    2007-11-01

    This study examines retrospectively the functional outcome of patients at 5 years following their ankle fracture surgery using the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS) and SF-12 questionnaire. Of 69 patients, 43 were females and 26 males. The mean age was 50.7 years. There were 74 and 26% of Weber 'B' and 'C' fractures, respectively. The mean OMAS was 75.2. About 63% of the patients were still complaining of stiffness, around 45% patients were still complaining of ankle swelling, 50% of patients still had some sort of pain, 39% still thought that they had not fully recovered and 38% did not return to their pre-injury sporting activity. Apart from the age, no significant difference was seen in the OMAS due to gender, fracture type or timing of surgery. Our findings show that many patients who have had surgery for ankle fractures will still have some functional limitations even 5 years after the injury. PMID:17888434

  9. Does Childhood Executive Function Predict Adolescent Functional Outcomes in Girls with ADHD?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan Miller; Stephen P. Hinshaw

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/mid-adolescence. Our aim was to examine the ability of\\u000a measures of childhood executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes in adolescence. Measures of neuropsychological\\u000a functioning comprised the childhood predictors, with academic,

  10. Motor function assessment using wearable inertial sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash Parnandi; Eric Wade; M. Mataric?

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to wearable sensor-based assessment of motor function in individuals post stroke. We make use of one on-body inertial measurement unit (IMU) to automate the functional ability (FA) scoring of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). WMFT is an assessment instrument used to determine the functional motor capabilities of individuals post stroke. It is comprised of 17

  11. Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA) scale: A quantitative interview for self-reported current and functional decline in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jamie; Kremen, William S; Glatt, Stephen J; Franz, Carol E; Chandler, Sharon D; Liu, Xiaohua; Johnson, Barbara K; Tsuang, Ming T; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia has been characterized as a disorder with poor outcomes across various functional domains, especially social and occupational functioning. Although these outcomes have been investigated based on patients' current functioning, few studies have considered the assessment of functional outcomes across the lifespan in schizophrenia. We developed a novel and brief scale of adulthood lifespan functioning, the Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA). We assessed current functioning and percentage of pre- and post-psychosis onset engagement for five functional domains including paid employment, living independently, romantic partnerships, close friendships, and recreational engagement with others. Pre-to post-psychosis functional decline was observed for all domains, with paid employment having the greatest decline (d = 2.68) and living independently having the least decline (d = .59). Our exploratory factor analysis suggests that a single factor accounted for the most variance in Pre-Psychosis Functioning in ALFA domains. Two factors explain the majority of variance in Post-Psychosis Functioning and Pre-to-Post Psychosis Decline: a sociability factor (close friendships and recreational engagement with others) and an independence factor (paid employment, living independently, romantic relationships). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on a self-reported quantitative assessment of adult lifespan functioning in schizophrenia. The ALFA scale may be a useful tool for future research on functional outcomes in schizophrenia. PMID:25898804

  12. NEW JERSEY'S SPECIAL REVIEW ASSESSMENT (SRA): AN EXAMINATION OF THE POST SECONDARY OUTCOMES OF

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    NEW JERSEY'S SPECIAL REVIEW ASSESSMENT (SRA): AN EXAMINATION OF THE POST SECONDARY OUTCOMES;SRA 2003-2008 2 IELP/NSRC 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................................................8 HISTORY OF ASSESSMENT: HSPA AND SRA IN NEW JERSEY....................................... 10

  13. Assessment of chronic post-surgical pain after knee replacement: Development of a core outcome set

    PubMed Central

    Wylde, V; MacKichan, F; Bruce, J; Gooberman-Hill, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of patients experience chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) after total knee replacement (TKR). There is scope to improve assessment of CPSP after TKR, and this study aimed to develop a core outcome set. Methods Eighty patients and 43 clinicians were recruited into a three-round modified Delphi study. In Round 1, participants were presented with 56 pain features identified from a systematic review, structured interviews with patients and focus groups with clinicians. Participants assigned importance ratings, using a 1–9 scale, to individual pain features; those features rated as most important were retained in subsequent rounds. Consensus that a pain feature should be included in the core outcome set was defined as the feature having a rating of 7–9 by ?70% of both panels (patients and clinicians) and 1–3 by ?15% of both panels or rated as 7–9 by ?90% of one panel. Results Round 1 was completed by 71 patients and 39 clinicians, and Round 3 by 62 patients and 33 clinicians. The final consensus was that 33 pain features were important. These were grouped into an 8-item core outcome set comprising: pain intensity, pain interference with daily living, pain and physical functioning, temporal aspects of pain, pain description, emotional aspects of pain, use of pain medication, and improvement and satisfaction with pain relief. Conclusions This core outcome set serves to guide assessment of CPSP after TKR. Consistency in assessment can promote standardized reporting and facilitate comparability between studies that address a common but understudied type of CPSP. PMID:25154614

  14. Blinded Outcome Assessment Was Infrequently Used and Poorly Reported in Open Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Brennan C.; Rehal, Sunita; Cro, Suzie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unblinded outcome assessment can lead to biased estimates of treatment effect in randomised trials. We reviewed published trials to assess how often blinded assessment is used, and whether its use varies according to the type of outcome or assessor. Design and setting A review of parallel group, individually randomised phase III trials published in four general medical journals (BMJ, Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) in 2010. Main outcome measures Whether assessment of the primary outcome was blinded, and whether this differed according to outcome or assessor type. Results We identified 258 eligible trials. Of these, 106 (41%) were reported as double-blind, and 152 (59%) as partially or fully open-label (that is, they included some groups who were unblinded, such as patients, those delivering the intervention, or those in charge of medical care). Of the 152 open trials, 125 required outcome assessment. Of these 125 trials, only 26% stated that outcome assessment was blinded; 51% gave no information on whether assessment was blinded or not. Furthermore, 18% of trials did not state who performed the assessment. The choice of outcome type (e.g. instrument measured, rated, or naturally occurring event) did not appear to influence whether blinded assessment was performed (range 24-32% for the most common outcome types). However, the choice of outcome assessor did influence blinding; independent assessors were blinded much more frequently (71%) than participant (5%) or physician (24%) assessors. Despite this, open trials did not use independent assessors any more frequently than double-blind trials (17% vs. 18% respectively). Conclusions Blinding of outcome assessors is infrequently used and poorly reported. Increased use of independent assessors could increase the frequency of blinded assessment. PMID:26120839

  15. Chronic panrhinosinusitis without nasal polyps: Long-term outcome after functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Giger; Pavel Dulguerov; Didier Quinodoz; Daniel Leuba; Basile Nicolas Landis; Jean-Silvain Lacroix; Jean Paul Friedrich

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for chronic panrhinosinusitis without nasal polyps by using symptom scoring and an endoscopic outcome evaluation.

  16. Assessment Choices to Target Higher Order Learning Outcomes: The Power of Academic Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Margot; Gosper, Maree; Xu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of higher order learning outcomes such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity has remained a challenge for universities. While newer technologies such as social networking tools have the potential to support these intended outcomes, academics' assessment practice is slow to change. University mission statements and unit…

  17. Standardized Testing for Outcome Assessment: Analysis of the Educational Testing Systems MBA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of standardized tests for outcome assessment has grown dramatically in recent years. Two driving factors have been the No Child Left Behind legislation, and the increase in outcome assessment measures by accrediting agencies such as AACSB, the international accrediting body for business schools. Despite the growth in usage, little effort…

  18. Outcomes Assessment in the Networked Environment: Research Questions, Issues, Considerations, and Moving Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies research topics related to outcomes assessment in a networked environment and discusses issues affecting these topics. Proposes a framework to relate traditional evaluation components and terminology to the networked environment and identifies factors in the networked environment that affect assessment methods. Suggests outcomes

  19. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  20. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Borja; Jennifer L. Callahan

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain internalizing distress (e.g., anxiety, depression), externalizing distress (e.g., aggression), and recovery outcomes following traumatic events.

  1. Immune function and health outcomes in women with depression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This research reports immune function and health outcomes in women with depression, as compared with a non-depressed control group. Using Psychoneuroimmunolgy theory and a descriptive comparison design, scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to divide 40 non-hospitalized Caucasian women between the ages of 18 and 65 years into either the control or depression comparison group. Women with depression were found to report significantly more incidences of illness over the previous two months and they were found to have significantly more indicators of illness at the time of the exam as compared to the controls. However, contrary to what has been documented in some earlier studies of depression, women with depression were not found to have significantly different immune function measures as compared to the control group. There was also no significant correlation between scores on the BDI and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in this study. While these findings support a connection between depression and both increased self-report of illness and increased signs and symptoms of minor illness or inflammation on physical exam, this study was not able to document that these effects were related to decreased immune function, as measured by natural killer cell activity or white blood cell counts. PMID:20438639

  2. Physical function assessment tools in pediatric rheumatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Nandini Moorthy; Margaret GE Peterson; Melanie J Harrison; Karen B Onel; Thomas JA Lehman

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric rheumatic diseases with predominant musculoskeletal involvement such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis(JDM) can cause considerable physical functional impairment and significantly affect the children's quality of life (QOL). Physical function, QOL, health-related QOL (HRQOL) and health status are personal constructs used as outcomes to estimate the impact of these diseases and often used as proxies for each

  3. The social functional outcome of being naturalistically treated with paliperidone extended-release in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Ryoko; Ohnishi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Wakamatsu, Akihide; Tanimura, Ai; Morita, Kazuo; Yamaoka, Toshio; Usui, Hideo; Ogawa, Yoshimasa; Fujino, Akiko; Yoshizawa, Kazutake

    2015-01-01

    Background Social functioning is an important outcome for patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the effects of paliperidone extended-release (PAL-ER) on social function, symptomatology, and safety in the routine clinical practice, we conducted a 1-year post-marketing surveillance study of PAL-ER. We also explored relationships between symptomatic improvement and socially functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Patients and methods Patients with an established diagnosis of schizophrenia were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the surveillance. Patients were assessed on social functioning using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and on symptomatology using the Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale. All adverse events (AEs) were also collected. Results A total of 1,429 patients were enrolled in the surveillance study, of whom 1,405 were evaluable for safety and 1,142 were evaluable for efficacy. The treatment discontinuation rate for any reason during the observation period was 34.66%. Significant improvements were observed on both Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale during the observation period. The percentage of patients with socially functional remission (SOFAS ?61) also increased significantly. A significant association between early improvements in positive symptoms, sex, severity of negative symptoms at baseline, and socially functional remission was observed. A total of 33.52% of patients had AEs and 8.75% of patients had serious AEs. Despite the recommendation of monotherapy with PAL-ER, 65.84% of patients were given additional antipsychotics (polypharmacy). Post hoc comparisons of monotherapy versus polypharmacy revealed that the monotherapy group had better outcomes and fewer AEs than the polypharmacy treated group. The improvement in social functioning and the rate of socially functional remission did not differ between groups. Conclusion PAL-ER treatment showed effective symptom control and improvement in social functioning. The data suggest that early response to antipsychotic treatment should be important for functional outcomes. PMID:26150722

  4. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanda I. Kamstra; Harriet Jager-Wittenaar; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Paulien M. Huisman; Rob P. van Oort; Bernard F. A. M. van der Laan; Jan L. N. Roodenburg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank\\u000a the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening,\\u000a dental status, oral

  5. Effect of pre-operative neuromuscular training on functional outcome after total knee replacement: a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is the standard treatment for patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). Significant improvement in pain and function are seen after TKR and approximately 80% of patients are very satisfied with the outcome. Functional status prior to TKR is a major predictor of outcome after the intervention. Thus, improving functional status prior to surgery through exercise may improve after surgery outcome. However, results from several previous trials testing the concept have been inconclusive after surgery. Methods/design In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) we will test the effect of a pre-operative neuromuscular trainingprogram versus an attention control program on lower extremity function – before and after surgery. We will enroll 80 participants, aged between 55–90 years, who are scheduled for TKR. In this single-blinded RCT, the intervention group will receive a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 24 training sessions plus 3 educational sessions of the knee school. The control group will receive the 3 educational sessions only. Assessments are performed immediately before and after the intervention (before surgery), at 6?weeks, 3?months and 12?months (after surgery). The primary outcome will include the Chair Stand Test as a measure of leg strength and reaction time. Secondary outcomes are knee function and pain assessed with the self-reported Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). All measurements will be carried out by a specially trained physical therapist, blinded to group allocation. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first single-blinded RCT to test the effect of pre-operative neuromuscular training plus knee school against knee school alone – on knee function and pain, assessed immediately after the interventions prior to surgery and repeatedly after surgery. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00913575 PMID:23641782

  6. Functional assessment of heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Tuttle, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of heart failure (HF) is exercise intolerance, along with fatigue and shortness of breath. Functional assessments provide important clinical information. As the disease progresses, HF patients experience a downward spiral leading to a functional disability. Reduced functional abilities restrict or prevent HF patients from performing occupational tasks, which may result in loss of work and reduced quality of life. Functional assessments provide a measure of functional capacity and information on prognosis, disease severity, degree of disability, and quality of life. Direct and indirect cardiovascular and muscular functional assessments for patients with HF are provided in this review. PMID:25432472

  7. Determinants of different aspects of everyday outcome in schizophrenia: The roles of negative symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Strassnig, Martin T; Raykov, Tenko; O'Gorman, Cedric; Bowie, Christopher R; Sabbag, Samir; Durand, Dante; Patterson, Thomas L; Pinkham, Amy; Penn, David L; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-06-01

    Cognition, negative symptoms, and depression are potential predictors of disability in schizophrenia. We present analyses of pooled data from four separate studies (all n>169; total n=821) that assessed differential aspects of disability and their potential determinants. We hypothesized that negative symptoms would predict social outcomes, but not vocational functioning or everyday activities and that cognition and functional capacity would predict vocational functioning and everyday activities but not social outcomes. The samples were rated by clinician informants for their everyday functioning in domains of social and vocational outcomes, and everyday activities, examined with assessments of cognition and functional capacity, rated clinically with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and self-reporting depression. We computed a model that tested the hypotheses described above and compared it to a model that predicted that negative symptoms, depression, cognition, and functional capacity had equivalent influences on all aspects of everyday functioning. The former, specific relationship model fit the data adequately and we subsequently confirmed a similar fit within all four samples. Analyses of the relative goodness of fit suggested that this specific model fit the data better than the more general, equivalent influence predictor model. We suggest that treatments aimed at cognition may not affect social functioning as much as other aspects of disability, a finding consistent with earlier research on the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, while negative symptoms predicted social functioning. These relationships are central features of schizophrenia and treatment efforts should be aimed accordingly. PMID:25868935

  8. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  9. Issues on functional analysis in behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Cone, J D

    1997-03-01

    The rebirth of interest in functional analysis is described. Clarification among conflicting terms is offered as a way of facilitating research in the area. Three phases of functional approach to assessment are identified: (a) descriptive, (b) interpretive, and (c) verification. Five assessment methods common to assessment, generally, are shown to be useful in both descriptive and verification phases. Evaluation of functional approaches requires attention to the psychometric adequacy of these methods. Accuracy, reliability, and validity concepts are reviewed briefly and their application to functional strategies is described. The use of treatment validity in the functional analysis of functional analysis is mentioned as the ultimate strategy for evaluating the adequacy of this assessment approach. The paper ends with a discussion of problems of multiple control of behavior, behavioral classification systems, training parents and other mediators in the functional approach, cost-effectiveness, and the place of functional analysis in a reorganized health care delivery system. PMID:9125107

  10. A practical assessment of magnetic resonance diffusion-perfusion mismatch in acute stroke: observer variation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Kane, I; Hand, P J; Rivers, C; Armitage, P; Bastin, M E; Lindley, R; Dennis, M; Wardlaw, J M

    2009-11-01

    MR diffusion/perfusion mismatch may help identify patients for acute stroke treatment, but mixed results from clinical trials suggest that further evaluation of the mismatch concept is required. To work effectively, mismatch should predict prognosis on arrival at hospital. We assessed mismatch duration and associations with functional outcome in acute stroke. We recruited consecutive patients with acute stroke, recorded baseline clinical variables, performed MR diffusion and perfusion imaging and assessed 3-month functional outcome. We assessed practicalities, agreement between mismatch on mean transit time (MTT) or cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps, visually and with lesion volume, and the relationship of each to functional outcome. Of 82 patients starting imaging, 14 (17%) failed perfusion imaging. Overall, 42% had mismatch (56% at <6 h; 41% at 12-24 h; 23% at 24-48 h). Agreement for mismatch by visual versus volume assessment was fair using MTT (kappa 0.59, 95% CI 0.34-0.84) but poor using CBF (kappa 0.24, 95% CI 0.01-0.48). Mismatch by either definition was not associated with functional outcome, even when the analysis was restricted to just those with mismatch. Visual estimation is a reasonable proxy for mismatch volume on MTT but not CBF. Perfusion is more difficult for acute stroke patients than diffusion imaging. Mismatch is present in many patients beyond 12 h after stroke. Mismatch alone does not distinguish patients with good and poor prognosis; both can do well or poorly. Other factors, e.g. reperfusion, may influence outcome more strongly, even in patients without mismatch. PMID:19536582

  11. Voice and Functional Outcomes of Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Early Glottic Cancer: Ventricular Fold Resection as a Surrogate

    PubMed Central

    Berania, Ilyes; Dagenais, Christophe; Moubayed, Sami P.; Ayad, Tareck; Olivier, Marie-Jo; Guertin, Louis; Bissada, Eric; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Christopoulos, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the oncological and functional outcomes with transoral laser microsurgery (TOLM) of patients with early glottic cancer. Methods We have prospectively evaluated patients treated with TOLM for Tis, T1 or T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma. Evaluation of oncological outcomes, and voice and functional outcomes was assessed using voice-handicap index 10 (VHI-10) and performance status scale for head & neck cancer patients (PSS-H&N). Predictors of poor voice quality were evaluated using Student’s t-test. Results Thirty patients were included, with 17.7 months mean follow-up. There were no cases of locoregional recurrence. Twelve patients (40%) were considered as having a problematic voice outcome. Four subjects out of 30 (13.3%) had significant problems with understandability of speech. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in VHI-10 score were found with tumor stage and partial resection of the ventricular fold. Conclusions We report excellent oncological and functional outcomes in early glottic cancer treated with TOLM, with advanced tumors and partial resection of the ventricular fold as a surrogate predicting worse voice outcomes. PMID:26124910

  12. DTI measures track and predict motor function outcomes in stroke rehabilitation utilizing BCI technology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Young, Brittany M.; Walton, Leo M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Caldera, Kristin E.; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Tracking and predicting motor outcomes is important in determining effective stroke rehabilitation strategies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for evaluation of the underlying structural integrity of brain white matter tracts and may serve as a potential biomarker for tracking and predicting motor recovery. In this study, we examined the longitudinal relationship between DTI measures of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and upper-limb motor outcomes in 13 stroke patients (median 20-month post-stroke) who completed up to 15 sessions of intervention using brain–computer interface (BCI) technology. Patients’ upper-limb motor outcomes and PLIC DTI measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed longitudinally at four time points: pre-, mid-, immediately post- and 1-month-post intervention. DTI measures and ratios of each DTI measure comparing the ipsilesional and contralesional PLIC were correlated with patients’ motor outcomes to examine the relationship between structural integrity of the PLIC and patients’ motor recovery. We found that lower diffusivity and higher FA values of the ipsilesional PLIC were significantly correlated with better upper-limb motor function. Baseline DTI ratios were significantly correlated with motor outcomes measured immediately post and 1-month-post BCI interventions. A few patients achieved improvements in motor recovery meeting the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). These findings suggest that upper-limb motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions relates to the microstructural status of the PLIC. Lower diffusivity and higher FA measures of the ipsilesional PLIC contribute toward better motor recovery in the stroke-affected upper-limb. DTI-derived measures may be a clinically useful biomarker in tracking and predicting motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions. PMID:25964753

  13. DTI measures track and predict motor function outcomes in stroke rehabilitation utilizing BCI technology.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Walton, Leo M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Tyler, Mitchell E; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Caldera, Kristin E; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Tracking and predicting motor outcomes is important in determining effective stroke rehabilitation strategies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for evaluation of the underlying structural integrity of brain white matter tracts and may serve as a potential biomarker for tracking and predicting motor recovery. In this study, we examined the longitudinal relationship between DTI measures of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and upper-limb motor outcomes in 13 stroke patients (median 20-month post-stroke) who completed up to 15 sessions of intervention using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology. Patients' upper-limb motor outcomes and PLIC DTI measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed longitudinally at four time points: pre-, mid-, immediately post- and 1-month-post intervention. DTI measures and ratios of each DTI measure comparing the ipsilesional and contralesional PLIC were correlated with patients' motor outcomes to examine the relationship between structural integrity of the PLIC and patients' motor recovery. We found that lower diffusivity and higher FA values of the ipsilesional PLIC were significantly correlated with better upper-limb motor function. Baseline DTI ratios were significantly correlated with motor outcomes measured immediately post and 1-month-post BCI interventions. A few patients achieved improvements in motor recovery meeting the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). These findings suggest that upper-limb motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions relates to the microstructural status of the PLIC. Lower diffusivity and higher FA measures of the ipsilesional PLIC contribute toward better motor recovery in the stroke-affected upper-limb. DTI-derived measures may be a clinically useful biomarker in tracking and predicting motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions. PMID:25964753

  14. Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

  15. Functional assessments in the rodent stroke model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystal L Schaar; Miranda M Brenneman; Sean I Savitz

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a common cause of permanent disability accompanied by devastating impairments for which there is a pressing need for effective treatment. Motor, sensory and cognitive deficits are common following stroke, yet treatment is limited. Along with histological measures, functional outcome in animal models has provided valuable insight to the biological basis and potential rehabilitation efforts of experimental stroke. Developing

  16. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emily L; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45-88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44-81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature-and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  17. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them.

  18. The feasibility of using electronic clinical outcome assessments in people with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Chloe; Rofail, Diana; Gater, Adam; Lalonde, Justine K

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical outcome assessments (COAs) were originally developed for completion via pen and paper. However, in recent years there have been movements toward electronic capture of such data in an effort to reduce missing data, provide time-stamped records, minimize administrative burden, and avoid secondary data entry errors. Although established in many patient populations, the implications of using electronic COAs in schizophrenia are unknown. In accordance with International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force recommendations, in-depth cognitive debriefing and usability interviews were conducted with people with schizophrenia (n=12), their informal (unpaid) caregivers (n=12), and research support staff (n=6) to assess the suitability of administration of various electronic COA measures using an electronic tablet device. Minimal issues were encountered by participants when completing or administering the COAs in electronic format, with many finding it easier to complete instruments in this mode than by pen and paper. The majority of issues reported were specific to the device functionality rather than the electronic mode of administration. Findings support data collection via electronic tablet in people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. The appropriateness of other forms of electronic data capture (eg, smartphones, interactive voice response systems, etc) is a topic for future investigation. PMID:25870518

  19. Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate. Methods 180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union. Results The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74%) had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15%) and in 11 patients were major (6%). Conclusion This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention. PMID:22280557

  20. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a worse functional outcome of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Spanou, Marianna; Bouziana, Stella D; Papadopoulou, Maria; Giampatzis, Vasilios; Kostaki, Stavroula; Dourliou, Vasiliki; Tsopozidi, Maria; Savopoulos, Christos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether ischemic stroke severity and outcome is more adverse in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke between September 2010 and June 2013 were studied prospectively (n = 482; 40.2% males, age 78.8 ± 6.7 years). T2DM was defined as self-reported T2DM or antidiabetic treatment. Stroke severity was evaluated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission. The outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at discharge and with in-hospital mortality. Adverse outcome was defined as mRS score at discharge ? 2 or in-hospital death. The length of hospitalization was also recorded. RESULTS: T2DM was present in 32.2% of the study population. Patients with T2DM had a larger waist circumference, higher serum triglyceride and glucose levels and lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as higher prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure than patients without T2DM. On the other hand, diabetic patients had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reported smaller consumption of alcohol than non-diabetic patients. At admission, the NIHSS score did not differ between patients with and without T2DM (8.7 ± 8.8 and 8.6 ± 9.2, respectively; P = NS). At discharge, the mRS score also did not differ between the two groups (2.7 ± 2.1 and 2.7 ± 2.2 in patients with and without T2DM, respectively; P = NS). Rates of adverse outcome were also similar in patients with and without T2DM (62.3% and 58.5%, respectively; P = NS). However, when we adjusted for the differences between patients with T2DM and those without T2DM in cardiovascular risk factors, T2DM was independently associated with adverse outcome [relative risk (RR) = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.21-4.72, P = 0.012]. In-hospital mortality rates did not differ between patients with T2DM and those without T2DM (9.0% and 9.8%, respectively; P = NS). In multivariate analysis adjusting for the difference in cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups, T2DM was again not associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: T2DM does not appear to affect ischemic stroke severity but is independently associated with a worse functional outcome at discharge. PMID:25512800

  1. RELATIONS BETWEEN STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF ASSESSMENT AUTHENTICITY, STUDY APPROACHES AND LEARNING OUTCOME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith T. M. Gulikers; Theo J. Bastiaens; Paul A. Kirschner; Liesbeth Kester

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between perceptions of authenticity and alignment on study approach and learning outcome. Senior students of a vocational training program performed an authentic assessment and filled in a questionnaire about the authenticity of various assessment characteristics and the alignment between the assessment and the instruction. Deep or surface study activities and the development of transferable generic

  2. An Exploration of High-Quality Student Affairs Learning Outcomes Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Jones, Elizabeth; Aloi, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted because limited research has occurred in the area of co-curricular student learning outcomes assessment, which has resulted in confusion within the student affairs profession on how to develop and implement assessment plans. The purpose of this study was to examine high-quality assessment practices of student affairs…

  3. Outcomes-based assessment in practice: some examples and emerging insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Brindley

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of outcomes-based assessment and reporting systems in edu- cational programs has been accompanied by a range of political and technical problems, including tensions between the summative and formative purposes of assessment and doubts surrounding the validity and reliability of teacher- constructed assessment tasks. This article examines ways in which these problems have been manifested and addressed, using two

  4. Longitudinal Assessment of Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes: First-Year Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tushnet, Naida C., Flaherty, John, Jr., Smith, And

    2004-01-01

    The Longitudinal Assessment of Comprehensive School Reform Implementation and Outcomes (LACIO) responds to the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement for an evaluation of the federal Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program. The legislation stipulates two broad goals for the evaluation: (1) to evaluate the implementation and outcomes achieved by…

  5. Model Mis-Specification In Assessing The Impact of Financial Aid on Academic Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigal Alon

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the paper is the development of a novel conceptual framework that aims to remedy a critical mis-specification in prior research on the impact of financial aid on academic outcomes: the blending of the effect of aid eligibility with the influence of aid amounts on academic outcomes. To assess the impact of aid amounts received on college graduation

  6. Program Assessment Report for MS-SOC, 2010/2011 Program Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Kamberov, George

    Program Assessment Report for MS-SOC, 2010/2011 Program Outcomes 1. Human Computer Interaction as part of SOC 606, would be an adequate replacement. An alternative replacement outcome would be one. The requirements analysis course, SOC 611, and the HCI course, SOC 551, need to be better integrated

  7. Accuracy and reproducibility of a retrospective outcome assessment for lumbar spinal stenosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrospective assessment of surgery outcome is considered problematic. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of a retrospective outcome assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis surgery with reference to prospective outcome scale measurements. Method Outcome of surgery from 100 lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients was evaluated retrospectively from patient files of a 3-month outpatient visit performed according to a standard clinical protocol by two independent researchers. In the retrospective analysis, outcome was graded as 2?=?good if the clinical condition had clearly improved, 1?=?moderate if it had just slightly improved, 0?=?poor if it had not improved or was even worse than before the surgical treatment (Retrospective 3- point scale). A prospectively assessed Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire (ODI), Visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and a patient satisfaction questionnaire were used as references of standards. Reproducibility of the measurements was evaluated. Results The retrospective 3-point scale correlated with ODI (r?=?0.528; P?outcome than in the moderate outcome. Retrospective 3-point scale demonstrated substantial intra-rater and inter-rater repeatability (??=?0.682, P?assessment of spinal surgery outcome is highly reproducible. Accuracy is highest in the patients with poor and good surgical result. PMID:22642923

  8. Pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: assessing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Nicoletta; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David

    2015-07-01

    A substantial body of evidence has supported the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment available for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is increasing agreement that the important treatment outcomes for ADHD extend beyond improvement in core symptoms and that a more generic (or global) concept of remission is the overarching goal of treatment. However, there is no consensus on the best definition of remission or on how best to conceptualize and measure broader treatment outcomes. In this article, we provide an overview of the various methods and approaches to measuring treatment outcomes for ADHD with respect to symptoms, impairment, quality of life, adverse events and safety as well as cognition. We will describe the ways that they may be used within routine clinical practice and think ahead about the kinds of studies that are required to move the field forward. PMID:26109097

  9. Program Assessment Report for MS-SOC, 2012/2013 Program Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Kamberov, George

    Program Assessment Report for MS-SOC, 2012/2013 Program Outcomes 1 be considered, given that it is now a significant aspect of SOC 542. Courses Modeling: Perform process modeling for enterprise workflows. SOC 606 Internet

  10. The development of a comorbidity index with physical function as the outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne L. Groll; Teresa To; Claire Bombardier; James G. Wright

    2005-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesPhysical function is an important measure of success of many medical and surgical interventions. Ability to adjust for comorbid disease is essential in health services research and epidemiologic studies. Current indices have primarily been developed with mortality as the outcome, and are not sensitive enough when the outcome is physical function. The objective of this study was to

  11. Assessing performance outcomes of new graduates utilizing simulation in a military transition program.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robie V; Smith, Sherrill J; Sheffield, Clair M; Wier, Grady

    2013-01-01

    This multi-site, quasi-experimental study examined the performance outcomes of nurses (n = 152) in a military nurse transition program. A modified-performance instrument was used to assess participants in two high-fidelity simulation scenarios. Although results indicated a significant increase in scores posttraining, only moderate interrater reliability results were found for the new instrument. These findings have implications for nurse educators assessing performance-based outcomes of new nurses completing transition programs. PMID:23703274

  12. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism During Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel S. DichterJ; J. Anthony Richey; Alison M. Rittenberg; Antoinette Sabatino; James W. Bodfish

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for\\u000a monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation\\u000a in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary outcomes, participants with ASDs\\u000a showed hyperactivation in left midfrontal and anterior cingulate gyrus. Groups

  13. Social Cognition as a Mediator between Neurocognition and Functional Outcome in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Mariapaola; Liu, Lu; Penn, David L.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Perkins, Diana O.; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In schizophrenia, neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome are all inter-related, with social cognition mediating the impact that impaired neurocognition has on functional outcome. Less clear is the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. 137 CHR participants completed a neurocognitive test battery, a battery of social cognition tasks and the Social Functioning Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all social cognition tasks were reliable and valid measures of the latent variable. The path from neurocognition to functioning was statistically significant (standardized coefficient ? = 0.22, p <0.01). The path from social cognition to functioning was also statistically significant (?= 0.27, p<0.05). In the mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a nonsignificant indirect effect that was the association of social cognition with neurocognition and with functional outcome (? =0.20, 95% CI =?0.07 to 0.52, p=0.11). However, social cognition was significantly associated with neurocognition (? = 0.80, p < 0.001) and the path from neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as soon as the mediator (social cognition) was entered into the mediation model (? = 0.02, p = 0.92). All of the model fit indices were very good. Unlike what has been observed with psychotic patients, social cognition does not seem to mediate the pathway from neurocognition to functional outcome when assessed with a measure of social attainment in individuals at CHR for psychosis. PMID:24012459

  14. Functional Screening and Assessment: How and Why

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Eagar; A. Owen

    2002-01-01

    This manual was developed by the Centre for Health Service Development at the University of Wollongong and funded by Queensland Health. It is designed to assist HACC services undertake a Tier 1 HACC Functional Screen and undertake Tier 2 HACC Functional Assessments. Like all other States and Territories, Queensland Health supports the decision to adopt the functional tools described in

  15. The Reliability and Predictive Ability of a Biomarker of Oxidative DNA Damage on Functional Outcomes after Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Lin, Keh-Chung; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76). Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Medical Research Council (MRC) scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = ?0.38, r = ?0.30; p < 0.05). After rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = ?0.34) and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p < 0.05). Baseline 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with post-treatment FMA, MRC, and pain scores (r = ?0.34, ?0.31, and 0.25; p < 0.05), indicating its ability to predict functional outcomes. 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased, and functional outcomes were improved after rehabilitation. The exploratory study findings conclude that 8-OHdG is a reliable and promising biomarker of oxidative stress and could be a valid predictor of functional outcomes in patients. Monitoring of behavioral indicators along with biomarkers may have crucial benefits in translational stroke research. PMID:24743892

  16. Grade 3 open tibial shaft fractures treated with a circular frame, functional outcome and systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dickson, D R; Moulder, E; Hadland, Y; Giannoudis, P V; Sharma, H K

    2015-04-01

    We report on the surgical and functional outcome of 22 patients with Grade 3 open tibial fractures treated with circular frame. All cases united and there were no re-fractures or amputations. All patients were assessed at a minimum of 1-year post frame removal. Assessment included clinical examination, IOWA ankle and knee scores, Olerud and Molander ankle score and EuroQol EQ-5D. Clinical scores were either good or excellent in over half of the patients in all knee and ankle scores. There was a significant positive correlation between functional outcomes and the EQ-5D score. The EQ-5D mean health state visual analogue score was comparable to the general UK population despite patients scoring less than the average UK population in three of the five domains. 36% reported some difficulties in walking and 41% had problems with pain. 14% had difficulties with self-care and 46% had difficulties with their usual activities. 14% had problems with anxiety or depression. Systematic review of the literature suggests, in the management of open tibial fractures, circular frames provide equivalent or superior surgical outcomes in comparison with other techniques. Our study finds the application of a circular frame also results in a good functional outcome in the majority of cases. PMID:25648287

  17. Impact of transanal endoscopic microsurgery on functional outcome and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Gosselink, M. P.; Neijenhuis, P. A.; Schouten, W. R.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; de Graaf, E. J. R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimal invasive technique for local excision of rectal tumours. The procedure is performed via a rectoscope with a diametre of 4 cm. The aim of this prospective study was to assess both functional outcome and quality of life after TEM. Patients and methods Between 2004 and 2006, 47 patients were studied prior to and at least 6 months after TEM. Demographics, operative details and post-operative complications were recorded. Functional outcome was determined using the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire and the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) score. Results Six months after surgery, median FISI score was found to be decreased (p?

  18. The McLean-Harvard first-episode project: 6-month symptomatic and functional outcome in affective and nonaffective psychosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baldessarini RJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: The McLean–Harvard First-Episode Project recruited affective and nonaffective patients at their first lifetime psychiatric hospitalization.Methods: Baseline evaluation and 6-month follow-up in 257 cases yielded recovery outcomes defined by syndromal (absence of DSM-IV criteria for a current episode) and functional (vocational and residential status at least at baseline levels) status. Time to recovery was assessed by survival analysis, and risk

  19. Standardized mastery content assessments for predicting NCLEX-RN outcomes.

    PubMed

    Emory, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Nurse educators need predictors of failure for early intervention. This study investigated the predictability of fundamentals, mental health, and pharmacology standardized assessment scores to identify the risk of baccalaureate students' failure on the NCLEX-RN. Using logistic regression the pharmacology assessment score was predictive with 73.7% accuracy. Use of the pharmacology assessment can assist in early identification of at-risk students in efforts to better prepare for the NCLEX-RN examination. PMID:23407195

  20. Neurobiological Regret and Rejoice Functions for Aversive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Pammi V.S.; Capra, C. Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles; Berns, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    A decision maker may experience regret when a choice he makes results in a more adverse outcome than a different choice would have yielded. Analogously, he may experience rejoice when his choice resulted in better outcomes. We used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of regret and rejoice where payoffs are in terms of a non-monetary medium. Incentives were created using painful outcomes in the form of mild electrical shocks to the foot and the possibility of avoiding them. We hypothesized that the neural response to a painful outcome resulting from an individual’s choice would also reflect the degree of regret as measured by the likelihood that alternative choices would have yielded the same adverse outcome. Similarly, when an individual avoids a potential shock, he would experience a degree of rejoice that correlates with the probability he had of receiving the shock. For example, winning a bet when winning was unlikely, even if the outcome is the same, evokes more rejoice than winning when it was highly probable. Our results suggest that activation of a cortical network, consisting of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, left superior frontal cortex, right angular gyrus, and left thalamus, correlates with the degree of regret. A different network, including the rostral anterior cingulate, left hippocampus, left ventral striatum, and brainstem/midbrain correlated with rejoice. The right inferior orbitofrontal cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate showed similar patterns of activation with both regret and rejoice, suggesting that these regions may be associated with surprise from the realization of relatively unlikely events. Our results suggest that distinct, but overlapping networks are involved in the experiences of regret and rejoice. PMID:18042401

  1. An assessment of patient-reported outcomes for men with erectile dysfunction: Pfizer's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C Cappelleri; V J Stecher

    2008-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for men with erectile dysfunction (ED) have blossomed in the published literature and at professional conferences. These outcomes have been central to study the science of ED itself and to evaluate efficacy of treatment for men with ED. In this review article we highlight and distinguish among seven key PROs: the International Index of Erectile Function, for

  2. Morbidity and functional mid-term outcomes using Prolift pelvic floor repair systems

    PubMed Central

    Kozal, Sébastien; Ripert, Thomas; Bayoud, Younes; Menard, Johan; Nicolacopoulos, Ioannis; Bednarzyck, Laurence; Staerman, Frederic; Larré, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assess midterm morbidity and functional outcomes using the Prolift (Gynecare/Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) system and identify potential related risk factors. The Prolift mesh system to treat genital prolapse was introduced in 2005. It was withdrawn from the market in early 2013 after rising doubts about safety. Methods: Over a 7-year period, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 112 consecutive patients who underwent the Prolift procedure since 2006. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, anatomical and functional outcomes were recorded. Results: The median follow-up was 49.5 months (range: 16–85). The mean age was 64.7 ± 10.9 years (range: 40–86). Of the 112 patients, 74 patients had stage 3 (66.1%) and 8 patients had stage 4 (7.14%) vaginal prolapse. Prolift surgery was performed for pro-lapse recurrence for 26 patients (23.2%). Total mesh was used in 32 patients (29%), an isolated anterior mesh in 57 patients (51%) and an isolated posterior mesh in 23 patients (21%). Concomitant surgical procedures were performed for 44 patients (39.3%). Overall, 72% (18/25) of the complications were managed medically. We reported a failure rate of 8% (n = 9) occurring after a median follow-up of 9.5 months (range: 1–45). Among the 64 patients who had preoperative sexual activity (57.1%), de novo dyspareunia occurred in 9 patients (16.07%). We extracted predictive factors concerning failure, complications and sexuality. Conclusion: Despite its market withdrawal, the Prolift system was associated with good midterm anatomic outcomes and few severe complications. Long-term follow-up data are still lacking, but surgeons and patients may be reassured. PMID:25295130

  3. Assessment and prognosis of peripheral artery measures of vascular function.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Todd J; Phillips, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. Our understanding of its role in health and disease has increased dramatically since the pivotal discovery of nitric oxide more than 30 years ago. Clinical researchers utilized emerging technologies to study the vasodilator properties of the endothelium in both the coronary and peripheral circulation. Early studies established the methodologies and were able to demonstrate attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to atherosclerosis and its risk factors. A variety of interventions can modulate endothelial function. More recent studies have established that some of these measures are independent predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. As such, peripheral measures of endothelial function are now established surrogate markers of vascular risk and have become important markers for clinical research. In this review, we will discuss a variety of measures of peripheral artery function to assess both conduit and resistance vessel function in humans. PMID:25460848

  4. MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Elwood

    2001-01-01

    MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

  5. The Case for Assessing Complex General Education Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of general education has a long history, although relative to the age of liberal education and educational evaluation it is a very recent development. One of the first recorded efforts to comprehensively assess student achievement in higher education in the United States occurred in the late 1920s and early 1930s, when many institutions…

  6. Assessing the Dimensions and Outcomes of an Effective Teammate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Tammy N.; Klamon, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Though teamwork is a mainstay of corporate America and business academia, individual assessment and compensation are problematic in disciplining and removing teammates who are free-riders and rewarding high performing team members who bear a disproportionate burden of the project. Therefore, the authors set out to develop and test an assessment

  7. Cognitive recovery and predictors of functional outcome 1 year after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2009-09-01

    Outcome studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI) have shown that functional status can be predicted by demographic, injury severity, and trauma-related factors. Concurrent cognitive functions as one of the determinants of functional outcome is less documented. This study evaluated the effects of concurrent neuropsychological measures on functional outcome 1 year after injury. Neuropsychological data, employment status, self-reported fatigue, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) were collected from 115 persons with TBI (ranging from mild to severe) at 3 and 12 months postinjury. Principal components analysis was conducted with the neuropsychological measures and three components emerged. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and injury severity related factors, was used to test the effects of cognitive components at 12 months on functional outcome (GOSE). One year after injury, 64% were categorized as "good recovery" and 36% as "moderate disability" according to GOSE. Good functional recovery depended on shorter duration of posttraumatic amnesia, less fatigue, absence of intracranial pathology, higher education, and better performance on cognitive measures. The predictive values of Verbal/Reasoning and Visual/Perception components are supported; each added significantly and improved prediction of functional outcome. The Memory/Speed component showed a near-significant relationship to outcome. PMID:19602303

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and functional outcomes in the elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to consider key evidence that treatment of vitamin D insufficiency has measurable clinical benefits for the musculoskeletal system in the elderly. The outcomes considered are increased bone mass, decreased rates of bone loss, improved muscle performance, reduced risk o...

  9. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism during Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Richey, J. Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary…

  10. NK1 tachykinin receptor treatment is superior to capsaicin pre-treatment in improving functional outcome following acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Turner, Renée J; Vink, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Previous results from our laboratory have shown that blockade of the substance P (SP) pathway with an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist significantly reduces blood brain barrier breakdown, cerebral edema and functional deficits following ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether removal of all neuropeptides is more efficacious than blocking SP alone. As such, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of neuropeptide depletion with capsaicin pre-treatment on functional outcome following acute ischemic stroke in rats. Animals received 125 mg/kg of capsaicin or equal volume of saline vehicle, administered subcutaneously over a 3-day period. At 14 days following treatment animals were subject to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. A subset of animals was treated with an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist (NAT) or vehicle at 4h after the onset of stroke only. The functional outcome of animals was assessed for a 7-day period following stroke using a rotarod device, the bilateral asymmetry test, modified neurological severity score, open field and angleboard. Although capsaicin pre-treatment improved outcome, treatment with an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist was superior in improving post-stroke functional outcome. This data suggests that some neuropeptides may play a beneficial role following stroke, whilst others such as SP are deleterious. PMID:25151181

  11. Learning Outcomes and Assessment Strategies for a Psychology Sandwich Placement Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Peter; Hill, Ros

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this action research study was to identify learning outcomes for assessing work-related transferable skills during undergraduate psychology sandwich year placements as part of an ongoing cycle of development of the placement. The merits of assessing such skills are considered in relation to the role of universities in preparing…

  12. Evaluating the Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Process in Undergraduate Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Craig M.; Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are increasingly being held more accountable for assessing student learning both in and out of their classrooms along with reporting results to their stakeholders. The purpose of this study, which examined assessment of student learning outcomes in undergraduate park and recreation academic programs, was two-fold:…

  13. Student Outcomes Assessment, 2000-01: A Progress Report to the Virginia Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germanna Community Coll., Locust Grove, VA.

    This report details the activities, findings, and actions that have made up Germanna Community College's (Virginia) student outcomes assessment program in specific reporting areas for 2000-2001. The following sections comprise the report: (1) an executive summary; (2) a report on assessment activities in five general education areas, including…

  14. Using Mobile Technologies for Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings: Outcomes of Five Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearnley, Christine; Taylor, Jill; Hennessy, Scott; Parks, Maria; Coates, Catherine; Haigh, Jackie; Fairhall, John; Riley, Kevin; Dransfield, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of the Mobile Technologies Pilot Project for the Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL). ALPS is a partnership of five Higher Education Institutions (HEI) that aims to develop and improve assessment, and thereby learning, in practice settings for…

  15. Interrater Reliability of the Outcomes and Assessment Information Set: Results from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Elizabeth A.; Fortinsky, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    The Outcomes and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) is now used extensively for regulatory, reimbursement, research, and clinical purposes in home health care. However, little is known about the interrater reliability of OASIS items based on assessments from home-health-agency clinicians. Therefore, we evaluated OASIS item interrater reliability…

  16. Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

  17. Combining the Tasks of Grading Individual Assignments and Assessing Student Outcomes in Project-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    ABET requires that engineering programs demonstrate continuous assessment and continuous improvement in order to be accredited. Central to the process is establishing and assessing measurable "student outcomes" that reflect whether the goals and objectives of the program are being met. This paper examines effective strategies for…

  18. Does Performance in Progressive Assessment Influence the Outcome in Final Examination? An Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alauddin, Mohammad; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether performance in progressive assessment necessarily influences the outcome in the end-of-semester final examination using the experience of an introductory postgraduate statistics course at a large Australian university. The average score on progressive assessments was higher than that of the final examination.…

  19. Towards a Model and Methodology for Assessing Student Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duque, Lola C.; Weeks, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to introduce a conceptual model for assessing undergraduate student learning outcomes and satisfaction that involves concepts drawn from the services marketing and assessment literatures; second, to illustrate the utility of the model as implemented in an academic department (geography)…

  20. "Doing the Best You Can with What You Have:" Lessons Learned from Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses outcomes focused assessments of library research instruction using pretests and posttests, attitude and usage surveys, and focus groups at The Citadel library. Suggests that assessment results influence library instruction content, staffing, collection development, and collaboration with other faculty and academic departments.…

  1. TP53 mutations in human cancers: functional selection and impact on cancer prognosis and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, A; Achatz, M I W; Borresen-Dale, A L; Hainaut, P; Olivier, M

    2007-04-01

    A large amount of data is available on the functional impact of missense mutations in TP53 and on mutation patterns in many different cancers. New data on mutant p53 protein function, cancer phenotype and prognosis have recently been integrated in the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 database (http://www-p53.iarc.fr/). Based on these data, we summarize here current knowledge on the respective roles of mutagenesis and biological selection of mutations with specific functional characteristic in shaping the patterns and phenotypes of mutations observed in human cancers. The main conclusion is that intrinsic mutagenicity rates, loss of transactivation activities, and to a lesser extent, dominant-negative activities are the main driving forces that determine TP53 mutation patterns and influence tumor phenotype. In contrast, current experimental data on the acquisition of oncogenic activities (gain of function) by p53 mutants are too scarce and heterogenous to assess whether this property has an impact on tumor development and outcome. In the case of inherited TP53 mutations causing Li-Fraumeni and related syndromes, the age at onset of some tumor types is in direct relation with the degree of loss of transactivation capacity of missense mutations. Finally, studies on large case series demonstrate that TP53 mutations are independent markers of bad prognosis in breast and several other cancers, and that the exact type and position of the mutation influences disease outcome. Further studies are needed to determine how TP53 haplotypes or loss of alleles interact with mutations to modulate their impact on cancer development and prognosis. PMID:17401424

  2. Early functional magnetic resonance imaging activations predict language outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Ronneberger, Olaf; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Klöppel, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    An accurate prediction of system-specific recovery after stroke is essential to provide rehabilitation therapy based on the individual needs. We explored the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from an auditory language comprehension experiment to predict individual language recovery in 21 aphasic stroke patients. Subjects with an at least moderate language impairment received extensive language testing 2 weeks and 6 months after left-hemispheric stroke. A multivariate machine learning technique was used to predict language outcome 6 months after stroke. In addition, we aimed to predict the degree of language improvement over 6 months. 76% of patients were correctly separated into those with good and bad language performance 6 months after stroke when based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from language relevant areas. Accuracy further improved (86% correct assignments) when age and language score were entered alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging data into the fully automatic classifier. A similar accuracy was reached when predicting the degree of language improvement based on imaging, age and language performance. No prediction better than chance level was achieved when exploring the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired two days after stroke. This study demonstrates the high potential of current machine learning techniques to predict system-specific clinical outcome even for a disease as heterogeneous as stroke. Best prediction of language recovery is achieved when the brain activation potential after system-specific stimulation is assessed in the second week post stroke. More intensive early rehabilitation could be provided for those with a predicted poor recovery and the extension to other systems, for example, motor and attention seems feasible. PMID:20299389

  3. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  4. Psychometric validation of patient-reported outcome measures assessing chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lauren M; Williams, Valerie SL; Fehnel, Sheri E; Carson, Robyn T; MacDougall, James; Baird, Mollie J; Tourkodimitris, Stavros; Kurtz, Caroline B; Johnston, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures assessing treatment outcomes in previous CC clinical trials have not met the requirements described in the US Food and Drug Administration’s guidance on patient-reported outcomes. Aim Psychometric analyses using data from one Phase IIb study and two Phase III trials of linaclotide for the treatment of chronic constipation (CC) were conducted to document the measurement properties of patient-reported CC Symptom Severity Measures. Study methods Each study had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, comparing placebo to four doses of oral linaclotide taken once daily for 4 weeks in the Phase IIb dose-ranging study (n=307) and to two doses of linaclotide taken once daily for 12 weeks in the Phase III trials (n=1,272). The CC Symptom Severity Measures addressing bowel function (Bowel Movement Frequency, Stool Consistency, Straining) and abdominal symptoms (Bloating, Abdominal Discomfort, Abdominal Pain) were administered daily using interactive voice-response system technology. Intraclass correlations, Pearson correlations, factor analyses, F-tests, and effect sizes were computed. Results The CC Symptom Severity Measures demonstrated satisfactory test–retest reliability and construct validity. Factor analyses indicated one factor for abdominal symptoms and another for bowel symptoms. Known-groups F-tests substantiated the discriminating ability of the CC Symptom Severity Measures. Responsiveness statistics were moderate to strong, indicating that these measures are capable of detecting change. Conclusion In large studies of CC patients, linaclotide significantly improved abdominal and bowel symptoms. These psychometric analyses support the reliability, validity, discriminating ability, and responsiveness of the CC Symptom Severity Measures for evaluating treatment outcomes in the linaclotide clinical studies. PMID:25298737

  5. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  6. DISTORTIONS IN STATE LEVEL PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES ON HIGH STAKES ASSESSMENTS

    E-print Network

    Hornback, Joseph Edward

    2013-05-31

    This dissertation addresses two research questions: 1. Do states misrepresent their progress on their own state assessments? 2. If states do distort their progress, are their predictors to suggest why this distortion occurs? ...

  7. Outcome measures for clinical trials assessing treatment of cystic fibrosis lung disease

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, Donald R; Konstan, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex genetic disease characterized by death from loss of lung function. Therapies target pathophysiologic changes associated with pulmonary disease progression. Although therapeutic mechanisms differ, efficacy demonstration is limited to a few accepted outcome measures, each with shortcomings that are becoming more pronounced as CF population health improves. Pulmonary function improvement (as forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) and reduction of pulmonary exacerbation risk are commonly used outcomes. Changes in FEV1 decline rate, quality of life, linear growth and/or weight gain are less utilized outcomes. Validated outcomes tend to work best in subjects with more aggressive or advanced lung disease and less so in healthier subjects. Assays of effects on primary therapeutic targets have yet to be validated as surrogate measures of clinical efficacy. As CF population health improves, it will become increasingly difficult to employ current clinical outcome measures to demonstrate efficacy.

  8. Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belle Rose Ragins; John L. Cotton

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of the type of mentoring relationship and the gender composition of the relationship on mentoring functions and career outcomes reported by 352 female and 257 male proteges. Proteges of informal mentors viewed their mentors as more effective and received greater compensation than proteges of formal mentors. Proteges with informal mentors also received more career outcomes

  9. The echocardiographic assessment of functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is common, clinically important, and mechanistically complex. Its assessment by echocardiography can be challenging, and particular care is needed in the quantification of severity. Echocardiographers need to be aware of the potential limitations of flow convergence and vena contracta methods in assessing severity and alert to the prognostic importance of even moderate functional MR. Three-dimensional echocardiography has the potential to improve both the understanding of the mechanisms of functional MR and the accuracy of its quantification. PMID:21078834

  10. Mouse models of osteoarthritis: modelling risk factors and assessing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hang; Beier, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent musculoskeletal disease that results in pain and low quality of life for patients, as well as enormous medical and socioeconomic burdens. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of OA are still poorly understood. As such, mouse models of the disease are having increasingly important roles in OA research owing to the advancements of microsurgical techniques and the use of genetically modified mice, as well as the development of novel assessment tools. In this Review, we discuss available mouse models of OA and applicable assessment tools in studies of experimental OA. PMID:24662645

  11. Functional health outcomes as a measure of health care quality for Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, A S; Lawrence, W F; Haffer, S C; Clancy, C M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS), a new quality measure in the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set, is designed to assess physical and mental functional health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare+Choice organizations. We discuss the rationale for the HOS measure together with methodologic challenges in its use and interpretation, using descriptive data from the baseline Medicare HOS to illustrate some of these challenges. DATA SOURCES/STUDY DESIGN: The 1999 Cohort 2 Medicare HOS baseline data were used for a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. A random sample of 1,000 beneficiaries from each health plan with a Medicare+Choice contract was surveyed (N = 156,842; 282 organizations included in these analyses) . PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HOS measure is designed to assess a previously unmeasured dimension of quality. Plan-level variation was seen across all baseline measures of sociodemographic characteristics and illness burden. At the individual level socioeconomic position as measured by educational attainment was strongly associated with functional status. The least educated beneficiaries had the highest burden of illness on all measures examined, and there was a consistent and significant gradient in health and functional status across all levels of education. In analyses stratified by race and ethnicity, socioeconomic gradients in f un ct ion persist ed. CONCLUSIONS Despite limitations, by focusing at t en t ion on the need to improve functional health out comes among elderly Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare+Choice, the HOS can serve as an important new tool to support efforts to improve health care quality. The HOS provides valuable information at the federal, state, and health plan levels that can be used to identify, prioritize, and evaluate quality improvement interventions and monitor progress for the program overall as well as for vulnerable subgroups. To interpret the HOS as a quality measure individual-and plan-level differences in functional status and illness burden, as well as methodologic issues in health status measurement, need to be recognized and addressed. PMID:16148963

  12. Functional outcome following a large head total hip arthroplasty: A retrospective analysis of mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sanjay; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the reasons that hip resurfacing and large head metal on metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) became popular in Asia was the possible increased range of movement and thereby improved function of the hip joint. Due to concerns of MOM articulation an alternative bearing was sought. Hence, a shift from large head MOM to large head ceramic on ceramic (COC) was made. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome including range of motion (ROM) and dislocation rates following large head MOM and large head COC THA. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, 39 primary THA with large head MOM with a mean age of 56 years (range 36-72 years) and average followup of 54 months (range 38-70 months) were compared with 23 primary THA with large head COC bearing with a mean age of 48 years (range 36-68 years) and an average followup of 18 months (range 12-26 months). Functional outcome was assessed using the Modified Harris Hip Score. Dislocation rate and ROM were compared. Results: Global ROM averaged 248 degrees with MOM group and 252 degrees with the COC group. One patient with metal bearing had dislocation at an average 3 year followup which required revision THA while there were no complications in the COC group. MHHS averaged 89 points in MOM and 94 in COC THR. Conclusion: This study has shown that large head ceramic on ceramic THA is a good alternative to large head metal on metal THA with comparable dislocation rates and range of movements and without complications of metallosis in Asian patients. PMID:25143647

  13. Relationship between Sleep Disturbance and Functional Outcomes in Daily Life Habits of Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Shervin S.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Bjornson, Kristie F.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this study was to describe sleep patterns and accomplishment of daily life habits in children with Down syndrome (DS) and to investigate the relationship between subjective indicators of sleep disturbance with functional outcomes in daily life. Design: Cross-sectional study with an Internet sample Setting: Online survey filled out at home Participants: 110 parents of children with DS and 29 parents of children with typical development (TD), age 5 to 18 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was employed to collect information about sleep disturbances in 8 domains (subscales) and a total score. The Life Habits questionnaire (Life-H) sampled information about daily life habits in 11 domains. Multivariable regression modeling was used to assess the associations between sleep disturbances and the accomplishment of daily life habits. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was a significant explanatory factor in 10 of 11 daily life habits and the total Life-H score. Sleep anxiety and parasomnias significantly influenced the accomplishment of life habits in children with DS as compared to children with typical development. When evaluated in multivariable models in conjunction with the other 7 domains of sleep disturbances, SDB was the most dominant explanatory factor for accomplishment of life habits. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are negatively related to accomplishment of daily life functions. Prevention and treatment of sleep problems, particularly sleep disordered breathing, in children with Down syndrome may lead to enhanced accomplishment of daily life habits and activities. Citation: Churchill SS, Kieckhefer GM, Bjornson KF, Herting JR. Relationship between sleep disturbance and functional outcomes in daily life habits of children with Down syndrome. SLEEP 2015;38(1):61–71. PMID:25325444

  14. The assessment of outcome after total knee arthroplasty: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Hossain, F S; Konan, S; Patel, S; Rodriguez-Merchan, E C; Haddad, F S

    2015-01-01

    The routine use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in evaluating the outcome after arthroplasty by healthcare organisations reflects a growing recognition of the importance of patients' perspectives in improving treatment. Although widely embraced in the NHS, there are concerns that PROMs are being used beyond their means due to a poor understanding of their limitations. This paper reviews some of the current challenges in using PROMs to evaluate total knee arthroplasty. It highlights alternative methods that have been used to improve the assessment of outcome. PMID:25568406

  15. Distortions in State Level Performance Outcomes on High Stakes Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornback, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses two research questions: 1. Do states misrepresent their progress on their own state assessments? 2. If states do distort their progress, are their predictors to suggest why this distortion occurs? The first research question requires that distortion be defined. For the purposes of this dissertation I calculated the…

  16. Longitudinal Rasch Modeling in the Context of Psychotherapy Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Dena A.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2006-01-01

    The present study illustrates an extension of Kamata's (2001) restricted form of the hierarchical generalized linear model that provides a multilevel longitudinal Rasch measurement model appropriate for use with polytomous responses. This extension can be used to assess average and interindividual change in the latent trait of interest,…

  17. Outcomes Assessment: Opportunity on the Wings of Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the opportunities and dangers associated with various aspects of implementing the Engineering Criteria 2000. Topics include: (1) understanding the continuous quality improvement process; (2) use of assessment terminology; (3) development of performance criteria; (4) use of local resources; (5) hiring an expert to aid the transition; (6)…

  18. Ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement increases the risk of poor pain and function outcomes after hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor pain and function outcomes are undesirable after an elective surgery such as total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Recent studies have indicated that the presence of contralateral joint influences outcomes of THA/TKA, however the impact of ipsilateral knee/hip involvement on THA/TKA outcomes has not been explored. The objective of this study was to assess the association of ipsilateral knee/hip joint involvement on short-term and medium-term pain and function outcomes after THA/TKA. Methods In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, we used the data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of ipsilateral knee or hip joint involvement with moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary and revision THA and TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Results At 2 years, 3,823 primary THA, 4,701 primary TKA, 1,218 revision THA and 725 revision TKA procedures were studied. After adjusting for multiple covariates, ipsilateral knee pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary THA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, odds ratio (OR), 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 3.6); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.1 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.3); at 5 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.0). Ipsilateral hip pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary TKA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.7); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.9); at 5 years, OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Similar associations were noted for revision THA and TKA patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the presence of ipsilateral joint involvement after THA or TKA is strongly associated with poor pain and function outcomes. A potential way to improve outcomes is to address ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement. PMID:23738845

  19. The Impact of a Proficiency-Based Assessment and Reassessment of Learning Outcomes System on Student Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This research compares a student-centered, proficiency-based assessment and reassessment of learning outcomes (PARLO) system to traditional assessment in a college-level introductory statistics class. The PARLO class was assessed on learning outcomes using a three-tiered proficiency scale and given the opportunity to resubmit assignments to…

  20. Split Renal Function Outcome after Renal Angioplasty in Patients with Unilateral Renal Artery Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AGNES LA BATIDE-ALANORE; MICHEL AZIZI; MARC FROISSART; ALAIN RAYNAUD; PIERRE-FRANCOIS PLOUIN

    2001-01-01

    The general use of bilateral rather than separate renal function evaluation has led to the publication of conflicting results concerning the effect of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) on renal function, especially in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively, in standardized conditions, split renal function (SRF) and GFR outcome after successful

  1. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  2. Functional and Aesthetic Outcome Enhancement of Head and Neck Reconstruction through Secondary Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Stefan O.P.; Payne, Caroline E.

    2010-01-01

    The foundation of head and neck reconstruction is based on two pillars: the restoration of function and the restoration of aesthetics. The objective of this article is to provide insight into how to prevent undesirable functional and aesthetic outcome after the initial procedure and also to provide solutions for enhancement of functional and aesthetic outcome with secondary procedures. Functional and aesthetic outcome enhancement is discussed in relation to the individual structures within the oral cavity, for the mandible, and for facial reconstruction. Normal prerequisites for all individual structures are described, and key points for restoration of these functional and aesthetic issues are proposed. In addition, further suggestions to improve suboptimal results after initial reconstructive surgery are presented. Understanding the function and aesthetics of the area to be reconstructed will allow appropriate planning and management of the initial reconstruction. Secondary enhancement should be attainable by minor procedures rather than a requirement to redo the initial reconstruction. PMID:22550452

  3. Alzheimer's disease: assessment of functional status.

    PubMed

    Winogrond, I R; Fisk, A A

    1983-12-01

    The initial assessments of cognitive, psychologic, and behavioral functioning of 17 adults enrolled in a day care program for victims of Alzheimer's disease are described. These evaluations by the staff, the patients themselves, and their primary caregivers made use of standardized quantitative measures, thus permitting correlational analysis of the data. Little information is available on the relationships between these areas of function in Alzheimer's disease. Such data are useful in determining realistic expectations of patient function by family and staff. They also provide a data base for the longitudinal study of the effects of the disease on these functional areas. Testing established a strong statistically significant association between cognitive and behavioral functions, and between morale and behavioral function. However, only modest correlations between cognitive and psychologic functions were evidenced. PMID:6655180

  4. Real-time functional mapping: potential tool for improving language outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Korostenskaja, Milena; Chen, Po-Ching; Salinas, Christine M; Westerveld, Michael; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Cook, Jane C; Baumgartner, James; Lee, Ki H

    2014-09-01

    Accurate language localization expands surgical treatment options for epilepsy patients and reduces the risk of postsurgery language deficits. Electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered to be the clinical gold standard for language localization. While ESM affords clinically valuable results, it can be poorly tolerated by children, requires active participation and compliance, carries a risk of inducing seizures, is highly time consuming, and is labor intensive. Given these limitations, alternative and/or complementary functional localization methods such as analysis of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in high gamma frequency band in real time are needed to precisely identify eloquent cortex in children. In this case report, the authors examined 1) the use of real-time functional mapping (RTFM) for language localization in a high gamma frequency band derived from ECoG to guide surgery in an epileptic pediatric patient and 2) the relationship of RTFM mapping results to postsurgical language outcomes. The authors found that RTFM demonstrated relatively high sensitivity (75%) and high specificity (90%) when compared with ESM in a "next-neighbor" analysis. While overlapping with ESM in the superior temporal region, RTFM showed a few other areas of activation related to expressive language function, areas that were eventually resected during the surgery. The authors speculate that this resection may be associated with observed postsurgical expressive language deficits. With additional validation in more subjects, this finding would suggest that surgical planning and associated assessment of the risk/benefit ratio would benefit from information provided by RTFM mapping. PMID:24995815

  5. Functional outcome following an ankle or subtalar arthrodesis in adults.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Adnan A; Loveday, David T

    2014-06-01

    Arthrodesis surgery aims to give pain relief by abolishing the movement of the joint concerned. Few studies describe the outcome as appreciated by the patient. This was the major concern of the authors, when they set up this retrospective study about the outcome after ankle fusion or subtalar fusion. Inclusion criteria were: pre-existing idiopathic and posttraumatic osteoarthritis, leading to joint pain unresponsive to conservative treatment, clinically and radiologically fused with an open approach between 2007 and 2011. Exclusion criteria were: preexisting joint infection, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, nonunion, age below 18 years, decease, and arthroscopic fusion. Fifteen ankle fusions and 18 subtalar fusions fulfilled the criteria. The mean age of the patients was 77 and 69 years, respectively; the average follow-up period was 3 and 4 years. A telephone questionnaire showed that the average patients' satisfaction was 7.86/10 in the ankle group and 7.94/10 in the subtalar group. All patients driving a car prior to surgery were able to do so afterwards. Forty percent walked unaided and without problems (excellent). Fifty-one percent were able to mobilise, but their walking distance was limited and a stick was required (good or fair). Nine percent were unable to mobilise out of their homes (poor), however it was generalized osteoarthritis which limited their mobility. Forty-five percent were involved in sports including judo, swimming, cycling, jogging, gardening, bowling, golf, and boules. PMID:25090803

  6. Outcomes of Individualized Formative Assessments in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kleppinger, Erika L.; Urick, Benjamin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of an individualized teaching method in a pharmacy skills laboratory. Design: All third-year students enrolled in an Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) accredited doctor of pharmacy program (n=150) received an individual formative assessment from clinical pharmacists on communication skills and clinical competency after the students counseled standardized mock glaucoma patients during a laboratory focused on alternative dosing formulations. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores for this station from the 2012 and 2013 classes were compared before and after the intervention. Assessment: Ophthalmic OSCE station scores were higher after the individual formative feedback intervention. Students in 2013 had a mean score of 83.2 ± 8.3% compared to a mean of 74.3 ± 12.9% in 2012 for this OSCE station. The percentage of students receiving an “A” on the OSCE station increased from 8.1% to 31.3% after the intervention. Conclusion: Individualized formative teaching methods benefited students in both their communication skills and clinical assessment. Future research should focus on wider implementation and overcoming obstacles, such as increased facilitator needs. PMID:26056404

  7. Functional outcome and prognostic factors in anti-Jo1 patients with antisynthetase syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this present study were firstly to assess the outcome, including functional course, in anti-Jo1 positive patients with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), and secondly to determine predictive parameters of poor outcome in these patients. Methods The medical records of 86 consecutive anti-Jo1 patients with ASS were reviewed in 4 academic centers. Results 13 patients (15.1%) achieved remission of ASS, whereas 55 (63.9%) improved and 18 (20.9%) deteriorated in their clinical status. Both steroid and cytotoxic drugs could be discontinued in only 4.7% of patients. ASS was associated with decreased quality of life at long-term follow-up: only 69.2% of patients considered to be in remission experienced a return to previous normal activities; and 24.7% of other patients with non-remitting ASS still had a marked reduction of activities (as shown by the disability scale of the Health Assessment Questionnaire). Decreased quality of life was further due to calcinosis cutis (8.1%) and adverse effects of steroid therapy (36%). Factors associated with ASS deterioration were older age, pulmonary and esophageal involvement, calcinosis cutis and cancer. Higher anti-Jo1 levels were further associated with disease severity in ASS patients. Conclusions The present study shows high morbidity related to ASS. Furthermore, we suggest that patients with predictive factors of ASS deterioration may require more aggressive therapy. Our findings also suggest that in anti-Jo1 patients with severe esophageal manifestations, combined high dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins might be proposed as the first line therapy. Finally, as cancer occurred in 14% of anti-Jo1 patients, our findings underscore that the search for cancer should be performed in these patients. PMID:24286268

  8. Web-based Group Decision Support for R&D Project Outcome Assessment in Government Funding Agencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Ma; Quan Zhang; Zhiping Fan

    R&D project outcome assessment is conducted annually in government funding agencies such as the committee of the national natural science foundation of China (NSFC). The R&D project outcomes are assessed with grades for references for the project investigators' future applications in NSFC. This paper focuses on investigating a scientific approach to assessing R&D project outcomes in NSFC. In the approach,

  9. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-yan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Xi-ping; Tao, Lu-yang

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26170824

  10. Improvements in negative symptoms and functional outcome after a new generation cognitive remediation program: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pedro; Peña, Javier; Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Ojeda, Natalia; Elizagárate, Edorta; Ezcurra, Jesus; Gutiérrez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive remediation improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia, but its effect on other relevant factors such as negative symptoms and functional outcome has not been extensively studied. In this hospital-based study, 84 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited from Alava Hospital (Spain). All of the subjects underwent a baseline and a 3-month assessment that examined neurocognition, clinical symptoms, insight, and functional outcome according to the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and Disability Assessment Schedule from World Health Organization (DAS-WHO). In addition to receiving standard treatment, patients were randomly assigned either to receive neuropsychological rehabilitation (REHACOP) or to a control group. REHACOP is an integrative program that taps all basic cognitive functions. The program included experts' latest suggestions about positive feedback and activities of daily living in the patients' environment. The REHACOP group showed significantly greater improvements at 3 months in the areas of neurocognition, negative symptoms, disorganization, and emotional distress compared with the control group (Cohen's effect size for these changes ranged from d = 0.47 for emotional distress to d = 0.58 for disorganization symptoms). The REHACOP group also improved significantly in both the GAF (d = 0.61) and DAS-WHO total scores (d = 0.57). Specifically, the patients showed significant improvement in vocational outcomes (d = 0.47), family contact (d = 0.50), and social competence (d = 0.56). In conclusion, neuropsychological rehabilitation may be useful for the reduction of negative symptoms and functional disability in schizophrenia. These findings support the integration of neuropsychological rehabilitation into standard treatment programs for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23686130

  11. Histological, cellular and behavioral assessments of stroke outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischemia in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the onset of focal ischemic stroke, the brain experiences a series of alterations including infarct evolvement, cellular proliferation in the penumbra, and behavioral deficits. However, systematic study on the temporal and spatial dependence of these alterations has not been provided. Results Using multiple approaches, we assessed stroke outcomes by measuring brain injury, dynamic cellular and glial proliferation, and functional deficits at different times up to two weeks after photothrombosis (PT)-induced ischemic stroke in adult mice. Results from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Nissl staining showed a maximal infarction, and brain edema and swelling 1–3 days after PT. The rate of Bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu)-labeled proliferating cell generation is spatiotemporal dependent in the penumbra, with the highest rate in post ischemic days 3–4, and higher rate of proliferation in the region immediate to the ischemic core than in the distant region. Similar time-dependent generation of proliferating GFAP+ astrocytes and Iba1+ microglia/macrophage were observed in the penumbra. Using behavioral tests, we showed that PT resulted in the largest functional deficits during post ischemic days 2–4. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that first a few days is a critical period that causes brain expansion, cellular proliferation and behavioral deficits in photothrombosis-induced ischemic model, and proliferating astrocytes only have a small contribution to the pools of proliferating cells and reactive astrocytes. PMID:24886391

  12. Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research with URSSA, the Undergraduate Student Self-Assessment Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. L.; Weston, T. J.; Thiry, H.

    2012-12-01

    URSSA is the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, an online survey instrument for programs and departments to use in assessing the student outcomes of undergraduate research (UR). URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. The online questionnaire includes both multiple-choice and open-ended items that focus on students' gains from undergraduate research. These gains include skills, knowledge, deeper understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science, growth in confidence, changes in identity, and career preparation. Other items probe students' participation in important research-related activities that lead to these gains (e.g. giving presentations, having responsibility for a project). These activities, and the gains themselves, are based in research and thus constitute a core set of items. Using these items as a group helps to align a particular program assessment with research-demonstrated outcomes. Optional items may be used to probe particular features that are augment the research experience (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The URSSA items are based on extensive, interview-based research and evaluation work on undergraduate research by our group and others. This grounding in research means that URSSA measures what we know to be important about the UR experience The items were tested with students, revised and re-tested. Data from a large pilot sample of over 500 students enabled statistical testing of the items' validity and reliability. Optional items about UR program elements were developed in consultation with UR program developers and leaders. The resulting instrument is flexible. Users begin with a set of core items, then customize their survey with optional items to probe students' experiences of specific program elements. The online instrument is free and easy to use, with numeric results available as raw data, summary statistics, cross-tabs, and graphs, and as raw, downloadable data. Finally, URSSA has high content validity based on its research grounding and rigorous development. We will present examples of how URSSA has been used in evaluations of UR programs. A multi-year evaluation of a university-based UR program shows that URSSA items are sensitive to differences in students' prior level of experience with research. For example, experienced student researchers reported greater gains than did their peers new to UR in understanding the process of research and in coming to see themselves as scientists. These differences are consistent with interview data that suggest a developmental progression of gains as students pursue research and gain confidence in their ability to contribute meaningfully. A second example comes from a multi-site evaluation of sites funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in Biology. This study acquired data from nearly 800 students at some 60 Bio REU sites in 2010 and 2011. Results reveal differences in gains among demographic groups, and the general strength of these well-planned programs relative to a comparison sample of UR programs that are not part of REU. Our presentation will demonstrate the evaluative use of URSSA and its potential applications to undergraduate research in the geosciences.

  13. Functional outcome of lower limb amputees with peripheral vascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Collin; Derick T Wade; George M Cochrane

    1992-01-01

    A series of 40 patients accepted for prosthetic rehabilitation after lower limb amputations for peripheral vascular disease were reviewed nine to 27 months later. Two have since died, one has not been traced, and 37 have been assessed. Fourteen were successful full-time limb users ('walkers'), 10 were partial users ('partial walkers') and 13 were wheelchair-dependent ('none walkers' or 'wheelchair users').

  14. Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women With Cancer: I. Sexual Functioning Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Anderson, Barrie; deProsse, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of sexual difficulties for women with survivable cancer were studied. Women with early stage gynecologic cancer (n = 47) were assessed after their diagnosis but prior to treatment and then reassessed at 4, 8, and 12 months posttreatment. Sexual and medical outcomes were compared with data from members of two matched comparison groups who were also assessed longitudinally: women diagnosed and treated for benign gynecologic disease (n = 18) and gynecologically healthy women (n = 57). Global sexual behavior disruption did not occur but the frequency of intercourse declined for women treated for disease, whether malignant or benign. In relation to the sexual response cycle, diminution of sexual excitement is pronounced for women with disease; however, this difficulty is more severe and distressing for women with cancer, possibly due to significant coital and postcoital pain, premature menopause, treatment side effects, or a combination. Changes in desire, orgasm, and resolution phases of the sexual response cycle may also occm; but they are of lesser magnitude or duration or both. Approximately 30% of the women treated for cancer were diagnosed with a sexual dysfunction. The nature, early timing, and maintenance of sexual functioning morbidity suggest the instrumental role that cancer and cancer treatments play in these deficits (particularly arousal problems) and suggest that preventive therapies are necessary. PMID:2600238

  15. Assessing outcomes of a study abroad course for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Linda J; Garcia, Alexandra A

    2012-01-01

    There is little debate about the importance of preparing nursing graduates to provide culturally sensitive care to an increasingly diverse society. However, it is difficult for nurse educators to fit learning experiences that help students develop cultural competence into already full programs and create mechanisms to evaluate the results. This article describes a study to assess the impact of a study abroad program on developing cultural competence, including cultural awareness, sensitivity, knowledge, and skills. Results from the Cultural Awareness Survey, reflective journals, and interviews illustrate how the study abroad experience influenced the development of components of cultural competence and might influence clinical practice. Results suggest effective teaching strategies to assist students in becoming culturally competent are experiential in nature and include role modeling, reflective activities, and group discussion. PMID:22616405

  16. Rethinking clinical response and outcome assessment in a biologic age.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D

    2015-06-01

    Standardized response criteria for lymphoma are critical for the evaluation of new therapies. Widely adopted recommendations, most recently the Lugano classification, have been developed primarily for assessment of conventional chemotherapeutic regimens. More recently, several classes of drugs, including immunomodulatory agents, B cell receptor pathway targeting kinases, and checkpoint (PD-1, PDL-1) inhibitors have demonstrated impressive activity in a broad range of histologies. However, they may be associated with features during treatment suggestive of progressive disease despite clinical benefit. Immune response criteria have been proposed for solid tumors, and a modification is needed to be more applicable to lymphomas. Following treatment, conservative use of imaging is recommended based on clinical indications. As newer targeted agents with unique mechanisms of action are developed, current response and follow-up criteria must be made sufficiently flexible for optimal evaluation. PMID:25975729

  17. The Potential Impact of Functional Imaging on Decision Making and Outcome in Patients Undergoing Surgical Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Plass, Andre; Goetti, Robert P; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Caliskan, Etem; Stolzmann, Paul; Wieser, Monika; Donati, Olivio; Alkadhi, Hatem; Falk, Volkmar

    2015-06-01

    Objective?Coronary angiography (CA) remains the standard for preoperative planning for surgical revascularization. However, besides anatomical imaging, current guidelines recommend additional functional imaging before a therapy decision is made. We assess the impact of functional imaging on the strategy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with particular regards on postoperative patency and myocardial perfusion. Methods?After CA, 55 patients (47 males/8 females; age: 65.1?±?9.5 years) underwent perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) before isolated CABG (n?=?31), CABG and concomitant valve surgery (valve?+?CABG; n?=?10) and isolated valve surgery (n?=?14; control). DSCT was used for analysis of significant stenosis, CMR for myocardial-perfusion to discriminate between: no ischemia (normal), ischemia, or scar. The results, unknown to the surgeons, were compared with CA and related to the location and number of distal anastomoses. Nineteen CABG patients underwent follow-up CMR and DSCT (FU: 13?±?3 months) to compare the preop findings with the postop outcomes. Results?Thirty-nine patients either received CABG alone (n?=?31) or a combined procedure (n?=?10) with a total of 116 distal anastomoses. DSCT was compared with CA regarding accuracy of coronary stenosis and showed 91% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and negative/positive predictive values of 89/90%. In total, 880 myocardial segments (n?=?55, 16 segments/patient) were assessed by CMR. In 17% (149/880) of segments ischemia and in 8% (74/880) scar tissue was found. Interestingly, 14% (16/116) of bypass-anastomoses were placed on non-ischemic myocardium and 3% (4/116) on scar tissue. In a subgroup of 19 patients 304 segments were evaluated. Thirty-nine percent (88/304) of all segments showed ischemia preoperatively, while 94% (83/88) of these ischemic segments did not show any ischemia postoperatively. In regard to performed anastomoses, 79% of all grafts (49/62) were optimally placed, whereas 21% (13/62) were either placed into non-ischemic myocardium or scar tissue, including 10% occluded grafts (6/62). Conclusion?In the whole cohort analysis, 17% of grafts were placed in regions with either no ischemia or scar tissue. The subgroup analysis revealed that 94% of all ischemic segments were successfully revascularized after CABG. Thus, functional imaging could be a promising tool in preoperative planning of revascularization strategy. Avoidance of extensive and unnecessary grafting could further optimize outcomes after CABG. PMID:25463355

  18. Functional Assessment: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Ruth A.; Ehrhardt, Kristal E.; Poling, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Traces functional assessment (FA) in school settings to early contributions by B. F. Skinner. FA plays an important role in behavior analysis, and the value of this approach in dealing with behavior problems in many settings has long been evident. Although interest in FA in school settings has only recently become widespread, FA in education has a…

  19. Functional Assessment of Independent Living Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Menditto; Charles J. Wallace; Robert P. Liberman; Jillon Vander Wal; Nicole Tuomi Jones; Paul Stuve

    1999-01-01

    Functional assessment of persons with psychiatric disabilities requires reliable and valid instruments that can be used by clinicians for planning psychosocial rehabilitation services. Two such instruments, the Independent Living Skills Inventory and the Independent Living Skills Survey are operationalized and behaviorally specific tools that can be administered as questionnaires or interviews. Both instruments have well-documented reliability and validity and are

  20. Understanding Cognitive Presence in an Online and Blended Community of Inquiry: Assessing Outcomes and Processes for Deep Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on deep and meaningful learning approaches and outcomes associated with online and blended communities of inquiry. Applying mixed methodology for the research design, the study used transcript analysis, learning outcomes, perceived learning, satisfaction, and interviews to assess learning processes and outcomes. The findings for…

  1. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Zoghbi, William A

    2007-09-01

    Assessment of diastolic function and left ventricular filling pressures in the setting of both normal and reduced systolic function is of major importance particularly in patients with dyspnea. Since multiple echocardiography parameters are used to assess diastolic function each with some limitations, a comprehensive approach should be applied. Transmitral Doppler flow should be evaluated in combination with newer, less load dependent Doppler techniques. Tissue Doppler imaging provides accurate, well validated data regarding diastolic properties and filling pressures of the left ventricle. Tissue Doppler imaging should be the part of a routine echocardiography study due to its ease of use and high reproducibility. Pulmonary vein Doppler and flow propagation velocity should be incorporated into the evaluation when needed. PMID:17785223

  2. Muscle Density in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Associations with Disease Features and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Henry R; Fontaine, Kevin R; Bathon, Joan M; Giles, Jon T

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the associations of thigh computed tomography (CT)-derived measures of body composition with functional outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Patients with RA underwent bilateral mid-femoral quantitative CT for measurement of thigh fat area (TFA), muscle area (TMA), and muscle density (TMD). The associations of thigh composition measures with disability and physical performance, measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Valued Life Activities (VLA) scale, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), were explored for the total cohort and by gender, controlling for pertinent demographic, lifestyle, and RA disease and treatment covariates. RESULTS A total of 152 RA patients were studied. Among potential determinants of TMD, higher age, higher duration of sedentary activity, longer RA duration, higher tender joint count, higher serum IL-6 levels, use of glucocorticoids, and non-use of hydroxychloroquine were all significantly associated with lower TMD in multivariable modeling. RA characteristics accounted for 77% of the explainable variability in TMD. When co-modeled, higher TFA and lower TMD, but not lower TMA, were significantly and independently associated with higher HAQ scores, lower SF-36 total physical scores, lower composite SPPB scores, and a greater proportion of affected obligatory VLAs. CONCLUSIONS Thigh CT-derived measures of body composition, particularly fat area and muscle density, were strongly associated with disability and physical performance in RA patients, with RA disease features as potential determinants. Efforts to reduce fat and improve muscle quality may reduce disability in this population with impaired physical functioning. PMID:22391952

  3. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Locate relevant primary and secondary

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    - ondary sources ; Class discussion, game, or other form of active learning around evaluating the utilityHIST100 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Locate relevant primary reference librarian and/or visit to the library, with focus on digital search tools 10-02 Make and defend

  4. Assessment of Educational Outcomes in Pediatric Dentistry: A Site Examiner's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casamassimo, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    Outcomes assessment reduced to its simplest definition is quality control. Characteristics of the new Accreditation Standards for Dental Education Programs include: patient oriented, take a definite posture in relation to the specialties, create a minimally educated practitioner, are process oriented, and provide a form of quality assurance in…

  5. Optimism, Coping, and Health: Assessment and Implications of Generalized Outcome Expectancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Scheier; Charles S. Carver

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a scale measuring dispositional optimism, defined in terms of generalized outcome expectancies. Two preliminary studies assessed the scale’s psychometric properties and its relationships with several other instruments. The scale was then used in a longitudinal study of symptom reporting among a group of undergraduates. Specifically, respondents were asked to complete three questionnaires 4 weeks before the end

  6. Experiences of Higher Education Faculty Engaged in Undergraduate Student Learning Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to describe the lived experiences of full- time faculty engaged in undergraduate learning outcomes assessment at the program or general education level in baccalaureate or master's nonprofit or public institutions of higher education regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. The ten…

  7. Faculty and Administrator Beliefs Regarding Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strollo, Toni Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined higher education faculty and academic administrator (AO) beliefs regarding the value of assessment of student learning outcomes (ASLO) as a means for improving teaching and learning at a Southeastern community college known for its commitment as a learning college and as an exemplar for such efforts. Faculty and AOs at this…

  8. ENGR130/ENGR130L ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    and 130: Students will gather data as they test their products / designs Product refinementsENGR130/ENGR130L ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 08-01 ENGR 120 and 130: Using the project design specifications provided as a testable design goal, students, design, build

  9. Identifying Low-Effort Examinees on Student Learning Outcomes Assessment: A Comparison of Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Joseph A.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a study that compares two approaches (self-reported effort [SRE] and response time effort [RTE]) for identifying low-effort examinees in student learning outcomes assessment. Although both approaches equally discriminated from measures of ability (e.g., SAT scores), RTE was found to have a stronger relationship with test…

  10. ENGRD 251/BEE 251 Post Course Assessment for Fall 2005 Course outcomes

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    students achieved #12;my expected performance level (32/35 total students in F05; 3 students failed students prepared reports at the expected performance level for Case Study 2. Improvements were observedENGRD 251/BEE 251 Post Course Assessment for Fall 2005 Course outcomes 1. Students learn

  11. The Integration of Outcomes Assessment Information in the Management of Arizona Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleishman, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities throughout the country are increasingly coming under pressure from accrediting institutions and legislative bodies to implement comprehensive outcomes assessment initiatives designed to measure and document student performance. Over the past ten years pressure has been directed towards colleges to reshape their current…

  12. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shamira M. Gelbman

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge about U.S. government and politics by presenting them with cognitive conflict tasks that

  13. Assessment Plan for Ph.D, students in the Field of Plant Breeding 1. Learning outcomes

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Assessment Plan for Ph.D, students in the Field of Plant Breeding 1. Learning outcomes When students complete the Ph.D., they should be able to: 1. Conduct original, publishable research in plant breeding/genetics 2. Demonstrate in-depth knowledge about plant breeding/genetics and at least one other

  14. Assessment and Learning Outcomes: The Evaluation of Deep Learning in an On-line Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Slack; Martin D. Beer; Gillian Armitt; Sharon Green

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of this learning approach was evaluated by means of the final assessments and pub- lished learning outcomes. In particular, transcripts from peer-to-peer sessions of synchronous communi- cation were analysed, using the SOLO taxonomy, to establish the extent to which deep learning had taken place. The development of deep learning was studied week by week through the transcripts of

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbman, Shamira M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARING OUTCOMES UCONN SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK MASTERS OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARING OUTCOMES UCONN SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK MASTERS OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM Foundation Year Advanced Year ­ Advanced Method Concentration Case- work Group Work Comm Org Admin Policy Practice Identify as a Professional Social Worker Score of 4 or higher on a 1-5 scale 93.7 91.4 94.0 100

  17. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  18. Assessment Theory and Practice of Students' Outcomes in the Nordic Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysne, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In the latest decades assessment in education has become a very controversial issue in many western countries, and especially so in the Nordic countries, where the controversy became most passionate in Norway. It was really not a debate about whether or not formal marks should be used in communication of educational outcomes for the individual…

  19. Assessing Intermediate Outcomes of a Faith-Based Residential Prisoner Reentry Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Caterina G.; Wolff, Ashley; Correa, Vanessa; Buck, Janeen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined intermediate outcomes of a faith-based prisoner reentry program by assessing how client spirituality related to client- and program-level characteristics, investigating differences between completers and terminators, and examining how religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, religious salience, and…

  20. A Study of Foreign Language Learning Outcomes Assessment in U.S. Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricardo-Osorio, Jose G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on findings obtained from an online survey answered by 97 foreign language department chairs. The Web survey was pilot tested for validity and reliability and obtained a Cronbach's reliability coefficient of .80. The results suggest that student learning outcomes assessment in American undergraduate foreign language education…

  1. Defining Course Outcomes and Assessment Procedures: A Model for Individual Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James K., Jr.; Marabeti, Hilary B.

    A description is provided of Tennessee's Volunteer State Community College's (VSCC's) approach to defining the goals, expected outcomes, and assessment procedures of individual courses, utilizing teacher-developed course instruction manuals and standardized course syllabi. Introductory material explains why and how the approach was developed,…

  2. An Outcome Evaluation of an Inpatient Crisis Stabilization and Assessment Program for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenham, Stephanie L.; Bisnaire, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and outcomes of youth aged 7 to 17 who received inpatient psychiatric and mental health services along different clinical pathways of a new service delivery model. Method: Participants included 211 admissions to an inpatient crisis stabilization and assessment program over a one-year period. Standardized…

  3. Assessment of the United States Military Academy's Academic Program Outcome Goal: Understand Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Johnston

    The assessment model used to examine the human behavior outcome goal had three components: purpose, principles, and process. The purpose was to improve programs and respond to external agencies. Six principles provided a framework and addressed three general criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy. The process contained four components:…

  4. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Plan lessons and instructional units that

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    MATH400 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Plan lessons and instructional strategies ; Short lecture 04-01 Plan lessons and instructional units that address appropriate learning goals units that address appropriate learning goals and focus on developing students' understanding

  5. Assessing outcome after a modified vaginal wall sling for stress incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Costantini; Luigi Mearini; Ettore Mearini; Cinzia Pajoncini; Federico Guercini; Vittorio Bini; Massimo Porena

    2005-01-01

    Forty women with stress incontinence, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated or not with urethral hypermobility, a Valsalva leak point pressure (VLLP) 20 and a maximum urethral closure pressure 20 underwent in situ vaginal wall sling. The main modification to the technique was the use of two small Marlex meshes placed at the lateral edges of the sling. Outcome was assessed

  6. Two Loops That Need Closing: Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Gray; Danley-Scott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on non-tenure-track (NTT) faculty focuses largely on whether relying on contingent faculty is harmful to students. However, studies rarely survey contingent faculty or explore how to increase NTT faculty participation in outcomes assessment, even though contingent faculty teach most general education courses. Our survey of…

  7. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Generate a coherently written mathematical

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    MATH287 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 01-01 Generate a coherently written mathematical proof which contains appropriate justification for each logically significant step in the proof ; Use appropriate sources of mathematical evidence to document the validity of a written mathematical

  8. Evaluation of Epidemiology and Animal Data for Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos Developmental Neurobehavioral Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abby A. Li; Kimberly A. Lowe; Laura J. McIntosh; Pamela J. Mink

    2012-01-01

    Developmental neurobehavioral outcomes attributed to exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) obtained from epidemiologic and animal studies published before June 2010 were reviewed for risk assessment purposes. For epidemiological studies, this review considered (1) overall strength of study design, (2) specificity of CPF exposure biomarkers, (3) potential for bias, and (4) Hill guidelines for causal inference. In the case of animal studies,

  9. Career Preparedness Survey Outcomes of Food Science Graduates--A Follow-Up Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri; Clark, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-eight recent graduates (1998-2008) from the joint Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI) BiState School of Food Science program and 27 of their employers participated in a survey assessing learning outcomes based on the 2001 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) core competencies for undergraduate food science…

  10. Clinical and functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia with a high sense of well-being.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Foussias, George; Lee, Jimmy; Remington, Gary

    2015-03-01

    Optimal outcome in schizophrenia is thought to include remission of symptoms, functional recovery, and improved subjective well-being. The present study examined the characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia who report being satisfied with their life in general. Individuals with schizophrenia who participated in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study were included in the present analysis. Approximately half of the individuals evaluated reported a high level of life satisfaction, even while many concurrently described themselves as at least moderately ill and experiencing moderate-severe symptoms and manifested severe functional deficits. Of all individuals evaluated, only about 1% experienced what was considered to be optimal outcome. Individuals with schizophrenia are able to experience a high level of life satisfaction, despite experiencing severe illness and functional deficits. Those involved in care should be aware that life satisfaction as an outcome is not necessarily associated with symptom remission and superior functioning. PMID:25668654

  11. In it for the long haul: the integration of outcomes assessment, clinical services, and management decision-making.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, F L; Leckman, E; Russo, N; Knauf, L

    1999-05-01

    Behavioral health providers are increasingly called upon to develop outcomes strategies that highlight opportunities for performance improvement and assess in turn the impact of applying total quality management (TQM) principles to treatment outcomes. This article describes the evolution of an outcomes assessment program at a private psychiatric facility, and presents two case studies of the integration of outcomes data into clinical decision-making. In Study I, outcomes data were used to identify patterns in the responsiveness to treatment of child/adolescent patients with behavioral disorders and document changes in improvement rates following the application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) principles within the inpatient services. In Study II, improvements sought in the outcomes methodology resulted in improved response rates, improved data quality, and new opportunities for both clinical intervention and staff development. Benefits of committing to outcomes assessment over the long haul to facilitate empirically driven planning processes are described. PMID:24011414

  12. Mnk kinase pathway: Cellular functions and biological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2014-08-26

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (Mnk1 and Mnk2) play important roles in controlling signals involved in mRNA translation. In addition to the MAPKs (p38 or Erk), multiple studies suggest that the Mnk kinases can be regulated by other known kinases such as Pak2 and/or other unidentified kinases by phosphorylation of residues distinct from the sites phosphorylated by the MAPKs. Several studies have established multiple Mnk protein targets, including PSF, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, Sprouty 2 and have lead to the identification of distinct biological functions and substrate specificity for the Mnk kinases. In this review we discuss the pathways regulating the Mnk kinases, their known substrates as well as the functional consequences of engagement of pathways controlled by Mnk kinases. These kinases play an important role in mRNA translation via their regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and their functions have important implications in tumor biology as well as the regulation of drug resistance to anti-oncogenic therapies. Other studies have identified a role for the Mnk kinases in cap-independent mRNA translation, suggesting that the Mnk kinases can exert important functional effects independently of the phosphorylation of eIF4E. The role of Mnk kinases in inflammation and inflammation-induced malignancies is also discussed. PMID:25225600

  13. Renal function and outcome of PTRA and stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Ramos; Carol Kotliar; Daniel Alvarez; Hugo Baglivo; Pablo Rafaelle; Hugo Londero; Ramiro Sánchez; Christopher S Wilcox

    2003-01-01

    Renal function and outcome of PTRA and stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.BackgroundPrior studies of percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty and stenting (PTRAS) for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) have shown that renal function is improved in about 25%, stabilizes in about 40%, but worsens in about 25% of patients. The factors predicting benefit remain controversial. We tested the hypothesis

  14. Functional outcome and quality of life in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ponyi; G. Borgulya; T. Constantin; A. Vancsa; L. Gergely; K. Danko

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To present the outcome of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis, focusing on functional ability and quality of life. Methods. Analysis was performed using data from 105 adult patients with definitive polymyositis, dermatomyositis or overlap myositis, who were followed up at a single centre. The diagnosis was made between 1979 and 2000 based on Bohan and Peter's criteria. Functional ability

  15. Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tsivos, Zoe-Lydia; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) has negative effects on maternal well-being as well as implications for the mother–infant relationship, subsequent infant development, and family functioning. There is growing evidence demonstrating that PND impacts on a mother’s ability to interact with sensitivity and responsiveness as a caregiver, which may have implications for the infant’s development of self-regulatory skills, making the infant more vulnerable to later psychopathology. Given the possible intergenerational transmission of risk to the infant, the mother–infant relationship is a focus for treatment and research. However, few studies have assessed the effect of treatment on the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and investigate effect sizes of interventions for PND, which assess the quality of the mother–infant dyad relationship and/or child outcomes in addition to maternal mood. Nineteen studies were selected for review, and their methodological quality was evaluated, where possible, effect sizes across maternal mood, quality of dyadic relationship, and child developmental outcomes were calculated. Finally, clinical implications in the treatment of PND are highlighted and recommendations made for further research. PMID:25960678

  16. Peri-operative assessment of right heart function: role of echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Tan, Timothy C; Dudzinski, David M; Hung, Judy; Mehta, Vipin

    2015-07-01

    The right heart contributes significantly to overall cardiac function. Right ventricular (RV) haemodynamics and function have been defined to be physiologically different from the left ventricle, and yet independently associated with outcomes in a spectrum of conditions. In particular, RV function has been shown to influence prognosis of patients undergoing surgery. The assessment of right heart function during the intra-operative and immediate postoperative periods plays an important role in the clinical management of patients having surgery. While a number of techniques are available for the assessment of the right heart intra-operatively, echocardiography remains the prime choice being least invasive, relatively safe, readily accessible and cost-effective. Advancements in the field of echocardiographic have improved ability to assess right heart function. This review examines the role echocardiography and advances in this imaging modality in the assessment of right heart function within the peri-operative setting. PMID:25989109

  17. CD99 isoform expression dictates T-cell functional outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Alberti; Ghislaine Bernard; Alexandre K. Rouquette-Jazdanian; Claudette Pelassy; Monique Pourtein; Claude Aussel; Alain Bernard

    2002-01-01

    CD99, a unique integral membrane protein present on the surface of all human T cells, has previously been shown to regulate cell function and fate. In peripheral T cells, it triggers immediate activation of ?4?1 integrin and cell arrest on inflamed vascular endothelium, whereas it mediates an apoptotic signal in double-positive thymocytes undergoing the selection process. Two isoforms of CD99

  18. Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) results.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, L G; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J C; Alonso, E M

    2011-02-01

    This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 ± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 ± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 ± 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ ? 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  19. Cognitive and Academic Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) Results

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, L.G.; Neighbors, K.; Martz, K.; Zelko, F.; Bucuvalas, J.C.; Alonso, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-center study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). 144 patients ages 5–7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1± 15.4; p<0001). 26% of patients (14% expected) had “mild to moderate” IQ delays (Full Scale IQ=71–85) and 4% (2% expected) had “serious” delays (Full Scale IQ ?70; p<0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC(1) statistics (p<0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p<0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  20. COMT Val158Met and cognitive and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Catherine; Withiel, Toni; Ponsford, Jennie; Burke, Richard

    2014-09-01

    There is significant variability in long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), making accurate prognosis difficult. In seeking to enhance understanding of outcomes, this study aimed to investigate whether COMT Val(158)Met allele status was associated with performance on neuropsychological measures of attention and working memory, executive functioning, learning and memory, and speed of information processing in the early rehabilitation phase. The study also aimed to examine whether the COMT polymorphism was associated with longer-term functional outcomes. A total of 223 participants (71.3% male) with moderate-to-severe TBI were recruited as rehabilitation inpatients to participate in a prospective, longitudinal head injury outcome study. The three COMT genotype groups (Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met) were well matched for estimated full-scale IQ, years of education, age at injury, and injury severity. Results showed no significant difference between genotypes on neuropsychological measures (all p>0.05) or functional outcome, as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), after controlling for age, education, and severity of injury. The presence of frontal lobe pathology was also not associated with cognitive performance. Those with greater injury severity (i.e., longer duration of post-traumatic amnesia) performed more poorly on measures of processing speed and verbal new learning and recall. It was concluded that there was little support for the influence of COMT Val(158)Met on cognitive function, or functional outcome measures, in the acute rehabilitation phase after TBI. PMID:24786534

  1. Agents of Change: Examining the Role of Student Learning Outcomes and Assessment Coordinators in California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Greg, Ed.; Buechner, Marybeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Formally stating and assessing student learning outcomes (SLOs) is a new focus for California community colleges required by the 2002 Accreditation Standards. This paper, the first in a series, explores one aspect of this sea change across the state: the emergence of a new group of faculty leaders, Student Learning Outcomes and Assessment

  2. Critical Factors Affecting the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Delphi Study of the Opinions of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify critically important factors that affect the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes and study why these factors were critically important. A three-round Delphi process was used to solicit the opinions of individuals who were actively involved in student learning outcomes assessment

  3. Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

    2015-03-18

    To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

  4. Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

    2015-01-01

    To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

  5. Radiological and Functional Outcomes in Computer Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty Between Consultants and Trainees - A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Khakha, Raghbir S; Chowdhry, Majid; Sivaprakasam, Manjunathan; Kheiran, Amin; Chauhan, Sandeep K

    2015-08-01

    Computer Aided Surgery has consistently shown superior alignment of components when compared to non-navigated jig based techniques. The aim of this study is to assess the mid-term clinical outcome of TKA performed by a consultant orthopedic surgeon, compared to trainee surgeons. Ninety-two patients were matched and randomly allocated to have CAS surgery performed by either a consultant or trainee and followed up prospectively for 5-years. Knee society scores, mechanical axis, tourniquet time and blood loss data were collected. Our study demonstrated that trainees were able to achieve equal coronal alignment (P=0.15), blood loss (P=0.45) and functional scores (P=0.15). The Consultant group had a significantly (P<0.001) shorter tourniquet time. We confirm that CAS can assist less experienced surgeons to reliably achieve good mid-term outcomes in TKA. PMID:25820119

  6. Comparison of ASSESS neutralization module results with actual small force engagement outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, B.H.; Snell, M.K.; Paulus, W.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The ASSESS Neutralization module (Neutralization) is part of the Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security (ASSESS), a vulnerability assessment tool. Neutralization models a fire fight between security inspectors (SIs) and adversaries. This paper reports that a comparison has been made between actual outcomes of police and small military engagements and the results predicted by the Neutralization module for similar scenarios. The results of this comparison show a surprising correlation between predicted outcomes (based on numbers of combatants, weapon types, and exposures, etc.) and the actual outcomes of the engagements analyzed. The importance of this analysis is that given the defenders have intelligence on actual adversary characteristics or are protecting against a design basis threat, defense capabilities can be evaluated before an engagement. Results could then be used to develop a favorable probability of a desired outcome. For example, law enforcement agencies are frequently able to compile the number of criminals, types of weaponry, willingness to use force, etc., from analysis of crime scenes.

  7. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  8. NIH conference. Chronic fatigue syndrome research. Definition and medical outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Schluederberg, A; Straus, S E; Peterson, P; Blumenthal, S; Komaroff, A L; Spring, S B; Landay, A; Buchwald, D

    1992-08-15

    A workshop was held 18 to 19 March 1991 at the National Institutes of Health to address critical issues in research concerning the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Case definition, confounding diagnoses, and medical outcome assessment by laboratory and other means were considered from the perspectives of key medical specialties involved in CFS research. It was recommended that published Centers for Disease Control (CDC) case-definition criteria be modified to exclude fewer patients from analysis because of a history of psychiatric disorder. Specific recommendations were made concerning the inclusion or exclusion of other major confounding diagnoses, and a standard panel of laboratory tests was specified for initial patient evaluation. The workshop emphasized the importance of recognizing other conditions that could explain the patient's symptoms and that may be treatable. It was viewed as essential for the investigator to screen for psychiatric disorder using a combination of self-report instruments followed by at least one structured interview to identify patients who should be excluded from studies or considered as a separate subgroup in data analysis. Because CFS is not a homogeneous abnormality and because there is no single pathogenic mechanism, research progress may depend upon delineation of these and other patient subgroups for separate data analysis. Despite preliminary data, no physical finding or laboratory test was deemed confirmatory of the diagnosis of CFS. For assessment of clinical status, investigators must rely on the use of standardized instruments for patient self-reporting of fatigue, mood disturbance, functional status, sleep disorder, global well-being, and pain. Further research is needed to develop better instruments for quantifying these domains in patients with CFS. PMID:1322076

  9. Reporting of radiographic methods in randomised controlled trials assessing structural outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Gabriel; Boutron, Isabelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Background Because an increasing number of clinical trials evaluating disease?modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) emphasise radiographic outcomes as a primary outcome, using a reproducible radiographic measure should be placed at a premium. Aim To evaluate the reporting of radiographic methods in randomised trials assessing radiographic outcomes in RA. Methods Medline was searched for randomised controlled trials assessing radiographic outcomes published between January 1994 and December 2005 in general medical and specialty journals with a high impact factor. One reader extracted data (radiographic acquisition, assessment and reproducibility) using a standardised form. Results A total of 46 reports were included in the analysis. The mean (SD) methodological quality scores on the Jadad scale (range 0–5) and the Delphi list (0–9) were 2.9 (1.2) and 6.4 (1.3), respectively. Use of a standardised procedure for the acquisition of the radiographs was reported in 2 (4.3%) articles. 2 (4.3%) reports indicated that the quality of the radiographs was evaluated. In 65.2% of the reports, ?2 radiographic scores were used. Reporting of radiographic assessment was well detailed for number of readers (91.3%), information on readers (71.7%), blinding (91.4%) and how films were viewed (74.0%). The reproducibility of the reading was reported in 39.1% of the articles. Conclusion The reporting of results of randomised controlled trials of radiographic outcomes in RA shows great variability in radiographic scores used. Reporting of radiographic methods could be improved upon, especially the acquisition procedure and the reproducibility of the reading. PMID:17158823

  10. Lung function, airway remodelling and inflammation in symptomatic infants: outcome at 3 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristiina Malmström; Anna S Pelkonen; L Pekka Malmberg; Seppo Sarna; Harry Lindahl; Merja Kajosaari; Markku Turpeinen; Sejal Saglani; Andy Bush; Tari Haahtela; Peter K Jeffery; Mika J Mäkelä

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundRelationships between early deficits of lung function, infant airway pathology and outcome in symptomatic infants are unclear. A study was undertaken to determine the associations between early lung function, airway histology and inflammation in symptomatic infants with the continuance of respiratory symptoms, lung function and subsequent use of inhaled asthma medication at the age of 3 years.Methods53 children who underwent

  11. A Comparison of Functional Outcome in Patients Sustaining Major Trauma: A Multicentre, Prospective, International Study

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, Timothy H.; Yeung, Hiu Hung; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Yuen, Kai Y.; Ho, Hiu F.; Kam, Chak W.; Chang, Annice; Poon, Wai S.; Cameron, Peter A.; Graham, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. Summary Background Data Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR). Methods Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ?18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12) health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. Results 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17), and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12). Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: ?1.2, 3.6) and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: ?0.4, 95% CI: ?3.2, 2.4) compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: ?2.1, 2.8) or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: ?0.8, 4.5). Conclusion The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions. PMID:25157522

  12. Childhood Executive Function Continues to Predict Outcomes in Young Adult Females with and Without Childhood-Diagnosed ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n=140) and matched comparison girls (n=88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes at follow-up. Measures of EF comprised the childhood predictors, with academic, socioemotional, occupational, and global functioning serving as young adult criterion measures. Results indicated that childhood EF – particularly measures of global EF and working memory – predicted academic and occupational functioning across our entire sample (independent of diagnostic group status), but diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison) moderated the association between (a) working memory and reading achievement and (b) a global EF measure and suspensions/expulsions. That is, in the ADHD group, low working memory predicted poor reading scores and impaired global EF predicted higher suspensions/expulsions, but this was not the case in the comparison group. Overall, these results extend previous findings of associations between EF and adolescent outcomes in girls with and without ADHD into young adulthood. Findings continue to suggest the importance of assessing and developing interventions that target EF impairments early in life in order to prevent long-term difficulties across a range of important functional domains. PMID:22124540

  13. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  14. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  15. Renal Function Outcome Prognosis in Septic and Non-septic Acute Kidney Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamzic-Mehmedbasic, Aida; Rasic, Senija; Rebic, Damir; Durak-Nalbantic, Azra; Muslimovic, Alma; Dzemidzic, Jasminka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate prognostic impact of clinical factors on outcome of renal function in septic and non-septic acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. Methods: The prospective, observational, clinical study was performed at Nephrology Clinic and Clinic for Infectious Diseases, University Clinical Centre Sarajevo. One hundred patients with diagnosis of AKI were enrolled in the study, and divided into two groups: septic and non-septic AKI patients. Clinical parameters included causes and type of AKI, pre-existing comorbidities and different treatment modalities. Patients were followed up until discharge or death. Renal function outcome was defined by creatinine clearance values at discharge. Results: Septic AKI patients had significantly longer hospital stay (p=0.03), significantly worse renal function outcome (p<0.001), and higher burden of comorbidities (70.6% vs. 60.6%), compared to non-septic patients. Septic AKI patients were almost three times less likely to receive renal replacement therapy (8.8% vs. 24.4%) and they had significant delay in initiation of dialysis (p=0.03). By multivariate analysis, sepsis (95% CI 0.128-0.967, p=0.043) and hypertension (95% CI 0.114-0.788, p=0.015) were independent predictors of adverse renal function outcome in AKI patients. Postrenal type of AKI was independent predictor of renal function recovery in non-septic AKI patients (95% CI 1.174-92.264, p=0.035), while Failure, as third class of AKI, was independent predictor of non-recovered renal function only in septic AKI patients (95% CI 0.026 to 0.868, p=0.034). Conclusion: Septic AKI patients are clinically distinct compared to non-septic AKI patients with different prognostic factors and poorer renal function outcome. PMID:26005252

  16. A Cohort Study Assessing Difficult Patient Encounters in a Walk-In Primary Care Clinic, Predictors and Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherri A. Hinchey; Jeffrey L. Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Background  Previous studies have found that up to 15% of clinical encounters are experienced as difficult by clinicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Explore patient and physician characteristics associated with being considered “difficult” and assess the impact on patient\\u000a outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Seven hundred fifty adults presenting to a primary care walk-in clinic with a physical symptom.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Main Measures  Pre-visit surveys assessed symptom characteristics, expectations, functional

  17. Gait Analysis at Multiple Speeds Reveals Differential Functional and Structural Outcomes in Response to Graded Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Krizsan-Agbas, Dora; Winter, Michelle K.; Eggimann, Linda S.; Meriwether, Judith; Berman, Nancy E.; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Open-field behavioral scoring is widely used to assess spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes, but has limited usefulness in describing subtle changes important for posture and locomotion. Additional quantitative methods are needed to increase the resolution of locomotor outcome assessment. This study used gait analysis at multiple speeds (GAMS) across a range of mild-to-severe intensities of thoracic SCI in the rat. Overall, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores and subscores were assessed, and detailed automated gait analysis was performed at three fixed walking speeds (3.5, 6.0, and 8.5?cm/sec). Variability in hindpaw brake, propel, and stance times were analyzed further by integrating across the stance phase of stepping cycles. Myelin staining of spinal cord sections was used to quantify white matter loss at the injury site. Varied SCI intensity produced graded deficits in BBB score, BBB subscores, and spinal cord white matter and total volume loss. GAMS measures of posture revealed decreased paw area, increased limb extension, altered stance width, and decreased values for integrated brake, propel, and stance. Measures of coordination revealed increased stride frequency concomitant with decreased stride length, resulting in deviation from consistent forelimb/hindlimb coordination. Alterations in posture and coordination were correlated to impact severity. GAMS results correlated highly with functional and histological measures and revealed differential relationships between sets of GAMS dynamics and cord total volume loss versus epicenter myelin loss. Automated gait analysis at multiple speeds is therefore a useful tool for quantifying nuanced changes in gait as an extension of histological and observational methods in assessing SCI outcomes. PMID:24405378

  18. Functional Outcomes and Efficiency of Rehabilitation in a National Cohort of Patients with Guillain - Barré Syndrome and Other Inflammatory Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Siegert, Richard John; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hospital rehabilitation for a UK cohort of inpatients with complex rehabilitation needs arising from inflammatory polyneuropathies. Subjects and Setting 186 patients consecutively admitted to specialist neurorehabilitation centres in England with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (n?=?118 (63.4%)) or other inflammatory polyneuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n?=?15 (8.1%) or critical illness neuropathy (n?=?32 (17.2%)). Methods Cohort analysis of data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative national clinical dataset. Outcome measures include the UK Functional Assessment Measure, Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS) and Care Needs Assessment (NPCNA). Patients were analysed in three groups of dependency based on their admission NPDS score: ‘low’ (NPDS<10), ‘medium’ (NPDS 10–24) and ‘high’ (NPDS ?25). Cost-efficiency was measured as the time taken to offset the cost of rehabilitation by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of on-going care in the community. Results The mean rehabilitation length of stay was 72.2 (sd?=?66.6) days. Significant differences were seen between the diagnostic groups on admission, but all showed significant improvements between admission and discharge, in both motor and cognitive function (p<0.0001). Patients who were highly dependent on admission had the longest lengths of stay (mean 97.0 (SD 79.0) days), but also showed the greatest reduction in on-going care costs (£1049 per week (SD £994)), so that overall they were the most cost-efficient to treat. Conclusions Patients with polyneuropathies have both physical and cognitive disabilities that are amenable to change with rehabilitation, resulting in significant reduction in on-going care-costs, especially for highly dependent patients. PMID:25402491

  19. Assessing Learning Outcomes in Quantitative Courses: Using Embedded Questions for Direct Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Barbara A.; Randall, Cindy H.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers can evaluate learning by using direct and indirect assessment. Although there are various ways to apply these approaches, two common techniques are pretests and posttests (direct assessment), in which students demonstrate mastery of topics or skills, and the use of knowledge surveys (indirect assessment). The present authors used these…

  20. Response assessment in neuro-oncology (a report of the RANO group): assessment of outcome in trials of diffuse low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    van den Bent, M J; Wefel, J S; Schiff, D; Taphoorn, M J B; Jaeckle, K; Junck, L; Armstrong, T; Choucair, A; Waldman, A D; Gorlia, T; Chamberlain, M; Baumert, B G; Vogelbaum, M A; Macdonald, D R; Reardon, D A; Wen, P Y; Chang, S M; Jacobs, A H

    2011-06-01

    Although low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a less aggressive course than do high-grade gliomas, the outcome of these tumours is ultimately fatal in most patients. Both the tumour and its treatment can cause disabling morbidity, particularly of cognitive functions. Because many patients present with seizures only, with no other signs and symptoms, maintenance of quality of life and function constitutes a particular challenge in LGG. The slow growth pattern of most LGG, and the rare radiological true responses despite a favourable clinical response to treatment, interferes with the use of progression-free survival as the primary endpoint in trials. Overall survival as an endpoint brings logistical challenges, and is sensitive to other non-investigational salvage therapies. Clinical trials for LGG need to consider other measures of patient benefit such as cognition, symptom burden, and seizure activity, to establish whether improved survival is reflected in prolonged wellbeing. This Review investigates clinical and imaging endpoints in trials of LGG, and provides response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria for non-enhancing tumours. Additionally, other measures for patients with brain tumours that assess outcome are described. Similar considerations are relevant for trials of high-grade gliomas, although for these tumours survival is shorter and survival endpoints generally have more value than they do for LGG. PMID:21474379

  1. Histological and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury in mice null for the erythropoietin receptor in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Lu, Dunyue; Qu, Changsheng; Kazmi, Humaira; Goussev, Anton; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Noguchi, Constance T; Schallert, Timothy; Chopp, Michael

    2008-09-16

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR), essential for erythropoiesis, are expressed in the nervous system. Recombinant human EPO treatment promotes functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, suggesting that the endogenous EPO/EPOR system plays an important role in neuroprotection and neurorestoration. This study was designed to investigate effects of the EPOR on histological and functional outcomes after TBI. Experimental TBI was induced in adult EPOR-null and wild-type mice by controlled cortical impact. Neurological function was assessed using the modified Morris Water Maze and footfault tests. Animals were sacrificed 35 days after injury and brain sections stained for immunohistochemistry. As compared to the wild-type injured mice, EPOR-null mice did not exhibit higher susceptibility to TBI as exemplified by tissue loss in the cortex, cell loss in the dentate gyrus, impaired spatial learning, angiogenesis and cell proliferation. We observed that less cortical neurogenesis occurred and that sensorimotor function (i.e., footfault) was more impaired in the EPOR-null mice after TBI. Co-accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (axonal injury marker) and calcium was observed in the ipsilateral thalamus in both EPOR-null and wild-type mice after TBI with more calcium deposits present in the wild-type mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that EPOR null in the nervous system aggravates sensorimotor deficits, impairs cortical neurogenesis and reduces thalamic calcium precipitation after TBI. PMID:18657521

  2. An Outcome Assessment of an ABC-Based HIV Peer Education Intervention Among Kenyan University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Neville Miller; Mike Mutungi; Elena Facchini; Benard Barasa; Wycliffe Ondieki; Charles Warria

    2008-01-01

    This study reports an outcome assessment on an HIV peer education intervention at the main campus of Kenyatta University in Nairobi, Kenya. A quasiexperimental separate sample pretest–posttest design was used. Campuswide baseline and endline surveys were conducted with 632 and 746 students, respectively, soliciting information on HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. After 2 years of on-campus intervention, no changes in

  3. Direct and Mediated Effects of Cognitive Function with Multidimensional Outcome Measures in Schizophrenia: The Role of Functional Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Davine, Taylor; Cardenas, Veronica; Bowie, Christopher R.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive ability is a known predictor of real-world functioning in schizophrenia, there has been an expanded interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it explains real-world functioning in this population. We examined the extent to which functional capacity (i.e., skills necessary to live independently) mediated the relationship between cognitive ability and both observer and self-reported real-world functioning in 138 outpatients with schizophrenia. Functional capacity significantly mediated the relations between cognitive ability and observer rated real world functioning, but not self-reported real world functioning, with small to medium effect sizes observed for all outcomes. The role of cognitive ability in observer vs. self-reported real-world functioning may be explained by different mechanisms. PMID:23984631

  4. Executive function outcomes of children with traumatic brain injury sustained before three years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise M. Crowe; Cathy Catroppa; Franz E. Babl; Vicki Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of disability in childhood. While the outcomes of TBI sustained in school years has been heavily researched, very little is known about the impact of TBI in infants and young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of TBI on executive function (EF) in children who sustained a

  5. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  6. Functions, Targets, and Outcomes of Specific Forms of Social Aggression: A Daily Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyches, Karmon D.; Mayeux, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 8 specific forms of social aggression (SA) in terms of the functions they serve, the characteristics of the peers targeted by them, and the outcomes associated with using the behaviors. Two hundred and seventeen fifth- and seventh-grade boys and girls completed a structured daily diary for 5 consecutive days in their…

  7. Coping, symptoms, and functioning outcomes of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quyen Q. Tiet; Craig Rosen; Steven Cavella; Rudolf H. Moos; John W. Finney; Jerome Yesavage

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between approach coping and better functioning outcomes and the reciprocal relationships between coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in patients diagnosed with PTSD. Posttraumatic stress disorder patients receiving services in five VA health care systems were randomly selected and surveyed at baseline and followed 10 months later. Analyses of longitudinal data using structural equation

  8. Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

  9. Anterior Temporal Lobe Connectivity Correlates with Functional Outcome after Aphasic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane E.; Crinion, Jennifer T.; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Focal brain lesions are assumed to produce language deficits by two basic mechanisms: local cortical dysfunction at the lesion site, and remote cortical dysfunction due to disruption of the transfer and integration of information between connected brain regions. However, functional imaging studies investigating language outcome after aphasic…

  10. The prognostic factors regarding long-term functional outcome of full-thickness hand burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. M. van Zuijlen; R. W. Kreis; A. F. P. M. Vloemans; F. Groenevelt; D. P. Mackie

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of the burned hand has always been a subject of special interest. In order to obtain a better understanding of the parameters involved in the long-term functional outcome of hand burns a retrospective study was performed on 88 consecutive patients with hand burns (143 hands), treated according to a standardised protocol. Patients were followed for at least 12

  11. Correlation between functional outcomes and postoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging in children with anorectal malformation

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Venkat Shankar; Agarwala, Sandeep; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Though the outcomes in operated children with anorectal malformation (ARM) have greatly improved, postoperative soiling and constipation remain major issues. Among the various factors described for poor outcomes; misplaced bowel, hypoplastic sphincters and obtuse anorectal angle bear special mention. The aim of this study was to compare the stooling outcomes, type of anomalies and surgical procedure with postoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving operated children of ARM who had at least 2 years of follow-up, and who were at least 3 years of age. The subtypes of ARM, surgical procedures, and functional outcomes were documented using the Krickenbeck classification. All children were subjected to a pelvic MRI. Results: Thirty-three eligible children were part of this study. Twenty-two patients underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty, seven patients underwent abdominoperineal pull-through (APPT) and four patients underwent perineal operations. Local abnormalities were present in 66% patients, and 34% had abnormalities of the spine detected on MRI. Poorer stooling outcomes were twice as common in children with local pelvic MRI abnormalities as compared to asymptomatic children. The highest incidence of local abnormalities were seen in patients treated with APPT (P = 0.0001). No significant difference in the pelvic MRI was seen among children who were constipated and those who had soiling. Conclusion: MRI is a useful imaging modality in operated children of ARM with poor stooling outcomes. Local abnormalities were the most common in children undergoing abdominoperineal pull-through procedure.

  12. Different functional neural substrates for good and poor language outcome in autism.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael V; Pierce, Karen; Eyler, Lisa T; Carter Barnes, Cindy; Ahrens-Barbeau, Clelia; Solso, Stephanie; Campbell, Kathleen; Courchesne, Eric

    2015-04-22

    Autism (ASD) is vastly heterogeneous, particularly in early language development. While ASD language trajectories in the first years of life are highly unstable, by early childhood these trajectories stabilize and are predictive of longer-term outcome. Early neural substrates that predict/precede such outcomes are largely unknown, but could have considerable translational and clinical impact. Pre-diagnosis fMRI response to speech in ASD toddlers with relatively good language outcome was highly similar to non-ASD comparison groups and robustly recruited language-sensitive superior temporal cortices. In contrast, language-sensitive superior temporal cortices were hypoactive in ASD toddlers with poor language outcome. Brain-behavioral relationships were atypically reversed in ASD, and a multimodal combination of pre-diagnostic clinical behavioral measures and speech-related fMRI response showed the most promise as an ASD prognosis classifier. Thus, before ASD diagnoses and outcome become clinically clear, distinct functional neuroimaging phenotypes are already present that can shed insight on an ASD toddler's later outcome. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:25864635

  13. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social outcomes of HIV interventions. This limits knowledge about social drivers and inhibits the institutionalization of social approaches within the HIV/AIDS response. We conclude that indicator frameworks should expand to offer a more comprehensive range of social indicators for monitoring and evaluation and to include indicators of organizational capacity to tackle social drivers. While such expansion poses challenges for standardization and coordination, we argue that the complexity of interventions producing social outcomes necessitates capacity for flexibility and local tailoring in monitoring and evaluation. PMID:25160645

  14. Treatment of base of tongue cancer, stage III and stage IV with primary surgery: survival and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Khaled; Rieger, Jen; Harris, Jeffery R; Mlynarek, Alex; Williams, David; Islam, Tahera; Seikaly, Hadi

    2015-08-01

    This study examines functional outcome (speech and swallowing), survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with primary aggressive surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy or postoperative concomitant chemoradiotherapy, for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Sixty-six consecutive patients treated from June 1997 to June 2006 were followed prospectively through the Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Surgery Reconstruction Clinic. Speech and swallowing data were gathered at four evaluation times during the first year. Speech assessment was conducted by PERCI, Nasometer, and C-AIDS and swallowing assessment by Modified barium swallow, Diet survey and G-tube. Also, the overall survival, disease-specific survival and loco regional control were measured. The average age of the patients was 56.8, 85 % male and 15 % female. All patients had primary surgical resection and 83 % received postoperative radiotherapy and 17 % chemoradiation therapy. Overall survival at 3 years was 80.3 % and 5 years 52.2 %. Disease-specific survival at 3 years was 86.7 % and 5 years was 77.5 %. Local control was 94 %. Distal metastasis and second primary were found to be 7.5 % each. Primary surgical treatment of advanced BOT cancer offers excellent functional outcome, local control and disease-specific survival. PMID:24961437

  15. Consideration of the use of health status, functional outcome, and quality-of-life to monitor neonatal intensive care practice.

    PubMed

    Hack, M

    1999-01-01

    Measures of health status, functional abilities, and quality-of-life are being used increasingly to evaluate health care practice, and to measure outcomes from the patient's perspective. There is thus a need to reassess the use of growth and neurodevelopmental status that have traditionally been used as measures of outcome after neonatal intensive care. The quality of neonatal intensive care constitutes only one factor among many that determine the functional health and quality-of-life of survivors of neonatal intensive care. These include genetic disposition, intrauterine events, the effects of sociodemographic factors on the health and development of the child, and on the parents' assessment of their child's functioning. To obtain health status, functional and quality-of-life measures, parents need to act as proxy for the child during infancy and childhood. The parents' cultural, social, and educational background and the specific experience of the parent with children may influence their responses. Furthermore, their perspective may differ from that of the child. Measures that have been used or have the potential to measure health status, functioning, and quality-of-life include the National Health Interview Survey, the National Health Insurance Study, the Functional Status II, the Multi-Attribute Health System, the Functional Independence Measure for Children, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Adolescent Child Health and Illness Profile, and the Child Health Questionnaire for children, infants, and toddlers. Knowledge of the validity of the use of these measures among survivors of neonatal intensive care is, however, sparse. Studies have shown that the collection of a standard core of data from various national sources with specific criteria for defining severe disability at 2 years of age is feasible in Great Britain. However, questionnaires or available national databases provide global and epidemiologic information on outcomes rather than identifying the specific pathogenesis or rates of impairments. To determine the possible deleterious effects of new therapies, specific diseases or impairments will need to be identified rather than the global effect on functioning or health related quality-of-life. Examination of the proximal neonatal impairments that predispose to later disability, such as rates of periventricular hemorrhage or retinopathy of prematurity, are probably better measures for evaluating quality of neonatal care rather than distal impairments such as cerebral palsy, growth impairments, or reactive airway disease. The ultimate goal of neonatal intensive care is to provide survival without impairment. Objective measures of specific impairments and their residual disability are thus better measures of the quality of neonatal intensive care than subjective assessments of children and their families. PMID:9917474

  16. Thyroid function tests and early outcomes of acute ischemic stroke in older euthyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Forti, Paola; Maioli, Fabiola; Coveri, Maura; Nativio, Valeria; Arnone, Giorgia; Loreti, Alice; Zoli, Marco; Sacquegna, Tommaso; Procaccianti, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Blood thyroid function tests (TFT) are routinely used to screen for thyroid disorders in several clinical settings. TFT on hospital admission may also be useful prognostic predictors of acute IS: according to recent evidence, poststroke outcome is better in patients with lower thyroid function and worse in those with higher thyroid function. However, previous reports are few and mostly compared patients with thyroid disorders to euthyroid patients. Thyroid disorders are known risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. However, hyperthyroidism is related to cardioembolic IS whereas hypothyroidism is related to atherosclerotic risk factors. Therefore, findings from available studies of TFT might just reflect the worse prognosis of cardioembolic IS compared to other IS subtypes. Another limitation of previous studies is the lack of information for older persons, who represent three quarters of all IS patients. In this paper, we investigated whether serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) measured on Stroke Unit (SU) admission are associated with early outcomes of acute IS in 775 euthyroid patients aged ?65 years (mean age 80.1±8.7 years). Two composite outcomes were investigated: poor functional outcome (death during SU stay or disability at SU discharge), and unfavorable discharge setting (death during SU stay, transfer from SU to other acute hospital unit or transfer from SU to long-term care-facilities as opposed to direct discharge home). Analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Curvilinear associations were tested including TFT as polynomial terms. Models were adjusted for demographics, prestroke, and IS-related confounders. We found that lower TSH had a complex curvilinear association with poor functional outcome and that the shape of the associations changed with age. At age 65, the curve was U-shaped: outcome risk decreased with increasing TSH, reached its minimum at TSH near 3.00mUI/L and then started to rise. Between ages 70 and 75, however, the shape of the curve straightened and, starting from age 80 took an inverted U-shape: outcome risk rose with increasing TSH, reached its maximum at TSH values that progressively shifted upward with increasing age (from 1.70mU/L at age 80 to about 2.20mUI/L at age 90), then started to decrease. A linear inverse association was found between FT3 and unfavorable discharge setting. Our study suggests that measurement of TFT on SU admission can provide independent prognostic information for early outcomes of acute IS in older euthyroid patients. PMID:25449856

  17. Assessing and demonstrating data saturation in qualitative inquiry supporting patient-reported outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Cicely; Nixon, Annabel; Wild, Diane

    2010-06-01

    In the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) field, strict regulatory requirements must be met for qualitative research that contributes to labeling claims for medicinal products. These requirements not only emphasize the importance of reaching saturation but also of providing documentary evidence that saturation has been reached. This paper reviews qualitative literature for useful definitions of the concept and for practical approaches for assessing saturation. The paper considers approaches in light of the rigorous regulatory requirements for PRO research that are used to support labeling claims for medicinal products and the wider requirements for flexibility and creativity in qualitative research in general. This assessment is facilitated by the use of examples from our past qualitative PRO studies. Based on conclusions from this assessment, we offer preliminary recommendations for future qualitative PRO studies for assessing and documenting saturation. PMID:20545592

  18. Association between plasma levels of hyaluronic acid and functional outcome in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Activation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and associated enzyme synthesis has been demonstrated in experimental stroke animal models. Our study aimed to investigate the plasma levels of HA in acute stroke patients and the associations between HA levels and functional outcome. Methods This was a multicenter case–control study. Acute stroke patients and age- and sex-matched non-stroke controls were recruited. Plasma levels of HA in acute stroke patients were determined at <48 hours and at 48 to 72 hours after stroke onset by standard ELISA. Favorable functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale ?2 at 3 months after stroke. Results The study included 206 acute stroke patients, including 43 who had intracerebral hemorrhage and 163 who had ischemic stroke, and 159 controls. The plasma levels of HA in the acute stroke patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (219.7?±?203.4 ng/ml for <48 hours and 343.1?±?710.3 ng/ml for 48 to 72 hours versus 170.4?±?127.9 ng/ml in the controls; both P?outcome predictor (P?=?0.016). For ischemic stroke patients, an inverted U-shaped association between plasma HA (48 to 72 hours) and outcome was noted, indicating that ischemic stroke patients with too high or too low plasma HA levels tended to have an unfavorable outcome. Conclusion HA plasma level was elevated in patients with acute stroke, and can predict 3-month functional outcome, particularly for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:24912490

  19. The Promise of mHealth: Daily Activity Monitoring and Outcome Assessments by Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning. PMID:21989632

  20. Therapeutic effects of erythropoietin on histological and functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury in rats are independent of hematocrit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlu; Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Meng, Yuling; Qu, Changsheng; Schallert, Timothy; Chopp, Michael

    2009-10-19

    Erythropoietin (EPO) provides neuroprotection and neurorestoration after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The EPO doses used for treatment of TBI significantly increase hematocrit, which may affect the efficacy of EPO therapy for TBI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether normalization of hematocrit would affect EPO efficacy for treatment of TBI. Young adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) Sham group (n=6); (2) TBI+ saline group (n=6); (3) TBI+ EPO group (n=6); and (4) TBI+ EPO+ hemodilution group (n=7). TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact over the left parietal cortex. EPO (5,000 U/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally at days 1, 2, and 3 postinjury. Neurological function was assessed using a modified neurological severity score (mNSS), footfault and the Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Animals were sacrificed 35 days after injury, and brain sections were stained for immunohistochemistry. Compared to the saline treatment, EPO treatment significantly reduced hippocampal cell loss, enhanced angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the injured cortex and hippocampus, and significantly improved sensorimotor functional outcome (lowered mNSS and foot faults) and spatial learning (MWM test). Normovolemic hemodilution effectively normalized the hematocrit and did not significantly affect the histological and functional outcome of EPO therapy for TBI. These data for the first time demonstrate that increased hematocrit does not affect therapeutic effects of EPO on histological and long-term functional outcomes in rats after TBI and also suggest that neuroprotection and neurorestoration of EPO treatment are independent of hematocrit. PMID:19646970

  1. Assessment of respiratory muscle function and strength.

    PubMed Central

    Syabbalo, N.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful in order to detect respiratory muscle weakness and to quantify its severity. In patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness, vital capacity is reduced but is a non-specific and relatively insensitive measure. Conventionally, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength has been assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures sustained for 1 s (PImax and PEmax) during maximal static manoeuvre against a closed shutter. However, PImax and PEmax are volitional tests, and are poorly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 25%. The sniff manoeuvre is natural and probably easier to perform. Sniff pressure, and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure are more reproducible and useful measure of diaphragmatic strength. Nevertheless, the sniff manoeuvre is also volition-dependent, and submaximal efforts are most likely to occur in patients who are ill or breathless. Non-volitional tests include measurements of twitch oesophageal, gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral electrical and magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation. Electrical phrenic nerve stimulation is technically difficult and is also uncomfortable and painful. Magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation is less painful and transdiaphragmatic pressure is reproducible in normal subjects. It is a relatively easy test that has the potential to become a widely adopted method for the assessment of diaphragm strength. The development of a technique to measure diaphragmatic sound (phonomyogram) during magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation opens the way for noninvasive assessment of diaphragmatic function. PMID:9683973

  2. Validation of GAITRite and PROMIS as High-Throughput Physical Function Outcome Measures Following ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Papuga, M. Owen; Beck, Christopher A.; Kates, Stephen L.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Maloney, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    New healthcare demands for quality measures of elective procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery, warrant the establishment of high through-put outcomes for high volume clinics. To this end we evaluated the PROMIS and GAITRite as physical function outcome measures to quantify early healing and post-operative complications in 106 patients at pre-op and 3, 10, 20 and 52 weeks post-ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft, and compared the results to the current IKDC validated outcome measure. The results showed that both PROMIS and GAITRite were significantly quicker to administer versus IKDC (p < 0.0001). Additional advantages were that PROMIS and GAITRite detected a significant decrease in physical function at 3 weeks post-op, and a significant improvement at 10 weeks post-op, versus pre-op (p<0.001), which were not detected with IKDC. GAITRite was limited by a low ceiling that could not detect improvement of physical function beyond 20 weeks, while both PROMIS and IKDC detected significant improvement out to 52 weeks postop (p<0.001). Linear regressions demonstrated a significant relationship between IKDC and PROMIS, with a combined correlation value of 0.8954 (p<.001) for all time points. Finally, ROC curve analysis demonstrated that PROMIS is a diagnostic test for poor outcomes. PMID:24532421

  3. Neuropsychological Functioning Predicts Community Outcomes in Affective and Non-Affective Psychoses: A 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; Cohen, Bruce M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Sperry, Sarah H.; Öngür, Dost

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neurocognitive dysfunction is a major symptom feature of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A prognostic relationship between cognition and community outcomes is well-documented in schizophrenia and increasingly recognized in bipolar disorder. However, specific associations amongst neurocognition, diagnosis, state symptomatology, and community functioning are unclear, and few studies have compared these relationships amongst patients with affective and non-affective psychoses in the same study. We examined neurocognitive, clinical, and community functioning in a cross-diagnostic sample of patients with psychotic disorders over a 6-month follow-up interval. Method Neurocognitive, clinical and community functioning were assessed in participants with schizophrenia (n=13), schizoaffective disorder (n=17), or bipolar disorder with psychosis (n=18), and healthy controls (n=18) at baseline and 6 months later. Results Neurocognitive functioning was impaired in all diagnostic groups and, despite reductions in primary symptoms, did not recover on most measures over the follow-up period. Neurocognitive impairment was not associated with diagnosis or clinical improvement. Several neurocognitive scores at baseline (but not diagnosis or clinical baseline or follow-up scores) predicted community functioning at follow-up. Discussion In one of the few studies to longitudinally examine neurocognition in association with clinical and outcomes variables in a cross diagnostic sample of psychotic disorders patients, neurocognitive deficits were pronounced across diagnoses and did not recover on most measures despite significant reductions in clinical symptoms. Baseline neurocognitive functioning was the only significant predictor of patients’ community functioning six months later. Efforts to recognize and address cognitive deficits, an approach that has shown promise in schizophrenia, should be extended to all patients with psychosis. PMID:23791391

  4. Functional outcomes in children with abusive head trauma receiving inpatient rehabilitation compared with children with non-abusive head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Risen, Sarah R; Suskauer, Stacy J; DeMatt, Ellen J; Slomine, Beth S; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical features and functional outcomes of age and sex matched children with abusive and non-abusive head trauma receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Study design Children with abusive head trauma (n = 28) and age, sex matched children with non-abusive head trauma (n = 20) admitted to one inpatient pediatric rehabilitation unit from 1995–2012 were studied. Acute hospitalization and inpatient rehabilitation records were retrospectively reviewed for pertinent clinical data: initial GCS score, signs of increased intracranial pressure, neuroimaging findings, and presence of associated injuries. Functional status at admission to and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). Outcome at discharge and outpatient follow-up was described based on attainment of independent ambulation and expressive language. Results Children with abusive and non-abusive head trauma had similar levels of injury severity although associated injuries were greater in abusive head trauma. Functional impairment upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation was comparable and functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation were similar between groups. More children with non-abusive than abusive head trauma attained independent ambulation and expressive language after discharge from rehabilitation; the difference was no longer significant when only children greater than 12 months of age at injury were examined. There was variability in delay to obtain these skills and quality of gained skills in both groups. Conclusions Despite more associated injuries, children with abusive head trauma make significant functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation comparable with an age and sex matched sample with non-abusive head trauma. Key functional skills may be gained by children in both groups following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:24321537

  5. Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Marzano; Debra Pickering; Jay McTighe

    • See if a rubric from a different subject area can be adapted to fit your needs. Reading rubrics can often be used to assess listening, writing rubrics may be adapted to assess speaking, and fine arts rubrics can sometimes be applied to several different art forms. • Make sure the rubric is clear. • Use this criteria to evaluate

  6. Comparison of surgical, functional, and oncological outcomes of open and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Boylu, Ugur; Basatac, Cem; Yildirim, Umit; Onol, Fikret F.; Gumus, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) with open partial nephrectomy (OPN) in the management of small renal masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 46 RAPN patients and 20 OPN patients was included in this study. Patients’ demographics, mean operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), warm ischemia time (WIT), length of hospital stay, pre- and post-operative renal functions, complications and oncological outcomes were recorded, prospectively. RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 4.04 cm in OPN group and 3.56 cm in RAPN group (P = 0.27). Mean R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was 6.35 in OPN group and 5.35 in RAPN group (P = 0.02). The mean operative time was 152 min in OPN group and 225 min in RAPN group (P = 0.006). The mean EBL in OPN and RAPN groups were 417 ml and 268 ml, respectively (P = 0.001). WIT in OPN group was significantly shorter than RAPN group (18.02 min vs. 23.33 min, P = 0.003). The mean drain removal time and the length of hospital stay were longer in OPN group. There were no significant differences in terms of renal functional outcomes and postoperative complications between groups. CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgical management of renal masses with RAPN offers better outcomes in terms of EBL and length of stay. However, the mean operative time and WIT were significantly shorter in OPN group. RAPN is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to OPN in terms of oncological and functional outcomes. PMID:25598603

  7. Combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan and Simvastatin, reduces axonal damage and improves functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Shehadah, Amjad; Chen, Jieli; Cui, Xu; Roberts, Cynthia; Lu, Mei; Chopp, Michael

    2010-07-15

    In this study we examined the effect of combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan, a prolonged-release formulation of Niacin (vitamin B3), and Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, on functional outcome, axonal damage, axonal density and the of Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia expression in the ischemic brain of rats. Adult male rats were subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with or without Niaspan alone, Simvastatin alone and combination Niaspan and Simvastatin starting 24 h after MCAo and daily for 14 days. Neurological functional tests were performed. Axonal damage and density were evaluated by Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Bielschowsky silver, respectively. Nogo66 Receptor (NgR) expression and immunoreactive microglia (Iba-1) were also measured in the ischemic brain. Niaspan and Simvastatin monotherapy and combination treatment significantly promote functional outcome after stroke (p<0.05) compared to MCAo control animals. Combination treatment with Niaspan and Simvastatin induces additive but not synergetic effects when compared to Niaspan or Simvastatin monotherapy groups. Combination treatment significantly decreased APP expression and increased Bielschowsky silver expression. NGR and Iba-1 expression were significantly decreased in the ischemic brain. These data suggest that treatment of experimental stroke with combination of Niaspan and Simvastatin significantly improves functional outcome, reduces axonal damage and increases axonal density. Decreased expression of the NGR and reduced activated microglia may contribute to functional recovery after stroke. PMID:20451219

  8. Acute Kidney Injury Enhances Outcome Prediction Ability of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission. Results One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4%) patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%). Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032) was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001) for SOFA score ?10 vs. ?11 in these ICU patients with AKI. Conclusions For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ? “11” on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome. PMID:25279844

  9. ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    , and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.P () an ability to create sustainable be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet Course #: 476 Title: Solid Waste Engineering Semester) S = Secondary outcome that is also assessed P or S Outcome P (a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics

  10. ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ) a knowledge of contemporary issues (k) an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice for engineering practice.(-b) an ability to integrate modern biology) S = Secondary outcome that is also assessed P or S Outcome (a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics

  11. ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    modern biology with engineering principles (-e) an ability to create sustainable solutions in the context with an emphasis on mass balances. a An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering) S = Secondary outcome that is also assessed P or S Outcome P (a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics

  12. ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    , and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice. P () an ability to create sustainable of systems analysis as a quantitative engineering problem-solving technique involving mathematical modeling) S = Secondary outcome that is also assessed P or S Outcome P (a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics

  13. Functional Outcome in Limb-Salvage Surgery for Soft Tissue Tumours of the Foot and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    Colterjohn, Nigel R.; Davis, Aileen M.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles N.; Wunder, Jay S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. This paper describes the functional and oncologic outcome of 30 cases (in 29 patients) treated with limb-salvage surgery for localized soft tissue sarcoma (STS) or fibromatosis of the foot and ankle. Subjects. Patients were eligible for the study if they had a STS or fibromatosis in the distal one-third of the tibia or the foot such that ablative surgery would require a below-knee amputation; had no metastatic disease at presentation; and had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Methods. Function was prospectively evaluated using the modified Enneking functional rating scale (MSTS) at 3, 6, 12 months and at most recent follow-up. Premorbid work status and change following surgery, lower leg oedema, and the use of orthotics and ambulatory aids were consecutively assessed. Tumour characteristics were recorded and patients were followed for systemic and local recurrence. Results. Thirty-six consecutive cases were managed by a multi-disciplinary sarcoma team. Six patients underwent below-knee amputation due to extensive local disease, while 30 cases were treated with limb-salvage surgery. Of the patients treated with limb salvage, there were 19 high-grade sarcomas, five low-grade sarcomas and six cases of fibromatosis. Microscopically negative margins were achieved in 26 of 30 cases. Ten cases required bone excision, and eight patients needed free vascularized tissue flaps. Twenty-five patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Seven patients had post-operative complications. At mean follow-up of 52 months (range 24–109 months), four patients had developed systemic recurrence. There was one local recurrence in a patient with fibromatosis, while another patient with fibromatosis developed recurrence a considerable distance from the surgical and radiation field. Mean scores on the MSTS were 27.5 (range 11–35), 29.9 (range 13–35), 31.4 (range 17–35) and 31.0 (range 13–35) at 3, 6, 12 months and at most recent follow-up, respectively. Eighty-five per cent of the patients scored good to excellent at their last visit. Twelve patients reported persistent pain with two continuing to require occasional narcotics. Six had persistent mild oedema. Four required shoe modifications and three continue to use a cane. Six patients were unable to return to their premorbid employment with the majority of these previously employed in jobs requiring physical labour or long periods of either standing or walking. Discussion. Thirty of 36 patients (83%) presenting with foot and ankle STS or fibromatosis were candidates for limb preservation. With excellent local control and good functional outcome demonstrated in this study, limb salvage should be a primary goal in the management of selected patients with STS and fibromatosis of the foot and ankle. PMID:18521204

  14. Motor function outcomes of pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy after rehabilitation treatment: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Yong Min; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies regarding pediatric patients with motor dysfunction have confirmed the correlation between DTI parameters of the injured corticospinal tract and the severity of motor dysfunction. There is also evidence that DTI parameters can help predict the prognosis of motor function of patients with cerebral palsy. But few studies are reported on the DTI parameters that can reflect the motor function outcomes of pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy after rehabilitation treatment. In the present study, 36 pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were included. Before and after rehabilitation treatment, DTI was used to measure the fiber number (FN), fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bilateral corticospinal tracts. Functional Level of Hemiplegia scale (FxL) was used to assess the therapeutic effect of rehabilitative therapy on clinical hemiplegia. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the statistical interrelationship between the change amount of DTI parameters and FxL. DTI findings obtained at the initial and follow-up evaluations demonstrated that more affected corticospinal tract yielded significantly decreased FN and FA values and significantly increased ADC value compared to the less affected corticospinal tract. Correlation analysis results showed that the change amount of FxL was positively correlated to FN and FA values, and the correlation to FN was stronger than the correlation to FA. The results suggest that FN and FA values can be used to evaluate the motor function outcomes of pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy after rehabilitation treatment and FN is of more significance for evaluation. PMID:26170825

  15. Use of the International Knee Documentation Committee guidelines to assess outcome following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Irrgang; Henry Ho; Christopher D. Harner; Freddie H. Fu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if guidelines established by the International Knee Documentation Committee\\u000a (IKDC) could distinguish differences in outcome, as indicated by the patients’ subjective rating of knee function following\\u000a ACL reconstruction, and to determine if all subgroups included in the IKDC rating system contribute to the prediction of the\\u000a overall final IKDC rating. A total

  16. Histological and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury in mice null for the erythropoietin receptor in the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Xiong; Asim Mahmood; Dunyue Lu; Changsheng Qu; Humaira Kazmi; Anton Goussev; Zheng Gang Zhang; Constance T. Noguchi; Timothy Schallert; Michael Chopp

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR), essential for erythropoiesis, are expressed in the nervous system. Recombinant human EPO treatment promotes functional outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, suggesting that the endogenous EPO\\/EPOR system plays an important role in neuroprotection and neurorestoration. This study was designed to investigate effects of the EPOR on histological and functional outcomes after TBI.

  17. The UCSD Statin Study: a randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of statins on selected noncardiac outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice A.; Criqui, Michael H.; White, Halbert L.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    There has been persistent controversy regarding possible favorable or adverse effects of statins or of cholesterol reduction on cognition, mood and behavior (including aggressive or violent behavior), muscle function, and quality of life. The UCSD Statin Study seeks to ascertain the beneficial or adverse effects of statin cholesterol-lowering drugs on a set of noncardiac endpoints, including cognition, behavior, and serotonin biochemistry. The study will enroll 1000 subjects (minimum 20% female) of mixed ethnicity from San Diego. Subjects must be age 20 and older, postmenopausal if female, without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and with LDL-cholesterol between 115 and 190 mg/dl. Subjects will be randomized to a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with assignment 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 to placebo, simvastatin 20 mg, or pravastatin 40 mg (equipotent LDL-cholesterol-lowering doses for drug arms with simvastatin and pravastatin chosen to represent the extremes of the lipophilicity spectrum) for 6 months of treatment followed by 2 months postcessation follow-up. Primary outcomes are cognition (cognitive battery), irritability/aggression (behavior measure), and serotonin (gauged by whole blood serotonin), assessed as the difference between baseline and 6 months, judging combined statin groups vs. placebo. Secondary outcomes include mood (CES-D and Wakefield depression inventory), quality of life (SF-12V), sleep (Leeds sleep scale, modified), and secondary aggression measures (Conflict Tactics Scale; Overt Aggression Scale, Modified). Cardiovascular reactivity will be examined in a 10% subset. As additional secondary endpoints, primary and selected secondary outcomes will be assessed by statin assignment (lipophilic simvastatin vs. hydrophilic pravastatin). “Reversibility” of changes, if any, at 2 months postcessation will be determined. If effects (favorable or unfavorable) are identified, we will seek to ascertain whether there are baseline variables that predict who will be most susceptible to these favorable or adverse noncardiac effects (i.e., effect modification). PMID:15020036

  18. The Early Functional Outcome of Mau Osteotomy for the Correction of Moderate-Severe Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Ahmed, Usman; Malik, Shahbaz; Tillu, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the commonest conditions of the foot and has been reported to affect nearly half of the adult population. It is most effectively treated by a corrective osteotomy of which there a numerous subtypes. The Mau osteotomy confers the greatest structural stability but is not thought to provide adequate correction of moderate-severe deformities. Accordingly, complications such as under correction and non-union are common. The aim of this study was to determine the functional outcome in patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus following a Mau osteotomy. A retrospective review of 23 patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus treated by Mau osteotomy was conducted. Patients were assessed clinically by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system and radiologically by measuring the first intermetatarsal (IM) and hallux abductovalgus angles (HAV). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 47 preoperatively to 92 postoperatively (P<0.01). Additionally, preoperative HAV and IM angles improved from 39o and 15o respectively to 15o and 9o respectively (P<0.01). There were no cases of undercorrection or non-union. In this series, the Mau osteotomy was able to achieve good correction of the IM and HAV angles in patients with moderate-severe hallux valgus. This was reflected in a significantly higher postoperative AOFAS score. Contrary to other studies there were no cases of undercorrection and despite allowing patients to fully weight-bear postoperatively there were no cases of non-union. PMID:24416481

  19. Social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: The moderating role of cardiac vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Holly K; Sun, Jane C; Green, Michael F; Kee, Kimmy S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark; Sholty, Gretchen L; Mathis, Kristopher I; Jetton, Christopher; Williams, Terrance J; Kern, Robert; Horan, William; Fiske, Alan; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yee, Cindy M

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients. PMID:25314266

  20. Assessment of long-term outcomes for the STRokE DOC telemedicine trial.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Brett C; Raman, Rema; Ernstrom, Karin; Tafreshi, Gilda M; Huisa, Branko; Stemer, Andrew B; Hemmen, Thomas M

    2012-05-01

    Telemedicine can provide stroke evaluations in locations with limited available expertise. The reliability of telestroke has been established. Decision making efficacy has been shown in the National Institutes of Health's STRokE DOC trial. No prospective trial has assessed long-term telestroke outcomes, however. In an institutional review board-approved trial (NCT00936455), we contacted patients originally enrolled in the STRokE DOC trial. A telephone script was used to verify consent. Patients were asked standardized questions regarding disposition, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, mortality, and recurrent stroke for 2 retrospective time points (6 and 12 months postevent) and one current time point. Blind was maintained. Primary outcome measures of mortality and percent mRS score of 0-1 [%mRS(0-1)] at 6 months are reported. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for continuous variables, and Fisher's exact was used for categorical variables. Of the original 222 participants, 75 patients or surrogates could be contacted. Mean time from enrollment was 3.96 ± 1.0 years (range, 2.33-5.45 years). Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 8 ± 7 (5 ± 8 for telephone; 12 ± 8 for telemedicine; P = .002). The rate of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) use was 31%. Six-month %mRS(0-1) outcome was not different, at 42%. Mortality after imputation to the entire study sample also was not different, at 18%. There was no difference in the rate of recurrent stroke (P = .61). Some 85% of patients were home at 6 months. This study reports a good 6-month outcome for stroke patients evaluated by telemedicine or telephone. This design is limited by the time since original enrollment and resultant inability to contact participants. Although these findings can add to the limited data on telemedicine outcomes, a prospective trial is needed. PMID:20851629

  1. Estimating marginal and incremental effects on health outcomes using flexible link and variance function models.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Rathouz, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    We propose an extension to the estimating equations in generalized linear models to estimate parameters in the link function and variance structure simultaneously with regression coefficients. Rather than focusing on the regression coefficients, the purpose of these models is inference about the mean of the outcome as a function of a set of covariates, and various functionals of the mean function used to measure the effects of the covariates. A commonly used functional in econometrics, referred to as the marginal effect, is the partial derivative of the mean function with respect to any covariate, averaged over the empirical distribution of covariates in the model. We define an analogous parameter for discrete covariates. The proposed estimation method not only helps to identify an appropriate link function and to suggest an underlying distribution for a specific application but also serves as a robust estimator when no specific distribution for the outcome measure can be identified. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the resulting parameter estimators are consistent. The method is illustrated with an analysis of inpatient expenditure data from a study of hospitalists. PMID:15618530

  2. Improving pain assessment practices and outcomes in long-term care facilities: a mixed methods investigation.

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Williams, Jaime; Zacharias, Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    An ongoing concern in long-term care (LTC) is that pain problems are often not identified correctly. There is also evidence that behavioral disturbance due to pain is misattributed to psychiatric conditions and consequently frequently treated with psychotropic rather than analgesic medication. This can result in unnecessary polypharmacy and ineffective pain management. In a previous study, implementation of a pain assessment protocol resulted in changes in administration of pro re nata (PRN) medications and positive outcomes. However, there were no changes in regularly scheduled medications suggesting that assessment results were either not communicated to the prescribing physicians or not taken into account. The goal of this study was to determine whether a pain assessment protocol, augmented with communication of the assessment results to the residents' physicians, affects prescriptions of analgesic and psychotropic medication. Psychotropic medication reduction would help address the problem of polypharmacy frequently seen in LTC facilities. PRN medications were also examined. This investigation involved a two group design (control vs. assessment). A mixed methods analysis included both quantitative and qualitative procedures. At the end of the study, residents in the pain assessment group were administered fewer psychotropic medications than patients in the control group, helping address the problem of polypharmacy. Pain levels were comparable between the groups. Health care staff indicated that the protocol resulted in more careful evaluation of residents' pain and greater appropriateness of prescriptions including reductions in polypharmacy. PMID:24157227

  3. Defining molecular initiating events in the adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Timothy E H; Goodman, Jonathan M; Gutsell, Steve; Russell, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Consumer and environmental safety decisions are based on exposure and hazard data, interpreted using risk assessment approaches. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) conceptual framework has been presented as a logical sequence of events or processes within biological systems which can be used to understand adverse effects and refine current risk assessment practices in ecotoxicology. This framework can also be applied to human toxicology and is explored on the basis of investigating the molecular initiating events (MIEs) of compounds. The precise definition of the MIE has yet to reach general acceptance. In this work we present a unified MIE definition: an MIE is the initial interaction between a molecule and a biomolecule or biosystem that can be causally linked to an outcome via a pathway. Case studies are presented, and issues with current definitions are addressed. With the development of a unified MIE definition, the field can look toward defining, classifying, and characterizing more MIEs and using knowledge of the chemistry of these processes to aid AOP research and toxicity risk assessment. We also present the role of MIE research in the development of in vitro and in silico toxicology and suggest how, by using a combination of biological and chemical approaches, MIEs can be identified and characterized despite a lack of detailed reports, even for some of the most studied molecules in toxicology. PMID:25354311

  4. The Role of Context in the Evaluation of Reinforcer Efficacy: Implications for the Preference Assessment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, Aphrodite; Roane, Henry; Fredrick, Laura; Pabico, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Highly preferred stimuli were identified via two preference assessments (based on Fisher et al., 1992), the second of which included stimuli that were ranked low in the initial preference assessment. Following the preference assessments, a subset of stimuli was evaluated as reinforcers in single- and concurrent-operant arrangements. In general, stimuli that were identified as highly preferred in the initial preference assessment functioned as more effective reinforcers. These results are discussed in terms of how the context in which stimuli are evaluated may play a role in the identification of effective positive reinforcers for individuals with autism and related developmental disabilities. PMID:22125577

  5. Functional outcome of burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine managed non-operatively, with early ambulation, evaluated using the load sharing classification.

    PubMed

    Aligizakis, A; Katonis, P; Stergiopoulos, K; Galanakis, I; Karabekios, S; Hadjipavlou, A

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the functional outcome of conservative treatment with early ambulation of thoracolumbar burst fractures, using the Load Sharing classification. From 1997 to 2001, 60 consecutive patients with single-level thoracolumbar spinal injury, with no neurological impairment, were classified according to the Load Sharing scoring and were managed non-operatively. A custom-made thoracolumbosacral orthosis was worn by all patients for six months, and early ambulation was recommended. Several radiological parameters were evaluated; the Denis Pain and Work Scale was used to assess the clinical outcome. The average follow-up period was 42 months (range, 24 to 55 months). During this period the spinal canal occupation was significantly reduced. Other radiological parameters, such as Cobb's angle and anterior vertebral body compression, showed loss of fracture reduction, which was not statistically significant. However, the functional outcome was satisfactory in 55 of 60 patients with no complications recorded on completion of treatment. Load Sharing scoring is a reliable and easy-to-use classification for the conservative treatment and prognosis of thoracolumbar spinal fractures. Because of the three characteristics of the fracture site this classification can also predict the structural results of spinal injury, such as posttraumatic kyphosis, as well as the functional outcome in conservatively treated patients. PMID:12152376

  6. Oncological and functional outcome of conservative surgery for primary supraglottic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maurizi; G. Paludetti; J. Galli; F. Ottaviani; G. D’Abramo; G. Almadori

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the oncological and functional outcome of conservative surgical treatment of primary\\u000a supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SGSCC) and related neck disease in order to verify the effectiveness of supraglottic\\u000a laryngectomy (SL) and the validity of an “observation” policy in the control of clinically negative (N0) necks. Of a total\\u000a of 252 consecutive patients

  7. Combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan and Simvastatin, reduces axonal damage and improves functional outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amjad Shehadah; Jieli Chen; Xu Cui; Cynthia Roberts; Mei Lu; Michael Chopp

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect of combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan, a prolonged-release formulation of Niacin (vitamin B3), and Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, on functional outcome, axonal damage, axonal density and the of Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia expression in the ischemic brain of rats. Adult male rats were subjected to 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and

  8. Non-traumatic spinal cord lesions: epidemiology, complications, neurological and functional outcome of rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gupta; A B Taly; A Srivastava; T Murali

    2009-01-01

    Study design:Prospective cross-sectional study.Objective:To study epidemiology, complication, neurological and functional outcome in non-traumatic spinal cord lesions (NTSCL) after inpatient rehabilitation.Setting:Neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary research hospital.Methods:Sixty-four patients (M\\/F=28:36) with NTSCL admitted from June 2005 to January 2008 for multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Epidemiology, medical complications during stay in rehabilitation, admission and discharge—Barthel Index (BI) and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment

  9. Urethral erosion after suburethral synthetic slings: risk factors, diagnosis, and functional outcome after surgical management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Velemir; J. Amblard; B. Jacquetin; B. Fatton

    2008-01-01

    Urethral erosion (UE) is an uncommon but potentially severe complication after suburethral synthetic slings. We aimed to identify\\u000a the risk factors and diagnostic modalities of UE and also functional outcome after UE surgical management. We retrospectively\\u000a analyzed eight cases of UE managed in our department between 1997 and 2007. The main presumptive risk factors of UE were excessive\\u000a sling tensioning

  10. Cervical spine trauma in the injured child: A tragic injury with potential for salvageable functional outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Partrick; Denis D. Bensard; Ernest E. Moore; Casey M. Calkins; Frederick M. Karrer

    2000-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Cervical spine injuries are uncommon in children, and, therefore, presumptive immobilization and diagnosis remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to review the author's experience with cervical spine injuries in children to determine the incidence, injury mechanism, pattern of injury, and subsequent functional outcome. Methods: Fifty-two children over a 6-year period (1994 to 1999) with a cervical spine

  11. Long-term outcome of facial growth after functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcella R. Bothwell; Jay F. Piccirillo; Rodney P. Lusk; Brock D. Ridenour

    2002-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether functional endoscopic sinus (FES) surgery performed in children with chronic rhinosinusitis alters facial growth. Study Design and Setting: This was a retrospective age-matched cohort outcome study performed at a tertiary care hospital. Results: Sixty-seven children participated. There were 46 boys and 21 girls, and the mean age was 3.1 years at presentation and 13.2

  12. Effect of Intravenous Thrombolysis on MRI Parameters and Functional Outcome in Acute Stroke <6 Hours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Röther; P. D. Schellinger; A. Gass; M. Siebler; A. Villringer; J. B. Fiebach; J. Fiehler; O. Jansen; T. Kucinski; V. Schoder; K. Szabo; G. J. Junge-Hülsing; M. Hennerici; H. Zeumer; K. Sartor; C. Weiller; W. Hacke

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose—The goals of this study were to examine MRI baseline characteristics of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and to study the influence of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on MR parameters and functional outcome using a multicenter approach. Methods—In this open-label, nonrandomized study of AIS patients with suspected anterior circulation stroke, subjects received a multiparametric stroke MRI

  13. Functional outcome of PFC Sigma fixed and rotating-platform total knee arthroplasty. A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Thai Nurn; Warriner, Gary; Hui, Anthony; Gregg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in functional outcome between the PFC Sigma fixed-bearing and rotating-platform total knee replacement systems. One hundred twenty patients were randomised to receive either a fixed-bearing or rotating-platform PFC Sigma total knee replacement. Range of movement (ROM), Oxford knee score (OKS) and Knee Society score (KSS) were assessed independently before and one year after surgery. Weight-bearing X-rays were taken immediately and one year post surgery to determine the incidence of osteolysis and loosening. At a mean follow-up of 13.4 months there was no statistically significant difference in mean ROM, OKS and KSS between the two groups. There was no evidence of osteolysis or loosening in either of the groups and no revision for infection or implant failure. This study shows that there is no statistically significant difference in functional outcome between the two types of implants at short-term follow-up. PMID:19898821

  14. Outcome of resonant voice therapy for female teachers with voice disorders: perceptual, physiological, acoustic, aerodynamic, and functional measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng Hwa; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Chun; Chung, Yu-Mei; Chiang, Shu-Chiung

    2007-07-01

    Teachers have a high percentage of voice problems. For voice disordered teachers, resonant voice therapy is hypothesized to reduce voice problems. No research has been done on the physiological, acoustic, and aerodynamic effects of resonant voice therapy for school teachers. The purpose of this study is to investigate resonant voice therapy outcome from perceptual, physiological, acoustic, aerodynamic, and functional aspects for female teachers with voice disorders. A prospective study was designed for this research. The research subjects were 24 female teachers in Taipei. All subjects received resonant voice therapy in groups of 4 subjects, 90 minutes per session, and 1 session per week for 8 weeks. The outcome of resonant voice therapy was assessed from auditory perceptual judgment, videostroboscopic examination, acoustic measurements, aerodynamic measurements, and functional measurements before and after therapy. After therapy the severity of roughness, strain, monotone, resonance, hard attack, and glottal fry in auditory perceptual judgments, the severity of vocal fold pathology, mucosal wave, amplitude, and vocal fold closure in videostroboscopic examinations, phonation threshold pressure, and the score of physical scale in the Voice Handicap Index were significantly reduced. The speaking Fo, maximum range of speaking Fo, and maximum range of speaking intensity were significantly increased after therapy. No significant change was found in perturbation and breathiness measurements after therapy. Resonant voice therapy is effective for school teachers and is suggested as one of the therapy approaches in clinics for this population. PMID:16581227

  15. Assessing, Teaming, and Reflecting: Student Outcomes from Participating in a Play-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Cooley, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Preparing early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood special education (ECSE) professionals to work with young children with and without disabilities entails the acquisition of content, its application, and opportunities for reflection. This article describes a component of an ECSE assessment course focusing on the logistics and process…

  16. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  17. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) in Relation to the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale in Functional Disorders and Organic Disorders in Psychogeriatric Inpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Reddon; Natalie D. Dautovich; Christine A. North

    2001-01-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale were used with 70 Functional Disorders (mean age = 74.0 years) and 58 Organic Disorders (mean age = 79.2 years) psychogeriatric inpatients to evaluate treatment outcome; 48.6% of the Functional Disorders patients were discharged home whereas 81.0% of the Organic Disorders patients were discharged to long-term\\/ continuing care

  18. Improving functional outcomes for schizophrenia patients in the Netherlands using Cognitive Adaptation Training as a nursing intervention - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Quee, Piotr J; Stiekema, Annemarie P M; Wigman, Johanna T W; Schneider, Harald; van der Meer, Lisette; Maples, Natalie J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Velligan, Dawn I; Bruggeman, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) improves functional outcomes in schizophrenia outpatients living in the United States. The effectiveness of CAT for patients living outside the US as well as for long-term hospitalized patients remains to be determined. In addition, it has not yet been studied whether CAT can be successful if patients receive the treatment from psychiatric nurses. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness and feasibility of CAT as a nursing intervention in the Netherlands. Thirty schizophrenia patients (long-term hospitalized patients: 63%) participated in this study. Sixteen patients received treatment as usual (TAU)+CAT, and fourteen patients received TAU. Patients in CAT participated in the treatment for eight months, consisting of weekly home-visits by a psychiatric nurse, supervised by a psychologist. After eight months, CAT interventions were integrated in the usual treatment. Outcome measures were the Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS), the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-Motivation subscale (NSA-M). For inpatients, work-related activities were also tracked for 16 months after baseline. Patients receiving TAU+CAT had better scores on the MCAS (trend), compared to TAU patients. Moreover, inpatients' work-related activities increased in TAU+CAT, relative to TAU inpatients, reaching significance after ten months. Improvements on the SOFAS and NSA-M were not significant. These results indicate that CAT as a nursing intervention may improve outcomes in patients with schizophrenia living in the Netherlands, including long-term hospitalized patients. However, since the current study was designed for exploratory purposes, larger randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the long-term effects of CAT as a nursing intervention systematically. PMID:25000912

  19. Environmental justice, impact assessment and the politics of knowledge: The implications of assessing the social distribution of environmental outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Gordon, E-mail: g.p.walker@lancaster.ac.u [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.

  20. Mechanomyogram for Muscle Function Assessment: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Anamul; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanomyography (MMG) has been extensively applied in clinical and experimental practice to examine muscle characteristics including muscle function (MF), prosthesis and/or switch control, signal processing, physiological exercise, and medical rehabilitation. Despite several existing MMG studies of MF, there has not yet been a review of these. This study aimed to determine the current status on the use of MMG in measuring the conditions of MFs. Methodology/Principal Findings Five electronic databases were extensively searched for potentially eligible studies published between 2003 and 2012. Two authors independently assessed selected articles using an MS-Word based form created for this review. Several domains (name of muscle, study type, sensor type, subject's types, muscle contraction, measured parameters, frequency range, hardware and software, signal processing and statistical analysis, results, applications, authors' conclusions and recommendations for future work) were extracted for further analysis. From a total of 2184 citations 119 were selected for full-text evaluation and 36 studies of MFs were identified. The systematic results find sufficient evidence that MMG may be used for assessing muscle fatigue, strength, and balance. This review also provides reason to believe that MMG may be used to examine muscle actions during movements and for monitoring muscle activities under various types of exercise paradigms. Conclusions/Significance Overall judging from the increasing number of articles in recent years, this review reports sufficient evidence that MMG is increasingly being used in different aspects of MF. Thus, MMG may be applied as a useful tool to examine diverse conditions of muscle activity. However, the existing studies which examined MMG for MFs were confined to a small sample size of healthy population. Therefore, future work is needed to investigate MMG, in examining MFs between a sufficient number of healthy subjects and neuromuscular patients. PMID:23536834

  1. Assessing Outcomes of a Stigma-Reduction Intervention with Venue-based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Guan, Jihui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A randomized controlled trial with a matched design was conducted during October 2008 and February 2010, aiming at reducing HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings. Methods Forty county hospitals in Fujian and Yunnan provinces of China were matched into pairs and randomized to either an intervention condition or a control condition. Forty-four service providers were randomly selected from each hospital, yielding a sample of 1,760. Intervention outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months based on venue-based pair comparisons. We identified and trained 30 popular opinion leaders (POL) in each intervention hospital among service providers to disseminate stigma reduction messages to their peer providers. Results Hospital and participant characteristics were comparable between the intervention and control conditions. Thirteen out of twenty pairs of hospitals showed significant reduction in the stigma outcome measure at the 6-month follow-up assessment. For most hospitals, the intervention effects were maintained at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Among the 13 pair of hospitals which showed intervention effect at 6-months, eight were in Fujian and five were in Yunnan. The non-significant hospitals at 6-month had more beds than significant hospitals. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions A matched design and venue-based analysis provide more insight in assessing intervention effects for facility-based intervention trials. The identification of venue-based or hospital characteristics that are associated with intervention efficacy provides additional implications for the adaptation and implementation of future interventions. PMID:24374721

  2. Evaluating outcome domains assessing caregivers of individuals with mental illness: a review.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Roe, David

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we describe the properties and consider the outcome dimensions of a collection of self-administered questionnaires that assess caregivers of offspring with mental illness. To this end, we searched the MEDLINE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists of studies published between 1980 and 2012. We reviewed 43 instruments, and found multiple outcome domains, associated with either objective burden or subjective burden, or both. A number of tools captured additional negative aspects of caregiving (e.g., strain, stress, and worrying) as well as positive aspects (e.g., personal growth, strength, support, rewards, and satisfaction), supplemented by measures assessing caregivers' perceptions and attitudes toward their offspring with SMI (e.g., insight, stigma, and efficacy). This current review of existing measures and their specific domains contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the caregiving experience and allows both clinicians and researchers to select the most appropriate measurement tools for their purposes. PMID:24372325

  3. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS DISORDER: ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Sussman, Joel L.

    proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS DISORDER: ASSESSMENT Assessment of disorder of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2 Bioinformatics Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 3 The Israel Structural Proteomics Center, Weizmann Institute

  4. Caregiver- and staff-conducted functional analysis outcomes: a summary of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Patricia F; Fodstad, Jill C; Huete, John M; Hagopian, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, caregivers were trained as therapists to conduct functional analyses (FAs) after staff-conducted FAs were inconclusive with 52 participants. Caregiver-conducted FAs identified at least 1 function for problem behavior when staff-conducted FAs were undifferentiated. When results of the staff-conducted FAs were questionable, subsequent caregiver-conducted FAs resulted in an exact match with staff-conducted FA in about 68% of cases but identified new functions in about 30% of cases. Function-based treatments based on caregiver-conducted FAs were effective in reducing problem behavior by an average of 96% relative to baseline. Results suggest that when staff-conducted FA outcomes yield inconclusive findings, using caregivers to conduct FAs is likely to produce differentiated results and ultimately result in the development of effective treatments. PMID:24114788

  5. Demonstrating Student Success: A Practical Guide to Outcomes-Based Assessment of Learning and Development in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.; Gardner, Megan Moore; Hickmott, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This practical guide to outcomes-based assessment in student affairs is designed to help readers meet the growing demand for accountability and for demonstrating student learning. The authors offer a framework for implementing the assessment of student learning and development and pragmatic advice on the strategies most appropriate for the…

  6. Functional measures of stream impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more impacted sites. Overall, functional measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal impacts from less impacted sites.

  7. Multiclass Support Vector Machine-Based Lesion Mapping Predicts Functional Outcome in Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Verleger, Tobias; Cheng, Bastian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate if ischemic stroke final infarction volume and location can be used to predict the associated functional outcome using a multi-class support vector machine (SVM). Material and Methods Sixty-eight follow-up MR FLAIR datasets of ischemic stroke patients with known modified Rankin Scale (mRS) functional outcome after 30 days were used. The infarct regions were segmented and used to calculate the percentage of lesioned voxels in the predefined MNI, Harvard-Oxford cortical and subcortical atlas regions as well as using four problem-specific VOIs, which were identified from the database using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. An overall of 12 SVM classification models for predicting the corresponding mRS score were generated using the lesion overlap values from the different brain region definitions, stroke laterality information, and the optional parameters infarct volume, admission NIHSS, and patient age. Results Leave-one-out cross validations revealed that including information about the stroke location in terms of lesion overlap measurements led to improved mRS prediction results compared to classification models not utilizing the stroke location information. Furthermore, integration of the optional features led to improved mRS prediction results in all cases tested. The problem-specific brain regions and additional integration of the optional features led to the best mRS predictions with a precise multi-value mRS prediction accuracy of 56%, sliding window multi-value mRS prediction accuracy (mRS±1) of 82%, and binary mRS (0-2 vs. 3-5) prediction accuracy of 85%. Conclusion Therefore, a graded SVM-based functional stroke outcome prediction using the problem-specific brain regions for lesion overlap quantification leads to promising results but needs to be further validated using an independent database to rule out a potential methodical bias and overfitting effects. The prediction of the graded mRS functional outcome could be a valuable tool if combined with voxel-wise tissue outcome predictions based on multi-parametric datasets acquired at the acute phase. PMID:26098418

  8. Functional outcomes for 2 years comparing hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James R; O'Connor, Gregory J; Marshall, Deborah A; Faris, Peter D; Dort, Leslie C; Khong, Hoa; Parker, Robyn D; Werle, Jason R; Beaupre, Lauren A; Frank, Cyril B

    2012-05-01

    This prospective observational study of 499 patients with hip resurfacing and 255 patients with total hip arthroplasty compared outcomes for 2 years. We used propensity scores to identify matched cohorts of 118 patients with hip resurfacing and 118 patients with total hip arthroplasty. We used these cohorts to compare improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index and Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 physical function component (SF-36 PF) scores at 3 months and at 1 and 2 years postsurgery. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements from baseline in WOMAC and SF-36 PF. Improvements in SF-36 PF were greater for patients with hip resurfacing than for patients with total hip arthroplasty 1 and 2 years postsurgery; improvements in WOMAC were similar for both groups. The clinical significance of this observation needs further investigation. PMID:22285258

  9. Patient-reported outcomes in meta-analyses – Part 1: assessing risk of bias and combining outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized trials that include patient-reported outcomes (PROs) often provide crucial information for patients and clinicians facing challenging health care decisions. Based on emerging methods, guidance on combining PROs in meta-analysis is likely to enhance their usefulness. The objectives of this paper are: i) to describe PROs and why they are important for health care decision-making, ii) illustrate the key risk of bias issues that systematic reviewers should consider and, iii) address outcome characteristics of PROs and provide guidance for combining outcomes. We suggest a step-by-step approach to addressing issues of PROs in meta-analyses. Systematic reviewers should begin by asking themselves if trials have addressed all the important effects of treatment on patients’ quality of life. If the trials have addressed PROs, have investigators chosen the appropriate instruments? In particular, does evidence suggest the PROs used are valid and responsive, and is the review free of outcome reporting bias? Systematic reviewers must then decide how to categorize PROs and when to pool results. PMID:23815754

  10. Data Collection Strategies and Measurement Tools for Assessing Academic and Therapeutic Outcomes in Recovery Schools

    PubMed Central

    Botzet, Andria M.; McIlvaine, Patrick W.; Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Dittel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Accurate evaluation and documentation of the efficacy of recovery schools can be vital to the continuation and expansion of these beneficial resources. A very limited data set currently exists that examines the value of specific schools established to support adolescents and young adults in recovery; additional research is necessary. The following article outlines the methodology utilized in a current quasi-experimental study evaluating both academic and therapeutic outcomes of adolescents attending recovery high schools as compared to traditional (non-recovery-based) high schools. The developmental considerations in assessing adolescents in recovery and their parents is delineated in this article, which underscores the need for extensive knowledge of adolescent substance abuse and other mental health issues. In addition, sensitivity around privacy among adolescents, parents, schools, and health providers is highlighted, as well as the validity of assessment. Key assessment strategies, including protocol of recruitment and interviewing techniques, are also presented along with a list of parent and adolescent assessment instruments and their corresponding interpretive variables. Protocol recommendations for future research are also outlined. PMID:25018573

  11. [ Comparison of BESA and RAI: evaluating the outcomes of two assessment instruments for long-term residential care needs].

    PubMed

    Gattinger, Heidrun; Ott, Stefan; Saxer, Susi

    2014-02-01

    In Switzerland, the level of nursing care required for residents in nursing homes is either assessed by the BESA Catalogue 2010 or by the Minimum Data Set (MDS) of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI). Within both instruments the nursing care need is represented in minutes. According to these minutes, the resident is allocated to a tariff level. The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of the two assessment instruments BESA Catalogue 2010 and MDS. For this purpose data were collected in two nursing homes. At each facility 60 nursing home residents were assessed with the BESA Catalogue 2010 and the MDS. The assessments were independently performed by nurses of the facility (internal assessment) and by system experts (external assessment). Descriptive data analysis and a comparison of the outcome in minutes and with regard to tariff level were carried out. In average, internal assessments were higher than external assessments. In both nursing homes, half or 54 % of residents were allocated into a higher tariff level by means of internal assessment. Comparing the outcomes in total and within tariff level, significant differences were found. Different classifications may occur, especially for residents with high nursing care needs. As a result, higher or lower costs of nursing care may arise. PMID:24571846

  12. Analysis of a Urinary Biomarker Panel for Clinical Outcomes Assessment in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Xavier; Solà, Elsa; Elia, Chiara; Barreto, Rogelio; Moreira, Rebeca; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Graupera, Isabel; Rodríguez, Ezequiel; Huelin, Patricia; Solé, Cristina; Fernández, Javier; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers are potentially useful in assessment of outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, but information is very limited. Given the large number of biomarkers, adequate choice of which biomarker(s) to investigate first is important. Aim Analysis of potential usefulness of a panel of urinary biomarkers in outcome assessment in cirrhosis. Patients and Methods Fifty-five patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis were studied: 39 had Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) (Prerenal 12, type-1 HRS (hepatorenal syndrome) 15 and Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) 12) and 16 acute decompensation without AKI. Thirty-four patients had Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). A panel of 12 urinary biomarkers was assessed, using a multiplex assay, for their relationship with ATN, ACLF and mortality. Results Biomarker with best accuracy for ATN diagnosis was NGAL (neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin): 36 [26-125], 104 [58-208] and 1807 [494-3,716] ?g/g creatinine in Prerenal-AKI, type-1 HRS and ATN, respectively; p<0.0001 (AUROC 0.957). Other attractive biomarkers for ATN diagnosis were IL-18, albumin, trefoil-factor-3 (TFF-3) and glutathione-S-transferase-? (GST-?) Biomarkers with less accuracy for ATN AUCROC<0.8 were ?2-microglobulin, calbindin, cystatin-C, clusterin and KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule-1). For ACLF, the biomarker with the best accuracy was NGAL (ACLF vs. No-ACLF: 165 [67-676] and 32 [19-40] ?g/g creatinine; respectively; p<0.0001; AUROC 0.878). Interestingly, other biomarkers with high accuracy for ACLF were osteopontin, albumin, and TFF-3. Biomarkers with best accuracy for prognosis were those associated with ACLF. Conclusions A number of biomarkers appear promising for differential diagnosis between ATN and other types of AKI. The most interesting biomarkers for ACLF and prognosis are NGAL, osteopontin, albumin, and TFF-3. These results support the role of major inflammatory reaction in the pathogenesis of ACLF. PMID:26042740

  13. Plasma Klotho is not related to kidney function and does not predict adverse outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Sarah; Wen, Ming; Roth, Heinz J; Fehrenz, Michael; Flügge, Franziska; Herath, Esther; Weihrauch, Anja; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H

    2013-01-01

    A decreased expression of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 coreceptor Klotho was postulated as an early alteration in chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder, resulting in a compensatory increase in plasma FGF-23 levels. Klotho exists in both membrane-bound and secreted (sKlotho) forms, the latter of which may exert vasculoprotective effects. Here we analyzed plasma sKlotho levels in a large cohort of 312 patients with stage 2-4 chronic kidney disease, and assessed plasma levels of FGF-23, sKlotho, parathyroid hormone, and urinary fractional phosphate excretion. Patients were prospectively followed for an average of 2.2 years for the occurrence of death or initiation of renal replacement therapy. The levels of sKlotho were significantly associated with age, but not with the glomerular filtration rate or other parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism. Moreover, while patients with high FGF-23 levels faced worst outcome even after adjustment for confounders, we found no prognostic impact of sKlotho. Thus, plasma levels of sKlotho were not related to kidney function and did not predict adverse outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease. Future studies are needed to understand how tissue expression, urinary excretion, and plasma levels of Klotho diverge in progressive chronic kidney disease. PMID:22895520

  14. Immobilisation of extra-articular distal radius fractures (Colles type) in dorsiflexion. The functional and anatomical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Ranjit Kr; Islam, Mohibul; Haque, Russel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cast immobilisation after successful closed reduction is a standard treatment for displaced extra-articular fractures of lower end radius. The position of the wrist during immobilisation is controversial. Immobilisation in dorsiflexion prevents redisplacement after closed reduction. Our aim is to determine the effectiveness of immobilization of wrist in dorsiflexion in such cases and evaluate anatomical and functional outcome. Materials and methods Study included 54 patients, above 19 years of age with closed extra-articular fractures of lower end radius treated conservatively with below elbow cast application. The wrist was maintained in 15° of dorsiflexion during plaster immobilisation. At 24 weeks, functional results were evaluated with subjective symptoms and objective signs, as per modified Demerit Point Score System. Anatomical result was evaluated based on the scheme devised by Lidstrom (1959) and modified by Sarmiento et al. (1980). Results 76% patients had Excellent to Good subjective symptoms. Out of 42 patients that had residual dorsal angulation of less than 10°, 37 had excellent to good functional outcome. 39 of the 43 patients who had loss of radial length less than 6 mm had excellent to good functional outcome. 40 out of 49 patients having loss of radial angulation less than 9° showed excellent to good functional outcome. Functional result was directly proportional to anatomical outcome. Conclusion Cast immobilization of extra articular fractures of lower end radius with wrist in dorsiflexion prevents re-displacement of the fragments resulting in satisfactory anatomical & functional outcome. PMID:26155052

  15. Residential Treatment for Sexually Abusive Youth: An Assessment of Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Christopher D.; Chancey, Roy; Lowe, Laura A.; Risler, Edwin A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research study assesses the effectiveness of participation in a multimodal/holistic residential treatment program on changing deviant sexual interests and functional impairment among sexually abusive youth. Method: A one-group pretest posttest design was utilized to examine pretest (intake) and posttest (discharge) scores for 58…

  16. Resection of gliomas in the cingulate gyrus: functional outcome and survival.

    PubMed

    Oszvald, Ági; Quick, Johanna; Franz, Kea; Güresir, Erdem; Szelényi, Andrea; Vatter, Hartmut; Seifert, Volker

    2012-09-01

    Functional outcome after resection of tumors arising from the gyrus cinguli (GC), part of the limbic system, is not well analyzed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and functional outcome of surgical treatment for a series of 65 patients with gliomas involving the GC. Preoperative data, extent of resection, functional outcome (Karnofsky performance index, KPI, and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS), and survival of 65 patients with gliomas arising from the GC were analyzed on the basis of a prospectively conducted database of gliomas between 06/1999 and 07/2010. Extent of resection (complete, subtotal, or partial) was based on early postoperative MRI. Eighty-six percent of the gliomas were located in the anterior part of the GC and 14 % in the posterior part. Fifty-five percent of the patients presented with seizures and 17 % with hemiparesis (mean preoperative KPI = 86 ± 17, NIHSS = 1.4 ± 1.7). Histologically, the tumors were WHO Grade II in 25 %, Grade III in 26 %, and Grade IV in 49 %. Complete resection was achieved for 59 %, subtotal resection for 32%, and partial resection for 9 %. Postoperative transient deficits included SMA lesion (14 %) and new or worsened hemiparesis (8 %), which resolved within 30 days (NIHSS early postoperatively 1.7 ± 1.4, late postoperatively 0.8 ± 1.4, and after 6 months 0.6 ± 1.4). According to histopathological grading, median survival was 67 months (WHO°II), 87 months (WHO°III), and 16.5 months (WHO°IV), and overall survival was 34 months. Microsurgical resection of gliomas arising from the GC is feasible; gross total resection can be achieved for 90 % of gliomas arising from the GC with 5 % long-term morbidity. PMID:22660921

  17. Routine Leak Testing in Colorectal Surgery in the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Steve; Morris, Arden; Billingham, Richard; Frankhouse, Joseph; Horvath, Karen; Johnson, Morrie; McNevin, Shane; Simons, Anthony; Symons, Rebecca; Steele, Scott; Thirlby, Richard; Whiteford, Mark; Flum, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of routine anastomotic leak testing (performed to screen for leaks) vs selective testing (performed to evaluate for a suspected leak in a higher-risk or technically difficult anastomosis) on outcomes in colorectal surgery because the value of provocative testing of colorectal anastomoses as a quality improvement metric has yet to be determined. Design Observational, prospectively designed cohort study. Setting Data from Washington state’s Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP). Patients Patients undergoing elective left-sided colon or rectal resections at 40 SCOAP hospitals from October 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009. Interventions Use of leak testing, distinguishing procedures that were performed at hospitals where leak testing was selective (<90% use) or routine (?90% use) in a given calendar quarter. Main Outcome Measure Adjusted odds ratio of a composite adverse event (CAE) (unplanned postoperative intervention and/or in-hospital death) at routine testing hospitals. Results Among 3449 patients (mean [SD] age, 58.8[14.8] years; 55.0% women), the CAE rate was 5.5%. Provocative leak testing increased (from 56% in the starting quarter to 76% in quarter 16) and overall rates of CAE decreased (from 7.0% in the starting quarter to 4.6% in quarter 16; both P ? .01) over time. Among patients at hospitals that performed routine leak testing, we found a reduction of more than 75% in the adjusted risk of CAEs (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05–0.99). Conclusion Routine leak testing of left-sided colorectal anastomoses appears to be associated with a reduced rate of CAEs within the SCOAP network and meets many of the criteria of a worthwhile quality improvement metric. PMID:22508778

  18. CBCT in orthodontics: assessment of treatment outcomes and indications for its use.

    PubMed

    Kapila, S D; Nervina, J M

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, CBCT has become increasingly utilized for orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning and research. The utilization of CBCT for these purposes has been facilitated by the relative advantages of three-dimensional (3D) over two-dimensional radiography. Despite many suggested indications of CBCT, scientific evidence that its utilization improves diagnosis and treatment plans or outcomes has only recently begun to emerge for some of these applications. This article provides a comprehensive and current review of key studies on the applications of CBCT in orthodontic therapy and for research to decipher treatment outcomes and 3D craniofacial anatomy. The current diagnostic and treatment planning indications for CBCT include impacted teeth, cleft lip and palate and skeletal discrepancies requiring surgical intervention. The use of CBCT in these and other situations such as root resorption, supernumerary teeth, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology, asymmetries and alveolar boundary conditions should be justified on the basis of the merits relative to risks of imaging. CBCT has also been used to assess 3D craniofacial anatomy in health and disease and of treatment outcomes including that of root morphology and angulation; alveolar boundary conditions; maxillary transverse dimensions and maxillary expansion; airway morphology, vertical malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnoea; TMJ morphology and pathology contributing to malocclusion; and temporary anchorage devices. Finally, this article utilizes findings of these studies and current voids in knowledge to provide ideas for future research that could be beneficial for further optimizing the use of CBCT in research and the clinical practice of orthodontics. PMID:25358833

  19. The Reasoning and Rehabilitation Program: Assessing Short- and Long-Term Outcomes among Male Swedish Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Anne H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation programs for criminal offenders target primary outcomes such as effects on criminogenic needs and secondary outcomes of reducing recidivism. Most evaluation studies focus only on one type of outcome. This study evaluated outcomes on both primary and secondary targets of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R) program for…

  20. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Ablation in the Conceptus Has Limited Effects on Placental Morphology, Function and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, Jessica A.; Leemaqz, Shalem; O’Leary, Sean; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Du, Jing; Anderson, Paul H.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several pregnancy complications attributed to impaired or abnormal placental function, but there are few clues indicating the mechanistic role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis. To further understand the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated activity in placental function, we used heterozygous Vdr ablated C57Bl6 mice to assess fetal growth, morphological parameters and global gene expression in Vdr null placentae. Twelve Vdr+/- dams were mated at 10–12 weeks of age with Vdr+/- males. At day 18.5 of the 19.5 day gestation in our colony, females were euthanised and placental and fetal samples were collected, weighed and subsequently genotyped as either Vdr+/+, Vdr+/- or Vdr-/-. Morphological assessment of placentae using immunohistochemistry was performed and RNA was extracted and subject to microarray analysis. This revealed 25 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between Vdr+/+ and Vdr-/- placentae. The greatest difference was a 6.47-fold change in expression of Cyp24a1 which was significantly lower in the Vdr-/- placentae (P<0.01). Other differentially expressed genes in Vdr-/- placentae included those involved in RNA modification (Snord123), autophagy (Atg4b), cytoskeletal modification (Shroom4), cell signalling (Plscr1, Pex5) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling (Deptor and Prr5). Interrogation of the upstream sequence of differentially expressed genes identified that many contain putative vitamin D receptor elements (VDREs). Despite the gene expression differences, this did not contribute to any differences in overall placental morphology, nor was function affected as there was no difference in fetal growth as determined by fetal weight near term. Given our dams still expressed a functional VDR gene, our results suggest that cross-talk between the maternal decidua and the placenta, as well as maternal vitamin D status, may be more important in determining pregnancy outcome than conceptus expression of VDR. PMID:26121239

  1. High-Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome in Schools: Assessment and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansosti, Frank J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Cowan, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Meeting a growing need for school-based practitioners, this book provides vital tools for improving the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of students with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Research-based best practices are presented for conducting meaningful assessments; collaborating with teachers, students, and…

  2. Prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function using diffusion tensor tractography in acute hemiparetic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. PMID:26157225

  3. Quality of life as patient-reported outcomes: principles of assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Assessing quality of life (QoL) as a patient-reported outcome in adult psychiatry poses challenges in terms of concepts, methods, and applications in research and practice. This review will outline conceptually the construct of QoL, its dimensionality, and its representation across patient groups. Methodological challenges are examined, along with principles of QoL instrument development and testing, as well as across cultures. Application of instruments in epidemiological, clinical health economics, and health services research is reviewed based on pertinent literature. Validated measures for depression, psychosis, and anxiety disorders are available in adult psychiatry, and are increasingly used in research. Still, targeted measures are lacking for many mental health conditions and only rarely are tools applied in the practice context. Progress has been made in the development of instruments that are now ready for implementation. The information to be gained is valuable for identifying patient-reported needs for and benefits of treatment. PMID:25152653

  4. Defining and assessing quality improvement outcomes: a framework for public health.

    PubMed

    McLees, Anita W; Nawaz, Saira; Thomas, Craig; Young, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We describe an evidence-based framework to define and assess the impact of quality improvement (QI) in public health. Developed to address programmatic and research-identified needs for articulating the value of public health QI in aggregate, this framework proposes a standardized set of measures to monitor and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public health programs and operations. We reviewed the scientific literature and analyzed QI initiatives implemented through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Public Health Improvement Initiative to inform the selection of 5 efficiency and 8 effectiveness measures. This framework provides a model for identifying the types of improvement outcomes targeted by public health QI efforts and a means to understand QI's impact on the practice of public health. PMID:25689185

  5. Conducting a Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, David B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods used in applied behavioral analysis research and appropriate for conducting a functional assessment of problem behavior in persons with mental retardation are described. They are informant assessment (e.g., behavioral interviews, rating scales, and questionnaires), direct observation assessment, and experimental analysis. (Author/DB)

  6. Use of Standardized Mastery Content Assessments Given during the First Year of a Baccalaureate Nursing Program for Predicting NCLEX-RN Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emory, DeAnna Jan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized content specific mastery assessments and NCLEX-RN outcomes. Three content-specific standardized assessments testing Fundamentals, Pharmacology and Mental Health concepts were used to explain the dichotomous NCLEX-RN outcome of pass or fail. The three assessments were…

  7. Assessing Executive Functioning: A Pragmatic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Michael R.; Patterson, Ashlea; Sukraw, Jocelyn; Sullivan, Brianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common usage of the term "executive functioning" in neuropsychology, several aspects of this concept remain unsettled. In this paper, we will address some of the issues surrounding the notion of executive functioning and how an understanding of executive functioning and its components might assist school-based practitioners…

  8. Validity of patient-reported swallowing and speech outcomes in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rinkel, R N P M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; de Bree, R; Aaronson, N K; Leemans, C R

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to test the construct validity of the patient-reported outcomes Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI) in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. The study sample consisted of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. Outcome measures were the SWAL-QOL and the SHI, and the Functional Rehabilitation Outcomes Grade (FROG), a test to measure oral and shoulder function. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test associations between the SHI and SWAL-QOL scales, and the FROG scales. During a study period of 3 months, 38 patients (21 males, 17 females; mean age 54 years) were included who visited the outpatient clinic for follow-up care 6-155 months after surgical treatment (n = 14) or combined surgery and radiotherapy (n = 24) for oral (n = 21) or oropharyngeal cancer (n = 17). Most SWAL-QOL and SHI scales (except the SWAL-QOL Fatigue scale) correlated significantly with one or more FROG oral function scales. None of the SWAL-QOL and SHI scales correlated significantly with the FROG shoulder function scale. These results support the construct validity of the SWAL-QOL and SHI questionnaires for assessing speech and swallowing problems in daily life that are moderately but significantly related to oral function. A multidimensional assessment protocol is recommended for use in clinical practice and for research purposes for measuring oral function and swallowing- and speech-related problems in daily life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:25622807

  9. Impact of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder on functional outcome and health-related quality of life of patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Scholten, Annemieke C; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Vos, Pieter E; Van Beeck, Ed F; Polinder, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    The impact of disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI), assessed by functional measurement scales for TBI or by health-related quality of life (HRQoL), may vary because of a number of factors, including presence of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and impact of depression and PTSD on functional outcome and HRQoL six and 12 months following mild TBI. We selected a sample of 1919 TBI patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) followed by either hospital admission or discharge to the home environment. The sample received postal questionnaires six and 12 months after treatment at the ED. The questionnaires included items regarding socio-demographics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Perceived Quality of Life Scale (PQoL), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. A total of 797 (42%) TBI patients completed the six-month follow-up survey. Depression and PTSD prevalence rates at both the six- and 12-month follow-up were 7% and 9%, respectively. Living alone was an independent predictor of depression and/or PTSD at six- and 12-month follow-up. Depression and PTSD were associated with a significantly decreased functional outcome (measured with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended) and HRQoL (measured using the SF-36 and the PQoL). We conclude that depression and/or PTSD are relatively common in our sample of TBI patients and associated with a considerable decrease in functional outcome and HRQoL. PMID:25320845

  10. Effect of executive functioning, decision-making and self-reported impulsivity on the treatment outcome of pathologic gambling

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Moya, Eva M.; Ochoa, Cristian; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Santamaría, Juanjo; Moragas, Laura; Bove, Francesca; Menchón, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Impairments in self-regulatory behaviour reflect a deficit in executive functioning and decision-making, as well as higher levels of self-reported impulsivity, and may be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. We sought to explore the association between self-reported impulsivity and neurocognitive measures, and their association with treatment outcome in pathologic gambling. Methods We assessed patients with pathologic gambling using executive functioning and decision-making tests and self-report measures of impulsivity. Patients underwent cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for pathologic gambling. Results We included 88 patients (8% women) in our study. High self-reported extravagance was associated with poor performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)-ABCD version. High impulsiveness, low disorderliness, high exploratory excitability (trend), poor backward block span and poor IGT-EFGH scores (trend) predicted dropout. We observed no self-reported or neurocognitive predictors of relapse or number of treatment sessions attended. Limitations Most participants were slot-machine gamblers seeking treatment. No follow-up data and no control group were included in the study. The missing sample (i.e., individuals who were recruited and assessed in the pretreatment stage but who chose not to begin treatment) had higher extravagance scores than the final sample. Conclusion Neurocognitive reward sensitivity was related to self-reported overspending behaviour. Self-regulatory impairments (especially rash impulsiveness and punishment sensitivity) and executive dysfunction predicted only dropout of CBT in participants with pathologic gambling. Different neurocognitive processes and personality traits might mediate treatment response to psychological therapy of pathologic gambling according to the specific target variable assessed. PMID:21138656

  11. Long-Term Clinical and Functional Outcomes After Treatment for Localized Ewing's Tumor of the Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)], E-mail: keole@ufl.edu; Shahlaee, Amir H. [Department of Pediatrics Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shi Wenyin; Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gibbs, Charles P.; Scarborough, Mark T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: Retrospective review describing the 35-year University of Florida experience with Ewing's tumors of the lower extremity. Patients and Methods: Fifty-three patients were treated between 1971 and 2006. Thirty patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 23 patients were treated with surgery {+-} RT. Larger tumors and tumors of the femur were treated more often with definitive RT. Median potential follow-up was 19.2 years. Functional outcome was assessed using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). Results: Before 1985, 24% of patients were treated with surgery; since then, the rate has increased to 61%. The 15-year actuarial overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), freedom from relapse, and limb preservation rates were 68% vs. 47% (p = 0.21), 73% vs. 47% (p = 0.13), 73% vs. 40% (p = 0.03), and 43% vs. 40% (p = 0.52), respectively, for patients treated with surgery {+-} RT vs. RT alone. Excluding 8 patients who underwent amputation or rotationplasty, the 15-year actuarial local control rate was 100% for the surgery {+-} RT group and 68% for the definitive RT group (p = 0.03). The ranges of the TESS for surgery {+-} RT vs. RT alone were 70-100 (mean, 94) and 97-100 (mean, 99), respectively. Twenty-six percent (6/23) of patients had complications related to surgery requiring amputation or reoperation. Conclusions: Overall survival and CSS were not statistically compromised, but we observed an increased risk of relapse and local failure in patients treated with RT alone, thereby justifying a transition toward primary surgical management in suitable patients. However, despite an adverse risk profile, patients treated with RT alone had similar long-term amputation-free survival and demonstrated comparable functional outcomes. Poor results observed in Ewing's of the femur mandate innovative surgical and RT strategies.

  12. The science of Stewardship: due diligence for kidney donors and kidney function in living kidney donation--evaluation, determinants, and implications for outcomes.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Emilio D; Braun, William E; Davis, Connie

    2009-10-01

    Living kidney donor transplantation is now a common treatment for ESRD because it provides excellent outcomes to transplant recipients and is considered a safe procedure for prospective donors. The short- and long-term safety of prospective donors is paramount to the continued success of this procedure. Whereas the initial experiences with living kidney donors mostly included the healthiest, the increase in the need for organs and the changing demographic characteristics of the general population have subtly reshaped the suitability for donation. Kidney function assessment is a critical component of the evaluation of prospective donors; therefore, special emphasis is usually placed on this aspect of the evaluation. At the same time, consideration of kidney function after donation is important because it assists with the determination of renal health in donors. This review summarizes the process of predonation kidney function assessment, determinants of pre- and postdonation renal function, and, importantly, the potential implications of kidney function to the long-term outcomes of kidney donors. PMID:19713294

  13. Outcome assessment of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury in Morocco: A national prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kabbali, Nadia; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Harandou, Mustapha; Tagnaouti, Mounia; Bentata, Yassamine; Laouad, Inass; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabia; Oualim, Zouhair; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of acute AKI in pregnancy and to emphasize on its management modalities in Moroccan hospitals. This is a national prospective study performed over six months from July 1 to December 31 2010 on AKI developing in pregnant patients, both preand post-partum period. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were excluded from the study. Outcome was considered unfavorable when complete recovery of renal function was not achieved and/or maternal death occurred. Forty-four patients were included in this study. They were 29.6 ± 6 years old and mostly illiterate (70.6%). Most AKI occurred in the post-partum period, with 66% of the cases occurring in those who did not receive antenatal care. The main etiologies were pre-eclampsia (28 cases), hemorrhagic shock (six cases) and septic events (five cases). We noted three cases of acute fatty liver, one case of obstructive kidney injury and one case of lupus nephritis. Hemodialysis was necessary in 17 (38.6%) cases. The outcome was favorable in 29 patients. The maternal mortality rate was 11.4%. Two poor prognostic factors were identified: Age over 38 years and sepsis. AKI is a severe complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Its prevention necessitates the improvement of the sanitary infrastructure and the establishment of the obligatory antenatal care. PMID:26022044

  14. New frontiers in patient-reported outcomes: adverse event reporting, comparative effectiveness, and quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Basch, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are data elements directly reported by patients or their surrogates about experiences with care, including symptoms, functional status, or quality of life. PROs have commonly been evaluated in clinical trials for drug and medical device development. Interest is growing in the ability to integrate PROs into additional contexts, particularly product safety evaluation, comparative effectiveness research, and measurement of care quality. This interest reflects a growing focus on patient-centeredness in health care broadly and on provisions of the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Multiple initiatives demonstrate the feasibility and value of patient reporting in these areas. Inclusion of PROs in electronic health records and hospital patient portals, as well as longitudinal registries, can facilitate use of these data for multiple analytic purposes as well as enhance delivery of care and patient-provider communication. Challenges include the logistics and cost of implementing PRO programs; missing data, particularly from hard-to-reach and ill patients; and the need for standardization of outcome measures and electronic data representation. These challenges have been surmounted in limited initiatives and now must be translated to larger implementations. PMID:24274179

  15. Surgical Factors in Pediatric Cochlear Implantation and Their Early Effects on Electrode Activation and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Howard W.; Buchman, Craig A.; Visaya, Jiovani M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Zwolan, Teresa A.; Fink, Nancy E.; Niparko, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of surgical factors on electrode status and early communication outcomes in young children in the first 2 years of cochlear implantation. Study Design Prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting Six tertiary referral centers. Patients Children 5 years or younger before implantation with normal nonverbal intelligence. Intervention Cochlear implant operations in 209 ears of 188 children. Main Outcome Measures Percent active channels, auditory behavior as measured by the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Reynell receptive language scores. Results Stable insertion of the full electrode array was accomplished in 96.2% of ears. At least 75% of electrode channels were active in 88% of ears. Electrode deactivation had a significant negative effect on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores at 24 months but no effect on receptive language scores. Significantly fewer active electrodes were associated with a history of meningitis. Surgical complications requiring additional hospitalization and/or revision surgery occurred in 6.7% of patients but had no measurable effect on the development of auditory behavior within the first 2 years. Negative, although insignificant, associations were observed between the need for perioperative revision of the device and 1) the percent of active electrodes and 2) the receptive language level at 2-year follow-up. Conclusion Activation of the entire electrode array is associated with better early auditory outcomes. Decrements in the number of active electrodes and lower gains of receptive language after manipulation of the newly implanted device were not statistically significant but may be clinically relevant, underscoring the importance of surgical technique and the effective placement of the electrode array. PMID:18401281

  16. Electroencephalography/functional magnetic resonance imaging responses help predict surgical outcome in focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    An, Dongmei; Fahoum, Firas; Hall, Jeffery; Olivier, André; Gotman, Jean; Dubeau, François

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose Simultaneous electroencephalography/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) recording can noninvasively map in the whole brain the hemodynamic response following an interictal epileptic discharge. EEG/fMRI is gaining interest as a presurgical evaluation tool. This study aims to determine how hemodynamic responses related to epileptic activity can help predict surgical outcome in patients considered for epilepsy surgery. Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with focal epilepsy who had significant hemodynamic responses and eventually surgical resection, were studied. The statistical map of hemodynamic responses were generated and coregistered to postoperative anatomic imaging. Patients were classified into four groups defined by the relative relationship between the location of the maximum hemodynamic response and the resection: group 1, fully concordant; group 2, partially concordant; group 3, partially discordant; and group 4, fully discordant. These findings were correlated with surgical outcome with at least 12-month follow-up. Key Findings Ten patients in group 1 had the maximum t value (t-max) inside the resection; nine in group 2 had the t-max outside but close to the resection and the cluster with t-max overlapped the resection; five in group 3 had the t-max remote from resection, but with another less significant cluster in the resection; and 11 in group 4 had no response in the resection. The degree of concordance correlated largely with surgical outcome: a good surgical outcome (Engel’s class I) was found in 7 of 10 patients of group 1, 4 of 9 of group 2, 3 of 5 of group 3, and only 1 of 11 of group 4. These results indicate that the partially concordant and partially discordant groups are best considered as inconclusive. In contrast, in the fully concordant and fully discordant groups, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were high, 87.5%, 76.9%, 70%, and 90.9%, respectively. Significance This study demonstrates that hemodynamic responses related to epileptic activity can help delineate the epileptogenic region. Full concordance between maximum response and surgical resection is indicative of seizure freedom, whereas a resection leaving the maximum response intact is likely to lead to a poor outcome. EEG/fMRI is noninvasive but is limited to patients in whom interictal epileptic discharges can be recorded during the 60–90 min scan. PMID:24304438

  17. Potential Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Fetal Growth Outcomes: Implications for Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mink, Pamela J.; Kimmel, Carole A.; Li, Abby A.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides in the United States. By December 2000, nearly all residential uses were voluntarily canceled, so that today, CPF is only used to control insect pests on a variety of crops. Periodic review of the potential effects of CPF on all developmental outcomes is necessary in the United States because the Food Quality Protection Act mandates special consideration of risk assessments for infants and children. This article reviews epidemiologic studies examining the association of potential CPF exposure with growth indices, including birth weight, birth length, and head circumference, and animal studies focusing on related somatic developmental endpoints. It differs from earlier reviews by including an additional cohort study and providing in-depth systematic evaluation of the patterns of association across different studies with respect to specificity of biomarkers for CPF, consistency, dose response, strength of association, temporality, and biological plausibility (Hill 1965), as well as consideration of the potential role of effect modification and bias. The review did not identify any strong associations exhibiting consistent exposure-response patterns that were observed in more than one of the four cohort studies evaluated. In addition, the animal data indicate that developmental effects occur at doses that produce substantial maternal toxicity and red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Based on consideration of both the epidemiologic and animal data, maternal RBC AChE inhibition is a more sensitive endpoint for risk assessment than somatic developmental effects reviewed in this article. PMID:22571222

  18. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  19. Risk assessment and predicting outcomes in patients with depressive symptoms: a review of potential role of peripheral blood based biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Bhautesh D.; McLean, Gary; Nicholl, Barbara I.; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Sattar, Naveed; Mair, Frances S.; Cavanagh, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the major global health challenges and a leading contributor of health related disability and costs. Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and current methods for assessing its severity in clinical practice rely on symptom count, however this approach is unreliable and inconsistent. The clinical evaluation of depressive symptoms is particularly challenging in primary care, where the majority of patients with depression are managed, due to the presence of co-morbidities. Current methods for risk assessment of depression do not accurately predict treatment response or clinical outcomes. Several biological pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression; however, accurate and predictive biomarkers remain elusive. We conducted a systematic review of the published evidence supporting the use of peripheral biomarkers to predict outcomes in depression, using Medline and Embase. Peripheral biomarkers in depression were found to be statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes such as treatment response, poor outcome and symptom remission; and physical health outcomes such as increased incidence of cardiovascular events and deaths, and all-cause mortality. However, the available evidence has multiple methodological limitations which must be overcome to make any real clinical progress. Despite extensive research on the relationship of depression with peripheral biomarkers, its translational application in practice remains uncertain. In future, peripheral biomarkers identified with novel techniques and combining multiple biomarkers may have a potential role in depression risk assessment but further research is needed in this area. PMID:25698954

  20. The Problem of Assessing Executive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muriel D. Lezak

    1982-01-01

    The capacities for formulating goals, planning, and carrying out plans effectively - the executive functions - are essential for independent, creative, and socially constructive behavior. Although they tend to be vulnerable to brain impairment, they are often overlooked in neuropsychological and neurological examinations. Reasons why there are few formalized examination procedures for evaluating executive functions are suggested. Prefrontal contributions and

  1. Competency Outcomes for Learning and Performance Assessment. Redesigning a BSN Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttrell, Marjorie F.; Lenburg, Carrie B.; Scherubel, Janet C.; Jacob, Susan R.; Koch, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A baccalaureate nursing curriculum was redesigned around eight core competencies with measurable indicators for each performance-based competency outcome. Effective learning strategies to achieve outcomes and methods to document achievement were also outlined. (SK)

  2. Using Disablement Models and Clinical Outcomes Assessment to Enable Evidence-Based Athletic Training Practice, Part I: Disablement Models

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Alison R; Parsons, John T; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Curtis Bay, R; Michener, Lori A; Sauers, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present and discuss disablement models and the benefits of using these models as a framework to assess clinical outcomes in athletic training. Background: Conceptual schemes that form the basic architecture for clinical practice, scholarly activities, and health care policy, disablement models have been in use by health care professions since the 1960s. Disablement models are also the foundation for clinical outcomes assessment. Clinical outcomes assessment serves as the measurement tool for patient-oriented evidence and is a necessary component for evidence-based practice. Description: Disablement models provide benefits to health professions through organization of clinical practice and research activities; creation of a common language among health care professionals; facilitation of the delivery of patient-centered, whole-person health care; and justification of interventions based on a comprehensive assessment of the effect of illness or injury on a person's overall health-related quality of life. Currently, the predominant conceptual frameworks of disability in health care are those of the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research and the World Health Organization. Disablement models need to be understood, used, and studied by certified athletic trainers to promote patient-centered care and clinical outcomes assessment for the development of evidence-based practice in athletic training. Clinical and Research Advantages: For clinicians and researchers to determine effective athletic training treatments, prevention programs, and practices, they must understand what is important to patients by collecting patient-oriented evidence. Patient-oriented evidence is the most essential form of outcomes evidence and necessitates an appreciation of all dimensions of health, as outlined by disablement models. The use of disablement models will allow the athletic training profession to communicate, measure, and prioritize the health care needs of patients, which will facilitate organized efforts aimed at assessing the quality of athletic training services and practices and ultimately promote successful evidence-based athletic training practice. PMID:18668176

  3. Cerebrolysin enhances neurogenesis in the ischemic brain and improves functional outcome after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Cui, Yisheng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ruilan; Zhang, Li; Lu, Mei; Szalad, Alexandra; Doppler, Edith; Hitzl, Monika; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation mimicking the action of neurotrophic factors and has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The present study investigated the effect of Cerebrolysin on neurogenesis in a rat model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Treatment with Cerebrolysin at doses of 2.5 and 5 ml/kg significantly increased the number of bromodeoxyuridine positive (BrdU+) subventricular zone (SVZ) neural progenitor cells and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity (migrating neuroblasts) in the ipsilateral SVZ and striatal ischemic boundary 28 days after stroke when the treatment was initiated 24h after stroke. The treatment also reduced TUNEL+ cells by ~50% in the ischemic boundary. However, treatment with Cerebrolysin at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg initiated at 24 and 48h did not significantly reduce infarct volume, but substantially improved neurological outcomes measured by an array of behavioral tests 21 and 28 days after stroke. Incubation of SVZ neural progenitor cells from ischemic rats with Cerebrolysin dose dependently augmented BrdU+ cells and increased the number of Tuj1+ cells (a marker of immature neurons). Blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abolished Cerebrolysin-increased BrdU+ cells. Moreover, Cerebrolysin treatment promoted neural progenitor cell migration. Collectively, these data indicate that Cerebrolysin treatment when initiated 24 and 48h after stroke enhances neurogenesis in the ischemic brain and improves functional outcome and that Cerebrolysin-augmented proliferation, differentiation, and migration of adult SVZ neural progenitor cells contribute to Cerebrolysin-induced neurogenesis, which may be related to improvement of neurological outcome. The PI3K/Akt pathway mediates Cerebrolysin-induced progenitor cell proliferation. PMID:20857512

  4. Cerebrolysin enhances neurogenesis in the ischemic brain and improves functional outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Cui, Yisheng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ruilan; Zhang, Li; Lu, Mei; Szalad, Alexandra; Doppler, Edith; Hitzl, Monika; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2010-11-15

    Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation mimicking the action of neurotrophic factors and has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The present study investigated the effect of Cerebrolysin on neurogenesis in a rat model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Treatment with Cerebrolysin at doses of 2.5 and 5 ml/kg significantly increased the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive (BrdU(+)) subventricular zone (SVZ) neural progenitor cells and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity (migrating neuroblasts) in the ipsilateral SVZ and striatal ischemic boundary 28 days after stroke when the treatment was initiated 24 hr after stroke. The treatment also reduced TUNEL(+) cells by ?50% in the ischemic boundary. However, treatment with Cerebrolysin at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg initiated at 24 and 48 hr did not significantly reduce infarct volume but substantially improved neurological outcomes measured by an array of behavioral tests 21 and 28 days after stroke. Incubation of SVZ neural progenitor cells from ischemic rats with Cerebrolysin dose dependently augmented BrdU(+) cells and increased the number of Tuj1(+) cells (a marker of immature neurons). Blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abolished Cerebrolysin-increased BrdU(+) cells. Moreover, Cerebrolysin treatment promoted neural progenitor cell migration. Collectively, these data indicate that Cerebrolysin treatment when initiated 24 and 48 hr after stroke enhances neurogenesis in the ischemic brain and improves functional outcome and that Cerebrolysin-augmented proliferation, differentiation, and migration of adult SVZ neural progenitor cells contribute to Cerebrolysin-induced neurogenesis, which may be related to improvement of neurological outcome. The PI3K/Akt pathway mediates Cerebrolysin-induced progenitor cell proliferation. PMID:20857512

  5. Maternal Emotional Styles and Child Social Adjustment: Assessment, Correlates, Outcomes and Goodness of Fit in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the present research were to develop a modified version of an existing self-assessment questionnaire designed to measure parents' emotional style and to examine how the aspects of child regulation may moderate the relation between the emotional styles and social outcomes in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 140 mothers and…

  6. Challenges in the Implementation of Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review in a California Community College District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which a community college district planned to implement a systematic outcomes-based assessment program review process in order to have results inform institutional, district, and state policy discussions. Data derived from this grounded theory study indicated that there was not a shared…

  7. ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 02-01 Build on what public speaking entails to adv-

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    COMM441 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 02-01 Build on what public speaking, extemporaneous style, and proficient speaking about a specific topic. 02-02 Build on what public speaking entails, extemporaneous style, and proficient speaking about a specific topic. 03-01 Build on what public speaking entails

  8. Maternal Emotional Styles and Child Social Adjustment: Assessment, Correlates, Outcomes and Goodness of Fit in Early Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Lagace-Seguin; Robert J. Coplan

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the present research were to develop a modified version of an existing self-assessment questionnaire designed to measure parents' emotional style and to examine how the aspects of child regulation may moderate the relation between the emotional styles and social outcomes in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 140 mothers and children (73 males, 67 females, Mage =

  9. Perspectives from Campus Leaders on the Current State of Student Learning Outcomes Assessment: NILOA Focus Group Summary 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of student learning outcomes is of keen interest to the federal government, accrediting bodies, and education associations and policymakers. Colleges and universities have been under increased pressured to demonstrate accountability for student learning and be more transparent about dimensions of educational quality. Although…

  10. Using core competencies to build an evaluative framework: outcome assessment of the University of Guelph Master of Public Health program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Master of Public Health programs have been developed across Canada in response to the need for graduate-level trained professionals to work in the public health sector. The University of Guelph recently conducted a five-year outcome assessment using the Core Competencies for Public Health in Canada as an evaluative framework to determine whether graduates are receiving adequate training, and identify areas for improvement. Methods A curriculum map of core courses and an online survey of University of Guelph Master of Public Health graduates comprised the outcome assessment. The curriculum map was constructed by evaluating course outlines, assignments, and content to determine the extent to which the Core Competencies were covered in each course. Quantitative survey results were characterized using descriptive statistics. Qualitative survey results were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns in open-ended responses. Results The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program provided a positive learning environment in which graduates gained proficiency across the Core Competencies through core and elective courses, meaningful practicums, and competent faculty. Practice-based learning environments, particularly in collaboration with public health organizations, were deemed to be beneficial to students’ learning experiences. Conclusions The Core Competencies and graduate surveys can be used to conduct a meaningful and informative outcome assessment. We encourage other Master of Public Health programs to conduct their own outcome assessments using a similar framework, and disseminate these results in order to identify best practices and strengthen the Canadian graduate public health education system. PMID:25078124

  11. ABET Criterion 3: Outcomes Met By Course Content This brief content assessment should be consistent with the updated Course Syllabet

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering (b) an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice for engineering practice.(-b) an ability to integrate modern biology with engineering principles #12;COURSE OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT MATRIX Dept

  12. Using soil functional indices to assess wildfire impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana

    2014-05-01

    Disturbance impact on ecosystem are often based on functional indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem functions. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil functions after fire as a function of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape Functional Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling functions for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the impact of fire on soil functions using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface functions to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil functions to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and functional traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil functional status of recently burned areas.

  13. The social function of technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddle, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of preserving the uneasy balance between a dynamic society and the equilibrium of man-environment society is discussed. Four sets of activities involved in technology assessment are considered: (1) Technology forecasting is necessary to warn of future dangers and opportunities, for effective timing, and to identify tradeoffs and alternatives. But forecasting is also chancy at best. (2) Social indicators need to be developed for the characterization of social status and measurement of social progress, as well as a better understanding of social needs. (3) With respect to technology assessment, the conflict between profitable directions of innovations and socially desirable directions is described, and a systematic way is needed to determine in advance what is technologically feasible to meet social needs. (4) National goals with respect to scientific and technological developments are also required.

  14. Investigation of the role of the jumping-to-conclusions bias for short-term functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Christina; Treszl, András; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Köther, Ulf; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Moritz, Steffen

    2014-08-30

    Symptom severity and neuropsychological deficits negatively influence functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research implicates specific types of biased thinking styles (e.g. jumping-to-conclusions) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This is the first study to test the impact of jumping-to-conclusions on functional outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of psychopathology, neuropsychology and JTC with subjective quality of life, vocational outcome and housing status in schizophrenia. Analyses were carried out both cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally over the course of symptomatic improvement in the immediate aftermath of a psychotic exacerbation. Seventy-nine patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. Data concerning the variables of interest were collected at baseline, after one month, and after six months. Positive symptomatology was the most significant predictor of subjective and vocational outcome and changes across time. Verbal memory deficits were associated with functional status cross-sectionally, whereas general cognitive capacity significantly predicted functional changes over time. Improvement of the jumping-to-conclusions bias positively affected vocational outcome. Though limited, the observed effect of this bias on real-world functioning highlights the possible usefulness of interventions aimed at improving (meta)cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:24836199

  15. Outcomes mapping: a method for dental schools to coordinate learning and assessment based on desired characteristics of a graduate.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Galen B; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Johnsen, David C; Eckert, Mary Lynn; Mulder, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This project, utilizing a seldom-used approach to dental education, was designed to define the desired characteristics of a graduating dental student; convert those characteristics to educational outcomes; and use those outcomes to map a dental school's learning and assessment programs, based on outcomes rather than courses and disciplines. A detailed rubric of the outcomes expected of a graduating dental student from this school was developed, building on Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standards and the school's competencies. The presence of each characteristic in the rubric was mapped within and across courses and disciplines. To assess implementation of the rubric, members of two faculty committees and all fourth-year students were asked to use it to rate 1) the importance of each characteristic, 2) the extent to which the school teaches and assesses each, and 3) the extent to which each counts toward overall assessment of competence. All thirty-three faculty members (100 percent) on the committees participated, as did forty-six of the fifty-five students (84 percent). The groups gave high scores to the importance of each characteristic, especially for knowledge and technical competence (then separate categories but merged in the final rubric) and for self-assessment, as well as the extent to which they are being taught and assessed. Respondents most commonly named critical thinking as the area that should be emphasized more. Mapping the curriculum and creating its related database allow the faculty and administration to more systematically coordinate learning and assessment than was possible with a course-based approach. PMID:25179923

  16. Functional and aesthetic outcome of a complex upper-limb reconstruction after criminal caustic injection.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Calin Constantin; Revol, M; Servant, J-M

    2009-05-01

    Extensive upper-limb injuries are usually secondary to accidental partial or complete avulsions or massive burns. Caustic injections are an exceptional etiology, with terrible lesions that present therapeutic challenges and major aftereffects. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient presenting with a large and deep anterior necrosis of the upper-limb anterior tissues, after a criminal intravenous injection of caustic soda on the inner side of his left elbow. Reconstruction methods consisted of a homolateral latissimus dorsi pediculated flap, a humeroulnar vascular bypass, a medial nerve autograft, and a secondary palliative Brand 1 procedure. Final functional and aesthetic results, obtained after long-term physiotherapy, were unexpectedly good. In conclusion, reconstructive surgery of such major lesions cannot be considered without a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, patients have to be well informed about the necessity of multiple surgical interventions, the risk of major handicap, and the unpredictable nature of the final outcome. PMID:19061155

  17. FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY-LIFE IRON DEFICIENCY: OUTCOMES AT 25 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Smith, Julia B.; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Katy M.; Guevara, Silvia; Jimenez, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine adulthood functioning following chronic iron deficiency in infancy. Study design At 25 years, we compared 33 participants with chronic iron deficiency in infancy to 89 who were iron-sufficient before and/or after iron therapy. Outcomes included education, employment, marital status, physical and mental health. Results Adjusting for sex and SES, a higher proportion of the chronic iron-deficient group did not complete secondary school (58.1% vs.19.8% in iron-sufficient group, Wald-value = 8.74, p = .003), were not pursuing further education/training (76.1% vs. 31.5%, Wald-value = 3.01, p = .08; suggestive trend), and were single (83.9% vs. 23.7%, Wald-value = 4.49, p = .03). They reported poorer emotional health and more negative emotions and feelings of dissociation/detachment. Results were similar in secondary analyses comparing the chronic iron-deficient group to participants in the iron-sufficient group who had been iron-deficient before treatment in infancy. Path analysis showed direct paths for chronic iron deficiency in infancy and being single and more detachment/dissociation at 25 years. There were indirect paths for chronic iron deficiency and not completing secondary school via poorer cognitive functioning in early adolescence and more negative emotions via behavior problems in adolescence, indicating a cascade of adverse outcomes. Conclusion The observational nature of the study limits causal inference, despite control for background factors. Nonetheless, the results indicate substantial loss of human potential. There may be broader societal implications, because many adults worldwide had chronic iron deficiency in infancy. Iron deficiency can be prevented or treated before it becomes chronic or severe. PMID:23827739

  18. Assessing the performance of recent density functionals for bulk solids

    E-print Network

    Csonka, Gabor I.

    We assess the performance of recent density functionals for the exchange-correlation energy of a nonmolecular solid, by applying accurate calculations with the GAUSSIAN, BAND, and VASP codes to a test set of 24 solid metals ...

  19. Minocycline Improves Functional Outcomes, Memory Deficits, and Histopathology after Endovascular Perforation-Induced Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sherchan, Prativa; Lekic, Tim; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Rolland, William; Duris, Kamil; Zhan, Yan; Tang, Jiping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant long-lasting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, evaluating acute and long-term outcomes after therapeutic intervention is important for clinical translation. The aim of this study was to use minocycline, a known neuroprotectant agent, to evaluate the long-term benefits in terms of neurobehavior and neuropathology after experimental SAH in rats, and to determine which neurobehavioral test would be effective for long-term evaluation. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=118). The animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (45?mg/kg or 135?mg/kg) or vehicle 1?h after SAH induction. In the short-term, animals were euthanized at 24 and 72?h for evaluation of neurobehavior, brain water content, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. In the long-term, neurobehavior was evaluated at days 21–28 post-SAH, and histopathological analysis was done at day 28. High-dose but not low-dose minocycline reduced brain water content at 24?h, and therefore only the high-dose regimen was used for further evaluation, which reduced MMP-9 activity at 24?h. Further, high-dose minocycline improved spatial memory and attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. The rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests, but not the inclined plane test, detected neurobehavioral deficits in SAH rats at days 21–28. This study demonstrates that minocycline attenuates long-term functional and morphological outcomes after endovascular perforation-induced SAH. Long-term neurobehavioral assessments using the rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests could be useful to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention after experimental SAH. PMID:22013966

  20. Functional Brain Networks Associated with Cognitive Control, Cocaine Dependence and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Stevens, Michael C.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine dependence often evidence poor cognitive control. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate networks of functional connectivity underlying cognitive control in cocaine dependence and examine the relationship of the networks to the disorder and its treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to fMRI data to investigate if regional activations underlying cognitive control processes operate in functional networks, and whether these networks relate to performance and treatment outcome measures in cocaine dependence. Twenty patients completed a Stroop task during fMRI prior to entering outpatient treatment and were compared to 20 control participants. ICA identified five distinct functional networks related to cognitive control interference events. Cocaine-dependent patients displayed differences in performance-related recruitment of three networks. Reduced involvement of a “top-down” fronto-cingular network contributing to conflict monitoring correlated with better treatment retention. Greater engagement of two “bottom-up” subcortical and ventral prefrontal networks related to cue-elicited motivational processing correlated with abstinence during treatment. The identification of subcortical networks linked to cocaine abstinence and cortical networks to treatment retention suggests that specific circuits may represent important, complementary targets in treatment development for cocaine dependence. PMID:22775772

  1. Functional outcomes after arthroplasty of the distal radioulnar joint and hand therapy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Gretchen L; Bodell, Leonard S; Berger, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to present a therapy protocol for use after implantation of an ulnar head endoprosthesis and to describe the functional outcomes after hand therapy. This is a retrospective review of a series of eight patients treated with a specified therapy protocol after ulnar head resection and implant arthroplasty. Marked improvements in pain and function were reported, though some pain with exertion remained. Two patients were on worker's compensation and both have returned to their premorbid work status. Functional use of the extremity was achieved by two to six weeks, with a mean of four weeks. Maximum medical improvement with good-to-excellent early results was achieved in all patients by 16 weeks. It is our experience that with this directed therapy protocol patients undergoing this procedure experience rapid recovery and an ability to return to activities of daily living in a timely manner. This paper provides a baseline protocol and rationale for use with patients who have undergone surgery with an ulnar head endoprosthesis. PMID:19006766

  2. FTY720 is Neuroprotective and Improves Functional Outcomes After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, William B.; Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Hasegawa, Yu; Ostrowski, Robert; Tang, Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 20% of all strokes and is the most devastating form across all stroke types. Lymphocytes have been shown to potentiate cerebral inflammation and brain injury after stroke. FTY720 (Fingolimod) is an immune-modulating drug that prevents the egress of peripheral lymphocytes from peripheral stores. We hypothesized that FTY720 would reduce peripheral circulating lymphocytes, resulting in reduced brain injury and improved functional outcomes. CD-1 mice were anesthetized and then injected with collagenase into the right basal ganglia. Animals were divided into three groups: sham, ICH + Vehicle, and ICH + FTY720, by the intra-peritoneal route at 1 h after ICH induction. Brain water content was measured at 24 and 72 h. Neurobehavioral tests included corner test, forelimb use asymmetry, paw placement, wire-hang test, beam balance test, and a Neuroscore. FTY720 significantly reduced brain edema and improved neurological function at all time points tested. Lymphocyte modulation with FTY720 is an effective neuroprotective strategy to reduce brain injury and promote functional recovery after ICH. PMID:21725758

  3. Assessment of visual function in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Y Yu Wai Man; T Smith; P F Chinnery; D M Turnbull; P G Griffiths

    2006-01-01

    AimsTo assess the visual function of patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) using the Visual Function Index (VF-14). To identify discriminatory questions that reflect visual disability in mitochondrial ocular myopathies. To investigate the relationship between visual impairment and the ocular parameters routinely measured in clinical practice.MethodsWe studied 40 CPEO patients. Each patient underwent ophthalmological assessment, including best-corrected visual acuity,

  4. Assessing functional status: Exploring the relationship between the multiple sclerosis functional composite and driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marla A. Shawaryn; Maria T. Schultheis; Edward Garay; John DeLuca

    2002-01-01

    Shawaryn MA, Schultheis MT, Garay E, DeLuca J. Assessing functional status: exploring the relationship between the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and driving. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1123-9. Objective: To explore the relationship between the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), which is comprised of 3 clinical dimensions (arm and hand function, leg function and ambulation, cognition), and an everyday functional skill,

  5. Reliability of the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa H Amir; Jennifer P James; Susan M Donath

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 3% of infants are born with a tongue-tie which may lead to breastfeeding problems such as ineffective latch, painful attachment or poor weight gain. The Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (HATLFF) has been developed to give a quantitative assessment of the tongue-tie and recommendation about frenotomy (release of the frenulum). The aim of this study was

  6. A normalized energy function for fast transient stability assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Z. Fang; A. K. David

    2004-01-01

    New definitions of average angle centre and angle radius are proposed to develop a transient stability evaluation method which is fast and accurate for transient stability assessment. These two definitions are further developed to introduce two novel concepts, the normalized generators’ equations of motion and normalized energy function (NEF), which in turn allow the assessment of critical clearing time (CCT)

  7. Comparison of Bayesian and classical methods in the analysis of cluster randomized controlled trials with a binary outcome: The Community Hypertension Assessment Trial (CHAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhui Ma; Lehana Thabane; Janusz Kaczorowski; Larry Chambers; Lisa Dolovich; Tina Karwalajtys; Cheryl Levitt

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve health outcomes or prevent diseases. However, the efficiency and consistency of using different analytical methods in the analysis of binary outcome have received little attention. We described and compared various statistical approaches in the analysis of CRTs using the Community Hypertension Assessment Trial (CHAT)

  8. Outcomes Assessment and Its Role in Self-Reviews of Undergraduate Education: In the Context of Japanese Higher Education Reforms since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushimoto, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Under the recent state of higher education, "Outcomes Assessment" has become a familiar term in Japan as in other nations all over the world. However, actual conditions of outcomes assessment and its contribution toward educational improvement are not always obvious. Thus, this article attempts to clarify: (1) Japanese higher education reforms…

  9. Enriched environment induces angiogenesis and improves neural function outcomes in rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Guo, Zhenzhen; Li, Fang; Jia, Jie; Kuang, Shenyi; Hu, Ruiping

    2014-12-15

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has neuroprotective benefits in animal models, including enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of EE on the improvement of damaged neural function and the induction of angiogenesis. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Neurological status scores were used to evaluate neural function on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14. A beam-walking task was used to test the recovery of motor behavior on postoperative days 2, 5, 10, and 15. We also used a Morris water maze task to examine whether EE protected learning and memory performance. The specific marker of angiogenesis of CD31 was examined by western blot. Angiogenesis around the peri-infarction region was assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) after 14 days of EE exposure starting 24h after ischemia. Neurological status scores of animals in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the standard housing condition (SC) control group from the seventh day after ischemic. EE accelerated the recovery of motor coordination and integration and also improved learning and memory performance after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, EE increased CD31 levels and promoted angiogenesis of cortex in the peri-infarction region compared to the SC group. Neural function outcomes are positively correlated with post-ischemia angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EE plays an important role in the recovery of damaged neural function via regulation of angiogenesis after ischemia. PMID:25455300

  10. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (?=?.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (?=?.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (?=?.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (?=?.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (?=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  11. Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC) practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30) were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were willing to participate in and consent to, the collection and linkage of information from multiple sources that would be required for such assessments. PMID:22824551

  12. Fundamentals of Clinical Outcomes Assessment for Spinal Disorders: Study Designs, Methodologies, and Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B.; Shen, Francis H.; Chapman, Jens R.; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?A broad narrative review. Objective?Management of spinal disorders is continuously evolving, with new technologies being constantly developed. Regardless, assessment of patient outcomes is key in understanding the safety and efficacy of various therapeutic interventions. As such, evidence-based spine care is an essential component to the armamentarium of the spine specialist in an effort to critically analyze the reported literature and execute studies in an effort to improve patient care and change clinical practice. The following article, part one of a two-part series, is meant to bring attention to the pros and cons of various study designs, their methodological issues, as well as statistical considerations. Methods?An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language of publication, addressing study designs and their methodologies as well as statistical concepts. Results?Numerous articles and concepts addressing study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analytical concepts have been reported. Their applications in the context of spine-related conditions and disorders were noted. Conclusion?Understanding the fundamental principles of study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analyses can further advance and improve future spine-related research. PMID:25844291

  13. Pediatric aplastic anemia and refractory cytopenia: A retrospective analysis assessing outcomes and histomorphologic predictors.

    PubMed

    Forester, Craig M; Sartain, Sarah E; Guo, Dongjing; Harris, Marian H; Weinberg, Olga K; Fleming, Mark D; London, Wendy B; Williams, David A; Hofmann, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a bone marrow disorder that is difficult to distinguish from inherited bone marrow failure syndromes and hypocellular refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC). Historically, patients with hypocellular RCC have been given the diagnosis of AA. To assess the clinical and histologic distinction between RCC and AA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 149 patients previously diagnosed with AA between 1976 and 2010. We evaluated event free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), response rates to immunosuppressive therapy, treatment-related toxicities and clonal evolution. The 5-year EFS and OS were 50.8% ± 5.5% and 73.1% ± 4.7%, respectively. Patients with very severe AA had worse OS compared to patients with severe and moderately severe AA. Seventy-two patients had diagnostic pathology specimens available for review. Three pediatric hematopathologists reviewed and reclassified these specimens as AA, RCC or Other based on 2008 WHO Criteria. The concordance between pathologists in the diagnosis of AA or RCC was modest. RCC was associated with a trend toward improved OS and EFS and was not prognostic of immunosuppression therapy treatment failure. There was a low rate of clonal evolution exclusively associated with moderately severe AA. Our findings indicate that a diagnosis of RCC is difficult to establish with certainty and does not predict outcomes, calling into question the reproducibility and clinical significance of the RCC classification and warranting further studies. PMID:25580823

  14. The Relationship Between the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and Indicators of Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Hodges; Ann Doucette-Gates; Qinghong Liao

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between scores on the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and several indicators of functioning assessed in the national evaluation of the demonstration grants funded by the Center for Mental Health Services System of Care Initiative. The sample included 3187 youths, ranging in age from 4 to 23, with serious emotional disturbance (SED) who were

  15. Ranking of physiotherapeutic evaluation methods as outcome measures of stifle functionality in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various physiotherapeutic evaluation methods are used to assess the functionality of dogs with stifle problems. Neither validity nor sensitivity of these methods has been investigated. This study aimed to determine the most valid and sensitive physiotherapeutic evaluation methods for assessing functional capacity in hind limbs of dogs with stifle problems and to serve as a basis for developing an indexed test for these dogs. A group of 43 dogs with unilateral surgically treated cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and osteoarthritic findings was used to test different physiotherapeutic evaluation methods. Twenty-one healthy dogs served as the control group and were used to determine normal variation in static weight bearing and range of motion. The protocol consisted of 14 different evaluation methods: visual evaluation of lameness, visual evaluation of diagonal movement, visual evaluation of functional active range of motion and difference in thrust of hind limbs via functional tests (sit-to-move and lie-to-move), movement in stairs, evaluation of hind limb muscle atrophy, manual evaluation of hind limb static weight bearing, quantitative measurement of static weight bearing of hind limbs with bathroom scales, and passive range of motion of hind limb stifle (flexion and extension) and tarsal (flexion and extension) joints using a universal goniometer. The results were compared with those from an orthopaedic examination, force plate analysis, radiographic evaluation, and a conclusive assessment. Congruity of the methods was assessed with a combination of three statistical approaches (Fisher’s exact test and two differently calculated proportions of agreeing observations), and the components were ranked from best to worst. Sensitivities of all of the physiotherapeutic evaluation methods against each standard were calculated. Results Evaluation of asymmetry in a sitting and lying position, assessment of muscle atrophy, manual and measured static weight bearing, and measurement of stifle passive range of motion were the most valid and sensitive physiotherapeutic evaluation methods. Conclusions Ranking of the various physiotherapeutic evaluation methods was accomplished. Several of these methods can be considered valid and sensitive when examining the functionality of dogs with stifle problems. PMID:23566355

  16. The predictive value of self assessed general, physical, and mental health on functional decline and mortality in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the extent to which older people's self assessments of general health, physical health, and mental health predict functional decline and mortality.?DESIGN—The study uses population-based secondary data from the US Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA).?PARTICIPANTS—A total of 7527 persons aged 70 years or above living in the community.?METHODS—Eight different measures on self reported general, physical, and mental health were used. Change in functional status was measured using a composite index of ADLs and IADLs over a period of six years. Duration of survival was calculated over a period of seven years. Adjusting for age and gender, multiple logistic regression was used in analysing functional decline, and Cox proportional hazard model, for mortality. Then all of the self assessed health measures were incorporated into the final model—controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, disease/conditions, and use of health and social services—to assess the independent contribution of each measure in predicting future health outcomes.?MAIN RESULTS—Overall, older people's self assessed general, physical, and mental health were predictive of functional decline and mortality. In multivariate analyses, older people who assessed their global health, self care ability, and physical activity less favourably were more likely to experience poor health outcomes. Gender disparity, however, was observed with poor global health affecting functional decline in men only. Self care ability was predictive of functioning in women only, whereas it was predictive of mortality in men only.?CONCLUSIONS—Self assessed global health, as well as, specific dimensions of health act as significant, independent predictors of functioning and mortality in a community dwelling older people.???Keywords: age; self assessed health; functional status; mortality PMID:10715745

  17. Functional outcome after lengthening with and without deformity correction in polio patients

    PubMed Central

    Khames, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is one of the causes of limb length discrepancy. The aim of lengthening and deformity correction in such patients is to improve the functional mobility of the patient. This study aims to find out whether or not improvement of limb length inequality with or without deformity correction affects or improves ambulation. This prospective study included 32 skeletally mature patients managed using the Ilizarov technique and external fixation for limb lengthening with or without deformity correction. Functional Mobility Scale scoring was used for assessment of ambulation before lengthening and at the final follow-up. The average duration of follow-up was 2 years and 9 months. Lengthening alone did not change the Functional Mobility Scale score. While lengthening associated with deformity correction improved the mobility scale at 5 m only (in the house), it had no effect on the 50 and 500 m score. PMID:17333186

  18. Differential Case Ascertainment in Clinical Registry vs. Administrative Data and Impact on Outcomes Assessment in Pediatric Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Sara K.; Peterson, Eric D.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; He, Xia; Li, Jennifer S.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Gaynor, J. William; Hirsch, Jennifer C.; Shah, Samir S.; Mayer, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Administrative datasets are often used to assess outcomes and quality in pediatric heart surgery; however their accuracy regarding case ascertainment is unclear. We linked patient data (2004–2010) from the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database (clinical registry), and Pediatric Health Information Systems Database (administrative database) from hospitals participating in both to evaluate differential coding/classification of operations between datasets, and subsequent impact on outcomes assessment. Methods Eight individual benchmark operations and the RACHS-1 categories were evaluated. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results The cohort included 59,820 patients (33 centers). There was a >10% difference in the number of patients identified between datasources for half of the benchmark operations. Negative predictive value of the administrative (vs. clinical) data was high (98.8–99.9%); positive predictive value was lower (56.7–88.0%). Overall agreement between datasources in RACHS-1 category assignment was 68.4%. These differences translated into significant differences in outcomes assessment, ranging from an underestimation of mortality associated with truncus arteriosus repair by 25.7% in the administrative vs. clinical data (7.01% vs. 9.43%, p=0.001), to an overestimation of mortality associated with VSD repair by 31.0% (0.78% vs. 0.60%, p=0.1). For the RACHS-1 categories, these ranged from an underestimation of Category 5 mortality by 40.5%, to an overestimation of Category 2 mortality by 12.1%; these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study demonstrates differences in case ascertainment between administrative and clinical registry data for children undergoing heart surgery, which translated into important differences in outcomes assessment. PMID:23141907

  19. One-Year Durability of the Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Functional Outcome in Early Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is an effective intervention for addressing cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Previous research has shown that the early application of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) can improve neurocognitive and-social cognitive deficits in the early course of the disorder, and ultimately reduce the substantial functional disability that these patients experience. However, the lasting effects of CET on functional outcome in early course schizophrenia patients remain unknown. In this study, 58 patients in the early course of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with two years of either CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control were followed-up one year after the completion of treatment to examine the durability of CET effects on functional outcome. At one-year post-treatment, a high (72%) retention rate was observed in both treatments. Results from intent-to-treat analyses employing linear mixed-effects models indicated that CET effects on functional outcome were broadly maintained one-year post-treatment, and that patients receiving CET continued to demonstrate highly significant differential functional benefits compared to patients treated with EST. These findings support the durability of CET effects on functional outcome in the early course of schizophrenia, and point to the potential of cognitive rehabilitation to have a lasting impact on the early trajectory of the disorder. PMID:20472402

  20. Motor balance and coordination training enhances functional outcome in rat with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Li, J; Lai, Q; Rafols, J A; Luan, X; Clark, J; Diaz, F G

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if relatively complex motor training on Rota-rod involving balance and coordination plays an essential role in improving motor function in ischemic rats, as compared with simple locomotor exercise on treadmill. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with (n=40) or without (n=40) ischemia were trained under each of three conditions: (1) motor balance and coordination training on Rota-rod; (2) simple exercise on treadmill; and (3) non-trained controls. Motor function was evaluated by a series of tests (foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing) before and at 14 or 28 days after training procedures in both ischemic and normal animals. Infarct volume in ischemic animals was determined with Nissl staining. Compared with both treadmill exercised and non-trained animals, Rota-rod-trained animals with or without ischemia significantly (P<0.01) improved motor performance of all tasks except for foot fault placing after 14 days of training, with normal rats having better performance. Animals trained for up to 28 days on the treadmill did not show significantly improved function. With regard to foot fault placing task, performance on foot placing was improved in ischemic rats across the three measurements at 0, 14 and 28 days regardless of training condition, while the normal group reached their best performance at the beginning of measurement. No significant differences in infarct volume were found in rats trained either with Rota-rod (47+/-4%; mean+/-S.E.), treadmill (45+/-5%) or non-exercised control (45+/-3%). In addition, no obvious difference could be detected in the location of the damage which included the dorso-lateral portion of the neostriatum and the frontoparietal cortex, the main regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery. The data suggest that complex motor training rather than simple exercise effectively improves functional outcome. PMID:14706778

  1. Triangle tilt and humeral surgery: Meta-analysis of efficacy and functional outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review and analyze the overall impact and effectiveness of bony surgical procedures, the triangle tilt and humeral surgery in a comparative manner in permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search and identified original full research articles of OBPI patients treated with a secondary bony surgery, particularly addressing the limitation of shoulder abduction and functions. Further, we analyzed and compared the efficacy and the surgical outcomes of 9 humeral surgery papers with 179 patients, and 4 of our secondary bony procedure, the triangle tilt surgical papers with 86 patients. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, using the search term “brachial plexus” and obstetric or pediatric (246 articles) or neonatal (219 articles) or congenital (188 articles) or “birth palsy” (121 articles). Further, only a few articles were identified using the bony surgery search, osteotomy “brachial plexus” obstetric (35), “humeral osteotomy” and “brachial plexus” (17), and triangle tilt “brachial plexus” (14). Of all, 12 studies reporting pre- and post- operative or improvement in total Mallet functional score were included in this study. Among these, 9 studies reported the humeral surgery and 4 were triangle tilt surgery. We used modified total Mallet functional score in this analysis. Various studies with humeral surgery showed improvement of 1.4, 2.3, 5.0 and 5.6 total Mallet score, whereas the triangle tilt surgery showed improvement of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.2. CONCLUSION: The triangle tilt surgery improves on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy in the management of shoulder function in OBPI patients. PMID:25621221

  2. Gemcitabine and cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma: Predicting response and assessing outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nilay M.; Baras, Alexander; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila; Reis, Leonardo O.; Liu, Jen-Jane; Kates, Max; Hoque, Mohammad Obaidul; Berman, David; Hahn, Noah M.; Eisenberger, Mario; Netto, George J.; Schoenberg, Mark P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (NAC) for pathologic response (pR) and cancer-specific outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and identify clinical parameters associated with pR. Materials and methods We studied 150 consecutive cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer that received GC NAC followed by open RC (2000–2013). A cohort of 121 patients treated by RC alone was used for comparison. Pathologic response and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were compared. We created the Johns Hopkins Hospital Dose Index to characterize chemotherapeutic dosing regimens and accurately assess sufficient neoadjuvant dosing regarding patient tolerance. Results No significant difference was noted in 5-year CSS between GC NAC (58%) and non-NAC cohorts (61%). The median follow-up was 19.6 months (GC NAC) and 106.5 months (non-NAC). Patients with residual non–muscle-invasive disease after GC NAC exhibit similar 5-year CSS relative to patients with no residual carcinoma (P = 0.99). NAC pR (?pT1) demonstrated improved 5-year CSS rates (90.6% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.01) and decreased nodal positivity rates (0% vs. 41.3%, P < 0.01) when compared with nonresponders (?pT2). Clinicopathologic outcomes were inferior in NAC pathologic nonresponders when compared with the entire RC-only–treated cohort. A lower pathologic nonresponder rate was seen in patients tolerating sufficient dosing of NAC as stratified by the Johns Hopkins Hospital Dose Index (P = 0.049), congruent with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. A multivariate classification tree model demonstrated 60 years of age or younger and clinical stage cT2 as significant of NAC response (P < 0.05). Conclusions Pathologic nonresponders fare worse than patients proceeding directly to RC alone do. Multiple predictive models incorporating clinical, histopathologic, and molecular features are currently being developed to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from GC NAC. PMID:25814145

  3. WESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT Climate Change and the Functioning of Water

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    WESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT REPORT Climate Change and the Functioning of Water Rights: A Search;CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE FUNCTIONING OF WATER RIGHTS: A SEARCH OF THE LITERATURE by Julie Shapiro, Douglas. Theliteraturesearchproducednopapersthatexpresslyaddresstheissueofthetiming of snowmelt/runoff and the timing of water rights. However, several papers touch upon

  4. Impaired endothelial function with essential hypertension assessed by ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaeko Iiyama; Masahiro Nagano; Yoshikage Yo; Noriko Nagano; Kei Kamide; Jitsuo Higaki; Hiroshi Mikami; Toshio Ogihara

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of hypertension in endothelial function, changes in which are known to be an early event of atherosclerosis. We assessed endothelial function in 13 subjects with normal blood pressure and 13 subjects with essential hypertension who had never been treated for hypertension or hyperlipidemia and who had no history of smoking

  5. Reliability of the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H; James, Jennifer P; Donath, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Background About 3% of infants are born with a tongue-tie which may lead to breastfeeding problems such as ineffective latch, painful attachment or poor weight gain. The Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (HATLFF) has been developed to give a quantitative assessment of the tongue-tie and recommendation about frenotomy (release of the frenulum). The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of the HATLFF. Methods Fifty-eight infants referred to the Breastfeeding Education and Support Services (BESS) at The Royal Women's Hospital for assessment of tongue-tie and 25 control infants were assessed by two clinicians independently. Results The Appearance items received kappas between about 0.4 to 0.6, which represents "moderate" reliability. The first three Function items (lateralization, lift and extension of tongue) had kappa values over 0.65 which indicates "substantial" agreement. The four Function items relating to infant sucking (spread, cupping, peristalsis and snapback) received low kappa values with insignificant p values. There was 96% agreement between the two assessors on the recommendation for frenotomy (kappa 0.92, excellent agreement). The study found that the Function Score can be more simply assessed using only the first three function items (ie not scoring the sucking items), with a cut-off of ?4 for recommendation of frenotomy. Conclusion We found that the HATLFF has a high reliability in a study of infants with tongue-tie and control infants PMID:16722609

  6. Blue Cone Monochromacy: Visual Function and Efficacy Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Alessandro; Roman, Alejandro J.; Ditta, Lauren C.; Jennings, Barbara J.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Sheplock, Rebecca; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Wissinger, Bernd; Kohl, Susanne; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blue Cone Monochromacy (BCM) is an X-linked retinopathy caused by mutations in the OPN1LW / OPN1MW gene cluster, encoding long (L)- and middle (M)-wavelength sensitive cone opsins. Recent evidence shows sufficient structural integrity of cone photoreceptors in BCM to warrant consideration of a gene therapy approach to the disease. In the present study, the vision in BCM is examined, specifically seeking clinically-feasible outcomes for a future clinical trial. Methods BCM patients (n = 25, ages 5–72) were studied with kinetic and static chromatic perimetry, full-field sensitivity testing, and eye movement recordings. Vision at the fovea and parafovea was probed with chromatic microperimetry. Results Kinetic fields with a Goldmann size V target were generally full. Short-wavelength (S-) sensitive cone function was normal or near normal in most patients. Light-adapted perimetry results on conventional background lights were abnormally reduced; 600-nm stimuli were seen by rods whereas white stimuli were seen by both rods and S-cones. Under dark-adapted conditions, 500-nm stimuli were seen by rods in both BCM and normals. Spectral sensitivity functions in the superior retina showed retained rod and S-cone functions in BCM under dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions. In the fovea, normal subjects showed L/M-cone mediation using a 650-nm stimulus under dark-adapted conditions, whereas BCM patients had reduced sensitivity driven by rod vision. Full-field red stimuli on bright blue backgrounds were seen by L/M-cones in normal subjects whereas BCM patients had abnormally reduced and rod-mediated sensitivities. Fixation location could vary from fovea to parafovea. Chromatic microperimetry demonstrated a large loss of sensitivity to red stimuli presented on a cyan adapting background at the anatomical fovea and surrounding parafovea. Conclusions BCM rods continue to signal vision under conditions normally associated with daylight vision. Localized and retina-wide outcome measures were examined to evaluate possible improvement of L/M-cone-based vision in a clinical trial. PMID:25909963

  7. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G). Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years) have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items) ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p < 0.001). Correlation between the CAHAI-G and CMSA subscales for hand and arm was r = 0.74 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) respectively. Internal consistency of the CAHAI-G for all four versions ranged between ? = 0.974 and ? = 0.979. Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in ADL in patients after stroke. PMID:21114807

  8. Vestibular function assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Michael C.; Whitney, Susan L.; Roberts, Dale; Redfern, Mark S.; Musolino, Mark C.; Roche, Jennica L.; Steed, Daniel P.; Corbin, Bree; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Marchetti, Greg F.; Beaumont, Jennifer; Carey, John P.; Shepard, Neil P.; Jacobson, Gary P.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Furman, Gabriel; Slotkin, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Development of an easy to administer, low-cost test of vestibular function. Methods: Members of the NIH Toolbox Sensory Domain Vestibular, Vision, and Motor subdomain teams collaborated to identify 2 tests: 1) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA), and 2) the Balance Accelerometry Measure (BAM). Extensive work was completed to identify and develop appropriate software and hardware. More than 300 subjects between the ages of 3 and 85 years, with and without vestibular dysfunction, were recruited and tested. Currently accepted gold standard measures of static visual acuity, vestibular function, dynamic visual acuity, and balance were performed to determine validity. Repeat testing was performed to examine reliability. Results: The DVA and BAM tests are affordable and appropriate for use for individuals 3 through 85 years of age. The DVA had fair to good reliability (0.41–0.94) and sensitivity and specificity (50%–73%), depending on age and optotype chosen. The BAM test was moderately correlated with center of pressure (r = 0.42–0.48) and dynamic posturography (r = ?0.48), depending on age and test condition. Both tests differentiated those with and without vestibular impairment and the young from the old. Each test was reliable. Conclusion: The newly created DVA test provides a valid measure of visual acuity with the head still and moving quickly. The novel BAM is a valid measure of balance. Both tests are sensitive to age-related changes and are able to screen for impairment of the vestibular system. PMID:23479540

  9. A crossover pilot study evaluating the functional outcomes of two different types of robotic movement training in chronic stroke survivors using the arm exoskeleton BONES

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, the limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of most robotic training devices hinders them from providing functional training following stroke. We developed a 6-DOF exoskeleton (“BONES”) that allows movement of the upper limb to assist in rehabilitation. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the impact of training with BONES on function of the affected upper limb, and to assess whether multijoint functional robotic training would translate into greater gains in arm function than single joint robotic training also conducted with BONES. Methods Twenty subjects with mild to moderate chronic stroke participated in this crossover study. Each subject experienced multijoint functional training and single joint training three sessions per week, for four weeks, with the order of presentation randomized. The primary outcome measure was the change in Box and Block Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures were the changes in Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quantitative measures of strength and speed of reaching. These measures were assessed at baseline, after each training period, and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation session. Results Training with the robotic exoskeleton resulted in significant improvements in the BBT, FMA, WMFT, MAL, shoulder and elbow strength, and reaching speed (p?functional and single joint robotic training programs. However, for the BBT, WMFT and MAL, inequality of carryover effects were noted; subsequent analysis on the change in score between the baseline and first period of training again revealed no difference in the gains obtained between the types of training. Conclusions Training with the 6 DOF arm exoskeleton improved motor function after chronic stroke, challenging the idea that robotic therapy is only useful for impairment reduction. The pilot results presented here also suggest that multijoint functional robotic training is not decisively superior to single joint robotic training. This challenges the idea that functionally-oriented games during training is a key element for improving behavioral outcomes. Trial registration NCT01050231. PMID:24354476

  10. Association between Vestibular Function and Hearing Outcome in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Nam; Park, Jung Mee; Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Hyun bum

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives To investigate whether different vestibular function tests such as cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and caloric test were correlated with severity, pattern and prognosis in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Subjects and Methods Ninety-two patients with unilateral ISSNHL were subjected to complete audiovestibular evaluation. cVEMP and caloric test results were compared with patients' initial and final audiogram. We classified patients in 4 groups as cochlear nerve (C) type, cochlear and superior vestibular nerve (C+S) type, cochlear and inferior vestibular nerve (C+I) type and cochlear, superior vestibular nerve, inferior vestibular nerve (C+S+I) type, for evaluation of the results. cVEMP and caloric tests were compared among the groups. Results Abnormal caloric test results and abnormal cVEMP results were found in 50% and 31.6% patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that abnormal caloric result (canal paresis) is a significant negative prognostic factor. Conclusions Initial vestibular function test can be valuable in predicting the final outcome in patients with ISSNHL. PMID:25558407

  11. Oncological and Functional Outcomes of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Bladder Replacement in Women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Glen; Whitson, Jared M.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Carroll, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report oncological and functional results in women undergoing radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS The charts of all women undergoing bladder replacement after radical cystectomy at UCSF through April 2008 were reviewed. Pathologic characteristics, survival (overall and disease-specific), and urinary functional outcomes are reported. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods, and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with incontinence, retention, and mortality. RESULTS Fifty-six women with a mean follow-up of 35 months were analyzed. The cancer recurrence rate was 32%. Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival were 54%, 57%, and 47%, respectively. Pathologic lymph node status (HR 14.2, P <.001) and age at diagnosis (HR 1.7, P = .04) were the only clinical or pathologic characteristics significantly associated with survival. The overall continence rate (no pads) was 57%. Hypercontinence occurred in 24% of patients. CONCLUSIONS With careful patient selection and usage of urethral frozen section, rates of local recurrence are low. Overall rates of incontinence (43%) and hypercontinence (24%) are similar to those previously reported. When pathologically organ-confined, women have an excellent diseasespecific survival. Orthotopic bladder replacement is a safe and effective form of urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in women. PMID:21215428

  12. Different functional outcomes of intercellular membrane transfers to monocytes and T cells.

    PubMed

    HoWangYin, Kiave-Yune; Alegre, Estibaliz; Daouya, Marina; Favier, Benoit; Carosella, Edgardo D; LeMaoult, Joel

    2010-04-01

    Trogocytosis is the uptake of membranes from one cell by another. Trogocytosis has been demonstrated for monocytes, B cells, T cells, and NK cells. The acquisition of the tolerogenic molecule HLA-G by T cells and NK cells makes them behave as regulatory cells. We investigated here whether HLA-G, which is expressed by tumor cells in vivo, could be acquired by monocytes and if this transfer could have functional consequences. We demonstrate that resting, and even more so, activated monocytes efficiently acquire membrane-bound HLA-G from HLA-G tumor cells by trogocytosis. However, we demonstrate that HLA-G quickly disappears from the surface of the monocytes in contrast to the HLA-G acquired by T cells. Consequently, HLA-G(acq+) monocytes do not reliably inhibit the on-going proliferation of autologous activated T cells and do not inhibit their cytokine production. Thus, we show that the acquirer cell may control the functional outcome of trogocytosis. PMID:20238479

  13. Liver Function Parameters in Hip Fracture Patients: Relations to Age, Adipokines, Comorbidities and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Elevated ALT, GGT, ALP or bilirubin levels on admission were observed in 1.7% - 9.9% of patients. With age GGT, ALT and leptin decrease, while PTH and adiponectin concentrations increase. Higher GGT (>30U/L, median level) was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and alcohol overuse; lower ALT (?20U/L, median level) with dementia; total bilirubin >20?mol/L with CAD and alcohol overuse; and albumin >33g/L with CAD. Multivariate adjusted regression analyses revealed ALT, ALP, adiponectin, alcohol overuse and DM as independent and significant determinants of GGT (as continuous or categorical variable); GGT for each other liver marker; and PTH for adiponectin. The risk of prolonged hospital stay (>20 days) was about two times higher in patients with GGT>30U/L or adiponectin >17.14 ng/L (median level) and 4.7 times higher if both conditions coexisted. The risk of in-hospital death was 3 times higher if albumin was <33g/L. Conclusions: In older HF patients liver markers even within the normal range are associated with age-related disorders and outcomes. Adiponectin (but not 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, leptin or resistin) is an independent contributor to higher GGT. Serum GGT and albumin predict prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death, respectively. A unifying hypothesis of the findings presented. PMID:25589886

  14. Evaluation of functional outcome and complications of locking calcaneum plate for fracture calcaneum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Surender; Krishna, Loveneesh G.; Singh, Davinder; Kumar, Pawan; Arora, Sumit; Dhaka, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Background Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the treatment of choice for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture at many orthopaedic trauma centres. In this prospective study, we evaluated the functional outcome and complications of locking compressive calcaneum plate for displaced intra-articular fracture calcaneum. Methods Between October 2011 and March 2012, 30 patients with displaced intra-articular fracture calcaneum attending the outdoor and emergency of our institute were included in the study. All the included patients were operated using standard lateral approach and followed up to 1 year. Results Of 30 patients, 14 (48%) patients were Sander's type II, 10 (33%) were type III, and 6 (20%) were type IV. All the patients were evaluated post-operatively. Articular surface of posterior facet of calcaneum and crucial angle of Gissane was maintained in all patients. Four patients had post-operative Boehler's angle <20° and 26 patients had between 21° and 40°. All the patients having post-operative Boehler's angle <20° were type IV as compared to types II and III (statistically significant). Ninety-six percentage of patients having post-operative Boehler's angle 21–40° were more satisfied at 1 year as compared to 25% of patients having post-operative Boehler's angle <20° (statistically significant). Complications were present in 6 (20%) patients. Conclusion ORIF with locking compressive plate in displaced intra-articular fracture calcaneum gives good outcome. Results are more favourable in less comminuted as compared to more comminuted. Maintenance of Boehler's angle is also necessary for satisfactory results along with maintenance of articular congruence of posterior facet of calcaneum and crucial angle of Gissane. PMID:26155049

  15. Comparison of Functional Outcome Between Early and Delayed Internal Fixation Using Volar Locking Plate for Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuta; Zenke, Yukichi; Sakai, Akinori; Oshige, Toshihisa; Moritani, Shiro; Maehara, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of timing (Early (E) group vs Delayed (D) group) of internal fixation for distal radius fractures on forearm and wrist function in patients who underwent the surgery. The subjects were one hundred six patients who had extra-articular fractures of the dorsally displaced distal radius and were treated with a volar locking plate. The subjects were divided into two groups: E group (Operation on the day of injury or the next day, n = 76 ; and the D group (Operation at 7 days after injury or later, n = 30). Follow-up examinations conducted at 4, 12, and 48 weeks after surgery included measurements of wrist and forearm ranges of motion (ROM), measurement of grip strength (GS), Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), and complications, retrospectively. The patients in both groups improved significantly with respect to ROM, GS, and DASH. At 4 weeks, the patients in the E group had better forearm motion, At 4 and 12 weeks, those who had undergone early surgery had significantly better wrist motion, GS and DASH. At 48 weeks, there were no differences between the groups in ROM, GS, or DASH. Patients with dorsally displaced extra-articular fractures of the distal radius can expect to have better short-term outcomes with early treatment, open reduction and internal fixation using a volar locking plates. PMID:26073500

  16. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom(®) (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing(®) (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom(®) implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time. PMID:24191180

  17. Prospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes and Revision Rates Between Hip Resurfacing and Total Hip Arthroplasty: Preliminary Results for 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time. PMID:24191180

  18. The List of Individual Symptoms for Therapy Evaluation (LISTE)--an efficient method for individualized outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Mattejat, F; Remschmidt, H

    2001-01-01

    An newly developed method for individualized assessment of therapy outcome, the "List of Individual Symptoms for Therapy Evaluation" (LISTE), is presented together with first empirical results on its testmetric properties and experience with this assessment instrument is reported. The LISTE method is an approach for objective 2-point assessment of therapy outcome which aims to use the advantages of individualized assessment methods while avoiding the known disadvantages to a considerable extent. So far, the results and experience with this method are very encouraging. The results of a first empirical evaluation indicate that the method supplies clinically relevant and objective data relating to treatment outcome, and that the method has acceptable testmetric characteristics in terms of sufficient reliability and validity values. Furthermore, the LISTE method is convenient for interviewing the therapist, parents and patients, it is neither expensive nor time consuming, and is compatible with clinical routine. The method requires little training and involves little additional effort. It can be used for face-to-face interviews or telephone interviews, and can also be applied as a paper-and-pencil test. Issues of application and the need for further studies are discussed. PMID:11794556

  19. Therapeutic Assessment with children: a pilot study of treatment acceptability and outcome.

    PubMed

    Tharinger, Deborah J; Finn, Stephen E; Gentry, Lauren; Hamilton, Amy; Fowler, Johnathan; Matson, May; Krumholz, Lauren; Walkowiak, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    Therapeutic Assessment (TA) with children is a hybrid of psychological assessment and short-term intervention. It uses the ongoing process and results of psychological assessment to enhance parents' understanding of their child and to facilitate change. Clinical reports and single case studies suggest that TA with children is an acceptable and effective brief intervention. However, no aggregate data have been published to support this claim. This pilot study investigated the acceptability and preoutcome-postoutcome of TA with 14 clinically referred children with emotional and behavior problems and their parents. Results indicated high treatment acceptability as well as significantly decreased child symptomatology and enhanced family functioning as reported by children and mothers. In addition, mothers demonstrated a significant increase in positive emotion and a significant decrease in negative emotion pertaining to their children's challenges and future. The findings, although limited due to the design and small sample size, support assertions from published single case studies that TA is possibly an efficacious child and family intervention for children with emotional and behavioral problems and should be studied in a larger, comparison design. PMID:19365764

  20. Occupational Physical Activities and Long-Term Functional and Radiographic Outcomes in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael M.; Reveille, John D.; Learch, Thomas J.; Davis, John C.; Weisman, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify specific occupational activities associated with functional limitations and radiographic damage in patients with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods We asked patients diagnosed with AS for ?20 years to report all past occupations, which we mapped to specific physical activities using the Occupational Information Network, which is the US Department of Labor job classification database. For each occupation reported, we obtained ratings for 13 physical abilities of the worker and 13 aspects of the work environment or work tasks (work context) thought to be most relevant to patients with AS. Averages for each measure, weighted by the number of years in each job, were related to the degree of functional limitation as assessed by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and to the extent of spinal radiographic damage as assessed by the Bath AS Radiology Index for the spine (BASRI-s). Results Among 397 patients, those with a history of jobs requiring dynamic flexibility (the ability to repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach) had more functional limitations than those whose past jobs required little or no dynamic flexibility (adjusted mean BASFI score 48.3 in the top quartile versus 38.1 in all others). Those whose past jobs required more dynamic flexibility, extent flexibility, and exposure to whole body vibration also had significantly higher BASRI-s scores. Conclusion Bending, twisting, and stretching are the occupational activities associated with greater functional limitations and radiographic damage in patients with longstanding AS. Exposure to whole body vibration was also associated with more radiographic damage. PMID:18512723

  1. [Long-term functional outcomes of digital ischemia under tourniquet: observations in three cases].

    PubMed

    Mallard, F; Saint-Cast, Y; Richou, J; Le Nen, D

    2012-12-01

    Digital tourniquet is a quick, simple and reliable method to ensure a bloodless operative field distal to the MP joint. However, a forgotten tourniquet is an exceptional but serious complication related to digital ischemia. Few cases were reported in literature without a long-term outcome. Three digits of three patients, aged 70, 49 and 14 at the time of accident, had a tourniquet left in place for 2 days for the first two and 6 days for the last one. Final assessment was carried out 3, 4 and 16 years respectively after the initial accident. All fingers survived with sequelae such as pain, cold intolerance, dysesthesia, allodynia, joint stiffness and skin and nail trophic disorders. A hypertrophic scar was still visible at the site of the tourniquet. Capillary pulse was normal in all cases. Radiological changes were visible when the tourniquet had been left for more than 2 days. The impact on professional and day life activities was considerable. No surgery for the sequelae was done. Avoiding a missed finger tourniquet requires a suitable tourniquet with a visual reminder and its removal must be considered a crucial part of the surgery. PMID:23182185

  2. Treatment and functional outcome of patients with cystoid macular edema: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Taraborelli, Mara; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Airò, Paolo; Nascimbeni, Giuseppe; Tincani, Angela; Franceschini, Franco

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a single-center experience in the treatment and follow-up of cystoid macular edema patients. Clinical records of all patients with cystoid macular edema followed up in the Rheumatologic and Ophthalmological Unit of our center between 1993 and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The outcome was assessed by visual acuity and optical coherence tomography status during follow-up. Comparisons were made by Fisher's exact test (p?

  3. Self Directed Learning In Gross Human Anatomy: Assessment Outcomes and Student Perceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-08-01

    This article explains a study comparing learning outcomes between the distance education portion of a gross anatomy course versus a lecture based course. Outcomes include qualitative (questionnaires on perceptions of course) and quantitative surveys (quizzes and exams). Suggestions on how to approach teaching distance education courses is provided.

  4. Productivity in Academia: An Assessment of Causal Linkages between Output and Outcome Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Ssembatya, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate causal linkages between output and outcome indicators of productivity in academia. Design/methodology/approach: The duration of teaching service and the number of graduate students supervised to completion were adopted as output indicators of productivity. Equivalent outcome indicators were the…

  5. Sources of Bias in Outcome Assessment in Randomised Controlled Trials: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine E.; Higgins, Steve; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David J.; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2015-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can be at risk of bias. Using data from a RCT, we considered the impact of post-randomisation bias. We compared the trial primary outcome, which was administered blindly, with the secondary outcome, which was not administered blindly. From 44 schools, 522 children were randomised to receive a one-to-one maths…

  6. Evaluating Programs for At-Risk Adolescents: Toward an Outcome-Based Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Audas, Richard P.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an outcome-based model for evaluating school and community programs serving at-risk adolescents, and a cost-effective technique for comparing the progress of youth receiving an intervention with youth in a pseudocontrol group. The outcomes considered most important for success were derived from the literature pertaining to…

  7. Assessing Undergraduate Learning Outcomes between Accelerated Degree and Traditional Student Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Janita; Hammons, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated learning outcomes in both traditional and accelerated degree populations. Using the National Survey of Student Engagement, outcomes were examined relating to critical thinking, oral and written communication, and cultural and global understanding. Literature from life stage development and degree delivery mode areas were…

  8. Assessing Academic Outcomes at the United States Coast Guard Academy: The Role of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezendes, George J.; Gable, Robert K.

    This paper discusses the efforts of the Department of Mathematics at the United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) to determine the degree to which their courses support the published academic outcomes of the institution, and presents the results of a survey of student attitudes toward the academic outcomes. A survey questionnaire was developed…

  9. Defining the Attributes Expected of Graduating Veterinary Medical Students, Part 2: External Evaluation and Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Donal A.; Osburn, Bennie I.; Schumacher, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether graduates of the University of California's veterinary program were meeting 62 attributes previously determined to represent desired educational outcomes. Found positive results, along with a need to improve outcomes in private practice management, work expectations, and surgical capabilities. (EV)

  10. Multiple Measures of Outcome in Assessing a Prison-Based Drug Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…

  11. Methods of Intracanal Reinforcement in Primary Anterior Teeth–Assessing the Outcomes through a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Hind Pal; Haider, Khushtar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To assess how the various methods of intracanal reinforcement (short root canal posts) performed in their clinical and radiographic outcomes for restoring grossly broken down primary anterior teeth after pulpectomy for 1 year or longer follow-up period. Materials and methods: Literature search of electronic databases (Sept 2013) and various journals (1980-Sept 2013) using medical subject headings and free text terms was conducted. For inclusion in quality assessment, prespecified inclusion criteria were applied. Quality assessment was performed by using ‘The Cochrane collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias’. Results: Seven relevant papers were selected for full text evaluation. After applying the inclusion criteria, only two trials could be considered for quality assessment. Both of these were classified as having high risk of bias. Conclusion: The evidence to support any method of intracanal reinforcement for restoring grossly broken down anterior teeth is presently lacking. Further trials with well-defined methodology are needed. How to cite this article: Mittal N, Bhatia HP, Haider K. Methods of Intracanal Reinforcement in Primary Anterior Teeth– Assessing the Outcomes through a Systematic Literature Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):48-54.

  12. Outcome after laparoscopic enucleation for non-functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Molina, Víctor; Vallejos, Rodrigo; Jiménez Chavarria, Enrique; López-Boado, Miguel-Angel; Ferrer, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-functional endocrine pancreatic tumours (NPT) of more than 2 cm have an increased risk of malignancy. The aim of the present study was: (i) to define the guidelines for laparoscopic enucleation (LapEn) in patients with a non-functional NPT ?3 cm in diameter; (ii) to evaluate pancreas-related complications; and (iii) to present the long-term outcome. Methods Between April 1998 and September 2010, 30 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for a non-functional NPT (median age 56.5 years, range 44–83). Only 13 patients with tumours ?3 cm in size underwent LapEn. Local lymph node dissection to exclude lymph node involvement was performed in all patients. Results The median tumour size, operative time and blood loss were 2.8 cm (range 2.8–3), 130 min (range 90–280) and 220 ml (range 120–300), respectively. A pancreatic fistula occurred in five patients: International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) A in two patients and ISGPF B in three patients. The median follow-up was 48 months (12–144). Three patients with well-differentiated carcinoma are free of disease 2, 3 and 4 years after LapEn and a regional lymphadenectomy. One patient, 5 years after a LapEn, presented with lymph node and liver metastases. Conclusions The present study confirms the technical feasibility and acceptable morbidity associated with LapEn. Intra-operative lymph node sampling and frozen-section examination should be performed at the time of LapEn; when a malignancy is confirmed, oncologically appropriate lymph node dissection should be performed. PMID:22321035

  13. Pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from advanced cancer: assessment and management with bone-targeting agents.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Donald L; Cleeland, Charles S; von Moos, Roger; Fallowfield, Lesley; Wei, Rachel; Öhrling, Katarina; Qian, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Bone metastases in advanced cancer frequently cause painful complications that impair patient physical activity and negatively affect quality of life. Pain is often underreported and poorly managed in these patients. The most commonly used pain assessment instruments are visual analogue scales, a single-item measure, and the Brief Pain Inventory Questionnaire-Short Form. The World Health Organization analgesic ladder and the Analgesic Quantification Algorithm are used to evaluate analgesic use. Bone-targeting agents, such as denosumab or bisphosphonates, prevent skeletal complications (i.e., radiation to bone, pathologic fractures, surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression) and can also improve pain outcomes in patients with metastatic bone disease. We have reviewed pain outcomes and analgesic use and reported pain data from an integrated analysis of randomized controlled studies of denosumab versus the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) in patients with bone metastases from advanced solid tumors. Intravenous bisphosphonates improved pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. Compared with ZA, denosumab further prevented pain worsening and delayed the need for treatment with strong opioids. In patients with no or mild pain at baseline, denosumab reduced the risk of increasing pain severity and delayed pain worsening along with the time to increased pain interference compared with ZA, suggesting that use of denosumab (with appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation) before patients develop bone pain may improve outcomes. These data also support the use of validated pain assessments to optimize treatment and reduce the burden of pain associated with metastatic bone disease. PMID:25533578

  14. The risks and rewards of covariate adjustment in randomized trials: an assessment of 12 outcomes from 8 studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjustment for prognostic covariates can lead to increased power in the analysis of randomized trials. However, adjusted analyses are not often performed in practice. Methods We used simulation to examine the impact of covariate adjustment on 12 outcomes from 8 studies across a range of therapeutic areas. We assessed (1) how large an increase in power can be expected in practice; and (2) the impact of adjustment for covariates that are not prognostic. Results Adjustment for known prognostic covariates led to large increases in power for most outcomes. When power was set to 80% based on an unadjusted analysis, covariate adjustment led to a median increase in power to 92.6% across the 12 outcomes (range 80.6 to 99.4%). Power was increased to over 85% for 8 of 12 outcomes, and to over 95% for 5 of 12 outcomes. Conversely, the largest decrease in power from adjustment for covariates that were not prognostic was from 80% to 78.5%. Conclusions Adjustment for known prognostic covariates can lead to substantial increases in power, and should be routinely incorporated into the analysis of randomized trials. The potential benefits of adjusting for a small number of possibly prognostic covariates in trials with moderate or large sample sizes far outweigh the risks of doing so, and so should also be considered. PMID:24755011

  15. Functional Assessment and Binge Eating: A Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the process of conducting a functional assessment of a problem behavior. Reviews current research on functional assessment methods, such as direct observation and indirect assessment, and covers applications of functional assessment. Applies functional assessment to binge eating and the antecedents and consequences of binge eating…

  16. Functional assessment of long-term deficits in rodent models of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gold, Eric M; Su, Diane; López-Velázquez, Luci; Haus, Daniel L; Perez, Harvey; Lacuesta, George A; Anderson, Aileen J; Cummings, Brian J

    2013-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) ranks as the leading cause of mortality and disability in the young population worldwide. The annual US incidence of TBI in the general population is estimated at 1.7 million per year, with an estimated financial burden in excess of US$75 billion a year in the USA alone. Despite the prevalence and cost of TBI to individuals and society, no treatments have passed clinical trial to clinical implementation. The rapid expansion of stem cell research and technology offers an alternative to traditional pharmacological approaches targeting acute neuroprotection. However, preclinical testing of these approaches depends on the selection and characterization of appropriate animal models. In this article we consider the underlying pathophysiology for the focal and diffuse TBI subtypes, discuss the existing preclinical TBI models and functional outcome tasks used for assessment of injury and recovery, identify criteria particular to preclinical animal models of TBI in which stem cell therapies can be tested for safety and efficacy, and review these criteria in the context of the existing TBI literature. We suggest that 2 months post-TBI is the minimum period needed to evaluate human cell transplant efficacy and safety. Comprehensive review of the published TBI literature revealed that only 32% of rodent TBI papers evaluated functional outcome ?1 month post-TBI, and only 10% evaluated functional outcomes ?2 months post-TBI. Not all published papers that evaluated functional deficits at a minimum of 2 months post-TBI reported deficits; hence, only 8.6% of overall TBI papers captured in this review demonstrated functional deficits at 2 months or more postinjury. A 2-month survival and assessment period would allow sufficient time for differentiation and integration of human neural stem cells with the host. Critically, while trophic effects might be observed at earlier time points, it will also be important to demonstrate the sustainability of such an effect, supporting the importance of an extended period of in vivo observation. Furthermore, regulatory bodies will likely require at least 6 months survival post-transplantation for assessment of toxicology/safety, particularly in the context of assessing cell abnormalities. PMID:23826701

  17. Modified Quad surgery significantly improves the median nerve conduction and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nerve conduction studies or somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have become an important tool in the investigation of peripheral nerve lesions, and is sensitive in detecting brachial plexus nerve injury, and other nerve injuries. To investigate whether the modified Quad surgical procedure improves nerve conductivity and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury (OBPI) patients. Methods All nerves were tested with direct functional electrical stimulation. A Prass probe was used to stimulate the nerves, and recording the response, the compound motor action potential (CMAP) in the muscle. SSEP monitoring was performed pre- and post modified Quad surgery, stimulating the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist, the radial nerve over the dorsum of the hand, recording the peripheral, cervical and cortical responses. All patients have had the modified Quad surgery (n?=?19). The modified Quad surgery is a muscle release and transfer surgery with nerve decompressions. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by evaluating video recordings of standardized movements, the modified Mallet scale to index active shoulder movements. Results The cervical responses were significantly lower in amplitude in the affected arm than the un-affected arm. The median nerve conduction was significantly improved from 8.04 to 9.26 (P?

  18. Social Competence and Social Support as Mediators between Comorbid Depressive and Conduct Problems and Functional Outcomes in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockhill, Carol M.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Katon, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the roles of social competence and social support as potential mediators of the association between psychopathology and functional outcomes in a middle school sample (n = 521). Participants were stratified into four psychopathology risk groups (depression only, conduct problems only, comorbid depression and conduct problems,…

  19. Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes

  20. Minocycline Treatment Reduces Delayed Oligodendrocyte Death, Attenuates Axonal Dieback, and Improves Functional Outcome after Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Stirling; Kourosh Khodarahmi; Jie Liu; Lowell T. Mcphail; Christopher B. Mcbride; John D. Steeves; Matt S. Ramer; Wolfram Tetzlaff

    2004-01-01

    Minocycline has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the cellular consequences of minocy- cline treatment on the secondary injury response are poorly understood. We examined the ability of minocycline to reduce oligodendro- cyte apoptosis, microglial\\/macrophage activation, corticospinal tract (CST) dieback, and lesion size and to improve functional outcome after SCI. Adult rats were subjected to

  1. Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

  2. Social justice in education: how the function of selection in educational institutions predicts support for (non)egalitarian assessment practices

    PubMed Central

    Autin, Frédérique; Batruch, Anatolia; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered a keystone for the establishment of a meritocratic society. They supposedly serve two functions: an educational function that promotes learning for all, and a selection function that sorts individuals into different programs, and ultimately social positions, based on individual merit. We study how the function of selection relates to support for assessment practices known to harm vs. benefit lower status students, through the perceived justice principles underlying these practices. We study two assessment practices: normative assessment—focused on ranking and social comparison, known to hinder the success of lower status students—and formative assessment—focused on learning and improvement, known to benefit lower status students. Normative assessment is usually perceived as relying on an equity principle, with rewards being allocated based on merit and should thus appear as positively associated with the function of selection. Formative assessment is usually perceived as relying on corrective justice that aims to ensure equality of outcomes by considering students’ needs, which makes it less suitable for the function of selection. A questionnaire measuring these constructs was administered to university students. Results showed that believing that education is intended to select the best students positively predicts support for normative assessment, through increased perception of its reliance on equity, and negatively predicts support for formative assessment, through reduced perception of its ability to establish corrective justice. This study suggests that the belief in the function of selection as inherent to educational institutions can contribute to the reproduction of social inequalities by preventing change from assessment practices known to disadvantage lower-status student, namely normative assessment, to more favorable practices, namely formative assessment, and by promoting matching beliefs in justice principles.

  3. Tamoxifen attenuates inflammatory-mediated damage and improves functional outcome after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dai-Shi; Liu, Jun-Li; Xie, Min-Jie; Zhan, Yan; Qu, Wen-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Yuan; Tang, Zhou-Ping; Pan, Deng-Ji; Wang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    Tamoxifen has been found to be neuroprotective in both transient and permanent experimental ischemic stroke. However, it remains unknown whether this agent shows a similar beneficial effect after spinal cord injury (SCI), and what are its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in attenuating SCI-induced pathology. Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, tissue edema formation, microglial activation, neuronal cell death and myelin loss were determined in rats subjected to spinal cord contusion. The results showed that tamoxifen, administered at 30 min post-injury, significantly decreased interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) production induced by microglial activation, alleviated the amount of Evans blue leakage and edema formation. In addition, tamoxifen treatment clearly reduced the number of apoptotic neurons post-SCI. The myelin loss and the increase in production of myelin-associated axonal growth inhibitors were also found to be significantly attenuated at day 3 post-injury. Furthermore, rats treated with tamoxifen scored much higher on the locomotor rating scale after SCI than did vehicle-treated rats, suggesting improved functional outcome after SCI. Together, these results demonstrate that tamoxifen provides neuroprotective effects for treatment of SCI-related pathology and disability, and is therefore a potential neuroprotectant for human spinal cord injury therapy. PMID:19457130

  4. [Oncologic and functional outcomes after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Drouin, S-J; Vaessen, C; Misraï, V; Ferhi, K; Bitker, M-O; Chartier-Kastler, E; Haertig, A; Richard, F; Rouprêt, M

    2009-03-01

    The current gold standard treatment for localized prostate cancer remains open radical prostatectomy. From 1992, several teams have tried to explore less invasive surgical access. The first robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) case was reported in 2000. Enhancement of the ergonomics and optimization of the surgical vision provided by the robotic interface, are some reasons that explain the worldwide widespread of RALP. Although this procedure accounted for the vast majority of radical prostatectomies performed in United States, its diffusion is still limited in Europe. The cost for robot purchase and maintenance are obvious limiting factors for its expansion. According to the literature, the operating time and the blood loss are, once the learning curve is completed, similar to those of open or laparoscopic procedures. Hospital stay and time before bladder catheter removal are shorter compared to other approaches. Intermediate oncological and functional outcomes do not show difference with the open or laparoscopic results. Given that these data are encouraging, the limited follow-up with RALP do not allow to draw any definitive statement in comparison with conventional techniques. PMID:19268252

  5. Postnatal Weight Gain Modifies Severity and Functional Outcome of Oxygen-Induced Proliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R.; Krah, Nathan M.; Dennison, Roberta J.; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D.; Smith, Lois E.H.

    2010-01-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r2 = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome. PMID:21056995

  6. Do educational outcomes correspond with the requirements of nursing practice: educators' and managers' assessments of novice nurses' professional competence

    PubMed Central

    Numminen, Olivia; Laine, Tuija; Isoaho, Hannu; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Meretoja, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated weather educational outcomes of nurse education meet the requirements of nursing practice by exploring the correspondence between nurse educators' and nurse managers' assessments of novice nurses' professional competence. The purpose was to find competence areas contributing to the acknowledged practice–theory gap. Design A cross-sectional, comparative design using the Nurse Competence Scale was applied. Subjects The sample comprised nurse educators (n = 86) and nurse managers (n = 141). Methods Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis. Main outcome measures Educators assessed novice nurses' competence to a significantly higher level than managers in all competence areas (p < 0.001). The biggest correspondence between educators' and mangers' assessments were in competencies related to immediate patient care, commitment to ethical values, maintaining professional skills and nurses' care of the self. The biggest differences were in competencies related to developmental and evaluation tasks, coaching activities, use of evidence-based knowledge and in activities which required mastering a comprehensive view of care situations. However, differences between educators' and managers' assessments were strongly associated with their age and work experience. Active and improved collaboration should be focused on areas in which the differences between educators' and managers' assessments greatly differ in ensuring novice nurses? fitness for practice. PMID:24512685

  7. Towards a standardized Rapid Ecosystem Function Assessment (REFA).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sebastian T; Koch, Christiane; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-07-01

    Quantifying ecosystem functioning is important for both fundamental and applied ecological research. However, there is currently a gap between the data available and the data needed to address topical questions, such as the drivers of functioning in different ecosystems under global change or the best management to sustain provisioning of ecosystem functions and services. Here, we identify a set of important functions and propose a Rapid Ecosystem Function Assessment (REFA). The proposed methods were specifically selected to be low-tech, easy to use, repeatable, and cost efficient. Thus, REFA enables standardized and comparable measurements of proxies for these functions that can be used at a large scale within and across studies. Adopting REFA can help to close the identified ecosystem functioning data gap. PMID:25997592

  8. Intervention History of Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism and Optimal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Orinstein, Alyssa J.; Helt, Molly; Troyb, Eva; Tyson, Katherine E.; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were once considered lifelong disorders, but recent findings indicate that some children with ASDs no longer meet diagnostic criteria for any ASD and reach normal cognitive function. These children are considered to have achieved ‘optimal outcomes’ (OO). The present study aimed to retrospectively examine group differences in the intervention history of children and adolescents with OO and those with high-functioning autism (HFA) Method The current study examined intervention histories in 34 individuals with OO and 44 individuals with HFA (currently ages 8-21), who did not differ on age, sex, nonverbal IQ or family income. Intervention history was collected through detailed parent questionnaires. Results Children in the OO group had earlier parent concern, received earlier referrals to specialists, and earlier and more intensive intervention than those in the HFA group. Substantially more OO children received Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy than HFA children, although the intensity of ABA did not vary between groups. Children in the HFA group were more likely to have received medication, especially anti-psychotics and anti-depressants. There were no group differences in the percent of children receiving special diets or supplements. Conclusion These data suggest that OO individuals generally receive earlier, more intense interventions and more ABA, while HFA individuals receive more pharmacologic treatments. While the use of retrospective data is a clear limitation to the current study, the substantial differences in reported provision of early intervention, and ABA in particular, are highly suggestive and should be replicated in prospective studies. PMID:24799263

  9. Functional Outcome of Distal Radius Fractures Managed by Barzullah Working Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Farooq, Munir; Gani, Naseemul; Lone, Ansar Ul Haq; Shah, Adil Bashir; Latto, Irfan Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Management of distal radius fractures (DRFs) is still controversial and may be influenced by the initial fracture classification. Even though numerous classification systems have been proposed in this regard, the evaluation and management of this fracture has remained problematic. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of DRF managed on the basis of a new classification. This classification named as Barzullah Working Classification represents a modification of Melone classification, which is based on fracture stability. Patients and Methods: A total of 310 DRFs of patients skeletally matured referred to a tertiary care hospital at a period of 18 months were classified as per the new classification system into four types; metaphyseal stable, metaphyseal unstable, radiocarpal stable, and radiocarpal unstable fractures. They were managed and followed over a mean period of 15.10 ± 5.4 months, and the results were recorded at the final follow-up. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.22 ± 20.58 years. Most of the patients were females (n=189, 64.19%). The minimal follow up was 6 months with a mean of 15.10 ± 5.4 months. Mean mayo wrist scores were 95 ± 4, 80 ± 7.4, 75 ± 7.4, and 70 ± 6.9, for stable metaphyseal fractures, unstable metaphyseal radial, stable radiocarpal fractures and unstable radiocarpal fractures, respectively. The overall mean mayo wrist functional score was 80.58 ± 12.3 (good results) at final follow up. Conclusions: Various modalities of treatment used differentially in different types of DRFs based on the Barzullah Working Classification give good results in spite of conflicting literature. PMID:25798417

  10. Functional assessment and performance evaluation for assistive robotic manipulators: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Context The user interface development of assistive robotic manipulators can be traced back to the 1960s. Studies include kinematic designs, cost-efficiency, user experience involvements, and performance evaluation. This paper is to review studies conducted with clinical trials using activities of daily living (ADLs) tasks to evaluate performance categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) frameworks, in order to give the scope of current research and provide suggestions for future studies. Methods We conducted a literature search of assistive robotic manipulators from 1970 to 2012 in PubMed, Google Scholar, and University of Pittsburgh Library System – PITTCat. Results Twenty relevant studies were identified. Conclusion Studies were separated into two broad categories: user task preferences and user-interface performance measurements of commercialized and developing assistive robotic manipulators. The outcome measures and ICF codes associated with the performance evaluations are reported. Suggestions for the future studies include (1) standardized ADL tasks for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of task efficiency and performance to build comparable measures between research groups, (2) studies relevant to the tasks from user priority lists and ICF codes, and (3) appropriate clinical functional assessment tests with consideration of constraints in assistive robotic manipulator user interfaces. In addition, these outcome measures will help physicians and therapists build standardized tools while prescribing and assessing assistive robotic manipulators. PMID:23820143

  11. Quantitative MRI predicts long-term structural and functional outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riikka J. Immonen; Irina Kharatishvili; Heidi Gröhn; Asla Pitkänen; Olli H. J. Gröhn

    2009-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the initial impact causes both immediate damage and also launches a cascade of slowly progressive secondary damage. The chronic outcome disabilities vary greatly and can occur several years later. The aim of this study was to find predictive factors for the long-term outcome using multiparametric, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology and a clinically relevant

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF MIXED DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS OUTCOMES USING DESIRABILITY FUNCTIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple types of outcomes are sometimes measured on each animal in toxicology dose-response experiments, and multiple analyses may increase the overall type I error. One approach to analyzing these outcomes in an integrated way is through the use of a composite score. We int...

  13. Prenatally Detected Posterior Urethral Valves: Qualitative Assessment of Second Trimester Scans and Prediction of Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim A. R. Hutton; David F. M. Thomas; Brian W. Davies

    1997-01-01

    PurposeWe attempted to determine if the degree of second trimester dilatation and\\/or other qualitative sonographic features of the fetal urinary tract are predictive of postnatal outcome in male neonates with posterior urethral valves.

  14. Wearable accelerometry-based technology capable of assessing functional activities in neurological populations in community settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating rehabilitation services through wearable systems has the potential to accurately assess the type, intensity, duration, and quality of movement necessary for procuring key outcome measures. Objectives This review aims to explore wearable accelerometry-based technology (ABT) capable of assessing mobility-related functional activities intended for rehabilitation purposes in community settings for neurological populations. In this review, we focus on the accuracy of ABT-based methods, types of outcome measures, and the implementation of ABT in non-clinical settings for rehabilitation purposes. Data sources Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and IEEE Xplore. The search strategy covered three main areas, namely wearable technology, rehabilitation, and setting. Study selection Potentially relevant studies were categorized as systems either evaluating methods or outcome parameters. Methods Methodological qualities of studies were assessed by two customized checklists, depending on their categorization and rated independently by three blinded reviewers. Results Twelve studies involving ABT met the eligibility criteria, of which three studies were identified as having implemented ABT for rehabilitation purposes in non-clinical settings. From the twelve studies, seven studies achieved high methodological quality scores. These studies were not only capable of assessing the type, quantity, and quality measures of functional activities, but could also distinguish healthy from non-healthy subjects and/or address disease severity levels. Conclusion While many studies support ABT’s potential for telerehabilitation, few actually utilized it to assess mobility-related functional activities outside laboratory settings. To generate more appropriate outcome measures, there is a clear need to translate research findings and novel methods into practice. PMID:24625308

  15. Inter-doctor variations in the assessment of functional incapacities by insurance physicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the - largely unexplored - extent of systematic variation in the work disability assessment by Dutch insurance physicians (IPs) of employees on long-term sick leave, and to ascertain whether this variation was associated with the individual characteristics and opinions of IPs. Methods In March 2008 we conducted a survey among IPs on the basis of the 'Attitude - Social norm - self-Efficacy' (ASE) model. We used the ensuing data to form latent variables for the ASE constructs. We then linked the background variables and the measured constructs for IPs (n = 199) working at regional offices (n = 27) to the work disability assessments of clients (n = 83,755) and their characteristics. These assessments were carried out between July 2003 and April 2008. We performed multilevel regression analysis on three important assessment outcomes: No Sustainable Capacity or Restrictions for Working Hours (binominal), Functional Incapacity Score (scale 0-6) and Maximum Work Disability Class (binominal). We calculated Intra Class Correlations (ICCs) at IP level and office level and explained variances (R2) for the three outcomes. A higher ICC reflects stronger systematic variation. Results The ICCs at IP level were approximately 6% for No Sustainable Capacity or Restrictions for Working Hours and Maximum Work Disability Class and 12% for Functional Incapacity Score. Background IP variables and the measured ASE constructs for physicians contributed very little to the variation - at most 1%. The ICCs at office level ranged from 0% to around 1%. The R2 was 11% for No Sustainable Capacity or Restrictions for Working Hours, 19% for Functional Incapacity Score and 37% for Maximum Work Disability Class. Conclusion Our study uncovered small to moderate systematic variations in the outcome of disability assessments in the Netherlands. However, the individual characteristics and opinions of insurance physicians have very little impact on these variations. Our findings provided no indications of other reasons for these variations. They may be related to different work routines or to different views on the workload of a 'normal' employee. If so, they could be reduced by well-developed and comprehensively implemented guidelines. Therefore, further research is needed. PMID:22077926

  16. Intrinsic platelet reactivity before start with clopidogrel as predictor for on-clopidogrel platelet function and long-term clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Hochholzer, W; Valina, C M; Bömicke, T; Amann, M; Stratz, C; Nührenberg, T; Trenk, D; Neumann, F-J

    2015-06-30

    High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity is associated with worse clinical outcome. Previous data suggest that intrinsic platelet reactivity before initiation of clopidogrel contributes significantly to on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. It is unknown whether intrinsic reactivity can sufficiently predict on-clopidogrel reactivity and therefore identify patients with insufficient response to clopidogrel before initiation of treatment and at risk for worse clinical outcome. This analysis included 765 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Platelet reactivity was assessed by light transmission aggregometry (5 µM ADP) before administration of clopidogrel 600mg and after intake of first maintenance dose of clopidogrel on day 1 following coronary stenting. Patients were followed for up to seven years. The combined primary endpoint was death of any cause or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Intrinsic and on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity were significant correlated (r=0.31; p function. Only on-treatment platelet reactivity was predictive for long-term clinical outcome (HR 1.47, 95?% CI 1.05-2.05; p = 0.02) whereas intrinsic platelet reactivity was not (HR 1.03, 95?% CI 0.74-1.43; p = 0.86). In conclusion, intrinsic platelet reactivity before initiation of clopidogrel is the strongest predictor of early on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity but can only explain a minor proportion of its variability and is not significantly associated with clinical outcome. Thus, baseline testing cannot substitute on-clopidogrel platelet function testing. PMID:25832119

  17. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  18. Prenatal arsenic exposure and the epigenome: identifying sites of 5-methylcytosine alterations that predict functional changes in gene expression in newborn cord blood and subsequent birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Daniel; Rager, Julia E; Smeester, Lisa; Bailey, Kathryn A; Drobná, Zuzana; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Stýblo, Miroslav; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is detrimental to the health of newborns and increases the risk of disease development later in life. Here we examined a subset of newborn cord blood leukocyte samples collected from subjects enrolled in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort in Gómez Palacio, Mexico, who were exposed to a range of drinking water arsenic concentrations (0.456-236 µg/l). Changes in iAs-associated DNA 5-methylcytosine methylation were assessed across 424,935 CpG sites representing 18,761 genes and compared with corresponding mRNA expression levels and birth outcomes. In the context of arsenic exposure, a total of 2919 genes were identified with iAs-associated differences in DNA methylation. Site-specific analyses identified DNA methylation changes that were most predictive of gene expression levels where CpG methylation within CpG islands positioned within the first exon, the 5' untranslated region and 200 bp upstream of the transcription start site yielded the most significant association with gene expression levels. A set of 16 genes was identified with correlated iAs-associated changes in DNA methylation and mRNA expression and all were highly enriched for binding sites of the early growth response (EGR) and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) transcription factors. Furthermore, DNA methylation levels of 7 of these genes were associated with differences in birth outcomes including gestational age and head circumference.These data highlight the complex interplay between DNA methylation, functional changes in gene expression and health outcomes and underscore the need for functional analyses coupled to epigenetic assessments. PMID:25304211

  19. Cognitive screening improves the predictive value of stroke severity scores for functional outcome 3–6?months after mild stroke and transient ischaemic attack: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, YanHong; Slavin, Melissa Jane; Chan, Bernard Poon-Lap; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Crawford, John D; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Sachdev, Perminder; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prognostic value of the neurocognitive status measured by screening instruments, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), individually and in combination with the stroke severity scale, the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), obtained at the subacute stroke phase or the baseline (?2?weeks), for functional outcome 3–6?months later. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary stroke neurology service. Participants 400 patients with a recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) received NIHSS, MoCA and MMSE at baseline and were followed up 3–6?months later. Primary outcome measures At 3–6?months following the index event, functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Results Most patients (79.8%) had a mild ischaemic stroke and less disability (median NIHSS=2, median mRS=2 and median premorbid mRS=0), while a minority of patients had TIA (20.3%). Baseline NIHSS, MMSE and MoCA scores individually predicted mRS scores at 3–6?months, with NIHSS being the strongest predictor (NIHSS: R2 change=0.043, p<0.001). Moreover, baseline MMSE scores had a small but statistically significant incremental predictive value to the baseline NIHSS for mRS scores at 3–6?months, while baseline MoCA scores did not (MMSE: R2 changes=0.006, p=0.03; MoCA: R2 changes=0.004, p=0.083). However, in patients with more severe stroke at baseline (defined as NIHSS>2), baseline MoCA and MMSE had a significant and moderately large incremental predictive value to the baseline NIHSS for mRS scores at 3–6?months (MMSE: R2 changes=0.021, p=0.010; MoCA: R2 changes=0.017, p=0.021). Conclusions Cognitive screening at the subacute stroke phase can predict functional outcome independently and improve the predictive value of stroke severity scores for functional outcome 3–6?months later, particularly in patients with more severe stroke. PMID:24002980

  20. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: analysis of clinical outcome, left ventricular function, plasma levels of cytokines and Fas\\/APO1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Sliwa; Daniel Skudicky; Anette Bergemann; Geoffrey Candy; Adrian Puren; Pinhas Sareli

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES1) To evaluate the outcome of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPC) on current treatment for heart failure, 2) to assess the circulating plasma levels of cytokines and Fas receptors and 3) to identify predictors of prognosis.BACKGROUNDPrevious studies in patients with PPC were done when angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-adrenergic blocking agents were not routinely used in heart failure. Inflammatory