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1

A Brief Review of Molecular Techniques to Assess Plant Diversity  

PubMed Central

Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources and to ensure their sustainable use. Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have recently been used for plant diversity studies. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. These techniques differ in their resolving power to detect genetic differences, type of data they generate and their applicability to particular taxonomic levels. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species.

Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Shobrak, Mohammad

2010-01-01

2

Assessing the Changes in Bacterial Diversity in Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere of Transgenic and Non-transgenic Potato Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication deals with the study of changes in bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere under the influence of transgenic and non-transgenic potato plant. The transgenic potato plants used in this experiment synthesize fructan-soluble carbohydrate in the tuber and gives better nutritive value of different biological importance. To assess the changes in bacterial diversity, terminal restriction fragment

N. Saha; A. Ulrich; R. Becker; S. Wirth

2007-01-01

3

Evolution & Diversity in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

Pearson, Lorentz C.

1988-01-01

4

Assessment of genetic diversity in a highly valuable medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus using molecular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity was evaluated among 14 cultivars of Catharanthus roseus using RAPD and ISSR markers. The RAPD primers resulted in the amplification of 56 bands, among which 46 (82%) bands were polymorphic Four ISSR primers amplified 31 loci out of which 17 were polymorphic and 14 are monomorphic. The Jaccard's similarity derived from the combined marker system showed that the

Ranjan Kumar Shaw; Laxmikanta Acharya; Arup Kumar Mukherjee

5

Plant diversity in mediterranean-climate regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high plant diversity of mediterranean-climate regions has attracted much attention over the past few years. This review discusses patterns and determinants of local, differential and regional plant diversity in all five regions. Local diversity shows great variation within and between regions and explanations for these patterns invoke a wide range of hypotheses. Patterns of regional diversity are the result

Richard M. Cowling; Philip W. Rundel; Byron B. Lamont; Mary Kalin Arroyo; Margarita Arianoutsou

1996-01-01

6

Aquatic Plant Diversity in Eutrophic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter contains studies conducted on the impact of eutrophication on aquatic plant diversity. It covers the concept of\\u000a eutrophication, its causes and effects on plant diversity within an aquatic ecosystem. A decrease in species diversity and\\u000a disappearance of aquatic plants were noted in most of the water bodies of the world as a result of eutrophication. The plant\\u000a diversity

Abid A. Ansari; Fareed A. Khan; Sarvajeet S. Gill; Jyoti Varshney

7

Plant Diversity has "Luxury" Effect, Say Scientists  

NSF Publications Database

... overview of features such as plant diversity, soil chemistry, and animal distributions," explained ... area of surface cover; collecting samples of soils, insects, microbes and pollen; and taking photos ...

8

How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?  

PubMed

Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity. PMID:23561322

Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B; Huston, Michael A; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P; Turner, Benjamin L; Wardle, David A

2013-06-01

9

Genetic diversity within a dominant plant outweighs plant species diversity in structuring an arthropod community.  

PubMed

Plant biodiversity is being lost at a rapid rate. This has spurred much interest in elucidating the consequences of this loss for higher trophic levels. Experimental tests have shown that both plant species diversity and genetic diversity within a plant species can influence arthropod community structure. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in separate systems, so their relative importance is currently unresolved. Furthermore, potential interactions between the two levels of diversity, which likely occur in natural systems, have not been investigated. To clarify these issues, we conducted three experiments in a freshwater sand dune ecosystem. We (1) independently manipulated plant species diversity, (2) independently manipulated genetic diversity within the dominant plant species, Ammophila breviligulata, and (3) jointly manipulated genetic diversity within the dominant plant and species diversity. We found that genetic diversity within the dominant plant species, Ammophila breviligulata, more strongly influenced arthropod communities than plant species diversity, but this effect was dependent on the presence of other species. In species mixtures, A. breviligulata genetic diversity altered overall arthropod community composition, and arthropod richness and abundance peaked at the highest level of genetic diversity. Positive nonadditive effects of diversity were detected, suggesting that arthropods respond to emergent properties of diverse plant communities. However, in the independent manipulations where A. breviligulata was alone, effects of genetic diversity were weaker, with only arthropod richness responding. In contrast, plant species diversity only influenced arthropods when A. breviligulata was absent, and then only influenced herbivore abundance. In addition to showing that genetic diversity within a dominant plant species can have large effects on arthropod community composition, these results suggest that understanding how species diversity and genetic diversity interact to influence community structure may be critically important for predicting the consequences of biodiversity loss. PMID:23858643

Crawford, Kerri M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2013-05-01

10

Experimental Tests of the Dependence of Arthropod Diversity on Plant Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because a diversity of resources should support a di- versity of consumers, most models predict that increasing plant di- 1998) have found that increasing plant diversity increases versity increases animal diversity. We report results of a direct ex- arthropod herbivore diversity. However, these studies are perimental test of the dependence of animal diversity on plant confounded by changes in plant

Evan Siemann; David Tilman; John Haarstad; Mark Ritchie

1998-01-01

11

Experimental Tests of Effects of Plant Productivity and Diversity on Grassland Arthropod Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the quantity, quality, and heterogeneity of resources should affect the diversity of consumers, plant productivity, plant composition, and plant diversity may influence the diversity of trophic levels higher up the food chain (''bottom-up'' control of diversity). Increasing plant productivity may increase herbivore diversity by: increasing the abundance of rare resources (''resource rarity hypothesis''), increasing herbivore abun- dance and local

Evan Siemann

1998-01-01

12

Variation in tidal wetland plant diversity and composition within and among coastal estuaries: assessing the relative importance of environmental gradients  

EPA Science Inventory

Question: Does wetland plant composition vary more by estuarine type (differentiated by the degree of riverine versus oceanic influence) or habitat type within estuaries (defined by US National Wetlands Inventory [NWI] marsh classes)? Location: Oregon estuaries: Netarts Bay, Yaq...

13

Plant-Microbe Interactions: Chemical Diversity in Plant Defense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The chemical diversity within the plant kingdom is likely to be a consequence of niche colonization and adaptive evolution. Plant-derived natural products have important functions in defense. They also have broader ecological roles and may in addition participate in plant growth and development.

Pawel Bednarek (Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung;Department of Plant Microbe Interactions); Anne Osbourn (John Innes Centre;Department of Metabolic Biology)

2009-05-08

14

Plant Diversity of Central French Guiana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium, this "specimen database of flowering plant collections is part of a larger project designed to document the fungal and plant diversity of central French Guiana." A greater goal of the project "is to provide the fungal and plant inventories needed for understanding the evolution and ecological relationships of the fungi, plants, and animals that inhabit this, one of the last tropical wilderness areas of the world." The website provides engines for basic searches as well as detailed searches with fields for Scientific Name (e.g. Family, Genus, Species), Collector/Number, Collector Location (e.g. Country, City, Province/State, County), Type Status, Substrate, and more. Site visitors can also locate specimen records by browsing a Families list and link to more information at the Fungal and Plant Diversity of Central French Guiana Homepage.

15

Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant-plant competition.  

PubMed

There is a great interest in ecology in understanding the role of soil microbial diversity for plant productivity and coexistence. Recent research has shown increases in species richness of mutualistic soil fungi, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to be related to increases in aboveground productivity of plant communities. However, the impact of AMF richness on plant-plant interactions has not been determined. Moreover, it is unknown whether species-rich AMF communities can act as insurance to maintain productivity in a fluctuating environment (e.g., upon changing soil conditions). We tested the impact of four different AMF taxa and of AMF diversity (no AMF, single AMF taxa, and all four together) on competitive interactions between the legume Trifolium pratense and the grass Lolium multiflorum grown under two different soil conditions of low and high sand content. We hypothesized that more diverse mutualistic interactions (e.g., when four AMF taxa are present) can ease competitive effects between plants, increase plant growth, and maintain plant productivity across different soil environments. We used quantitative PCR to verify that AMF taxa inoculated at the beginning of the experiment were still present at the end. The presence of AMF reduced the competitive inequality between the two plant species by reducing the growth suppression of the legume by the grass. High AMF richness enhanced the combined biomass production of the two plant species and the yield of the legume, particularly in the more productive soil with low sand content. In the less productive (high sand content) soil, the single most effective AMF had an equally beneficial effect on plant productivity as the mixture of four AMF. Since contributions of single AMF to plant productivity varied between both soils, higher AMF richness would be required to maintain plant productivity in heterogeneous environments. Overall this work shows that AMF diversity promotes plant productivity and that AMF diversity can act as insurance to sustain plant productivity under changing environmental conditions. PMID:21797158

Wagg, Cameron; Jansa, Jan; Stadler, Marina; Schmid, Bernhard; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

2011-06-01

16

Cryoconservation of South African plant genetic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa has a rich flora which exhibits among the highest species density in the world, distributed across nine biomes\\u000a that support an impressive diversity of animal life. However, a variety of human actions, invasion by alien species, natural\\u000a disturbances and climate change collectively impact negatively on the great diversity of both plant and animal species. In situ conservation has

Patricia Berjak; Paul Bartels; Erica E. Benson; Keith Harding; David J. Mycock; Norman W. Pammenter; Sershen; James Wesley-Smith

2011-01-01

17

A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity.  

PubMed

Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscape's capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19) showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climate-driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these large-scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity. PMID:16075870

Sarr, Daniel A; Hibbs, David E; Huston, Michael A

2005-06-01

18

A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these largea??scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity.

Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D. E.; Huston, M.

2005-01-01

19

Ti: Genetic Diversity Assessment of Koompassia malaccensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic diversity study of Koompassia malaccensis based on 19 populations from 18 forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia is reported. The genetic diversity assessment was based on six polymorphic microsatellites. Overall, all the populations showed high levels of genetic diversity. The allelic richness ranged from 6.0 (Pekan) to 9.3 (Lenggor) whereas the gene diversity ranged from 0.683 (Pekan) to 0.859

C. T. Lee; S. L. Lee; Q. Z. Faridah; S. S. Siraj; K. K. S. Ng; M. Norwati

2008-01-01

20

An Inventory of Peer Assessment Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Topping published his literature review on peer assessment in 1998, the number of studies on this subject has doubled, if not tripled. However, along with this expansion, the diversity of peer assessment applications increased equally fast. Based on recent literature, this contribution focuses specifically on the diversity that has come to…

Gielen, Sarah; Dochy, Filip; Onghena, Patrick

2011-01-01

21

Genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains from China assessed by PCR-based fingerprints to unravel host plant- and site-dependent distribution patterns.  

PubMed

Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious threat to crop production in China. A collection of 319 R. solanacearum strains isolated from 14 different diseased host plants collected in 15 Chinese provinces was investigated by BOX fingerprints in order to test the influence of the site and the host plant on their genetic diversity. Phylotype, fliC-RFLP patterns and biovar were determined for all strains and the sequevar for 39 representative strains. The majority of strains belonged to the Asian phylotype I, shared identical fliC-RFLP patterns and were assigned to four biovars (bv3:123; bv4:162; bv5:3; and bv6:11). Twenty strains were phylotype II, assigned to biovar 2, and had distinct fliC-RFLP patterns. BOX-PCR fingerprints generated from the genomic DNA of each strain revealed a high diversity of the phylotype I strains, where 28 types of BOX fingerprints could be distinguished. While many BOX clusters comprised isolates from different provinces and several host plants, some groups contained isolates that were plant or site specific. All phylotype II isolates originating from 10 provinces belonged to sequevar 1 and displayed identical BOX patterns as the potato brown rot strains from various regions of the world. PMID:21204873

Xue, Qing-Yun; Yin, Yan-Ni; Yang, Wei; Heuer, Holger; Prior, Philippe; Guo, Jian-Hua; Smalla, Kornelia

2011-03-01

22

Dissecting the plant–insect diversity relationship in the Cape  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that insect diversity in the Cape is disproportionately low, considering the unusually high plant diversity in this region. Recent studies have shown that this is not the case, but the precise mechanisms linking plant diversity and insect diversity in the Cape are still poorly understood. Here we use a dated genus-level phylogenetic tree of the Cape

?erban Proche?; Félix Forest; Ruan Veldtman; Steven L. Chown; Richard M. Cowling; Steven D. Johnson; David M. Richardson; Vincent Savolainen

2009-01-01

23

Diverse roles of strigolactones in plant development.  

PubMed

With the discovery of strigolactones as root exudate signals that trigger parasitic weed seed germination, and then as a branching inhibitor and plant hormone, the next phase of strigolactone research has quickly revealed this hormone class as a major player in optimizing plant growth and development. From the early stages of plant evolution, it seems that strigolactones were involved in enabling plants to modify growth in order to gain advantage in competition with neighboring organisms for limited resources. For example, a moss plant can alter its growth in response to strigolactones emanating from a neighbor. Within a higher plant, strigolactones appear to be involved in controlling the balance of resource distribution via strategic modification of growth and development. Most notably, higher plants that encounter phosphate deficiency increase strigolactone production, which changes root growth and promotes fungal symbiosis to enhance phosphate intake. The shoot also changes by channeling resources away from unessential leaves and branches and into the main stem and root system. This hormonal response is a key adaption that radically alters whole-plant architecture in order to optimize growth and development under diverse environmental conditions. PMID:23155045

Brewer, Philip B; Koltai, Hinanit; Beveridge, Christine A

2013-01-01

24

Patterns and regulation of mycorrhizal plant and fungal diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of mycorrhizal fungi does not follow patterns of plant diversity, and the type of mycorrhiza may regulate plant species diversity. For instance, coniferous forests of northern latitudes may have more than 1000 species of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi where only a few ectomycorrhizal plant species dominate, but there are fewer than 25 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in

Edith B. Allen; Michael F. Allen; Dot J. Helm; James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Emmanuel Rincon

1995-01-01

25

Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success  

PubMed Central

Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and species richness of pollinator communities to investigate their consequences on the reproductive success of an obligate out-crossing model plant species, Raphanus sativus. Both fruit and seed set increased with pollinator FG richness. Furthermore, seed set increased with species richness in pollinator communities composed of a single FG. However, in multiple-FG communities, highest species richness resulted in slightly reduced pollination services compared with intermediate species richness. Our analysis indicates that the presence of social bees, which showed roughly four times higher visitation rates than solitary bees or hoverflies, was an important factor contributing to the positive pollinator diversity–pollination service relationship, in particular, for fruit set. Visitation rate at different daytimes, and less so among flower heights, varied among social bees, solitary bees and hoverflies, indicating a niche complementarity among these pollinator groups. Our study demonstrates enhanced pollination services of diverse pollinator communities at the plant population level and suggests that both the niche complementarity and the presence of specific taxa in a pollinator community drive this positive relationship.

Albrecht, Matthias; Schmid, Bernhard; Hautier, Yann; Muller, Christine B.

2012-01-01

26

Assessing bacterial diversity in a seawater-processing wastewater treatment plant by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and amoA genes.  

PubMed

The bacterial community composition of activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (Almería, Spain) with the particularity of using seawater was investigated by applying 454-pyrosequencing. The results showed that Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant retrieved sequences, while other groups, such as Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Deferribacteres, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes and Verrumicrobia were reported at lower proportions. Rarefaction analysis showed that very likely the diversity is higher than what could be described despite most of the unknown microorganisms probably correspond to rare diversity. Furthermore, the majority of taxa could not be classified at the genus level and likely represent novel members of these groups. Additionally, the nitrifiers in the sludge were characterized by pyrosequencing the amoA gene. In contrast, the nitrifying bacterial community, dominated by the genera Nitrosomonas, showed a low diversity and rarefaction curves exhibited saturation. These results suggest that only a few populations of low abundant but specialized bacteria are responsible for removal of ammonia in these saline wastewater systems. PMID:23574645

Sánchez, Olga; Ferrera, Isabel; González, Jose M; Mas, Jordi

2013-07-01

27

Assessing Nutritional Diversity of Cropping Systems in African Villages  

PubMed Central

Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Methods and Findings Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. Conclusion This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for future research are suggested calling for integration of agriculture, ecology, nutrition, and socio-economics.

DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A.

2011-01-01

28

PLANT DIVERSITY OF WESTERN CHITWAN FLORISTIC APPROACH  

PubMed Central

This paper identifies and documents the plant biodiversity of western Chitwan, Nepal. Specifically, our attention was focussed on the plants of forests, grasslands and common lands based on our “Reciprocal Relation of Population and Environment Study Project” conducted during January-April 1996. This species-diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous flora was recorded from 117, 117, and 1049 sampling quadrats of 10×10, 3×3 and 1×1 m2, respectively. The flora of our study plots contains 236 species that belong to 191 genera and 66 families. Of 236 species of plants, 119, 113, 59, 35 and 119 species were recorded from Tikauli forest, National Park forest, forests along the Narayani river, grasslands of National Park and common lands of the western Chitwan, respectively. Dicotyledons represent 184 (77.97%) species of the total flora species followed by monocotyledons (46 spp., 19.49%) and ferns (6 spp., 2.54%), respectively. The five largest families are Leguminosae (38 spp.), Poaceae (27 spp.), Asteraceae (22 spp.), Rubiaceae (10 spp.), and Scrophulariaceae (9 spp.). Hedyotis, Grewia and Lindernia, each with 4 spp., are the most speciose genera in the flora.

Dangol, D. R.; Shivakoti, G. P.

2012-01-01

29

Environmental correlates of plant diversity in Korean temperate forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountainous areas of the Korean Peninsula are among the biodiversity hotspots of the world's temperate forests. Understanding patterns in spatial distribution of their species richness requires explicit consideration of different environmental drivers and their effects on functionally differing components. In this study, we assess the impact of both geographical and soil variables on the fine-scale (400 m2) pattern of plant diversity using field data from six national parks, spanning a 1300 m altitudinal gradient. Species richness and the slopes of species-area curves were calculated separately for the tree, shrub and herb layer and used as response variables in regression tree analyses. A cluster analysis distinguished three dominant forest communities with specific patterns in the diversity-environment relationship. The most widespread middle-altitude oak forests had the highest tree richness but the lowest richness of herbaceous plants due to a dense bamboo understory. Total richness was positively associated with soil reaction and negatively associated with soluble phosphorus and solar radiation (site dryness). Tree richness was associated mainly with soil factors, although trees are frequently assumed to be controlled mainly by factors with large-scale impact. A U-shaped relationship was found between herbaceous plant richness and altitude, caused by a distribution pattern of dwarf bamboo in understory. No correlation between the degree of canopy openness and herb layer richness was detected. Slopes of the species-area curves indicated the various origins of forest communities. Variable diversity-environment responses in different layers and communities reinforce the necessity of context-dependent differentiation for the assessment of impacts of climate and land-use changes in these diverse but intensively exploited regions.

?erný, Tomáš; Doležal, Ji?í; Jane?ek, Št?pán; Šr?tek, Miroslav; Valachovi?, Milan; Pet?ík, Petr; Altman, Jan; Bartoš, Michael; Song, Jong-Suk

2013-02-01

30

Plant genotypic diversity and environmental stress interact to negatively affect arthropod community diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have found positive relationships between plant diversity and arthropod communities, but the interactive effects\\u000a of plant genetic diversity and environmental stress on arthropods are not well documented. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the consequences of plant genotypic diversity, watering treatment, and its interaction for the ground-dwelling arthropod community\\u000a in an experimental common garden of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides

Megan K. Kanaga; Leigh C. Latta; Karen E. Mock; Ronald J. Ryel; Richard L. Lindroth; Michael E. Pfrender

2009-01-01

31

Pathogens promote plant diversity through a compensatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens are thought to promote diversity in plant communities by preventing competitive exclusion. Previous studies have focussed primarily on single-plant, single- pathogen interactions, yet the interactions between multiple pathogens and multiple hosts may have non-additive impacts on plant community composition. Here, we report that both a bacterial and a fungal pathogen maintained the diversity of a four-species plant community across

Devon J. Bradley; Gregory S. Gilbert; Jennifer B. H. Martiny

2008-01-01

32

Drivers of carabid functional diversity: abiotic environment, plant functional traits, or plant functional diversity?  

PubMed

Understanding how community assembly is controlled by the balance of abiotic drivers (environment or management) and biotic drivers (community composition of other groups) is important in predicting the response of ecosystems to environmental change. If there are strong links between plant assemblage structure and carabid beetle functional traits and functional diversity, then it is possible to predict the impact of environmental change propagating through different functional and trophic groups. Vegetation and pitfall trap beetle surveys were carried out across twenty four sites contrasting in land use, and hence productivity and disturbance regime. Plant functional traits were very successful at explaining the distribution of carabid functional traits across the habitats studied. Key carabid response traits appeared to be body length and wing type. Carabid functional richness was significantly smaller than expected, indicating strong environmental filtering, modulated by management, soil characteristics, and by plant response traits. Carabid functional divergence was negatively related to plant functional evenness, while carabid functional evenness was positively correlated to plant functional evenness and richness. The study shows that there are clear trait linkages between the plant and the carabid assemblage that act not only through the mean traits displayed, but also via their distribution in trait space; powerful evidence that both the mean and variance of traits in one trophic group structure the assemblage of another. PMID:25000753

Pakeman, Robin J; Stockan, Jenni A

2014-05-01

33

Diversity of Paenibacillus polymyxa strains isolated from the rhizosphere of maize planted in Cerrado soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paenibacillus polymyxa populations present in the rhizosphere of maize (cultivar BR-201) planted in Cerrado soil were investigated in order to assess their diversity at four stages of plant growth. A total of 67 strains were isolated and all strains were identified as P. polymyxa by classical biochemical tests, API 50CH tests and a set of species-specific primers based on the

Irene von der Weid; Edilson Paiva; Alberto Nóbrega; Jan Dirk van Elsas; Lucy Seldin

2000-01-01

34

Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity. Volume 2. Contract Papers. Part A: Plant Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant technologies (Status and trends of wild plants, Status and trends of agricultural crop species, Diversity and distribution of wild plants, New technologies and the enhancement of plant germ plasm diversity, Plant germplasm storage technologies, Tech...

1986-01-01

35

Genetic diversity assessment of summer squash landraces using molecular markers.  

PubMed

Plant identification, classification, and genotyping within a germplasm collection are essential elements for establishing a breeding program that enhances the probability of plants with desirable characteristics in the market place. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a molecular tool to assess the diversity and relationship among 20 summer squash (Curcubita pepo L.) landraces traditionally used to treat hypertension and prostate hyperplasia. A total of 10 RAPD primers produced 65 reproducible bands of which 46 (70.77 %) were polymorphic, indicating a large number of genotypes within the summer squash lines. Cluster analysis divided the summer squash germplasm into two groups, one including one landrace and a second containing 19 landraces that could be divided into five sub-groups. Results of this study indicate the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and assessment of genetic variations among squash landraces and provide a number of choices for developing a successful breeding program to improve summer squash. PMID:23666102

Mady, Emad A; Helaly, Alaa Al-Din; Abu El-Hamd, Abdel Naem; Abdou, Arafa; Shanan, Shamel A; Craker, Lyle E

2013-07-01

36

Pathogens and insect herbivores drive rainforest plant diversity and composition.  

PubMed

Tropical forests are important reservoirs of biodiversity, but the processes that maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. The Janzen-Connell hypothesis suggests that specialized natural enemies such as insect herbivores and fungal pathogens maintain high diversity by elevating mortality when plant species occur at high density (negative density dependence; NDD). NDD has been detected widely in tropical forests, but the prediction that NDD caused by insects and pathogens has a community-wide role in maintaining tropical plant diversity remains untested. We show experimentally that changes in plant diversity and species composition are caused by fungal pathogens and insect herbivores. Effective plant species richness increased across the seed-to-seedling transition, corresponding to large changes in species composition. Treating seeds and young seedlings with fungicides significantly reduced the diversity of the seedling assemblage, consistent with the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Although suppressing insect herbivores using insecticides did not alter species diversity, it greatly increased seedling recruitment and caused a marked shift in seedling species composition. Overall, seedling recruitment was significantly reduced at high conspecific seed densities and this NDD was greatest for the species that were most abundant as seeds. Suppressing fungi reduced the negative effects of density on recruitment, confirming that the diversity-enhancing effect of fungi is mediated by NDD. Our study provides an overall test of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis and demonstrates the crucial role that insects and pathogens have both in structuring tropical plant communities and in maintaining their remarkable diversity. PMID:24463522

Bagchi, Robert; Gallery, Rachel E; Gripenberg, Sofia; Gurr, Sarah J; Narayan, Lakshmi; Addis, Claire E; Freckleton, Robert P; Lewis, Owen T

2014-02-01

37

Plant diversity and arthropod communities: Implications for temperate agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyculture in crop agroecosystems has been examined in numerous studies with the aim of reducing pest populations by increasing\\u000a diversity among insect populations over those found in traditional monoculture. Resource concentration and enemies hypotheses\\u000a predict decreased pest populations in more diverse plant communities. Although results have been mixed, insect diversity has\\u000a been generally increased in polyculture over traditional monoculture. Maintaining

W. T. Stamps; M. J. Linit

1997-01-01

38

Management intensity and topography determined plant diversity in vineyards.  

PubMed

Vineyards are amongst the most intensive forms of agriculture often resulting in simplified landscapes where semi-natural vegetation is restricted to small scattered patches. However, a tendency toward a more sustainable management is stimulating research on biodiversity in these poorly investigated agro-ecosystems. The main aim of this study was to test the effect on plant diversity of management intensity and topography in vineyards located in a homogenous intensive hilly landscape. Specifically, this study evaluated the role of slope, mowing and herbicide treatments frequency, and nitrogen supply in shaping plant diversity and composition of life-history traits. The study was carried out in 25 vineyards located in the area of the Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG (Veneto, NE Italy). In each vineyard, 10 plots were placed and the abundance of all vascular plants was recorded in each plot. Linear multiple regression was used to test the effect of management and topography on plant diversity. Management intensity and topography were both relevant drivers of plant species diversity patterns in our vineyards. The two most important factors were slope and mowing frequency that respectively yielded positive and negative effects on plant diversity. A significant interaction between these two factors was also demonstrated, warning against the detrimental effects of increasing mowing intensity on steep slope where plant communities are more diverse. The response of plant communities to mowing frequency is mediated by a process of selection of resistant growth forms, such in the case of rosulate and reptant species. The other two management-related factors tested in this study, number of herbicide treatments and N fertilization, were less influential. In general, our study corroborates the idea that some simple changes in farming activities, which are compatible with grape production, should be encouraged for improving the natural and cultural value of the landscape by maintaining and improving wild plant diversity. PMID:24098435

Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Ivan, Diego; Zottini, Michela

2013-01-01

39

Detection and Diversity Assessment of Xylella fastidiosa in Field-Collected Plant and Insect Samples by Using 16S rRNA and gyrB Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causal agent of diseases in many economically important plants is attributed to the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The detection of this plant pathogen has been hampered due to its difficult isolation and slow growth on plates. Nearly complete nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and partial sequences of the gyrB gene were determined for 18 strains of X.

Jorge L. M. Rodrigues; M. E. Silva-Stenico; J. E. Gomes; J. R. S. Lopes; S. M. Tsai

2003-01-01

40

Detection and diversity assessment of Xylella fastidiosa in field-collected plant and insect samples by using 16S rRNA and gyrB sequences.  

PubMed

The causal agent of diseases in many economically important plants is attributed to the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The detection of this plant pathogen has been hampered due to its difficult isolation and slow growth on plates. Nearly complete nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and partial sequences of the gyrB gene were determined for 18 strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from different plant hosts. A phylogenetic analysis, based on gyrB, grouped strains in three clusters; grape-isolated strains formed one cluster, citrus-coffee strains formed another cluster, and a third cluster resulted from all other strains. Primer pairs designed for the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were extensively searched in databases to verify their in silico specificity. Primer pairs were certified with 30 target and 36 nontarget pure cultures of microorganisms, confirming 100% specificity. A multiplex PCR protocol was developed and its sensitivity tested. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed the validity of the multiplex PCR. Xylella fastidiosa was detected in field-collected plants, disease vector insects, and nonsymptomatic but infected plants. Specific detection of X. fastidiosa may facilitate the understanding of its ecological significance and prevention of spread of the disease. PMID:12839807

Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Silva-Stenico, M E; Gomes, J E; Lopes, J R S; Tsai, S M

2003-07-01

41

Potential vulnerability of Namaqualand plant diversity to anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a position paper, using a brief literature review and some new modelling results for a subset of succulent plant species, which explores why Namaqualand plant diversity might be particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change despite presumed species resilience under arid conditions, and therefore a globally important test-bed for adaptive conservation strategies. The Pleistocene climate-related evolutionary history of this

G. F. Midgley; W. Thuiller

2007-01-01

42

High plant diversity in Eocene South America: Evidence from Patagonia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tropical South America has the highest plant diversity of any region today, but this richness is usually characterized as a geologically recent development (Neogene or Pleistocene). From caldera-lake beds exposed at Laguna del Hunco in Patagonia, Argentina, paleolatitude ???47??S, we report 102 leaf species. Radioisotopic and paleomagnetic analyses indicate that the flora was deposited 52 million years ago, the time of the early Eocene climatic optimum, when tropical plant taxa and warm, equable climates reached middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Adjusted for sample size, observed richness exceeds that of any other Eocene leaf flora, supporting an ancient history of high plant diversity in warm areas of South America.

Wilf, P.; Cuneo, N. R.; Johnson, K. R.; Hicks, J. F.; Wing, S. L.; Obradovich, J. D.

2003-01-01

43

Invasion of an intact plant community: the role of population versus community level diversity.  

PubMed

To improve the understanding of how native plant diversity influences invasion, we examined how population and community diversity may directly and indirectly be related to invasion in a natural field setting. Due to the large impact of the dominant C(4) grass species (Andropogon gerardii) on invasion resistance of tallgrass prairie, we hypothesized that genetic diversity and associated traits within a population of this species would be more strongly related to invasion than diversity or traits of the rest of the community. We added seeds of the exotic invasive C(4) grass, A. bladhii, to 1-m(2) plots in intact tallgrass prairie that varied in genetic diversity of A. gerardii and plant community diversity, but not species richness. We assessed relationships among genetic diversity and traits of A. gerardii, community diversity, community aggregated traits, resource availability, and early season establishment and late-season persistence of the invader using structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM models suggested that community diversity likely enhanced invasion indirectly through increasing community aggregated specific leaf area as a consequence of more favorable microclimatic conditions for seedling establishment. In contrast, neither population nor community diversity was directly or indirectly related to late season survival of invasive seedlings. Our research suggests that while much of diversity-invasion research has separately focused on the direct effects of genetic and species diversity, when taken together, we find that the role of both levels of diversity on invasion resistance may be more complex, whereby effects of diversity may be primarily indirect via traits and vary depending on the stage of invasion. PMID:22015570

Chang, Cynthia C; Smith, Melinda D

2012-04-01

44

Diversity reduces invasibility in experimental plant communities: the role of plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have presented experimental evidence that diversity reduces invasibility in grassland communities. The interpretation of these results has been disputed recently and it was proposed that sampling effects were responsible for the observed decrease of invasibility with diversity. The experiments performed to date were not designed to adequately separate sampling from diversity effects. Using the establishment of native plant

Jasper van Ruijven; Gerlinde B. De Deyn; Frank Berendse

2003-01-01

45

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach emp...

A. S. Loebl G. T. Mays K. Korsah M. S. Cetiner R. Belles R. T. Wood

2010-01-01

46

Influence of plant diversity and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on belowground bacterial diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in aboveground plant species diversity as well as variations of environmental conditions such as exposure of ecosystems to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide may lead to changes in metabolic activity, composition and diversity of belowground microbial communities, both bacterial and fungal. Results We examined soil samples taken from a biodiversity × CO2 grassland experiment where replicate plots harboring 5, 12, or 31 different plant species had been exposed to ambient or elevated (600 ppm) levels of carbon dioxide for 5 years. Analysis of soil bacterial communities in these plots by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) showed that dominant soil bacterial populations varied only very little between different experimental treatments. These populations seem to be ubiquitous. Likewise, screening of samples on a high-resolution level by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that increased levels of carbon dioxide had no significant influence on both soil bacterial community composition (appearance and frequency of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) and on bacterial richness (total number of different OTUs). In contrast, differences in plant diversity levels had a significant effect on bacterial composition but no influence on bacterial richness. Regarding species level, several bacterial species were found only in specific plots and were related to elevated carbon dioxide or varying plant diversity levels. For example, analysis of T-RFLP showed that the occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium was significantly increased in plots exposed to elevated CO2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion Plant diversity levels are affecting bacterial composition (bacterial types and their frequency of occurrence). Elevated carbon dioxide does not lead to quantitative alteration (bacterial richness), whereas plant diversity is responsible for qualitative changes (bacterial diversity).

Gruter, Dominique; Schmid, Bernhard; Brandl, Helmut

2006-01-01

47

Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

1980-01-01

48

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same technology, and (3) different architectures within the same technology. Using this convention, the first diversity usage family, designated Strategy A, is characterized by fundamentally diverse technologies. Strategy A at the system or platform level is illustrated by the example of analog and digital implementations. The second diversity usage family, designated Strategy B, is achieved through the use of distinctly different technologies. Strategy B can be described in terms of different digital technologies, such as the distinct approaches represented by general-purpose microprocessors and field-programmable gate arrays. The third diversity usage family, designated Strategy C, involves the use of variations within a technology. An example of Strategy C involves different digital architectures within the same technology, such as that provided by different microprocessors (e.g., Pentium and Power PC). The grouping of diversity criteria combinations according to Strategies A, B, and C establishes baseline diversity usage and facilitates a systematic organization of strategic approaches for coping with CCF vulnerabilities. Effectively, these baseline sets of diversity criteria constitute appropriate CCF mitigating strategies for digital safety systems. The strategies represent guidance on acceptable diversity usage and can be applied directly to ensure that CCF vulnerabilities identified through a D3 assessment have been adequately resolved. Additionally, a framework has been generated for capturing practices regarding diversity usage and a tool has been developed for the systematic assessment of the comparative effect of proposed diversity strategies (see Appendix A).

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2010-02-01

49

Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral colouration is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the colouration of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and composition of flower colours in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower colours as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral colour diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower colour diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower colours of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing colour characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower colour traits. PMID:23568710

Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-10-01

50

A simple plant mutation abets a predator-diversity cascade.  

PubMed

Resource consumption often increases with greater consumer biodiversity. This could result either from complementarity among consumers or the inclusion of particular key species, and it is often difficult to differentiate between these two mechanisms. We exploited a simple plant mutation (reduced production of surface waxes) to alter foraging within a community of aphid predators, and thus perhaps shift the nature of resulting predator diversity effects. We found that greater predator species richness dramatically increased prey suppression and plant biomass only on mutant, reduced-wax pea plants (Pisum sativum). On pea plants from a sister line with wild type, waxier plant surfaces, predator species richness did not influence predators' impacts on herbivores or plants. Thus, a change in plant surface structure acted to turn on, or off, the cascading effects of predator diversity. Greater predator richness encouraged higher densities of true predators but did not lead to greater reproduction by a parasitoid, Aphidius ervi; fecundity of each natural enemy species was similar for the two plant types. Behavioral observations indicated that although A. ervi was less likely to forage within species-rich predator communities, low-wax plants mitigated this interference by encouraging generally greater A. ervi foraging and thus high rates of aphid dislodgement (aphids dropped from plants to escape A. ervi, but not the other predators). Thus, only species-rich, low-wax plants simultaneously encouraged strong species-specific effects of A. ervi, and strong complementarity among the other predator species. In summary, our study provides evidence that diversity effects in predator assemblages are sensitive to habitat characteristics. Further, we show that a simple plant morphological trait, controlled by a single gene mutation, can dramatically alter the cascading effects of predator species richness on herbivores and plants. PMID:22624322

Northfield, Tobin D; Snyder, William E; Snyder, Gretchen B; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

2012-02-01

51

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

2014-01-01

52

T Plant hazards assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Broz, R.E.

1994-09-27

53

B Plant hazards assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Broz, R.E.

1994-09-23

54

Functional diversity of tocochromanols in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tocochromanols encompass a group of compounds with vitamin E activity essential for human nutrition. They accumulate in photooxidative\\u000a organisms, e.g. in some algae and in plants, where they localize to thylakoid membranes and plastoglobules of chloroplasts.\\u000a Tocochromanols contain a polar chromanol head group with a long isoprenoid side chain. Depending on the nature of the isoprenoid\\u000a chain, tocopherols (containing a

Peter Dörmann

2007-01-01

55

Mycorrhizae Influence Plant Community Structure and Diversity in Tallgrass Prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

In grassland ecosystems, symbiotic associations between plants and mycor- rhizal fungi are widespread and have important influences on the life histories, demography, and species interactions of plants, and on belowground ecosystem processes. To assess the consequences of the symbiosis at the plant community level, we conducted a 5-yr field experiment in tallgrass prairie to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal

David C. Hartnett; Gail W. T. Wilson

1999-01-01

56

PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE CAPE REGION OF SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Comprising a land area of ca. 90,000 km,, less than one twentieth (5%) the land area of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is, for its size, one of the world’s richest areas of plant species diversity. A new synoptic flora for the Region has made possible an accurate reassessment of the flora, which has an

Peter Goldblatt; John C. Manning

57

Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. Conclusions/Significance Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning.

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Bessler, Holger; Brenner, Johanna; Engels, Christof; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Partsch, Stephan; Roscher, Christiane; Schonert, Felix; Temperton, Vicky M.; Thomisch, Karolin; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Scheu, Stefan

2011-01-01

58

Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in populations of plant-probiotic Pseudomonas spp. colonizing roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several soil microorganisms colonizing roots are known to naturally promote the health of plants by controlling a range of plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. The use of theses antagonistic microorganisms, recently named plant-probiotics, to control plant-pathogenic fungi is receiving increasing attention, as they may represent a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides. Many years of research on plant-probiotic microorganisms (PPM) have indicated that fluorescent pseudomonads producing antimicrobial compounds are largely involved in the suppression of the most widespread soilborne pathogens. Phenotype and genotype analysis of plant-probiotic fluorescent pseudomonads (PFP) have shown considerable genetic variation among these types of strains. Such variability plays an important role in the rhizosphere competence and the biocontrol ability of PFP strains. Understanding the mechanisms by which genotypic and phenotypic diversity occurs in natural populations of PFP could be exploited to choose those agricultural practices which best exploit the indigenous PFP populations, or to isolate new plant-probiotic strains for using them as inoculants. A number of different methods have been used to study diversity within PFP populations. Because different resolutions of the existing microbial diversity can be revealed depending on the approach used, this review first describes the most important methods used for the assessment of fluorescent Pseudomonas diversity. Then, we focus on recent data relating how differences in genotypic and phenotypic diversity within PFP communities can be attributed to geographic location, climate, soil type, soil management regime, and interactions with other soil microorganisms and host plants. It becomes evident that plant-related parameters exert the strongest influence on the genotypic and phenotypic variations in PFP populations.

Picard, Christine; Bosco, Marco

2008-01-01

59

Arctic plant diversity in the Early Eocene greenhouse  

PubMed Central

For the majority of the Early Caenozoic, a remarkable expanse of humid, mesothermal to temperate forests spread across Northern Polar regions that now contain specialized plant and animal communities adapted to life in extreme environments. Little is known on the taxonomic diversity of Arctic floras during greenhouse periods of the Caenozoic. We show for the first time that plant richness in the globally warm Early Eocene (approx. 55–52 Myr) in the Canadian High Arctic (76° N) is comparable with that approximately 3500 km further south at mid-latitudes in the US western interior (44–47° N). Arctic Eocene pollen floras are most comparable in richness with today's forests in the southeastern United States, some 5000 km further south of the Arctic. Nearly half of the Eocene, Arctic plant taxa are endemic and the richness of pollen floras implies significant patchiness to the vegetation type and clear regional richness of angiosperms. The reduced latitudinal diversity gradient in Early Eocene North American plant species demonstrates that extreme photoperiod in the Arctic did not limit taxonomic diversity of plants.

Harrington, Guy J.; Eberle, Jaelyn; Le-Page, Ben A.; Dawson, Mary; Hutchison, J. Howard

2012-01-01

60

Functional diversity of the plant glycine-rich proteins superfamily  

PubMed Central

The first plant glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) have been isolated more than 20 years ago based on their specific expression pattern and/or modulation by several biotic and abiotic factors. This superfamily is characterized by the presence of a glycine-rich domain arranged in (Gly)n-X repeats. The presence of additional motifs, as well as the nature of the glycine repeats, groups them in different classes. The diversity in structure as well as in expression pattern, modulation and sub cellular localization have always indicated that these proteins, although classified as members of the same superfamily, would perform different functions in planta. Only now, two decades later, with the first functional characterizations of plant GRPs their involvement in diverse biological and biochemical processes are being uncovered. Here, we review the so far ascribed functions of plant GRPs.

Mangeon, Amanda; Junqueira, Ricardo Magrani

2010-01-01

61

Higher effect of plant species diversity on productivity in natural than artificial ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Current and expected changes in biodiversity have motivated major experiments, which reported a positive relationship between plant species diversity and primary production. As a first step in addressing this relationship, these manipulative experiments controlled as many potential confounding covariables as possible and assembled artificial ecosystems for the purpose of the experiments. As a new step in this endeavor, we asked how plant species richness relates to productivity in a natural ecosystem. Here, we report on an experiment conducted in a natural ecosystem in the Patagonian steppe, in which we assessed the biodiversity effect on primary production. Using a plant species diversity gradient generated by removing species while maintaining constant biomass, we found that aboveground net primary production increased with the number of plant species. We also found that the biodiversity effect was larger in natural than in artificial ecosystems. This result supports previous findings and also suggests that the effect of biodiversity in natural ecosystems may be much larger than currently thought.

Flombaum, Pedro; Sala, Osvaldo E.

2008-01-01

62

Using Plant Functional Traits to Explain Diversity-Productivity Relationships  

PubMed Central

Background The different hypotheses proposed to explain positive species richness–productivity relationships, i.e. selection effect and complementarity effect, imply that plant functional characteristics are at the core of a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity effects. Methodology/Principal Findings We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community-weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao’s quadratic diversity (FDQ) to predict biomass production and measures of biodiversity effects in experimental grasslands (Jena Experiment) with different species richness (2, 4, 8, 16 and 60) and different functional group number and composition (1 to 4; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs) four years after establishment. Functional trait composition had a larger predictive power for community biomass and measures of biodiversitity effects (40–82% of explained variation) than species richness per se (<1–13% of explained variation). CWM explained a larger amount of variation in community biomass (80%) and net biodiversity effects (70%) than FDQ (36 and 38% of explained variation respectively). FDQ explained similar proportions of variation in complementarity effects (24%, positive relationship) and selection effects (28%, negative relationship) as CWM (27% of explained variation for both complementarity and selection effects), but for all response variables the combination of CWM and FDQ led to significant model improvement compared to a separate consideration of different components of functional trait composition. Effects of FDQ were mainly attributable to diversity in nutrient acquisition and life-history strategies. The large spectrum of traits contributing to positive effects of CWM on biomass production and net biodiversity effects indicated that effects of dominant species were associated with different trait combinations. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the identification of relevant traits and the relative impacts of functional identity of dominant species and functional diversity are essential for a mechanistic understanding of the role of plant diversity for ecosystem processes such as aboveground biomass production.

Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Gubsch, Marlen; Lipowsky, Annett; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

2012-01-01

63

Bulked AFLP analysis for the assessment of genetic diversity in white clover ( Trifolium repens L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bulked leaf samples from individual plants for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated\\u000a as a tool for assessment of genetic diversity in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Bulking of leaf samples produced slightly simpler AFLP profiles compared to the combined profiles of individual plants\\u000a from the same cultivar. Approximately 90% of bands which were present

R. Kölliker; E. S. Jones; M. Z. Z. Jahufer; J. W. Forster

2001-01-01

64

Fungal Diversity Associated with Hawaiian Drosophila Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ?97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

Ort, Brian S.; Bantay, Roxanne M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O'Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

65

Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.  

PubMed

Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ?97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation. PMID:22911703

Ort, Brian S; Bantay, Roxanne M; Pantoja, Norma A; O'Grady, Patrick M

2012-01-01

66

Multifunctionality and diversity within the plant MYB-gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

MYB proteins constitute a diverse class of DNA-binding proteins of particular importance in transcriptional regulation in plants. Members are characterised by having a structurally conserved DNA-binding domain, the MYB domain. Different categories of MYB proteins can be identified depending on the number of imperfect repeats of the MYB domain they contain. It is likely that single MYB-domain proteins, a class

Hailing Jin; Cathie Martin

1999-01-01

67

Intraspecific plant chemical diversity and its relation to herbivory.  

PubMed

Several aromatic plant species are well known for their high intraspecific variation in terpene composition. Within these species, different chemotypes can be distinguished, which are characterised by one major metabolite and distinct satellite compounds in lower abundance. Such intraspecific differences in plant quality should have major effects on herbivorous insects but may also be partly shaped by their feeding activities. In the present study, the effects of selected Tanacetum vulgare L. chemotypes on herbivore presence and preferences were investigated, and the naturally occurring diversity of T. vulgare was explored at a small spatial scale. A distinct distribution pattern of aphids and miners was found on different chemotypes of different origin of T. vulgare, with species-specific preferences of different herbivorous species. Larvae of two generalist noctuid species performed worse on most chemotypes of T. vulgare than on other plant species. Furthermore, the specific terpene composition of T. vulgare influenced larval development of these two generalist species. The naturally occurring chemical diversity of T. vulgare plants in an area smaller than 3 km(2) was extremely high, exhibiting 14 different chemotypes. Several individual patches of T. vulgare consisted of more than one chemotype. In conclusion, the existing chemotypical pattern of T. vulgare plants leads to a species-specific distribution of herbivores but may in turn be the result of contrasting selection pressures of various specialist and generalist herbivores. PMID:21053017

Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

2011-05-01

68

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.  

SciTech Connect

Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

2014-01-01

69

Monitoring shifts in plant diversity in response to climate change: a method for landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved sampling designs are needed to detect, monitor, and predict plant migrations and plant diversity changes caused by climate change and other human activities. We propose a methodology based on multi-scale vegetation plots established across forest ecotones which provide baseline data on patterns of plant diversity, invasions of exotic plant species, and plant migrations at landscape scales in Rocky Mountain

Thomas J. Stohlgren; April J. Owen; Michelle Lee

2000-01-01

70

Insect community response to plant diversity and productivity in a sagebrush–steppe ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural systems, insect diversity and abundance are often positively correlated with plant diversity; however, these relationships may be obscured or complicated by other characteristics of plant communities that influence insect distributions. For example, diversity and abundance of insects may also be related to structural complexity, nutrition, or productivity of plants. In arid systems, primary production is generally enhanced by

E. J. Wenninger; R. S. Inouye

2008-01-01

71

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

PubMed

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

72

78 FR 66892 - BASF Plant Science LP; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0028] BASF Plant Science LP; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

2013-11-07

73

Assessing diversity and quality in primary care through the multimethod assessment process (MAP).  

PubMed

The U.S. health care system serves a diverse population, often resulting in significant disparities in delivery and quality of care. Nevertheless, most quality improvement efforts fail to systematically assess diversity and associated disparities. This article describes application of the multimethod assessment process (MAP) for understanding disparities in relation to diversity, cultural competence, and quality improvement in clinical practice. MAP is an innovative quality improvement methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative techniques and produces a system level understanding of organizations to guide quality improvement interventions. A demonstration project in a primary care practice illustrates the utility of MAP for assessing diversity. PMID:12938252

Kairys, Jo Ann; Orzano, John; Gregory, Patrice; Stroebel, Christine; DiCicco-Bloom, Barbara; Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Kobylarz, Fred A; Scott, John G; Coppola, Lisa; Crabtree, Benjamin F

2002-01-01

74

Risk assessment of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work is to develop recommendations for controlling the safety of nuclear power plants on the\\u000a basis of risk assessments and safety certification of nuclear power plants. The Kursk nuclear power plant is considered as\\u000a an example of a nuclear power plant with an RBMK reactor. The concept of risk assessment of a nuclear power plant

R. T. Islamov; A. A. Derevyankin; I. V. Zhukov; M. A. Berberova; I. V. Glukhov; D. R. Islamov

2011-01-01

75

Effects of different site preparation treatments on species diversity, composition, and plant traits in Pinus halepensis woodlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity maintenance is a key component of Mediterranean forest management, yet studies on the effects of silvicultural\\u000a treatments on plant diversity are scarce. Our experiment assessed the impact of five different site preparation treatments\\u000a on the composition, diversity, ecological traits (life-form, pollination mode, leaf morphology, seed dispersal mode), indicator\\u000a values (shade tolerance, nutrients demand) of the understory vegetation in a

Bernard Prévosto; Anne Bousquet-Mélou; Christian Ripert; Catherine Fernandez

2011-01-01

76

Gradual speciation in a global hotspot of plant diversity.  

PubMed

The speciation process that underlies recent, rapid radiations of plants is controversial, and suggested mechanisms range from pollinator or ecological niche differentiation to allopatry and nonadaptive divergence. Phylogenetic approaches to locating the most appropriate speciation models have been constrained by the low levels of molecular divergence between recently diverged species, which are typical of recent, rapid radiations. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rymer et al. (2010) used coalescence analyses of sequence data and genome scans of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci to demonstrate that in a species complex in the irid genus Gladiolus, a member of the hyper diverse Cape flora of southern Africa, speciation is a gradual process. Older divergences are genetically more differentiated, and show a greater difference in flowering time and floral morphology, than taxa that diverged more recently. There is no evidence of any abrupt events. Gene flow is limited by shifts in flowering time and floral morphology; thus, by pre-zygotic rather than by post-zygotic mechanisms, these evolved together with the occupation of somewhat different habitats. This research gives the first critical insight into how the remarkable diversity in a diversity hotspot could have arisen. More importantly, it demonstrates that the speciation process in recent, rapid radiations is tractable and can be investigated with suitable genetic tools. PMID:20958810

Linder, H Peter

2010-11-01

77

Diversity cascades in alfalfa fields: from plant quality to agroecosystem diversity.  

PubMed

To examine top-down and bottom-up influences on managed terrestrial communities, we manipulated plant resources and arthropod abundance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) fields. We modified arthropod communities using three nonfactorial manipulations: pitfall traps to remove selected arthropods, wooden crates to create habitat heterogeneity, and an arthropod removal treatment using a reversible leaf blower. These manipulations were crossed with fertilizer additions, which were applied to half of the plots. We found strong effects of fertilizer on plant quality and biomass, and these effects cascaded up to increase herbivore abundance and diversity. The predator community also exhibited a consistent positive effect on the maintenance of herbivore species richness and abundance. These top-down changes in arthropods did not cascade down to affect plant biomass; however, plant quality (saponin content) increased with higher herbivore densities. These results corroborate previous studies in alfalfa that show complex indirect effects, such as trophic cascades, can operate in agricultural systems, but the specifics of the interactions depend on the assemblages of arthropods involved. PMID:18801260

Pearson, Clark V; Massad, Tara J; Dyer, Lee A

2008-08-01

78

Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22

M. Atiqur Rahman; Jaber S. Mossa; Mansour S. Al-Said; Mohammed A. Al-Yahya

2004-01-01

79

Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D; Shiu, Shin-Han

2012-09-19

80

Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants.

Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

2012-01-01

81

Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…

Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

2012-01-01

82

Assessing Diversity among Latinos: Results from the NLAAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a profile of a range of important variables for assessing diversity among different Latino groups from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is a nationally representative study of the mental health needs and mental health services use of the Latino population of the United States. The NLAAS employs…

Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Alegria, Margarita; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa

2007-01-01

83

Culturally Diverse Children and Adolescents. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are offered for mental health professionals who work with economically disadvantaged children and adolescents from culturally diverse backgrounds. These guidelines describe useful theoretical constructs, suggest ways to sensitize assessments of minority children, and outline treatment strategies to obtain better clinical results. The…

Canino, Ian A.; Spurlock, Jeanne

84

Acts of Diversity: Assessing the Impact of Service-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching--and assessing learning--about diversity through service-learning is full of challenges, especially if the learning goals are affective. The teacher has no good way of knowing exactly where the starting point is for each student. The student may only know where the starting point was once he or she has moved beyond it and sees it in…

Paoletti, Jo B.; Segal, Eden; Totino, Christina

2007-01-01

85

Assessing the extent and diversity of riparian ecosystems in Sonora, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of forested riparian ecosystems is of international concern. Relatively little is known of the structure, composition,\\u000a diversity, and extent of riparian ecosystems in Mexico. We used high- and low-resolution satellite imagery from 2000 to 2006,\\u000a and ground-based sampling in 2006, to assess the spatial pattern, extent, and woody plant composition of riparian forests\\u000a across a range of spatial scales

Michael L. Scott; Pamela L. Nagler; Edward P. Glenn; Carlos Valdes-Casillas; Joseph A. Erker; Elizabeth W. Reynolds; Patrick B. Shafroth; Euduardo Gomez-Limon; Cory L. Jones

2009-01-01

86

Assessing genetic diversity of Vietnamese local chicken breeds using microsatellites.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess genetic diversity within and between nine Vietnamese local chicken breeds and two Chinese breeds included for comparison. Genotyping 29 microsatellites revealed high diversity of both Vietnamese and Chinese breeds. Cluster analysis using the STRUCTURE software suggested six clusters as the most likely grouping of the 11 breeds studied. These groups encompassed four homogeneous clusters, one formed by the two Chinese breeds and the other three representing a single breed each: the Mekong Delta breed Ac, the South Central Coast breed Choi, and the Red River Delta breed Dong Tao. The six remaining breeds formed two additional admixed clusters. PMID:20394606

Cuc, N T K; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Tieu, H V; Cuong, V C; Wollny, C B A; Groeneveld, L F; Weigend, S

2010-10-01

87

Long-term effects of sowing high or low diverse seed mixtures on plant and gastropod diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have reported that consumers affect a range of community-level processes, and in turn their diversity and abundance is influenced by the structure and diversity of the plant community. Although gastropods are important generalist herbivores in many environments, few studies have examined the effects of plant species richness and plant community structure on gastropods. This study investigated gastropod species richness and interactions with various above-ground parameters of the vegetation on an experimental field with four plant treatments: low and high diversity of sown later succession plant species, natural colonization at the start of the experiment and natural colonization after 3 years of continued agricultural practice. The investigated gastropod assemblage contained only seven species and was highly dominated by two of them. Both in pitfalls and with hand-sorting the number of species collected per plot was highest in plots with natural plant colonization. Multivariate analysis revealed that overall gastropod abundance was positively associated with plant height and percentage cover of plants, and negatively with percentage grass cover. The same pattern holds for one of the dominant species-complex ( Cochlicopa lubrica/ lubricella). The other dominant gastropod species ( Deroceras reticulatum) was more abundant in samples with higher percentages of moss cover and higher plant diversity, while less abundant at samples with higher plant cover, indicating that the gastropod species preferences may matter more than just their response to plant diversity. Two plant-gastropod species-level associations were observed: Senecio jacobaea with D. reticulatum and Tanacetum vulgare with Cochlicopa spp. The present study also demonstrated that pitfall-traps are suitable for collecting terrestrial gastropods, at least for species-poor grassland habitats.

Dedov, Ivailo; Stoyanov, Ivailo L.; Penev, Lyubomir; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bezemer, T. Martijn

2006-09-01

88

Source Assessment: Fertilizer Mixing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a study of air pollutants emitted by the mixed fertilizer industry, consisting of three types of mixing plants: ammoniation/granulation (A/G) (195 plants), bulk blend (5,640 plants), and liquid mix (2,768 plants). The potential enviro...

G. D. Rawlings R. B. Reznik

1976-01-01

89

How diverse are diversity assessment methods? A comparative analysis and benchmarking of molecular descriptor space.  

PubMed

Chemical diversity is a widely applied approach to select structurally diverse subsets of molecules, often with the objective of maximizing the number of hits in biological screening. While many methods exist in the area, few systematic comparisons using current descriptors in particular with the objective of assessing diversity in bioactivity space have been published, and this shortage is what the current study is aiming to address. In this work, 13 widely used molecular descriptors were compared, including fingerprint-based descriptors (ECFP4, FCFP4, MACCS keys), pharmacophore-based descriptors (TAT, TAD, TGT, TGD, GpiDAPH3), shape-based descriptors (rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) and principal moments of inertia (PMI)), a connectivity-matrix-based descriptor (BCUT), physicochemical-property-based descriptors (prop2D), and a more recently introduced molecular descriptor type (namely, "Bayes Affinity Fingerprints"). We assessed both the similar behavior of the descriptors in assessing the diversity of chemical libraries, and their ability to select compounds from libraries that are diverse in bioactivity space, which is a property of much practical relevance in screening library design. This is particularly evident, given that many future targets to be screened are not known in advance, but that the library should still maximize the likelihood of containing bioactive matter also for future screening campaigns. Overall, our results showed that descriptors based on atom topology (i.e., fingerprint-based descriptors and pharmacophore-based descriptors) correlate well in rank-ordering compounds, both within and between descriptor types. On the other hand, shape-based descriptors such as ROCS and PMI showed weak correlation with the other descriptors utilized in this study, demonstrating significantly different behavior. We then applied eight of the molecular descriptors compared in this study to sample a diverse subset of sample compounds (4%) from an initial population of 2587 compounds, covering the 25 largest human activity classes from ChEMBL and measured the coverage of activity classes by the subsets. Here, it was found that "Bayes Affinity Fingerprints" achieved an average coverage of 92% of activity classes. Using the descriptors ECFP4, GpiDAPH3, TGT, and random sampling, 91%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of the activity classes were represented in the selected compounds respectively, followed by BCUT, prop2D, MACCS, and PMI (in order of decreasing performance). In addition, we were able to show that there is no visible correlation between compound diversity in PMI space and in bioactivity space, despite frequent utilization of PMI plots to this end. To summarize, in this work, we assessed which descriptors select compounds with high coverage of bioactivity space, and can hence be used for diverse compound selection for biological screening. In cases where multiple descriptors are to be used for diversity selection, this work describes which descriptors behave complementarily, and can hence be used jointly to focus on different aspects of diversity in chemical space. PMID:24289493

Koutsoukas, Alexios; Paricharak, Shardul; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Glen, Robert C; Marcus, David; Bender, Andreas

2014-01-27

90

Microbial phylotype composition and diversity predicts plant productivity and plant-soil feedbacks.  

PubMed

The relationship between ecological variation and microbial genetic composition is critical to understanding microbial influence on community and ecosystem function. In glasshouse trials using nine native legume species and 40 rhizobial strains, we find that bacterial rRNA phylotype accounts for 68% of amoung isolate variability in symbiotic effectiveness and 79% of host specificity in growth response. We also find that rhizobial phylotype diversity and composition of soils collected from a geographical breadth of sites explains the growth responses of two acacia species. Positive soil microbial feedback between the two acacia hosts was largely driven by changes in diversity of rhizobia. Greater rhizobial diversity accumulated in association with the less responsive host species, Acacia salicina, and negatively affected the growth of the more responsive Acacia stenophylla. Together, this work demonstrates correspondence of phylotype with microbial function, and demonstrates that the dynamics of rhizobia on host species can feed back on plant population performance. PMID:23216788

Bever, James D; Broadhurst, Linda M; Thrall, Peter H

2013-02-01

91

Mapping the spatial distribution of plant diversity indices in a tropical forest using multi-spectral satellite image classification and field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among alpha and beta diversity indices, computed from 141 randomly sampled quadrats, and the vegetation classes obtained by multi-spectral satellite image classification, were used as a strategy for mapping plant diversity in a tropical landscape mosaic. A relatively high accuracy of the land cover map was revealed by the overall accuracy assessment and the Cohen's Kappa statistic. Species

J. Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni; Raul Ponce-Hernandez

2004-01-01

92

Biotic and abiotic properties mediating plant diversity effects on soil microbial communities in an experimental grassland.  

PubMed

Plant diversity drives changes in the soil microbial community which may result in alterations in ecosystem functions. However, the governing factors between the composition of soil microbial communities and plant diversity are not well understood. We investigated the impact of plant diversity (plant species richness and functional group richness) and plant functional group identity on soil microbial biomass and soil microbial community structure in experimental grassland ecosystems. Total microbial biomass and community structure were determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The diversity gradient covered 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species and 1, 2, 3 and 4 plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, small herbs and tall herbs). In May 2007, soil samples were taken from experimental plots and from nearby fields and meadows. Beside soil texture, plant species richness was the main driver of soil microbial biomass. Structural equation modeling revealed that the positive plant diversity effect was mainly mediated by higher leaf area index resulting in higher soil moisture in the top soil layer. The fungal-to-bacterial biomass ratio was positively affected by plant functional group richness and negatively by the presence of legumes. Bacteria were more closely related to abiotic differences caused by plant diversity, while fungi were more affected by plant-derived organic matter inputs. We found diverse plant communities promoted faster transition of soil microbial communities typical for arable land towards grassland communities. Although some mechanisms underlying the plant diversity effect on soil microorganisms could be identified, future studies have to determine plant traits shaping soil microbial community structure. We suspect differences in root traits among different plant communities, such as root turnover rates and chemical composition of root exudates, to structure soil microbial communities. PMID:24816860

Lange, Markus; Habekost, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Roscher, Christiane; Bessler, Holger; Engels, Christof; Oelmann, Yvonne; Scheu, Stefan; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Gleixner, Gerd

2014-01-01

93

Biotic and Abiotic Properties Mediating Plant Diversity Effects on Soil Microbial Communities in an Experimental Grassland  

PubMed Central

Plant diversity drives changes in the soil microbial community which may result in alterations in ecosystem functions. However, the governing factors between the composition of soil microbial communities and plant diversity are not well understood. We investigated the impact of plant diversity (plant species richness and functional group richness) and plant functional group identity on soil microbial biomass and soil microbial community structure in experimental grassland ecosystems. Total microbial biomass and community structure were determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The diversity gradient covered 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species and 1, 2, 3 and 4 plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, small herbs and tall herbs). In May 2007, soil samples were taken from experimental plots and from nearby fields and meadows. Beside soil texture, plant species richness was the main driver of soil microbial biomass. Structural equation modeling revealed that the positive plant diversity effect was mainly mediated by higher leaf area index resulting in higher soil moisture in the top soil layer. The fungal-to-bacterial biomass ratio was positively affected by plant functional group richness and negatively by the presence of legumes. Bacteria were more closely related to abiotic differences caused by plant diversity, while fungi were more affected by plant-derived organic matter inputs. We found diverse plant communities promoted faster transition of soil microbial communities typical for arable land towards grassland communities. Although some mechanisms underlying the plant diversity effect on soil microorganisms could be identified, future studies have to determine plant traits shaping soil microbial community structure. We suspect differences in root traits among different plant communities, such as root turnover rates and chemical composition of root exudates, to structure soil microbial communities.

Lange, Markus; Habekost, Maike; Eisenhauer, Nico; Roscher, Christiane; Bessler, Holger; Engels, Christof; Oelmann, Yvonne; Scheu, Stefan; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Gleixner, Gerd

2014-01-01

94

AfroDb: A Select Highly Potent and Diverse Natural Product Library from African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We assess the bioactivity and “drug-likeness” of a relatively small but structurally diverse dataset (containing >1,000 compounds) from African medicinal plants, which have been tested and proven a wide range of biological activities. The geographical regions of collection of the medicinal plants cover the entire continent of Africa, based on data from literature sources and information from traditional healers. For each isolated compound, the three dimensional (3D) structure has been used to calculate physico-chemical properties used in the prediction of oral bioavailability on the basis of Lipinski’s “Rule of Five”. A comparative analysis has been carried out with the “drug-like”, “lead-like”, and “fragment-like” subsets, as well as with the Dictionary of Natural Products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Furthermore, descriptors related to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) have been used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds within the dataset. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the African flora, could be highly promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs.

Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Zofou, Denis; Babiaka, Smith B.; Meudom, Rolande; Scharfe, Michael; Lifongo, Lydia L.; Mbah, James A.; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M. N.

2013-01-01

95

AfroDb: a select highly potent and diverse natural product library from African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We assess the bioactivity and "drug-likeness" of a relatively small but structurally diverse dataset (containing >1,000 compounds) from African medicinal plants, which have been tested and proven a wide range of biological activities. The geographical regions of collection of the medicinal plants cover the entire continent of Africa, based on data from literature sources and information from traditional healers. For each isolated compound, the three dimensional (3D) structure has been used to calculate physico-chemical properties used in the prediction of oral bioavailability on the basis of Lipinski's "Rule of Five". A comparative analysis has been carried out with the "drug-like", "lead-like", and "fragment-like" subsets, as well as with the Dictionary of Natural Products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Furthermore, descriptors related to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) have been used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds within the dataset. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the African flora, could be highly promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs. PMID:24205103

Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Zofou, Denis; Babiaka, Smith B; Meudom, Rolande; Scharfe, Michael; Lifongo, Lydia L; Mbah, James A; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M N

2013-01-01

96

Plant Diversity and Invasives in Blue Oak Savannas of the Southern Sierra Nevada1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue oak savannas were found to be substantially more diverse at all scales from localized point diversity to the community scale, than higher elevation shrubland and coniferous forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. Also, alien plants were more diverse and represented a substantial fraction of the understory flora in these blue oak savannas, comprising three- fourths of the species at

Jon E. Keeley

97

Risk assessment strategies for transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in recombinant DNA technology have created advantages for the development of plants with high agro-economical values.\\u000a Since the production of transgenic plants, some issues concerning the safe use of these plants and their products have been\\u000a under debate throughout the world. In this respect, the potential risks and benefits of transgenic plants need to be evaluated\\u000a objectively. Risk assessment

Tijen Talas-O?ra?

2011-01-01

98

Effects of time since fire on birds in a plant diversity hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global changes are influencing fire regimes in many parts of the world. In the Fynbos plant diversity hotspot (Cape Floristic Region, South Africa), fire frequency has increased in protected areas where the mean fire interval went from 12-19 to 6-9 years between 1970 and 2000. Fire is one of the main drivers of plant diversity in the Cape Floristic Region. Too frequent fires threaten the persistence of slow-maturing plant species, and such insights have led to the adoption of fire management principles based on plant responses. The effects of fire on Fynbos fauna are much more poorly understood, and have not generally been considered in depth in Fynbos conservation policies, planning or management. We assessed the response of bird communities to long-term fire-induced vegetation changes using space-for-time substitution. We studied bird communities, vegetation structure and plant functional composition in 84 Fynbos plots burnt between two and 18 years before. Ten of the 14 bird species analysed showed a significant change in their abundance with time since fire. We observed a significant species turnover along the post-fire succession due to changes both in vegetation structure and plant functional composition, with a characteristic shift from non-Fynbos specialists and granivorous species to Fynbos specialists and nectarivorous species. If current trends of increasing fire frequency continue, Fynbos endemic birds such as nectarivores may become vulnerable. Conservation management should thus aim more carefully to maintain mosaics of Fynbos patches of different ages. Future research needs to estimate the proportion of vegetation of different ages and patch sizes needed to support dependent fauna, particularly endemics.

Chalmandrier, Loïc; Midgley, Guy F.; Barnard, Phoebe; Sirami, Clélia

2013-05-01

99

Assessing Diversity among Latinos: Results from the NLAAS  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a profile of a range of important variables for assessing diversity among different Latino groups from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is a nationally representative study of the mental health needs and mental health services use of the Latino population of the United States. The NLAAS employs a stratified area probability sampling design. There are 2,554 respondents in the Latino portion of the NLAAS. The paper demonstrates through a detailed presentation of a wide range of variables the diverse experiences of Latino groups in their encounters with U.S. culture. Language use and migration experiences show considerable variability both within and across Latino groups and are promising areas for analysis of their mental health consequences.

Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Alegria, Margarita; Shrout, Patrick; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa

2009-01-01

100

GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.  

PubMed

Chloroplast biogenesis is a complex process that requires close co-ordination between two genomes. Many of the proteins that accumulate in the chloroplast are encoded by the nuclear genome, and the developmental transition from proplastid to chloroplast is regulated by nuclear genes. Here we show that a pair of Golden 2-like (GLK) genes regulates chloroplast development in Arabidopsis. The GLK proteins are members of the GARP superfamily of transcription factors, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the maize, rice and Arabidopsis GLK gene pairs comprise a distinct group within the GARP superfamily. Further phylogenetic analysis suggests that the gene pairs arose through separate duplication events in the monocot and dicot lineages. As in rice, AtGLK1 and AtGLK2 are expressed in partially overlapping domains in photosynthetic tissue. Insertion mutants demonstrate that this expression pattern reflects a degree of functional redundancy as single mutants display normal phenotypes in most photosynthetic tissues. However, double mutants are pale green in all photosynthetic tissues and chloroplasts exhibit a reduction in granal thylakoids. Products of several genes involved in light harvesting also accumulate at reduced levels in double mutant chloroplasts. GLK genes therefore regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species. PMID:12220263

Fitter, David W; Martin, David J; Copley, Martin J; Scotland, Robert W; Langdale, Jane A

2002-09-01

101

Island phytophagy: explaining the remarkable diversity of plant-feeding insects  

PubMed Central

Plant-feeding insects have undergone unparalleled diversification among different plant taxa, yet explanations for variation in their diversity lack a quantitative, predictive framework. Island biogeographic theory has been applied to spatially discrete habitats but not to habitats, such as host plants, separated by genetic distance. We show that relationships between the diversity of gall-inducing flies and their host plants meet several fundamental predictions from island biogeographic theory. First, plant-taxon genetic distinctiveness, an integrator for long-term evolutionary history of plant lineages, is a significant predictor of variance in the diversity of gall-inducing flies among host-plant taxa. Second, range size and structural complexity also explain significant proportions of the variance in diversity of gall-inducing flies among different host-plant taxa. Third, as with other island systems, plant-lineage age does not predict species diversity. Island biogeographic theory, applied to habitats defined by genetic distance, provides a novel, comprehensive framework for analysing and explaining the diversity of plant-feeding insects and other host-specific taxa.

Joy, Jeffrey B.; Crespi, Bernard J.

2012-01-01

102

Host-plant genotypic diversity and community genetic interactions mediate aphid spatial distribution  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in plants can influence the community structure of associated species, through both direct and indirect interactions. Herbivorous insects are known to feed on a restricted range of plants, and herbivore preference and performance can vary among host plants within a species due to genetically based traits of the plant (e.g., defensive compounds). In a natural system, we expect to find genetic variation within both plant and herbivore communities and we expect this variation to influence species interactions. Using a three-species plant-aphid model system, we investigated the effect of genetic diversity on genetic interactions among the community members. Our system involved a host plant (Hordeum vulgare) that was shared by an aphid (Sitobion avenae) and a hemi-parasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor). We showed that aphids cluster more tightly in a genetically diverse host-plant community than in a genetic monoculture, with host-plant genetic diversity explaining up to 24% of the variation in aphid distribution. This is driven by differing preferences of the aphids to the different plant genotypes and their resulting performance on these plants. Within the two host-plant diversity levels, aphid spatial distribution was influenced by an interaction among the aphid's own genotype, the genotype of a competing aphid, the origin of the parasitic plant population, and the host-plant genotype. Thus, the overall outcome involves both direct (i.e., host plant to aphid) and indirect (i.e., parasitic plant to aphid) interactions across all these species. These results show that a complex genetic environment influences the distribution of herbivores among host plants. Thus, in genetically diverse systems, interspecific genetic interactions between the host plant and herbivore can influence the population dynamics of the system and could also structure local communities. We suggest that direct and indirect genotypic interactions among species can influence community structure and processes.

Zytynska, Sharon E; Frantz, Laurent; Hurst, Ben; Johnson, Andrew; Preziosi, Richard F; Rowntree, Jennifer K

2014-01-01

103

Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Functional trait differences and trait adjustment in response to influences of the biotic environment could reflect niche partitioning among species. In this study, we tested how variation in above-ground plant traits, chosen as indicators for light and nitrogen acquisition and use, differs among taxonomically closely related species (Poaceae) to assess their potential for niche segregation at increasing plant diversity. Methods Traits of 12 grass species were measured in experimental grasslands (Jena Experiment) of varying species richness (from 1 to 60) and presence of particular functional groups (grasses, legumes, tall herbs and small herbs). Key Results Grass species increased shoot and leaf length, investment into supporting tissue (stem mass fraction) and specific leaf area as well as reduced foliar ?13C values with increasing species richness, indicating higher efforts for light acquisition. These species-richness effects could in part be explained by a higher probability of legume presence in more diverse communities. Leaf nitrogen concentrations increased and biomas s : N ratios in shoots decreased when grasses grew with legumes, indicating an improved nitrogen nutrition. Foliar ?15N values of grasses decreased when growing with legumes suggesting the use of depleted legume-derived N, while decreasing ?15N values with increasing species richness indicated a shift in the uptake of different N sources. However, efforts to optimize light and nitrogen acquisition by plastic adjustment of traits in response to species richness and legume presence, varied significantly among grass species. It was possible to show further that trait adjustment of grass species increased niche segregation in more diverse plant communities but that complementarity through niche separation may differ between light and nutrient acquisition. Conclusions The results suggest that even among closely related species such as grasses different strategies are used to cope with neighbours. This lack in redundancy in turn may facilitate complementary resource use and coexistence.

Gubsch, Marlen; Buchmann, Nina; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Lipowsky, Annett; Roscher, Christiane

2011-01-01

104

Ground Layer Plant Species Turnover and Beta Diversity in Southern-European Old-Growth Forests  

PubMed Central

Different assembly processes may simultaneously affect local-scale variation of species composition in temperate old-growth forests. Ground layer species diversity reflects chance colonization and persistence of low-dispersal species, as well as fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. The latter depends on both purely abiotic factors, such as soil properties and topography, and factors primarily determined by overstorey structure, such as light availability. Understanding the degree to which plant diversity in old-growth forests is associated with structural heterogeneity and/or to dispersal limitation will help assessing the effectiveness of silvicultural practices that recreate old-growth patterns and structures for the conservation or restoration of plant diversity. We used a nested sampling design to assess fine-scale species turnover, i.e. the proportion of species composition that changes among sampling units, across 11 beech-dominated old-growth forests in Southern Europe. For each stand, we also measured a wide range of environmental and structural variables that might explain ground layer species turnover. Our aim was to quantify the relative importance of dispersal limitation in comparison to that of stand structural heterogeneity while controlling for other sources of environmental heterogeneity. For this purpose, we used multiple regression on distance matrices at the within-stand extent, and mixed effect models at the extent of the whole dataset. Species turnover was best predicted by structural and environmental heterogeneity, especially by differences in light availability and in topsoil nutrient concentration and texture. Spatial distances were significant only in four out of eleven stands with a relatively low explanatory power. This suggests that structural heterogeneity is a more important driver of local-scale ground layer species turnover than dispersal limitation in southern European old-growth beech forests.

Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Burrascano, Sabina; Tuomisto, Hanna; Blasi, Carlo

2014-01-01

105

Disparate effects of plant genotypic diversity on foliage and litter arthropod communities  

SciTech Connect

Intraspecific diversity within plant species is increasingly recognized as an important influence on the structure of associated arthropod communities, though whether there are congruent responses of above- and belowground communities to intraspecific diversity remains unclear. In this study, we compare the effects of host-plant genotype and genotypic diversity of the perennial plant, Solidago altissima, on the arthropod community associated with living plant tissue (foliage-based community) and microarthropods associated with leaf litter (litter-based community). We found that variation among host-plant genotypes had strong effects on the diversity and composition of foliage-based arthropods, but only weak influence on litter-based microarthropods. Furthermore, host-plant genotypic diversity was positively related to the abundance and diversity of foliage-based arthropods, including herbivore and predator trophic levels. In contrast, there were minimal effects of genotypic diversity in litter on microarthropods. Our study illustrates that incorporating both above- and belowground perspective into community genetics studies leads to very different conclusions about the importance of intraspecific diversity, than when considering aboveground responses in isolation.

Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Reynolds, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01

106

Realizing the Potential of Plant Genomics: From Model Systems To The Understanding Of Diversity  

NSF Publications Database

To exploit the revolution in plant genomics by understanding the function of all plant genes within their cellular, organismal and evolutionary context and to create an information structure to coordinate, integrate, analyze and make accessible knowledge about plant biology. Identifying the function of all genes will allow an understanding of a diversity of plant process including: ?How are whole sets of genes coordinately regulated to produce complex plant structures? The availability of ...

107

Allozyme diversity in the endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis (Sarraceniaceae) and its close relative S. rubra ssp. rubra.  

PubMed

Genetic variability in the federally endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis was assessed in eight Alabama populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Ten populations of the more widespread Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra were sampled in the southeastern United States for comparison. Fifteen allozyme loci representing 13 enzyme systems were scored for each species. In contrast to S. oreophila and S. jonesii, two previously analyzed endangered pitcher plants, genetic diversity was high for both S. rubra subspecies. Within ssp. alabamensis the percentage polymorphic loci (Ps) was 80.0, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was (APs) = 2.58, and expected heterozygosity (Hes) was 0.209. Genetic diversity was slightly lower for ssp. rubra (Ps = 73.3, APs = 2.91, and Hes = 0.177). The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly low for both species (GST = 0.09 for ssp. alabamensis and 0.14 for ssp. rubra). Little genetic divergence has occurred between the two subspecies as indicated by the lack of diagnostic alleles, the proportion of total genetic diversity between taxa (GST = 0.09), and the genetic identity estimate (I = 0.90). The relatively high genetic diversity found for ssp. alabamensis indicates that the maintenance of its evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of genetic diversity found within small Georgia ssp. rubra populations indicate that genetic erosion may increase extinction risks for these populations. PMID:21684964

Godt, M; Hamrick, J

1998-06-01

108

Growth and plant diversity in a man-made thinned Cedrus atlantica stand.  

PubMed

In order to study the growth characteristics of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) and to assess the plant diversity an investigation was carried out in a 30 year old man-made stand located in the Caspian mountain forests (north of Iran). In this stand a silvicultural treatment as thinning was operated in five replications of 200 m2 for removing 25% of basal area. Likewise five replications of 200 m2 were considered as control (unthinned). The results of 5 year investigation revealed that diameter growth of C. atlantica was two times greater in thinned stand than in unthinned stand (p<0.05). Height growth and basal area (b.a.) in thinned stand were not greater than those in controlled stand. Vitality quality in both treatments was fairly high. Fruit production was significantly more ample in thinned stand than in unthinned stand. Compared to unthinned stand, in thinned stand index of Simpson Diversity was greater but indices of Menhinic Richness and Peet Evenness were smaller. This study reveals that generally diversity has been increased in the managed stand. Besides that C. atlantica has been adapted to this region and therefore thinning practice can be a good measure for increasing timber production. PMID:19070117

Poormadjidian, Mohammad Reza; Tabari, Masoud

2007-08-01

109

Patterns of plant species diversity during succession under different disturbance regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I suggest that between-community variations in diversity patterns during succession in plant communities are due to the effects of selection on life history strategies under different disturbance regimes. Natural disturbances to plant communities are simultaneously a source of mortality for some individuals and a source of establishment sites for others. The plant community consists of a mosaic of disturbance patches

Julie Sloan Denslow

1980-01-01

110

Seasonal changes in the soil microbial community in a grassland plant diversity gradient four years after establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground plant diversity is known to influence belowground diversity and ecosystem processes. However, the knowledge on soil microbial succession from an agricultural field to grassland varying in plant diversity is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the effects of vegetation cover, varying plant biodiversity and season on soil microbial parameters in a temperate grassland ecosystem. In May and October 2006 mixed soil

Maike Habekost; Nico Eisenhauer; Stefan Scheu; Sibylle Steinbeiss; Alexandra Weigelt; Gerd Gleixner

2008-01-01

111

Application of Diversity to Regional Ecological Assessment: A Review with Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species diversity is frequently considered a primary indicator of ecosystem health, stability, and resilience. As such, species diversity is commonly the major criterion upon which environmental impact statements and ecological assessments are based. This...

F. W. Stearns J. B. Levenson

1980-01-01

112

Protein change in plant evolution: tracing one thread connecting molecular and phenotypic diversity  

PubMed Central

Proteins change over the course of evolutionary time. New protein-coding genes and gene families emerge and diversify, ultimately affecting an organism’s phenotype and interactions with its environment. Here we survey the range of structural protein change observed in plants and review the role these changes have had in the evolution of plant form and function. Verified examples tying evolutionary change in protein structure to phenotypic change remain scarce. We will review the existing examples, as well as draw from investigations into domestication, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) cloning studies searching for the molecular underpinnings of natural variation. The evolutionary significance of many cloned QTL has not been assessed, but all the examples identified so far have begun to reveal the extent of protein structural diversity tolerated in natural systems. This molecular (and phenotypic) diversity could come to represent part of natural selection’s source material in the adaptive evolution of novel traits. Protein structure and function can change in many distinct ways, but the changes we identified in studies of natural diversity and protein evolution were predicted to fall primarily into one of six categories: altered active and binding sites; altered protein–protein interactions; altered domain content; altered activity as an activator or repressor; altered protein stability; and hypomorphic and hypermorphic alleles. There was also variability in the evolutionary scale at which particular changes were observed. Some changes were detected at both micro- and macroevolutionary timescales, while others were observed primarily at deep or shallow phylogenetic levels. This variation might be used to determine the trajectory of future investigations in structural molecular evolution.

Bartlett, Madelaine E.; Whipple, Clinton J.

2013-01-01

113

Using Phylogenetic, Functional and Trait Diversity to Understand Patterns of Plant Community Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Two decades of research showing that increasing plant diversity results in greater community productivity has been predicated on greater functional diversity allowing access to more of the total available resources. Thus, understanding phenotypic attributes that allow species to partition resources is fundamentally important to explaining diversity-productivity relationships. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Here we use data from a long-term experiment (Cedar Creek,

Marc W. Cadotte; Jeannine Cavender-Bares; David Tilman; Todd H. Oakley

2009-01-01

114

Evaluation of genetic and functional diversity of Stenotrophomonas isolates from diverse effluent treatment plants.  

PubMed

In this study, the samples were collected from nine ETPs and soil contaminated with petroleum products. The genetic diversity of 30 Stenotrophomonas isolates was demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis supplemented with in silico signature and restriction enzyme (REs--AluI, BfaI, DpnII, HaeIII, RsaI and Tru9I) digestion analyses. Genetic diversity based on nucleotide sequence data revealed distinct clusters. Functional diversity was analysed on the basis of the abilities of these isolates to degrade phenol, p-cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol and hydroquinone. Based on the environmental, genetic and functional diversities, a consortium of mixed defined microbes has been proposed for bioremediation programs. PMID:20554196

Verma, Vinita; Raju, Sajan C; Kapley, Atya; Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Daginawala, Hatim F; Purohit, Hemant J

2010-10-01

115

The effects of bison grazing on plant diversity in a tallgrass prairie (Konza Prairie LTER)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does grazing by bison affect plant community diversity? This TIEE Data Set introduces students to biodiversity and the concepts of richness, evenness, and diversity indices. It contains three computer-based activities in which students use Excel to explore three concepts in detail (species richness, the importance of sample size, and diversity indices) using plant species composition data from the Konza Prairie LTER site. After mastering the analytical techniques presented, as well as understanding some of the biases of each technique, students use their knowledge to compare plant species diversity in two different tallgrass prairie plant communities: one that has been grazed by bison for >10 years and one that has been protected from bison grazing for >20 years. The Data set challenges students to consider the assumptions of the methods they have learned and how these assumptions may affect their conclusions.

Woods, Teresa

2010-02-16

116

High plant diversity in Oregon tidal wetlands and multiple threats to its persistence  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal wetlands in the Pacific Northwest occur in coastal estuaries differing widely in size, relative freshwater inputs, and degree of watershed development. To better understand patterns of plant diversity in tidal wetlands across the region and potential climate change effects ...

117

Exploiting a wheat EST database to assess genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers have been used to assess variety and genetic diversity in wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, 1549 ESTs from wheat infested with yellow rust were used to examine the genetic diversity of six susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. The aim of using these cultivars was to improve the competitiveness of public wheat breeding programs through the intensive use of modern, particularly marker-assisted, selection technologies. The F(2) individuals derived from cultivar crosses were screened for resistance to yellow rust at the seedling stage in greenhouses and adult stage in the field to identify DNA markers genetically linked to resistance. Five hundred and sixty ESTs were assembled into 136 contigs and 989 singletons. BlastX search results showed that 39 (29%) contigs and 96 (10%) singletons were homologous to wheat genes. The database-matched contigs and singletons were assigned to eight functional groups related to protein synthesis, photosynthesis, metabolism and energy, stress proteins, transporter proteins, protein breakdown and recycling, cell growth and division and reactive oxygen scavengers. PCR analyses with primers based on the contigs and singletons showed that the most polymorphic functional categories were photosynthesis (contigs) and metabolism and energy (singletons). EST analysis revealed considerable genetic variability among the Turkish wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to yellow rust disease and allowed calculation of the mean genetic distance between cultivars, with the greatest similarity (0.725) being between Harmankaya99 and Sönmez2001, and the lowest (0.622) between Aytin98 and Izgi01. PMID:21637582

Karakas, Ozge; Gurel, Filiz; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

2010-10-01

118

Comparison of wild edible plant diversity and foraging strategies in two aboriginal communities of northwestern Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared edible plant richness, diversity and differential patterns of use in two Mapuche communities of Argentina. The populations of Rams and Cayulef are located in a herbaceous steppe, far from the temperate forests of northwestern Patagonia where their ancestors lived in the past. Ecological concepts and methods, such as diversity indices, niche breadth and optimal foraging theory have

Ana H. Ladio; Mariana Lozada

2003-01-01

119

Diversity of plant assemblages in managed temperate forests: a case study in Normandy (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the patterns of variation of plant community diversity along a silvicultural cycle in a managed beech forest. A statistical model of the silvicultural cycle is constructed in order to identify: (i) the relationships between species and environmental factors, and (ii) species assemblages occurring along the successional gradient. We measure six diversity indices accounting for the structural (species richness

Michaël Aubert; Didier Alard; Fabrice Bureau

2003-01-01

120

Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. The physiological tolerance hypothesis proposes that plant species richness is highest in warm and/or wet climates because a wider range of functional strategies can persist under such conditions. Functional diversity metrics, combined with statistical modeling, offer new ways to test whether diversity-environment relationships are consistent with this hypothesis. 2. In a classic study by R. H. Whittaker (1960), herb species richness declined from mesic (cool, moist, northerly) slopes to xeric (hot, dry, southerly) slopes. Building on this dataset, we measured four plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area, leaf water content and foliar C:N) and used them to calculate three functional diversity metrics (functional richness, evenness, and dispersion). We then used a structural equation model to ask if ‘functional diversity’ (modeled as the joint responses of richness, evenness, and dispersion) could explain the observed relationship of topographic climate gradients to species richness. We then repeated our model examining the functional diversity of each of the four traits individually. 3. Consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis, we found that functional diversity was higher in more favorable climatic conditions (mesic slopes), and that multivariate functional diversity mediated the relationship of the topographic climate gradient to plant species richness. We found similar patterns for models focusing on individual trait functional diversity of leaf water content and foliar C:N. 4. Synthesis. Our results provide trait-based support for the physiological tolerance hypothesis, suggesting that benign climates support more species because they allow for a wider range of functional strategies.

Spasojevic, Marko J.; Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.

2013-01-01

121

Temporal dynamics in non-additive responses of arthropods to host-plant genotypic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic diversity within host-plant populations has been linked to the diversity of associated arthropod communities, but the temporal dynamics of this relationship, along with the underlying mechanisms, are not well understood. In this study, we employed a common garden experiment that manipulated the number of genotypes within patches of Solidago altissima, tall goldenrod, to contain 1, 3, 6 or 12

Gregory M. Crutsinger; Michael D. Collins; James A. Fordyce; Nathan J. Sanders

2008-01-01

122

Pathways of nutrient loading and impacts on plant diversity in a New York peatland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient loading is a subtle, yet serious threat to the preservation of high diversity wetlands such as peatlands. Pathways of nutrient loading and impacts on plant diversity in a small peatland in New York State, USA were determined by collecting and analyzing a suite of hydrogeological, hydro-chemical, soil, and vegetation data. Piezometer clusters within an intensive network constituted hydro-chemical sampling points and focal points for randomly selected vegetation quadrats and soil-coring locations. Hydrogeological data and nutrient analyses showed that P and K loading occurred chiefly by means of overland flow from an adjacent farm field, whereas N loading occurred predominantly through ground-water flow from the farm field. Redundancy analysis and polynomial regression showed that nutrients, particularly total P in peat, total K in peat, extractable NH4-N, and NO3-N flux in ground water, were strongly negatively correlated with plant diversity measures at the site. No other environmental variables except vegetation measures associated with eutrophication demonstrated such a strong relationship with plant diversity. Nitrate loading over 4 mg m -2 day-1 was associated with low plant diversity, and Ca fluxes between 80 and 130 mg m-2 day-1 were associated with high plant diversity. Areas in the site with particularly low vascular plant and bryophyte species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H') occurred adjacent to the farm field and near a hillside spring. High H' and species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes occurred in areas that were further removed from agriculture, contained no highly dominant vegetation, and were situated directly along the ground-water flow paths of springs. These areas were characterized by relatively constant water levels and consistent, yet moderate fluxes of base cations and nutrients. Overall, this study demonstrates that knowledge of site hydrogeology is crucial for determining potential pathways of nutrient loading and for developing relationships between nutrient inflows and wetland plant diversity. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Drexler, J. Z.; Bedford, B. L.

2002-01-01

123

Genetic diversity in populations of plants with different breeding and dispersal strategies in a free-flowing boreal river system.  

PubMed

We have studied the genetic diversity of three plant species: Angelica archangelica (Apiacieae), Bistorta vivipara (Polygonaceae) and Viscaria alpina (Caryophyllaceae) along the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden. The plants differ in reproductive strategy. A archangelica and V. alpina are insect pollinated outbreeders while B. vivipara reproduces with apomixis through bulbils. The seeds of A. archangelica may float for over a year, while the propagules (seeds and bulbils, respectively) of V. alpina and B. vivipara float for less than two days. Genetic diversity was assessed using starch gel electrophoresis. The clonal diversity of B. vivipara measured by Simpson's index (D) ranged between 0.78 and 0.99. Only a few clones were shared between localities. The average percentages polymorphic loci and mean He based on polymorphic loci for V. alpina over all localities were 23.1 and 0.15, respectively. Wright's F-statistics showed a significant overall deficit of heterozygotes. The diversity of A. archangelica was found to increase downstream. Genetic diversity of each species is sufficiently high to be used in studies on hydrochory. Dispersal appears to be related to the floating ability of progagules. PMID:12035618

Lundqvist, E; Andersson, E

2001-01-01

124

Initial assessment of natural diversity in Mexican fig landraces.  

PubMed

The common fig (Ficus carica L.) was introduced into Mexico by Spanish Franciscan missionaries in the 16th century. It is widely assumed that Mexican figs are the Spanish cultivar Black Mission. We collected and propagated 12 fig plants from six landraces from different states in Central Mexico that represent different climate. All of them were grown in a greenhouse at Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, in the State of Mexico. During the experimental period, the greenhouse had an average temperature and relative humidity of 29.2° ± 5.4°C (SEM) and 78.1 ± 6.7% (SEM), respectively. Morphological characterization was done following a selected set of quantitative and qualitative descriptors established by the IPGRI. DNA analysis was based on a combination of ISSR and RFLP markers. We observed great diversity mainly in fruit weight (28.1-96.2 g), fruit shape (ovoid, pyriform), and neck length (0.97-3.80 cm), which could not be explained by environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. The Nei and Li/Dice similarity coefficient between landraces was determined by cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Based on the morphological characterization and DNA fingerprinting data presented in this study, our results showed that after hundreds of years, black figs have adapted to local environmental condition in Central Mexico, yielding at least six clearly distinct landraces that represent valuable and previously undescribed genetic diversity. We also suggested names for those landraces according to their location and established a basis for further agronomic and molecular characterization of fig landraces. PMID:24085455

García-Ruiz, M T; Mendoza-Castillo, V M; Valadez-Moctezuma, E; Muratalla-Lúa, A

2013-01-01

125

Biodiversity conservation in a fast-growing metropolitan area in China: a case study of plant diversity in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the capital of China, Beijing has experienced extensive urbanization in the past two decades. To explore the effect of\\u000a urbanization on plant diversity, we investigated the vascular plant diversity of the whole Beijing Municipality in three different\\u000a functional (urban, suburban and exurban) regions. For its geo-diversity, Beijing has a rather abundant vascular plant diversity\\u000a (2,276 species), including 207 species

Guangmei Wang; Gaoming Jiang; Yunlong Zhou; Quanru Liu; Yanshou Ji; Shixiong Wang; Shengbin Chen; Hui Liu

2007-01-01

126

Plant growth promotion potential is equally represented in diverse grapevine root-associated bacterial communities from different biopedoclimatic environments.  

PubMed

Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

2013-01-01

127

Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments  

PubMed Central

Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root.

Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

2013-01-01

128

Interactive effects of plant species diversity and elevated CO2 on soil biota and nutrient cycling.  

PubMed

Terrestrial ecosystems consist of mutually dependent producer and decomposer subsystems, but not much is known on how their interactions are modified by plant diversity and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Factorially manipulating grassland plant species diversity and atmospheric CO2 concentrations for five years, we tested whether high diversity or elevated CO2 sustain larger or more active soil communities, affect soil aggregation, water dynamics, or nutrient cycling, and whether plant diversity and elevated CO2 interact. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools, symbiotic N2 fixation, plant litter quality, soil moisture, soil physical structure, soil nematode, collembola and acari communities, soil microbial biomass and microflora community structure (phospholipid fatty acid [PLFA] profiles), soil enzyme activities, and rates of C fluxes to soils were measured. No increases in soil C fluxes or the biomass, number, or activity of soil organisms were detected at high plant diversity; soil H2O and aggregation remained unaltered. Elevated CO2 affected the ecosystem primarily by improving plant and soil water status by reducing leaf conductance, whereas changes in C cycling appeared to be of subordinate importance. Slowed-down soil drying cycles resulted in lower soil aggregation under elevated CO2. Collembola benefited from extra soil moisture under elevated CO2, whereas other faunal groups did not respond. Diversity effects and interactions with elevated CO2 may have been absent because soil responses were mainly driven by community-level processes such as rates of organic C input and water use; these drivers were not changed by plant diversity manipulations, possibly because our species diversity gradient did not extend below five species and because functional type composition remained unaltered. Our findings demonstrate that global change can affect soil aggregation, and we advocate that soil aggregation should be considered as a dynamic property that may respond to environmental changes and feed back on other ecosystem functions. PMID:18229849

Niklaus, P A; Alphei, J; Kampichler, C; Kandeler, E; Körner, C; Tscherko, D; Wohlfender, M

2007-12-01

129

Host-plants shape insect diversity: phylogeny, origin, and species diversity of native Hawaiian leafhoppers (Cicadellidae: Nesophrosyne).  

PubMed

Herbivorous insects and the plants on which they specialize, represent the most abundant terrestrial life on earth, yet their inter-specific interactions in promoting species diversification remains unclear. This study utilizes the discreet geologic attributes of Hawai'i and one of the most diverse endemic herbivore radiations, the leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Nesophrosyne), as a model system to understand the role of host-plant use in insect diversification. A comprehensive phylogeny is reconstructed to examine the origins, species diversification, and host-plant use of the native Hawaiian leafhoppers. Results support a monophyletic Nesophrosyne, originating from the Western Pacific basin, with a sister-group relationship to the genus Orosius. Nesophrosyne is characterized by high levels of endemicity according to individual islands, volcanoes, and geologic features. Clades demonstrate extensive morphologically cryptic diversity among allopatric species, utilizing widespread host-plant lineages. Nesophrosyne species are host-plant specific, demonstrating four dominant patterns of specialization that shape species diversification: (1) diversification through host switching; (2) specialization on widespread hosts with allopatric speciation; (3) repeated, independent shifts to the same hosts; and, (4) absence or low abundance on some host. Finally, evidence suggests competing herbivore radiations limit ecological opportunity for diversifying insect herbivores. Results provide evolutionary insights into the mechanisms that drive and shape this biodiversity. PMID:22884527

Bennett, Gordon M; O'Grady, Patrick M

2012-11-01

130

Factors maintaining plant diversity in degraded areas of northern Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid and semi-arid regions are jeopardized by land degradation with serious consequences for the natural vegetation, plant biodiversity and sustainable use of the natural environment. This paper describes the major causes of land degradation in northern Kuwait and outlines factors that serve to maintain plant biodiversity in those affected areas that would normally be dominated by the perennial dwarf shrub

G. Brown

2003-01-01

131

Bacterial Diversity in a Mine Water Treatment Plant? †  

PubMed Central

We investigated the microbial community in a pilot plant for treatment of acid mine water by biological ferrous iron oxidation using clone library analysis and calculated statistical parameters for further characterization. The microbial community in the plant was conspicuously dominated by a group of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with “Ferribacter polymyxa”.

Heinzel, Elke; Hedrich, Sabrina; Janneck, Eberhard; Glombitza, Franz; Seifert, Jana; Schlomann, Michael

2009-01-01

132

Plant community effects on the diversity and pathogen suppressive activity of soil streptomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological factors that promote pathogen suppressive microbial communities remain poorly understood. However, plants have profound impacts on the structure and functional activities of soil microbial communities, and land-use changes which alter plant diversity or community composition may indirectly affect the structure and function of microbial communities. Previous research has suggested that the streptomycetes are significant contributors to pathogen suppression in

Matthew G. Bakker; Jerry D. Glover; John G. Mai; Linda L. Kinkel

2010-01-01

133

Diversity, endemism and economic potential of wild edible plants of Indian Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rich plant diversity of the Indian Himalaya is utilized by the native communities in various forms as medicine, edible\\/food, fodder, fuel, timber, agricultural tools, etc. Among these, wild edible plants form an important source as a supplement\\/substitute food in times of scarcity for native communities. Because land holdings are small and subsistence agriculture prevails, the natives gather many wild

S. S. Samant; U. Dhar

1997-01-01

134

EARLY LAND PLANTS TODAY: GLOBAL PATTERNS OF LIVERWORT DIVERSITY, DISTRIBUTION, AND FLORISTIC KNOWLEDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Liverworts (Marchantiophyta) are pivotal in our understanding of early land plant evolution and they form both a conspicuous and important component in many terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. Studies of terrestrial diversity patterns on global scales, based on quantitative data, have been largely confined to vascular plants and animals. We here present a preliminary data set recording the distribution

MATT VON KONRAT; ANDERS HAGBORG; LARS SÖDERSTRÖM; JENS MUTKE; MATT RENNER; S. ROBBERT GRADSTEIN; JOHN ENGEL; RUI-LIANG ZHU; JOHN PICKERING

135

STATUS OF PLANT DIVERSITY AT KUFRI (SOONE VALLEY) PUNJAB, PAKISTAN AND PREVAILING THREATS THEREIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the species composition in the Soone Valley, Punjab, Pakistan, the Kufri site was selected on the basis of some ecological attributes i.e., topography, soil type and the nature of prevailing disturbances. Data regarding the composition of plant diversity revealed that among the woody leguminous plants Acacia modesta was the most commonly occurring species. Propsopis juliflora occurred very commonly

KAFEEL AHMAD; ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN; MUHAMMAD ASHRAF; MUMTAZ HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM; EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM

2008-01-01

136

Resource Abundance and Insect Herbivore Diversity on Woody Fabaceous Desert Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses four hypotheses that may account for differences in the number of insect herbivore species among plant species. These hypotheses are based on the assumption that insect diversity is a function of the number, quantity, and distribution of plant resources used by herbivores. The study investigated predictions that herbivore species richness will increase as a function of increasing

EVELYN SODRE DE ALCKMIN; PETER WILFRID; NEIL STANLEY COBB

2000-01-01

137

Changes in plant species diversity along a chronosequence of vegetation restoration in the humid evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Rainy Zone of West China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species diversity has been recognized as one of the vital attributes for assessing vegetation restoration. Changes in\\u000a the diversity may be related to different stages of succession. In this study, 54 sites of humid, evergreen, broad-leaved\\u000a forest were selected in the Rainy Zone of West China. A chronosequence of the sites was used to study the successive patterns\\u000a of

Wanze Zhu; Song Cheng; Xiaohu Cai; Fei He; Jinxi Wang

2009-01-01

138

Mapping viral functional domains for genetic diversity in plants.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) comprises numerous isolates with various levels of in-host diversity. Subgroup-distinctive features of the Fny and LS strains provided us with a platform to genetically map the viral control elements for genetic variation in planta. We found that both RNAs 1 and 2 controlled levels of genetic diversity, and further fine mapping revealed that the control elements of mutation frequency reside within the first 596 amino acids (aa) of RNA 1. The 2a/2b overlapping region of the 2a protein also contributed to control of viral genetic variation. Furthermore, the 3' nontranslated region (NTR) of RNA 3 constituted a hot spot of polymorphism, where the majority of fixed mutations found in the population were clustered. The 2b gene of CMV, a viral suppressor of gene silencing, controls the abundance of the fixed mutants in the viral population via a host-dependent mechanism. PMID:23115283

Pita, Justin S; Roossinck, Marilyn J

2013-01-01

139

Genetic diversity and networks of exchange: a combined approach to assess intra-breed diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Cryopreservation of three endangered Belgian sheep breeds required to characterize their intra-breed genetic diversity. It is assumed that the genetic structure of a livestock breed depends mostly on gene flow due to exchanges between herds. To quantify this relation, molecular data and analyses of the exchanges were combined for three endangered Belgian breeds. Methods For each breed, between 91 and 225 sheep were genotyped with 19 microsatellites. Genetic differentiations between breeds and among herds within a breed were evaluated and the genetic structure of the breeds was described using Bayesian clustering (Structure). Exchanges of animals between 20, 46 and 95 herds according to breed were identified via semi-directed interviews and were analyzed using the concepts of the network theory to calculate average degrees and shortest path lengths between herds. Correlation between the Reynolds’ genetic distances and the shortest path lengths between each pair of herds was assessed by a Mantel test approach. Results Genetic differentiation between breeds was high (0.16). Overall Fst values among herds were high in each breed (0.17, 0.11 and 0.10). Use of the Bayesian approach made it possible to identify genetic groups of herds within a breed. Significant correlations between the shortest path lengths and the Reynolds’ genetic distances were found in each breed (0.87, 0.33 and 0.41), which demonstrate the influence of exchanges between herds on the genetic diversity. Correlation differences between breeds could be explained by differences in the average degree of the animal exchange networks, which is a measure of the number of exchanges per herd. The two breeds with the highest average degree showed the lowest correlation. Information from the exchange networks was used to assign individuals to the genetic groups when molecular information was incomplete or missing to identify donors for a cryobank. Conclusions A fine-scale picture of the population genetic structure at the herd level was obtained for the three breeds. Network analysis made it possible to highlight the influence of exchanges on genetic structure and to complete or replace molecular information in establishing a conservation program.

2012-01-01

140

Plant Wide Assessment for SIFCO Industries, Inc.  

SciTech Connect

Sifco Industries carreid out a plant wide energy assessment under a collaborative program with the U.S. Department of Energy during October 2004 to September 2005. During the year, personnel from EIS, E3M, DPS, BuyCastings.Com, and Sifco plant facilities and maintenance personnel, as a team collected energy use, construction, process, equipment and operational information about the plant. Based on this information, the team identified 13 energy savings opportunities. Near term savings opportunities have a total potential savings of about $1,329,000 per year and a combined simple payback of about 11 months. Implementation of these recommendations would reduce CO2 emissions by about 16,000,000 pounds per year, which would reduce overall plant CO2 emissions by about 45%. These totals do not include another $830,000 per year in potential savings with an estimated 9-month payback, from converting the forging hammers from steam to compressed air.

Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi et. al.

2005-07-06

141

The diversity of nitric oxide function in plant responses to metal stress.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) emerges as signalling molecule, which is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants. High mobility metal interferes with NO signaling. The exogenous NO alleviates metal stress, whereas endogenous NO contributes to metal toxicity in plants. Owing to different cellular localization and concentration, NO may act as multifunctional regulator in plant responses to metal stress. It not only plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, but serves as a long-distance signal. Through tight modulation of redox signaling, the integration among NO, reactive oxygen species and stress-related hormones in plants determines whether plants stimulate death pathway or activate survival signaling. PMID:24509935

He, Huyi; He, Longfei; Gu, Minghua

2014-04-01

142

Diazotrophic diversity in the rhizosphere of two exotic weed plants, Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at assessing culturable diazotrophic bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus, which grow profusely in nutritionally-poor soils and environmentally-stress conditions so as to identify some novel strains for bioinoculant technology. Diazotrophic isolates from Prosopis and Parthenium rhizosphere were characterized for nitrogenase activity by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Further, the culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to compare the abundance of diazotrophs in rhizosphere with bulk soils. The proportion of diazotrophs in total heterotrophs was higher in rhizosphere than bulk soils and 32 putative diazotrophs from rhizosphere of two plants were identified by nifH gene amplification. The ARA activity of the isolates ranged from 40 to 95 nmol ethylene h(-1) mg protein(-1). The 16S rRNA gene analysis identified the isolates to be members of alpha, beta and gamma Proteobacteria and firmicutes. The qPCR assay also confirmed that abundance of nif gene in rhizosphere of these two plants was 10-fold higher than bulk soil. PMID:22806856

Cibichakravarthy, B; Preetha, R; Sundaram, S P; Kumar, K; Balachandar, D

2012-02-01

143

Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between aboveground phytomass and altitude. We suspect that this is engendered by low rainfall and trampling/excessive grazing at lower slopes by domestic livestock, and low temperature and low nutrient levels at higher slopes. We also found a unimodal relationship between plant species-richness and altitude at a single mountain as well as at the scale of entire Ladakh. The species-richness at the single mountain peaked between 5,000 and 5,200 m, while it peaked between 3,500 and 4,000 m at entire Ladakh level. Perhaps biotic factors such as grazing and precipitation are, respectively, important in generating this pattern at the single mountain and entire Ladakh. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

Namgail, T.; Rawat, G. S.; Mishra, C.; van, Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.

2012-01-01

144

A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic studies are revealing that major ecological niches are more conserved through evolutionary history than expected, implying that adaptations to major climate changes have not readily been accomplished in all lineages. Phylogenetic niche conservatism has important consequences for the assembly of both local communities and the regional species pools from which these are drawn. If corridors for movement are available, newly emerging environments will tend to be filled by species that filter in from areas in which the relevant adaptations have already evolved, as opposed to being filled by in situ evolution of these adaptations. Examples include intercontinental disjunctions of tropical plants, the spread of plant lineages around the Northern Hemisphere after the evolution of cold tolerance, and the radiation of northern alpine plants into the Andes. These observations highlight the role of phylogenetic knowledge and historical biogeography in explanations of global biodiversity patterns. They also have implications for the future of biodiversity.

Donoghue, Michael J.

2008-01-01

145

Patterns of diversity in plant and soil microbial communities along a productivity gradient in a Michigan old-field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between plant diversity and productivity has received much attention in ecology, but the relationship of these factors to soil microbial communities has been little explored. The carbon resources that support soil microbial communities are primarily derived from plants, so it is likely that the soil microbial community should respond to changes in plant diversity or productivity, particularly if

L. C. Broughton; K. L. Gross

2000-01-01

146

Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles: Nature's Diversity and Ingenuity  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles (PVs) are lipophilic molecules with high vapor pressure that serve various ecological roles. The synthesis of PVs involves the removal of hydrophilic moieties and oxidation/hydroxylation, reduction, methylation, and acylation reactions. Some PV biosynthetic enzymes produce multiple products from a single substrate or act on multiple substrates. Genes for PV biosynthesis evolve by duplication of genes that direct other aspects of plant metabolism; these duplicated genes then diverge from each other over time. Changes in the preferred substrate or resultant product of PV enzymes may occur through minimal changes of critical residues. Convergent evolution is often responsible for the ability of distally related species to synthesize the same volatile.

Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia

2010-01-01

147

Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles: Nature's Diversity and Ingenuity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant volatiles (PVs) are lipophilic molecules with high vapor pressure that serve various ecological roles. The synthesis of PVs involves the removal of hydrophilic moieties and oxidation/hydroxylation, reduction, methylation, and acylation reactions. Some PV biosynthetic enzymes produce multiple products from a single substrate or act on multiple substrates. Genes for PV biosynthesis evolve by duplication of genes that direct other aspects of plant metabolism; these duplicated genes then diverge from each other over time. Changes in the preferred substrate or resultant product of PV enzymes may occur through minimal changes of critical residues. Convergent evolution is often responsible for the ability of distally related species to synthesize the same volatile.

Eran Pichersky (University of Michigan;Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology); Joseph P. Noel (The Salk Institute for Biological Studies;Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics); Natalia Dudareva (Purdue University;Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture)

2006-02-10

148

Evolutionary history determines how plant productivity responds to phylogenetic diversity and species richness  

PubMed Central

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has received a great deal of attention in ecological research and recent results, from re-analyses, suggest that ecosystem function improves with increases in phylogenetic diversity. However, many of these results have been generalized across a range of different species and clades, and plants with different evolutionary histories could display different relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we manipulated species richness and phylogenetic diversity using 26 species from two subgenera of the genus Eucalyptus (subgenus Eucalyptus and subgenus Symphyomyrtus). We found that plant biomass (a measurement of ecosystem function) sometimes, but not always, responded to increases in species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Specifically, Symphyomyrtus plants showed a positive response while no comparable effect was observed for Eucalyptus plants, showing that responses to biodiversity can vary across different phylogenetic groups. Our results show that the impacts of evolutionary history may complicate the relationship between the diversity of plant communities and plant biomass.

Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2014-01-01

149

Plant communities on ironstone outcrops: a diverse and endangered Brazilian ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain areas are recognized centres of endemism and diversity on account of their isolation and altitudinal diversity. In\\u000a tropical regions, mountain tops usually stand as islands of xeric vegetation among mesophytic assemblages. Unlike the vegetation\\u000a growing on other rock outcrops lithologies, such as inselbergs (granite\\/gneiss) or campos rupestres (quartz\\/arenite), ironstone outcrop plant communities still lack systematic studies in Brazil. These

Claudia M. Jacobi; Flávio F. do Carmo; Regina C. Vincent; João R. Stehmann

2007-01-01

150

Diversity study of nitrifying bacteria in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that activated-sludge processes having stable and complete nitrification have significant and similar diversity and functional redundancy among its ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, despite differences in temperature, solids retention time (SRT), and other operating conditions. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the diversity of nitrifying bacterial communities in all seven water-reclamation plants (WRPs) operated by Metropolitan Water Reclamation District

Slil Siripong; Bruce E. Rittmann

2007-01-01

151

Use of an airborne lidar system to model plant species composition and diversity of Mediterranean oak forests.  

PubMed

Airborne lidar is a remote-sensing tool of increasing importance in ecological and conservation research due to its ability to characterize three-dimensional vegetation structure. If different aspects of plant species diversity and composition can be related to vegetation structure, landscape-level assessments of plant communities may be possible. We examined this possibility for Mediterranean oak forests in southern Portugal, which are rich in biological diversity but also threatened. We compared data from a discrete, first-and-last return lidar data set collected for 31 plots of cork oak (Quercus suber) and Algerian oak (Quercus canariensis) forest with field data to test whether lidar can be used to predict the vertical structure of vegetation, diversity of plant species, and community type. Lidar- and field-measured structural data were significantly correlated (up to r= 0.85). Diversity of forest species was significantly associated with lidar-measured vegetation height (R(2) = 0.50, p < 0.001). Clustering and ordination of the species data pointed to the presence of 2 main forest classes that could be discriminated with an accuracy of 89% on the basis of lidar data. Lidar can be applied widely for mapping of habitat and assessments of habitat condition (e.g., in support of the European Species and Habitats Directive [92/43/EEC]). However, particular attention needs to be paid to issues of survey design: density of lidar points and geospatial accuracy of ground-truthing and its timing relative to acquisition of lidar data. PMID:22731687

Simonson, William D; Allen, Harriet D; Coomes, David A

2012-10-01

152

Aspects of volcanic hazards assessment for the Bataan nuclear power plant, Luzon Peninsula, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

How would the eruption of a volcano affect a nearby nuclear power plant (NPP)? Specifically, would the products of a volcanic eruption impact the operation of a NPP located near an erupting volcano? The answer to this question begins with an assessment of the geological phenomena that result from volcanic eruptions. These phenomena are diverse, and include tephra fallout, pyroclastic

A. C. M. Volentik; C. B. Connor; L. J. Connor; C. Bonadonna

153

Fungal diversity, dominance, and community structure in the rhizosphere of clonal Picea mariana plants throughout nursery production chronosequences.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased clonal black spruce (Picea mariana) plants was analyzed with regard to nursery production chronosequences. The four key production stages were sampled: mother plants (MP), 8-week-old cuttings (B + 0), second-year cuttings (B + 1), and third-year cuttings (B + 2). A total of 45 fungal taxa were isolated and identified based on cultural, phenotypic, and molecular characters. Members of phylum Ascomycota dominated, followed by Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. Diagnosis characters and distance analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences allowed the identification of 39 ascomycetous taxa. Many belong to the order Hypocreales, families Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae, which contain many clusters of potentially pathogenic taxa (Cylindrocladium, Fusarium, and Neonectria) and are also ecologically associated with antagonistic taxa (Chaetomium, Hypocrea, Microsphaeropsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Verticillium, Trichoderma, and Sporothrix). This is also the first report of a Cylindrocladium canadense association with disease symptoms and relation with Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Exserochilum, Rhizoctonia, and Xenochalara fungal consortia. Both production chronosequence and plant health considerably influenced fungal taxa assemblages. Unweighted pair-group arithmetic average clustering showed that isolates from MP, B + 0, and B + 1 plant rhizospheres clustered together within healthy or diseased health classes, whereas isolates from healthy and diseased B + 2 plants clustered together. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed substantial alteration in community assemblages with regard to plant health and yielded a principal axis direction that regrouped taxa associated with diseased plant rhizosphere soil, whereas the opposite axis direction was associated with healthy plants. Two diversity indices were defined and applied to assess the fungal taxa contribution (Tc) and persistence (Pi) throughout the production. PMID:17347891

Vujanovic, V; Hamelin, R C; Bernier, L; Vujanovic, G; St-Arnaud, M

2007-11-01

154

Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L.): use of random versus trait-linked microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop germplasm is a vital part of plant breeding. DNA markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers have been widely used to estimate the genetic diversity in rice. The present study was carried out to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic variability, and to assess the efficiency of random vis-á-vis QTL linked/gene based simple sequence repeat markers in diversity estimation. A set of 88 rice accessions that included landraces, farmer's varieties and popular Basmati lines were evaluated for agronomic traits and molecular diversity. The random set of SSR markers included 50 diversity panel markers developed under IRRI's Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) and the trait-linked/gene based markers comprised of 50 SSR markers reportedly linked to yield and related components. For agronomic traits, significant variability was observed, ranging between the maximum for grains/panicle and the minimum for panicle length. The molecular diversity based grouping indicated that varieties from a common centre were genetically similar, with few exceptions. The trait-linked markers gave an average genetic dissimilarity of 0.45 as against that of 0.37 by random markers, along with an average polymorphic information constant value of 0.48 and 0.41 respectively. The correlation between the kinship matrix generated by trait-linked markers and the phenotype based distance matrix (0.29) was higher than that of random markers (0.19). This establishes the robustness of trait-linked markers over random markers in estimating genetic diversity of rice germplasm. PMID:24371175

Yadav, Sheel; Singh, Ashutosh; Singh, M R; Goel, Nitika; Vinod, K K; Mohapatra, T; Singh, A K

2013-12-01

155

Floristic diversity and the richness of locally endangered plant species of semi-natural grasslands under different management practices, southern Kyushu, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The rapid decline of semi-natural grasslands in Japan threatens many relic and endemic plant species. There is insufficient knowledge on how the impacts of land-use changes and management of grasslands have been affecting grassland ecosystems and what conservation measures may be taken to conserve as much of the existing plant diversity as possible.Aim: We assessed the existing management regimes

Nobuki Kawano; Kozo Kawano; Masahiko Ohsawa

2009-01-01

156

78 FR 13303 - Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment...Herbicide Tolerance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-02-27

157

78 FR 44926 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2012-0027] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment...of Hybrid Maize Seed AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2013-07-25

158

Assessment Matters in Higher Education: Choosing and Using Diverse Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 16 papers on assessment in higher education grouped into four sections on: first, systems approaches to assessment; second, the effectiveness of innovative assessment; third, assessing practice; and fourth, autonomous assessment. The included papers are: (1) "Institutional Strategies for Assessment" (Sally Brown); (2)…

Brown, Sally, Ed.; Glasner, Angela, Ed.

159

Effects of plant diversity on nutrient retention and enzyme activities in a full-scale constructed wetland.  

PubMed

This study focused on the relationship between plant diversity (six species richness levels) and nutrient retention and enzyme activities associated with carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in a full-scale constructed wetland (CW) fed with post-treatment domestic wastewater. Effects of plant species richness on nutrient retention and enzyme activities were assessed using soil chemical and zymological methods, respectively. Retention of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N in the wetland substrate increased with increasing species richness, while phosphorus retention significantly decreased under the richness level of 16 species per plot. Activities of enzymes such as dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, invertase, phenol oxidase, L-arsparaginase, protease and nitrate reductase, while they were affected by plant species richness, were strongly depended on the presence or absence of plants in CW substrate, while activities of enzymes such as CM-cellulase, urease and acid phosphatase were strongly depended on plant species richness. We conclude that plant species richness influenced nutrient retention and enzyme activities in the substrate in our subtropical CW; increase plant species richness in CW will likely improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. PMID:19864127

Zhang, Chong-Bang; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Wen-Li; Zhu, Si-Xi; Liu, Dong; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

2010-03-01

160

The "Hidden Diversity" of Medicinal Plants in Northeastern Brazil: Diagnosis and Prospects for Conservation and Biological Prospecting  

PubMed Central

Increases in ethnobotanical studies and knowledge in recent decades have led to a greater and more accurate interpretation of the overall patterns related to the use of medicinal plants, allowing for a clear identification of some ecological and cultural phenomena. “Hidden diversity” of medicinal plants refers in the present study to the existence of several species of medicinal plants known by the same vernacular name in a given region. Although this phenomenon has previously been observed in a localized and sporadic manner, its full dimensions have not yet been established. In the present study, we sought to assess the hidden diversity of medicinal plants in northeastern Brazil based on the ethnospecies catalogued by local studies. The results indicate that there are an average of at least 2.78 different species per cataloged ethnospecies in the region. Phylogenetic proximity and its attendant morphological similarity favor the interchangeable use of these species, resulting in serious ecological and sanitary implications as well as a wide range of options for conservation and bioprospecting.

Cavalcanti, Deyvson Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2013-01-01

161

The "hidden diversity" of medicinal plants in northeastern Brazil: diagnosis and prospects for conservation and biological prospecting.  

PubMed

Increases in ethnobotanical studies and knowledge in recent decades have led to a greater and more accurate interpretation of the overall patterns related to the use of medicinal plants, allowing for a clear identification of some ecological and cultural phenomena. "Hidden diversity" of medicinal plants refers in the present study to the existence of several species of medicinal plants known by the same vernacular name in a given region. Although this phenomenon has previously been observed in a localized and sporadic manner, its full dimensions have not yet been established. In the present study, we sought to assess the hidden diversity of medicinal plants in northeastern Brazil based on the ethnospecies catalogued by local studies. The results indicate that there are an average of at least 2.78 different species per cataloged ethnospecies in the region. Phylogenetic proximity and its attendant morphological similarity favor the interchangeable use of these species, resulting in serious ecological and sanitary implications as well as a wide range of options for conservation and bioprospecting. PMID:24228056

Cavalcanti, Deyvson Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2013-01-01

162

Patterns, determinants and models of woody plant diversity in China  

PubMed Central

What determines large-scale patterns of species richness remains one of the most controversial issues in ecology. Using the distribution maps of 11 405 woody species in China, we compared the effects of habitat heterogeneity, human activities and different aspects of climate, particularly environmental energy, water–energy dynamics and winter frost, and explored how biogeographic affinities (tropical versus temperate) influence richness–climate relationships. We found that the species richness of trees, shrubs, lianas and all woody plants strongly correlated with each other, and more strongly correlated with the species richness of tropical affinity than with that of temperate affinity. The mean temperature of the coldest quarter was the strongest predictor of species richness, and its explanatory power for species richness was significantly higher for tropical affinity than for temperate affinity. These results suggest that the patterns of woody species richness mainly result from the increasing intensity of frost filtering for tropical species from the equator/lowlands towards the poles/highlands, and hence support the freezing-tolerance hypothesis. A model based on these results was developed, which explained 76–85% of species richness variation in China, and reasonably predicted the species richness of woody plants in North America and the Northern Hemisphere.

Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao; Lin, Xin

2011-01-01

163

Revisiting protein heterozygosity in plants—nucleotide diversity in allozyme coding genes of conifer Pinus sylvestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation has been and continues to be a major source of information on the level of genetic variation among plant\\u000a species. Deciphering the molecular basis of electrophoretic variation is essential for understanding the forces affecting\\u000a the protein level variation. In this study, the relationship between allozyme heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity in plants\\u000a is investigated among and within species. Allozyme

Tanja Pyhäjärvi; Sonja T. Kujala; Outi Savolainen

2011-01-01

164

Diversity and Antimicrobial and Plant-Growth-Promoting Activities of Endophytic Fungi in Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are ubiquitously distributed in orchids and have a great impact on the host plant. The diversity of endophytic\\u000a fungi in the medicinal orchid Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe was investigated and their bioactivities in microbe and plant growth were explored here. Endophytic fungi were identified\\u000a by using morphological and molecular biological methods. Antimicrobial activity was determined by a standard disk

Xiao Mei Chen; Hai Ling Dong; Ke Xing Hu; Zhi Rong Sun; Juan Chen; Shun Xing Guo

2010-01-01

165

Contrasting responses of plant and insect diversity to variation in grazing intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grazing intensity on plant and insect diversity were examined in four different types of grassland (intensively and extensively cattle-grazed pastures, short-term and long-term ungrazed grassland; 24 study sites). Vegetation complexity (plant species richness, vegetation height, vegetation heterogeneity) was significantly higher on ungrazed grasslands compared to pastures but did not differ between intensively and extensively grazed pastures. However,

Andreas Kruess; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

166

[Effects of different removal disturbance intensity on plant diversity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus-invaded Masson pine community].  

PubMed

The study on the plant diversity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus-invaded Masson pine community under effects of different removal disturbance intensity showed that the species diversity indices (richness, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness) of arbor layer decreased in the sequence of broad-leaved stand after the removal of all infected pine trees in the pure pine stand in Fuyang > lightly infected Masson pine - Schima superba mixed stand in Fuyang > uninfected stand mixture of Masson pine and Castanopsis fargessi as the control > lightly infected pure Masson pine stand in Fuyang > Quercus variables stand formed after selective removal of infected pine trees from a mixed Masson pine and Q. variables stand in Zhoushan Islands > pure young Masson pine stand formed after the removal of all infected pine trees from a pure Masson pine stand > pure Liquidambar formosana stand after the removal of infected pine trees from a pure pine stand in Zhoushan Islands > mixed stand consisted of Pinus thunbergii and the Masson pine in Zhoushan Islands > moderately infected Masson pine stand in Zhoushan Islands. All the three indices of shrub layer did not show any significant differences among different communities, except for the pure pine stand in Zhoushan Island, which were the lowest. The three indices of herb layer were higher in pure young Masson pine, Q. variables stand, and L. formosana stand than in other stands. The Masson pine forest at different geographical situation and with different harm extent had distinct disparity, as well as that in different disturbance degree and restoring manner. The "Index of Disturbing Intensity of Stump and Fallen Woods" or IDISF was created to represent the disturbance degree of tree removal on plant diversity. It was found that for both less and more removal disturbing degree, the relationship between species diversity indices and IDISF followed the "Mid-altitude bulge" theory. Specifically, both excessive and insufficient removal of infected trees would cause the decline of plant species diversity in certain degree. Covariance analysis of IDISF indicated that different IDISF had no significant effects on the species diversity of arbor layer, but had different effects on that of shrub and herb layers, which could be used to assess the changes in species diversity of different Masson pine communities after the invasion of pine wood nematode. PMID:17044484

Shi, Juan; Luo, Youqing; Song, Jiying; Yan, Xiaosu; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Yijiao

2006-07-01

167

The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.  

PubMed

The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

2010-03-01

168

Recent plant diversity changes on Europe's mountain summits.  

PubMed

In mountainous regions, climate warming is expected to shift species' ranges to higher altitudes. Evidence for such shifts is still mostly from revisitations of historical sites. We present recent (2001 to 2008) changes in vascular plant species richness observed in a standardized monitoring network across Europe's major mountain ranges. Species have moved upslope on average. However, these shifts had opposite effects on the summit floras' species richness in boreal-temperate mountain regions (+3.9 species on average) and Mediterranean mountain regions (-1.4 species), probably because recent climatic trends have decreased the availability of water in the European south. Because Mediterranean mountains are particularly rich in endemic species, a continuation of these trends might shrink the European mountain flora, despite an average increase in summit species richness across the region. PMID:22517860

Pauli, Harald; Gottfried, Michael; Dullinger, Stefan; Abdaladze, Otari; Akhalkatsi, Maia; Benito Alonso, José Luis; Coldea, Gheorghe; Dick, Jan; Erschbamer, Brigitta; Fernández Calzado, Rosa; Ghosn, Dany; Holten, Jarle I; Kanka, Robert; Kazakis, George; Kollár, Jozef; Larsson, Per; Moiseev, Pavel; Moiseev, Dmitry; Molau, Ulf; Molero Mesa, Joaquín; Nagy, Laszlo; Pelino, Giovanni; Pu?ca?, Mihai; Rossi, Graziano; Stanisci, Angela; Syverhuset, Anne O; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Tomaselli, Marcello; Unterluggauer, Peter; Villar, Luis; Vittoz, Pascal; Grabherr, Georg

2012-04-20

169

Rapid compositional change and significant loss of plant species diversity among Triassic-Jurassic palynofloras in East Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J; 200Ma) transition coincides with the eruption of massive flood basalts associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. This is thought to have lead to a fourfold increase in palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, a consequent rise in global temperatures of between 3 and 6 degrees Celsius, and a rise in atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide. Recent work has employed either plant macrofossils (mostly leaves) or sporomorphs (pollen and spores) to reconstruct the response of terrestrial vegetation to this episode of major environmental change. Investigations of the macrofossil record at Astartekloft in East Greenland indicate a rapid loss of plant diversity in the Late Rhaetian, culminating in an 80% species turnover at the Tr-J boundary interval. However, evidence for such catastrophic diversity loss is conspicuously absent from the sporomorph record. This fossil group indicates that the Tr-J boundary interval in central and northwest Europe is characterized by compositional change and a transient shift from gymnosperm forests to fern-dominated vegetation. In order to address this uncertainty regarding Tr-J vegetation change according to macrofossils versus sporomorphs, we present an analysis of sporomorph diversity and compositional change across the Tr-J at Astartekloft, East Greenland. Sporomorph diversity was estimated using individual and sample-based rarefaction techniques, and compositional differences between sporomorph samples were assessed using non-metric multidimensional scaling. These analyses reveal that sporomorph assemblages from the Tr-J boundary interval at Astartekloft are between 23 and 27% less taxonomically diverse than other Triassic assemblages, and that this interval is characterized by a dramatic shift in the composition of the standing vegetation. These results are statistically significant and are also unrelated to changes in the environment of deposition. These results indicate that the magnitude of plant diversity loss across the Tr-J in East Greenland is apparently greater in the macrofossil record than the sporomorph record. Comparison of these results with taphonomic work on the representation of different groups of plants in macrofossil and sporomorph records at Astartekloft is used to understand this discrepancy.

Mander, Luke; Kürschner, Wolfram; McElwain, Jennifer

2010-05-01

170

Influence of plant species on population dynamics, genotypic diversity and antibiotic production in the rhizosphere by indigenous Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

The population dynamics, genotypic diversity and activity of naturally-occurring 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas spp. was investigated for four plant species (wheat, sugar beet, potato, lily) grown in two different soils. All four plant species tested, except lily and in some cases wheat, supported relatively high rhizosphere populations (5 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(6) CFU/g root) of indigenous DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. during successive cultivation in both a take-all suppressive and a take-all conducive soil. Although lily supported on average the highest population densities of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., it was the least supportive of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. of all four plant species. The genotypic diversity of 492 DAPG-producing Pseudomonas isolates, assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the phlD gene, revealed a total of 7 genotypes. Some of the genotypes were found only in the rhizosphere of a specific plant, whereas the predominant genotypes were found at significantly higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of three plant species (wheat, sugar beet and potato). Statistical analysis of the phlD(+) genotype frequencies showed that the diversity of the phlD(+) isolates from lily was significantly lower than the diversity of phlD(+) isolates found on wheat, sugar beet or potato. Additionally, soil type had a significant effect on both the phlD(+) population density and the phlD(+) genotype frequencies, with the take-all suppressive soil being the most supportive. HPLC analysis further showed that the plant species had a significant effect on DAPG-production by the indigenous phlD(+) population: the wheat and potato rhizospheres supported significantly higher amounts of DAPG produced per cell basis than the rhizospheres of sugar beet and lily. Collectively, the results of this study showed that the host plant species has a significant influence on the dynamics, composition and activity of specific indigenous antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. PMID:16329893

Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Prins, Mieke E; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2005-03-01

171

Host plants and species diversity of Mussidia (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of maize, cotton and Phaseolus bean in western Africa, has never been described as a crop pest from Eastern and southern Africa (ESA), although it was reported in the wild. Generally, little is known about the host plant range and the diversity of Mussidia spp. in ESA. Thus, surveys were carried out in

Benjamin Kimwele Muli; Fritz Schulthess; Johnnie van den Berg

2009-01-01

172

Separating the chance effect from other diversity effects in the functioning of plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant species diversity on productivity and competitive ability was studied in an experiment carried out simultaneously in five European countries: Czech Republic (CZ), the Netherlands (NL), Sweden (SE), Spain (SP), and United Kingdom (UK). The aim was to separate the 'chance' or 'sampling effect' (increasing the number of sown species increases the probability that a species able

J. Lepš; Valerie K. Brown; Tomas A. Diaz Len; Dagmar Gormsen; Katarina Hedlund; Jana Kailova; Gerard W. Korthals; Simon R. Mortimer; Claudino Rodriguez-Barrueco; Jacques Roy; Regina Santa I; Cornelis van Dijk; Wim H. van der Putten

2001-01-01

173

The response of plant diversity to ecosystem retrogression: evidence from contrasting long-term chronosequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following catastrophic disturbances, succession and vegetation development occur, but in the prolonged absence of these disturbances a decline (retrogressive) phase follows in which nutrient availability and tree biomass declines considerably. We measured plant diversity across six long-term chronosequences that each included retrogressive stages in Australia, New Zealand, Alaska, Hawaii and Sweden. In contrast to theories predicting negative or hump-shaped responses

David A. Wardle; Richard D. Bardgett; Lawrence R. Walker; Duane A. Peltzer; Anna Lagerström

2008-01-01

174

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF URBAN PLANT DIVERSITY: ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of urban environments has led to a growing interest in connections between social and ecologi- cal factors, although few studies address the ways in which these factors interact to control ecological patterns. Bio- logical variables of spatial heterogeneity, vegetative type, and environmental conditions are influenced by processes of habitat fragmentation and biological interactions to shape urban plant diversity.

AARON B. BERDANIER

175

?????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Species Diversity of Edible Mushrooms and Plants at Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of species diversity and distribution of edible mushrooms and plants was carried out at Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Nakhon Ratchasima, by participatory action research during September 2004 to August 2005. Thirty species from 8 families of edible mushrooms were found in the deciduous dipterocarp forest, dry evergreen forest, and reforest plantation. The dominant species of mushrooms were Russula spp.(Fam.

Sujitra Kosol; Tantima Kumlung; Tanapak Inyod; Pongmanee Thongbai; Taksin Archavacom

176

Producing Genetic Diversity in Crop Plants: The Case of Canadian Rapeseed, 1954–1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a theoretical framework to explain changes in crop genetic resources. For this purpose the genetic diversity of crop plants is treated as a social\\/natural co-construct of human beings in particular historical settings. To illustrate the potential of such an approach, the history of rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. and Brassica napus L.) breeding in Canada from 1954 to

Arunas Juska; Lawrence Busch; Feng Huang Wu

1997-01-01

177

Riparian woody plant diversity and forest structure along an urban-rural gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in riparian woody plant assemblages are anticipated in the southeastern United States due to increases in urbanization rates. Because riparian forests serve important roles in maintaining water quality and biodiversity, understanding how they respond to urbanization is crucial. The objective of this study was to examine forest structure and woody vegetation diversity indices of riparian communities in response to

Michele L. Burton; Lisa J. Samuelson; Shufen Pan

2005-01-01

178

Diversity of Marine Plants. Man and the Gulf of Mexico Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Man and the Gulf of Mexico" (MGM) is a marine science curriculum series developed to meet the needs of 10th through 12th grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit on the diversity of marine plants is divided into 12 sections. The first section introduces the unit by providing objectives and activities on why people classify…

Irby, Bobby N., Comp.; And Others

179

PATTERNS OF ALLOZYME DIVERSITY IN THE THREATENED PLANT ERIGERON PARISHII (ASTERACEAE). (R826102)  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirty-one occurrences of Erigeron parishii, a narrowly endemic plant threatened by mining, were sampled for allozyme diversity. This taxon held considerable genetic variation at the [4 allozyme loci surveyed. Species (e.g., alleles per locus [A] = 4.3 and proportion of polymorph...

180

Phylogenetic diversity and structure of sebacinoid fungi associated with plant communities along an altitudinal gradient.  

PubMed

To study the diversity and phylogenetic structure of Sebacinales communities from eight vegetation communities along an altitudinal gradient in the Bavarian Alps (Germany), we analysed 456 thalli or roots of plants. We detected 264 sebacinoid sequences, spanning the intergenic transcribed spacer region, 5.8S and D1/D2 regions of the nuclear rRNA gene, mostly using a nested PCR approach. Based on 97% sequence similarity, 73 Sebacinales molecular taxonomic units were found from 70 host species belonging to 44 plant families. Twenty-six molecular taxonomic units represented singletons, the most frequent of these being restricted exclusively to either wooded or grassland habitats. Although Sebacinales appear to occur in low abundance in plant roots, these microorganisms are phylogenetically diverse and widely spread in the ecosystems studied. Ordination analyses showed that land use, pH and humus content strongly influence the diversity and assembly of Sebacinales. In most cases, Sebacinales communities in ecosystems with extreme soil conditions or intensive land use exhibited significant phylogenetic clustering, whereas in undisturbed plant communities no trend was observed. These results suggest that ecosystem disturbance and environmental forces have an influence on the diversity and structure of Sebacinales community assembly over local and spatial scales. PMID:22891937

Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Oberwinkler, Franz; Weiß, Michael

2013-02-01

181

Use of RAPD for the study of diversity within plant germplasm collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the development of a molecular toolkit for the study of diversity within large plant germplasm collections, RAPD technology has been applied to accessions of rice (Oryza sativa) obtained from the major world collection held at IRRI (the International Rice Research Institute) which supplies germplasm to breeders. Methods for the speedy extraction of DNA representative of a rice

Parminder S Virk; Brian V Ford-Lloyd; Michael T Jackson; H John Newbury

1995-01-01

182

Realistic diversity loss and variation in soil depth independently affect community-level plant nitrogen use.  

PubMed

Numerous experiments have demonstrated that diverse plant communities use nitrogen (N) more completely and efficiently, with implications for how species conservation efforts might influence N cycling and retention in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most such experiments have randomly manipulated species richness and minimized environmental heterogeneity, two design aspects that may reduce applicability to real ecosystems. Here we present results from an experiment directly comparing how realistic and randomized plant species losses affect plant N use across a gradient of soil depth in a native-dominated serpentine grassland in California. We found that the strength of the species richness effect on plant N use did not increase with soil depth in either the realistic or randomized species loss scenarios, indicating that the increased vertical heterogeneity conferred by deeper soils did not lead to greater complementarity among species in this ecosystem. Realistic species losses significantly reduced plant N uptake and altered N-use efficiency, while randomized species losses had no effect on plant N use. Increasing soil depth positively affected plant N uptake in both loss order scenarios but had a weaker effect on plant N use than did realistic species losses. Our results illustrate that realistic species losses can have functional consequences that differ distinctly from randomized losses, and that species diversity effects can be independent of and outweigh those of environmental heterogeneity on ecosystem functioning. Our findings also support the value of conservation efforts aimed at maintaining biodiversity to help buffer ecosystems against increasing anthropogenic N loading. PMID:24649649

Selmants, Paul C; Zavaleta, Erika S; Wolf, Amelia A

2014-01-01

183

Assessing the Effect of Disturbances on Ectomycorrhiza Diversity  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) communities can be described on a species level or on a larger scale at an ecosystem level. Here we show that the species level approach of successional processes in ECM communities is not appropriate for understanding the diversity patterns of ECM communities at contaminated sites. An ecosystem based approach improves predictability since different biotic and abiotic factors are included. However, it still does not take into account the hierarchical structure of the ecosystem. We suggest that diversity patterns of ECMs communities in forests can best be investigated at three levels. This hypothetical approach for investigation can be tested at sites of secondary succession in areas contaminated with metals. Once the diversity patterns are appropriately described by a hierarchical ecosystem approach, to the species level is used to explain these patterns by populational and ecotoxicological mechanisms.

Iordache, Virgil; Gherghel, Felicia; Kothe, Erika

2009-01-01

184

Suppression of gene silencing: A general strategy used by diverse DNA and RNA viruses of plants  

PubMed Central

In transgenic and nontransgenic plants, viruses are both initiators and targets of a defense mechanism that is similar to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Recently, it was found that potyviruses and cucumoviruses encode pathogenicity determinants that suppress this defense mechanism. Here, we test diverse virus types for the ability to suppress PTGS. Nicotiana benthamiana exhibiting PTGS of a green fluorescent protein transgene were infected with a range of unrelated viruses and various potato virus X vectors producing viral pathogenicity factors. Upon infection, suppression of PTGS was assessed in planta through reactivation of green fluorescence and confirmed by molecular analysis. These experiments led to the identification of three suppressors of PTGS and showed that suppression of PTGS is widely used as a counter-defense strategy by DNA and RNA viruses. However, the spatial pattern and degree of suppression varied extensively between viruses. At one extreme, there are viruses that suppress in all tissues of all infected leaves, whereas others are able to suppress only in the veins of new emerging leaves. This variation existed even between closely related members of the potexvirus group. Collectively, these results suggest that virus-encoded suppressors of gene silencing have distinct modes of action, are targeted against distinct components of the host gene-silencing machinery, and that there is dynamic evolution of the host and viral components associated with the gene-silencing mechanism.

Voinnet, Olivier; Pinto, Yvonne M.; Baulcombe, David C.

1999-01-01

185

Assessment of the bacterial diversity in soils: Evolution of approaches and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review analyzes the publications of Russian and foreign microbiologists presenting new approaches and methods for assessing the bacterial diversity of soils in the last twenty years. Using the example of peat soils, it is shown how the concepts of the diversity of the bacterial communities changed in conformity with the evolution of the analytical methods---from the traditional cultural to

T. G. Dobrovol'Skaya; A. V. Golovchenko; T. A. Pankratov; L. V. Lysak; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2009-01-01

186

Changing Attitudes over Time: Assessing the Effectiveness of a Workplace Diversity Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity is increasing within the United States, and higher education will likely play a key role in preparing people to function in this new environment. This study assessed the effectiveness of a semester-long psychology workplace diversity course at changing student levels of ethnocentrism and attitudes regarding gender roles; the disabled;…

Probst, Tahira M.

2003-01-01

187

Growth and Diversity in Doctoral Education: Assessing the Australian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major growth of doctoral education in recent decades has attracted attention from policy makers and researchers. In this article we explore the growth of doctoral education in Australia, its impact on diversity in respect of the doctoral population, shifts in disciplinary strengths, institutional concentration and award programs. We conclude…

Pearson, Margot; Evans, Terry; Macauley, Peter

2008-01-01

188

Plant Diversity in the Human Diet: Weak Phylogenetic Signal Indicates Breadth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Worldwide, humans have access to a greater range of food plants than does any other species. Examination of phylogenetic patterns in plants consumed by animals has recently uncovered important ecological processes. The same techniques, however, have not been applied to our own species. Here we show that although humans tend to eat more species in certain families (e.g., Rosaceae) and fewer in others (e.g., Orchidaceae), the proportion of edible species in most families is similar to random expectations. Phylogenetic patterning in angiosperm edibility is also weak. We argue that the remarkable breadth of the human diet is the result of humans' huge geographic range, diverse food-collection methods, and ability to process normally inedible items. Humans are thus generalist feeders in the broadest sense. Cross-cultural analyses of diversity in the plant diet of humans could represent a fascinating new field of research linking ecology, anthropology, history, and sociology.

Procheş (Stellenbosch University;); John R. U. Wilson (Stellenbosch University;); David M. Richardson (Stellenbosch University;); Jana C. Vamosi (University of Calgary;)

2008-02-01

189

Ethical and Professional Issues in Career Assessment With Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the recent contributions in the vocational psychology and counseling psychology literature in the areas of multicultural and career assessment. The foundational skills that are essential for culturally competent assessment are presented, and a process model for culturally appropriate vocational assessment with ethnically diverse individuals is presented. The components in the model include culturally encompassing information gathering, culturally

Lisa Y. Flores; Lisa B. Spanierman; Ezemenari M. Obasi

2003-01-01

190

Contemporary Issues in the Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses issues faced by school psychologists when assessing students who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD). The authors describe the growing CLD population and legal requirements for assessment of CLD students for special education eligibility. Difficulties associated with referral and assessment procedures of CLD…

Schon, Jacqueline; Shaftel, Julia; Markham, Paul

2008-01-01

191

Assessing the extent and diversity of riparian ecosystems in Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation of forested riparian ecosystems is of international concern. Relatively little is known of the structure, composition, diversity, and extent of riparian ecosystems in Mexico. We used high- and low-resolution satellite imagery from 2000 to 2006, and ground-based sampling in 2006, to assess the spatial pattern, extent, and woody plant composition of riparian forests across a range of spatial scales for the state of Sonora, Mexico. For all 3rd and higher order streams, river bottomlands with riparian forests occupied a total area of 2,301 km2. Where forested bottomlands remained, on average, 34% of the area had been converted to agriculture while 39% remained forested. We estimated that the total area of riparian forest along the principal streams was 897 km2. Including fencerow trees, the total forested riparian area was 944 km2, or 0.5% of the total land area of Sonora. Ground-based sampling of woody riparian vegetation consisted of 92, 50 m radius circular plots. About 79 woody plant species were noted. The most important tree species, based on cover and frequency, were willow species Salix spp. (primarily S. goodingii and S. bonplandiana), mesquite species Prosopis spp. (primarily P. velutina), and Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. Woody riparian taxa at the reach scale showed a trend of increasing diversity from north to south within Sonora. Species richness was greatest in the willow-bald cypress Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum-Mexican cottonwood P. mexicana subsp. dimorphia ecosystem. The non-native tamarisk Tamarix spp. was rare, occurring at just three study reaches. Relatively natural stream flow patterns and fluvial disturbance regimes likely limit its establishment and spread. ?? 2008 Springer Science + Business Media BV.

Scott, M. L.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Valdes-Casillas, C.; Erker, J. A.; Reynolds, E. W.; Shafroth, P. B.; Gomez-Limon, E.; Jones, C. L.

2009-01-01

192

Drawing Insight from Diverse Experts: Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Informing Research on Engineered Nanomaterials  

EPA Science Inventory

The CEA approach was applied to MWCNTs to inform research planning efforts for these materials. Specifically, this CEA application engaged experts with diverse technical and sector perspectives to identify research priorities that could inform future assessment and policy efforts...

193

Mechanisms for increased soil C storage with increasing temporal and spatial plant diversity in Agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, there are positive relationships between plant species diversity and net primary production and other key ecosystem functions. However, the effects of aboveground diversity on soil microbial communities and ecosystem processes they mediate, such as soil C sequestration, remain unclear. In this study, we used an 11-y cropping diversity study where increases in diversity have increased crop yields. At the experimental site, temporal diversity is altered using combinations of annual crop rotations, while spatial diversity is altered using cover crop species. We used five treatments ranging in diversity from one to five species consisting of continuous corn with no cover crop or one cover crop and corn-soy-wheat rotations with no cover, one cover or two cover crop species. We collected soils from four replicate plots of each treatment and measured the distribution of mega- (>2 mm), macro- (0.25-2 mm), and micro- (0.053-0.25 mm) aggregates. Within each aggregate size class, we also measured total soil C and N, permanganate oxidizable C (POXC), extracellular enzyme activities (EEA), and microbial community structure with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We use these data to address the impacts of both rotational and cover crop diversity on soil physical structure, associated microbial community structure and activity and soil C storage. As spatial diversity increased, we found concurrent increases in mega-aggregate abundance as well as increasing soil C in the mega- and micro-aggregates but not macro-aggregates. The proportion of total soil C in each aggregate size class that is relatively labile (POXC) was highest in the micro-aggregates, as was enzyme activity associated with labile C acquisition across all levels of diversity. Enzyme activity associated with more recalcitrant forms of soil C was highest in the mega-aggregate class, also across all diversity levels; however, the ratio of labile to recalcitrant EEA increased with increasing diversity in the mega- and micro-aggregates. In addition, soil N increased with diversity such that microbial C:N EEA simultaneously decreased in mega-aggregates. We also found that cropping diversity has created distinctive soil microbial communities, highlighted by variation in the abundance of gram positive bacteria and Actinomycetes. Further research will help us determine how these changes in community structure with increasing diversity are related to concomitant changes in aggregation and enzyme activities. We suggest that the additional organic matter inputs from cover crops in the high diversity treatments have increased aggregation processes and C pools. While microbial activity has also increased in association with this increased C availability, the activity of recalcitrant and N-acquiring enzymes has declined, suggesting an overall decrease in SOM mineralization with possible increased SOM stabilization. The addition of crop species in rotation (temporal diversity) had minimal influence on any of the measured parameters. We thus conclude that spatial diversity is a more important driver of soil structure and microbial activity, likely due to the high quality organic matter inputs derived from the leguminous cover crops; however, spatial diversity alone did not lead to the same level of C storage potential as mixtures of temporal and spatial diversity.

Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Atkinson, E. E.

2012-12-01

194

MADS-Box gene diversity in seed plants 300 million years ago.  

PubMed

MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors which control diverse developmental processes in flowering plants ranging from root development to flower and fruit development. Through phylogeny reconstructions, most of these genes can be subdivided into defined monophyletic gene clades whose members share similar expression patterns and functions. Therefore, the establishment of the diversity of gene clades was probably an important event in land plant evolution. In order to determine when these clades originated, we isolated cDNAs of 19 different MADS-box genes from Gnetum gnemon, a gymnosperm model species and thus a representative of the sister group of the angiosperms. Phylogeny reconstructions involving all published MADS-box genes were then used to identify gene clades containing putative orthologs from both angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages. Thus, the minimal number of MADS-box genes that were already present in the last common ancestor of extant gymnosperms and angiosperms was determined. Comparative expression studies involving pairs of putatively orthologous genes revealed a diversity of patterns that has been largely conserved since the time when the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages separated. Taken together, our data suggest that there were already at least seven different MADS-box genes present at the base of extant seed plants about 300 MYA. These genes were probably already quite diverse in terms of both sequence and function. In addition, our data demonstrate that the MADS-box gene families of extant gymnosperms and angiosperms are of similar complexities. PMID:11018150

Becker, A; Winter, K U; Meyer, B; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

2000-10-01

195

The PathoChip, a functional gene array for assessing pathogenic properties of diverse microbial communities.  

PubMed

Pathogens present in the environment pose a serious threat to human, plant and animal health as evidenced by recent outbreaks. As many pathogens can survive and proliferate in the environment, it is important to understand their population dynamics and pathogenic potential in the environment. To assess pathogenic potential in diverse habitats, we developed a functional gene array, the PathoChip, constructed with key virulence genes related to major virulence factors, such as adherence, colonization, motility, invasion, toxin, immune evasion and iron uptake. A total of 3715 best probes were selected from 13 virulence factors, covering 7417 coding sequences from 1397 microbial species (2336 strains). The specificity of the PathoChip was computationally verified, and approximately 98% of the probes provided specificity at or below the species level, proving its excellent capability for the detection of target sequences with high discrimination power. We applied this array to community samples from soil, seawater and human saliva to assess the occurrence of virulence genes in natural environments. Both the abundance and diversity of virulence genes increased in stressed conditions compared with their corresponding controls, indicating a possible increase in abundance of pathogenic bacteria under environmental perturbations such as warming or oil spills. Statistical analyses showed that microbial communities harboring virulence genes were responsive to environmental perturbations, which drove changes in abundance and distribution of virulence genes. The PathoChip provides a useful tool to identify virulence genes in microbial populations, examine the dynamics of virulence genes in response to environmental perturbations and determine the pathogenic potential of microbial communities. PMID:23765101

Lee, Yong-Jin; van Nostrand, Joy D; Tu, Qichao; Lu, Zhenmei; Cheng, Lei; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Carter, Michelle Q; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Fang; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Jizhong

2013-10-01

196

Growth and diversity in doctoral education: assessing the Australian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major growth of doctoral education in recent decades has attracted attention from policy makers and researchers. In this\\u000a article we explore the growth of doctoral education in Australia, its impact on diversity in respect of the doctoral population,\\u000a shifts in disciplinary strengths, institutional concentration and award programs. We conclude that there has been both change\\u000a and continuity in the

Margot Pearson; Terry Evans; Peter Macauley

2008-01-01

197

Microbial diversity and complexity in hypersaline environments: A preliminary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The microbial communities in solar salterns and a soda lake have been characterized using two techniques: BIOLOG, to estimate\\u000a the metabolic potential, and amplicon length heterogeneity analysis, to estimate the molecular diversity of these communities.\\u000a Both techniques demonstrated that the halophilic Bacteria and halophilic Archaea populations in the Eilat, Israel saltern\\u000a are dynamic communities with extensive metabolic potentials and changing

CD Litchfield; PM Gillevet

2002-01-01

198

A first assessment of genome size diversity in Monogonont rotifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first analysis of genome size diversity in Monogonont rotifers. Measurements were made using flow\\u000a cytometry, with Drosophila melanogaster and chicken erythrocytes as internal standards. Nuclear DNA content (“2C”—assuming diploid genomes) in eight different species\\u000a of four different genera ranged almost fourfold, from 0.12 to 0.46 pg. A comparison with previously published values for Bdelloid\\u000a rotifers suggested that

Claus-Peter Stelzer

2011-01-01

199

Assessment of genetic diversity in Azadirachta indica using AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity was estimated in 37 neem accessions from different eco-geographic regions of India and four exotic lines\\u000a from Thailand using AFLP markers. Seven AFLP selective primer combinations generated a total of 422 amplification products.\\u000a The average number of scorable fragments was 60 per experiment, and a high degree (69.8%) of polymorphism was obtained per\\u000a assay with values ranging from

A. Singh; M. S. Negi; J. Rajagopal; S. Bhatia; U. K. Tomar; P. S. Srivastava; M. Lakshmikumaran

1999-01-01

200

Effects of colonization processes on genetic diversity: differences between annual plants and tree species.  

PubMed Central

Tree species are striking for their high within-population diversity and low among-population differentiation for nuclear genes. In contrast, annual plants show much more differentiation for nuclear genes but much less diversity than trees. The usual explanation for this difference is that pollen flow, and therefore gene flow, is much higher for trees. This explanation is problematic because it relies on equilibrium hypotheses. Because trees have very recently recolonized temperate areas, they have experienced many foundation events, which usually reduce within-population diversity and increase differentiation. Only extremely high levels of gene flow could counterbalance these successive founder effects. We develop a model to study the impact of life cycle of forest trees, in particular of the length of their juvenile phase, on genetic diversity and differentiation during the glacial period and the following colonization period. We show that both a reasonably high level of pollen flow and the life-cycle characteristics of trees are needed to explain the observed structure of genetic diversity. We also show that gene flow and life cycle both have an impact on maternally inherited cytoplasmic genes, which are characterized both in trees and annual species by much less diversity and much more differentiation than nuclear genes.

Austerlitz, F; Mariette, S; Machon, N; Gouyon, P H; Godelle, B

2000-01-01

201

Does Land-Use Intensification Decrease Plant Phylogenetic Diversity in Local Grasslands?  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic diversity (PD) has been successfully used as a complement to classical measures of biological diversity such as species richness or functional diversity. By considering the phylogenetic history of species, PD broadly summarizes the trait space within a community. This covers amongst others complex physiological or biochemical traits that are often not considered in estimates of functional diversity, but may be important for the understanding of community assembly and the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functions. In this study we analyzed the relationship between PD of plant communities and land-use intensification in 150 local grassland plots in three regions in Germany. Specifically we asked whether PD decreases with land-use intensification and if so, whether the relationship is robust across different regions. Overall, we found that species richness decreased along land-use gradients the results however differed for common and rare species assemblages. PD only weakly decreased with increasing land-use intensity. The strength of the relationship thereby varied among regions and PD metrics used. From our results we suggest that there is no general relationship between PD and land-use intensification probably due to lack of phylogenetic conservatism in land-use sensitive traits. Nevertheless, we suggest that depending on specific regional idiosyncrasies the consideration of PD as a complement to other measures of diversity can be useful.

Egorov, Eugen; Prati, Daniel; Durka, Walter; Michalski, Stefan; Fischer, Markus; Schmitt, Barbara; Blaser, Stefan; Brandle, Martin

2014-01-01

202

Assessing phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular diversity in coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goals for this research were to elucidate phenotypic and biochemical diversity in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) populations maintained at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station in Ames, IA, and examine relationships\\u000a between amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and patterns of phenotypic and biochemical diversity. Phenotypic\\u000a and biochemical traits were evaluated, and analyses of variance and mean comparisons

Pedro A. López; Mark P. Widrlechner; Philipp W. Simon; Satish Rai; Terri D. Boylston; Terry A. Isbell; Theodore B. Bailey; Candice A. Gardner; Lester A. Wilson

2008-01-01

203

Frequency distribution and assessment of genetic diversity of novel endophyte Alternaria alternata accessions isolated from Pongamia pinnata L.  

PubMed

Thepresent study discusses the frequency distribution and genetic diversity of novel fungal endopyte Alternaria alternata within the Pongammia pinnata plant samples. A total of ten plant samples of Pongammia pinnata, Pierre. (Karanja) were collected from specific locations of Sanganer region of Rajasthan for the isolation of fungal endophytes. Of these, maximum frequency of Alternaria alternata (22.29%) were recorded which are morphologically similar but ecologically variant. Efficacy of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), were assessed in seventeen individuals of the primers was GCC 180 where as 10 bands were generated by GCC 181. The similarity coefficient matrix generated for the primers was subjected to algorithm UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method Analysis) and clusters were generated using NTSYS 2.02 pc program. To stabilize the level of relatedness among the seventeen ecologically variant Alternaria alternata accessions, the dendrogram was constructed, which showed that all the isolates were diversified endophytically with in the plant Pongamia pinnata. PMID:24502162

Tiwari, Kartikeya

2013-10-01

204

Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants interactively increase plant performance  

PubMed Central

While plant diversity is well known to increase primary productivity, whether these bottom-up effects are enhanced by reciprocal top-down effects from the third trophic level is unknown. We studied whether pine tree species diversity, aphid-tending ants and their interaction determined plant performance and arthropod community structure. Plant diversity had a positive effect on aphids, but only in the presence of mutualistic ants, leading to a threefold greater number of both groups in the tri-specific cultures than in monocultures. Plant diversity increased ant abundance not only by increasing aphid number, but also by increasing ant recruitment per aphid. The positive effect of diversity on ants in turn cascaded down to increase plant performance; diversity increased plant growth (but not biomass), and this effect was stronger in the presence of ants. Consequently, bottom-up effects of diversity within the same genus and guild of plants, and top-down effects from the third trophic level (predatory ants), interactively increased plant performance.

Moreira, Xoaquin; Mooney, Kailen A.; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis

2012-01-01

205

76 FR 80871 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...Produce Stearidonic Acid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-12-27

206

76 FR 37771 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-06-28

207

76 FR 37770 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...for Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-06-28

208

Portfolios for Prior Learning Assessment: Caught between Diversity and Standardization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, procedures have been established in Flanders for "Prior Learning Assessment" (PLA) outside the formal learning circuit, of which the portfolio is a regular component. In order to maximize the possibilities of acknowledgement of prior learning assessment, the Flemish government is looking for a set of common criteria and principles…

Sweygers, Annelies; Soetewey, Kim; Meeus, Wil; Struyf, Elke; Pieters, Bert

2009-01-01

209

Dissecting Tropical Plant Diversity with Forest Plots and a Molecular Toolkit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tropical rainforests are the most biologically diverse of terrestrial biomes. Despite the ecological importance and economic potential of tropical trees, a large fraction of tropical forest tree species lack scientific names, and hundreds of woody plant species in the most intensively studied forest plots remain unidentified. DNA diagnostic tools, including plastid âÂÂDNA barcodesâ and multilocus genomic markers, can be applied to tropical forest dynamics plots to facilitate taxonomic discovery. Such genetic surveys, as outlined in this article, require expanded herbarium infrastructure and linkages in field ecology, population genetics, and bioinformatics. The fusion of traditional botany and molecular methods will provide baseline data for understanding both the origin and maintenance of tropical plant diversity.

Christopher Dick (University of Michigan;Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); W. John Kress (Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History;Department of Botany)

2009-10-01

210

Eocene plant diversity at Laguna del Hunco and Río Pichileufú, Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

The origins of South America's exceptional plant diversity are poorly known from the fossil record. We report on unbiased quantitative collections of fossil floras from Laguna del Hunco (LH) and Río Pichileufú (RP) in Patagonia, Argentina. These sites represent a frost-free humid biome in South American middle latitudes of the globally warm Eocene. At LH, from 4,303 identified specimens, we recognize 186 species of plant organs and 152 species of leaves. Adjusted for sample size, the LH flora is more diverse than comparable Eocene floras known from other continents. The RP flora shares several taxa with LH and appears to be as rich, although sampling is preliminary. The two floras were previously considered coeval. However, (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of three ash-fall tuff beds in close stratigraphic association with the RP flora indicates an age of 47.46+/-0.05 Ma, 4.5 million years younger than LH, for which one tuff is reanalyzed here as 51.91+/-0.22 Ma. Thus, diverse floral associations in Patagonia evolved by the Eocene, possibly in response to global warming, and were persistent and areally extensive. This suggests extraordinary richness at low latitudes via the latitudinal diversity gradient, corroborated by published palynological data from the Eocene of Colombia. PMID:15937744

Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R; Cúneo, N Rubén; Smith, M Elliot; Singer, Bradley S; Gandolfo, Maria A

2005-06-01

211

Natural Products from Plant-associated Microorganisms: Distribution, Structural Diversity, Bioactivity, and Implications of Their Occurrence?  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence suggests that plant-associated microorganisms, especially endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria and fungi, represent a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological relevance. A diverse array of bioactive small molecule natural products has been encountered in these microorganisms. The structures of over 230 metabolites isolated and characterized from over 70 plant-associated microbial strains during the past four years are presented with information on their hosts, culture conditions, and biological activities. Some significant biological and ecological implications of their occurrence are also reviewed.

Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

2012-01-01

212

Effect of ploughing on plant species abundance and diversity in the northwestern coastal desert of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the effect of ploughing on plant abundance,vegetation cover, species richness, and taxonomic diversity during the growingseasons (winter and spring) of 1992 and 2000 in the habitat of inland plateau(natural habitat), 21 km south of Mersa-Matrouh (Egypt).Ninety-five species belonging to 27 families were recorded. High percentages oflife-forms and a large number of species were recorded in ploughed

Sania K. Hammouda; Selim Z. Heneidy

2003-01-01

213

An explanation for conflicting records of Triassic-Jurassic plant diversity.  

PubMed

Macrofossils (mostly leaves) and sporomorphs (pollen and spores) preserve conflicting records of plant biodiversity during the end-Permian (P-Tr), Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J), and end-Cretaceous (K-T) mass extinctions. Estimates of diversity loss based on macrofossils are typically much higher than estimates of diversity loss based on sporomorphs. Macrofossils from the Tr-J of East Greenland indicate that standing species richness declined by as much as 85% in the Late Triassic, whereas sporomorph records from the same region, and from elsewhere in Europe, reveal little evidence of such catastrophic diversity loss. To understand this major discrepancy, we have used a new high-resolution dataset of sporomorph assemblages from Astartekløft, East Greenland, to directly compare the macrofossil and sporomorph records of Tr-J plant biodiversity. Our results show that sporomorph assemblages from the Tr-J boundary interval are 10-12% less taxonomically diverse than sporomorph assemblages from the Late Triassic, and that vegetation composition changed rapidly in the boundary interval as a result of emigration and/or extirpation of taxa rather than immigration and/or origination of taxa. An analysis of the representation of different plant groups in the macrofossil and sporomorph records at Astartekløft reveals that reproductively specialized plants, including cycads, bennettites and the seed-fern Lepidopteris are almost absent from the sporomorph record. These results provide a means of reconciling the macrofossil and sporomorph records of Tr-J vegetation change, and may help to understand vegetation change during the P-Tr and K-T mass extinctions and around the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. PMID:20713737

Mander, Luke; Kürschner, Wolfram M; McElwain, Jennifer C

2010-08-31

214

Decoupled Plant and Insect Diversity After the End-Cretaceous Extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food web recovery from mass extinction is poorly understood. We analyzed insect-feeding damage on 14,999 angiosperm leaves from 14 latest Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene sites in the western interior United States. Most Paleocene floras have low richness of plants and of insect damage. However, a low-diversity 64.4-million-year-old flora from southeastern Montana shows extremely high insect damage richness, especially of

Peter Wilf; Conrad C. Labandeira; Kirk R. Johnson; Beth Ellis

2006-01-01

215

Incorporating biodiversity into rangeland health: Plant species richness and diversity in great plains grasslands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indicators of rangeland health generally do not include a measure of biodiversity. Increasing attention to maintaining biodiversity in rangelands suggests that this omission should be reconsidered, and plant species richness and diversity are two metrics that may be useful and appropriate. Ideally, their response to a variety of anthropogenic and natural drivers in the ecosystem of interest would be clearly understood, thereby providing a means to diagnose the cause of decline in an ecosystem. Conceptual ecological models based on ecological principles and hypotheses provide a framework for this understanding, but these models must be supported by empirical evidence if they are to be used for decision making. To that end, we synthesize results from published studies regarding the responses of plant species richness and diversity to drivers that are of management concern in Great Plains grasslands, one of North America's most imperiled ecosystems. In the published literature, moderate grazing generally has a positive effect on these metrics in tallgrass prairie and a neutral to negative effect in shortgrass prairie. The largest published effects on richness and diversity were caused by moderate grazing in tallgrass prairies and nitrogen fertilization in shortgrass prairies. Although weather is often cited as the reason for considerable annual fluctuations in richness and diversity, little information about the responses of these metrics to weather is available. Responses of the two metrics often diverged, reflecting differences in their sensitivity to different types of changes in the plant community. Although sufficient information has not yet been published for these metrics to meet all the criteria of a good indicator in Great Plains Grasslands, augmenting current methods of evaluating rangeland health with a measure of plant species richness would reduce these shortcomings and provide information critical to managing for biodiversity. ?? Society for Range Management.

Symstad, A. J.; Jonas, J. L.

2011-01-01

216

Bacterial diversity in biofilms formed on condenser tube surfaces in a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the bacterial diversity in biofilms formed on a condenser tube from a nuclear power plant, 16S rRNA gene sequences were examined using a PCR-cloning-sequencing approach. Twelve operational taxonomic units were retrieved in the clone library, and the estimated species richness was low (13.2). Most of the clones (94.7%) were affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria; Planctomycetes and ?-Proteobacteria were much rarer.

Dong H. Choi; Jae H. Noh; Ok H. Yu; Yeon S. Kang

2010-01-01

217

Diversity and activity of PAH-degrading bacteria in the phyllosphere of ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants were characterized based on their diversity and activity towards the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the major air pollutants in urban area. The amounts of PAH-degrading bacteria were about 1-10% of the total heterotrophic phyllosphere populations and consisted of diverse bacterial species such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Mycobacterium, and uncultured bacteria. Bacterial community structures analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis from each plant species showed distinct band patterns. The uniqueness of these phyllosphere bacterial communities was partly due to the variation in leaf morphology and chemical properties of ornamental plants. The PAH degradation activity of these bacteria was monitored in gas-tight systems containing sterilized or unsterilized leaves. The results indicated that phyllosphere bacteria on unsterilized leaves were able to enhance the activity of leaves for phenanthrene removal. When compared between plant species, phenanthrene removal efficiency corresponded to the size of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. In addition, phyllosphere bacteria on Wrightia religiosa were able to reduce other PAHs such as acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and fluorine in 60-ml glass vials and in a 14-l glass chamber. Thus, phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants may play an important role in natural attenuation of airborne PAHs in urban areas. PMID:20107780

Yutthammo, Chontisak; Thongthammachat, Nudchanard; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh; Luepromchai, Ekawan

2010-02-01

218

Diversity of fungi associated with hair roots of ericaceous plants is affected by land use.  

PubMed

Culture-independent molecular studies have provided new insights into the diversity of fungi associating with ericaceous plant roots. However, there is little understanding of the distribution of these fungi across landscapes, or the effects of environmental heterogeneity on ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungal diversity and distribution. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and selective sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA were used to infer fungal diversity of bait Vaccinium macrocarpon grown in soils from nine peatland sites in Ireland, representing three different land uses (bog, rough grazing and forest plantation) and the fungal communities of field-collected Calluna vulgaris for five of these nine sites. A diverse range of potential ERM fungi were found, and the sampling approach significantly affected the diversity of the fungal community. Despite significant site groupings of the fungal communities associated with V. macrocarpon and C. vulgaris, fungal communities were significantly dissimilar between sites with different land uses. Soil nitrogen content significantly explained 52% of the variation in the V. macrocarpon fungal communities. Evidence suggests that environmental heterogeneity has a role in shaping ERM fungal community composition at the landscape scale. PMID:24741702

Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

2014-03-01

219

Roles of mesophyll conductance and plant functional diversities in tropical photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical photosynthesis dominates global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and will likely play a defining role in determining how global GPP will respond to climate change. Yet, our current understanding of biological, ecological, edaphic and environmental controls on tropical photosynthesis is poor. The overly simplistic schemes that current Earth System Models use to simulate tropical photosynthesis cannot capture the functional diversities associated with high species diversities in the tropics. New approaches that explicitly represent the functional diversities of tropical photosynthesis in Earth System Models are needed in order to realistically model responses of tropical photosynthesis to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated climate changes. To establish a basis for such approaches, we conducted intensive field measurements of leaf photosynthesis at three forest sites along a strong rainfall gradient in Panama in 2012-2013. The three sites are Parque Natural Metropolitano, Gamboa, and Parque Nacional San Lorenzo. The Parque Natural Metropolitano receives an annual precipitation of less than 1800mm and Parque Nacional San Lorenzo over 3300 mm with Gamboa in between. The three sites differ in species diversity with Parque Nacional San Lorenzo having the highest species diversity and Parque Nacional San Lorenzo the lowest. At the three contrasting sites, we measured A/Ci curves, leaf traits and leaf nutrient (N and P) contents of about 100 species. We determined mesophyll conductance with the LeafWeb approach. From these measurements, we developed practical but realistic parameterizations of functional diversities of tropical plant species at the three sites and implemented these parameterizations in the latest version of the Community Land Model. We found that mesophyll conductance is key to representing functional diversities of tropical forest species. Without it, responses of tropical photosynthesis to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations may be underestimated. Interactive effects of mesophyll conductance, nutrient limitations, CO2 concentrations and climate change will be discussed in the context of new parameterizations enabled with our intensive measurements in Panama.

Gu, L.

2013-12-01

220

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT Web-based Instruction on Substance Abuse and Drug Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To develop a pilot study to assess the effectiveness of a Web-based educational module on enhancing understanding of substance abuse and drug diversion, and to assess students' abilities and confidence in applying the information. Design. A Web-based instructional module was presented to students enrolled in their second pre- professional year, and students were informed that it was part of

Jennifer Reinhold; Mark Angeles; Grace Earl

2010-01-01

221

Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm) and near-infrared edge (650nm), respectively. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was classified using a two-step approach in order to obtain an optimal map (overall accuracy ˜ 70%). Information in the near-infrared enabled relatively accurate classification for Phragmites australis using the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm and image-derived training, while Typha latifolia signatures possessed high spectral overlap and required ISODATA clustering techniques. Landscape pattern metrics relate infestation to disturbances and hydrological controls. The highest levels of infestation and infestation patterns coincide with the most substantial levels of hydrological modifications indicating human disturbances are correlated with Typha and Phragmites percentages in the landscape. Overall the approach was successful and increased the level of information ultimately desired by decision makers. The rapidly advancing field of wetland remote sensing science can obtain more meaningful information from hyperspectral imagery; however, the data are challenging to work with and only the most precisely calibrated datasets will provide utility. Combining these data with traditional wetland assessment techniques can substantially advanced goals of preserving and restoring wetland ecosystem integrity.

Torbick, Nathan M.

222

How do soil texture, plant community composition and earthworms affected the infiltration rate in a grassland plant diversity experiment depending on season?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background and aims: In this study we analyzed the influences of plant community characteristics, soil texture and earthworm presence on infiltration rates on a managed grassland plant diversity experiment assessing the role of biotic and abiotic factors on soil hydrology. Methods: We measured infiltration using a hood infiltrometer in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density (earthworm extraction) nested in plots of different plant species richness (1, 4, and 16), plant functional group number and composition (1 to 4; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs) in early summer (June) and autumn (September, October) 2011. Results: The presence of certain plant functional groups such as grasses and legumes influenced infiltration rates and this effect enhanced during the growing season. Infiltration was significantly higher in plots containing legumes than in plots without, and it was significantly lower in the presence of grasses than in their absence. In early summer, earthworm presence and biomass increased the infiltration rates, independently of plant species richness. In October, plant species richness only affected infiltration rates in reduced earthworm plots. At the end of the growing season earthworm populations were negatively influenced by grasses and positively by legumes. In September, infiltration rates were positive related to the proportion of finer grains. The correlation disappears when removing all plots containing legumes from the sample. For all measurements the infiltration rates decreases from early summer to autumn at the matric potentials at pressure zero and -0.02 m, but not for smaller macropores at matric potentials -0.04 and -0.06m. Conclusions: Considering infiltration rates as ecosystem function, this function will largely depend on the ecosystem composition and season, not on biodiversity per se. Our results indicate that biotic factors are of overriding influence for shaping infiltration rates mainly for larger macropores, and should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

Fischer, Christine; Britta, Merkel; Nico, Eisenhauer; Christiane, Roscher; Sabine, Attinger; Stefan, Scheu; Anke, Hildebrandt

2013-04-01

223

Reasons for Seasons Assessment Outcomes For Diverse Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National systemic reform initiatives point to the need for a more focused science curriculum and better curriculum materials for teachers to use (aligned with science standards, instructional methods, and assessment/accountability measures). Assessment developers face the difficult task of identifying and revealing what students actually know that is relevant to curricular goals. The SCALE-uP Project at the George Washington University has attempted to create such assessments using an adapted rigorous set of criteria based on an assessment item analysis procedure developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science Project 2061. The procedure evaluates an assessment task's potential to reveal whether students have attained "a well-defined component of knowledge or acquired a particular skill" (Stern and Ahlgren, 2002). To determine students' scientific understanding of what causes the Earth's seasons, the SCALE-uP Project focuses on a single Benchmark from Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) that include both empirical observations and theoretical statements related to the target concept (Earth's seasons). In the conceptual model guiding our assessment development, we believe the target concept, articulated through the Benchmark (4B,6-8, #4), represents a single coherent knowledge structure and mental model stored in memory that students can recall or access when needed to explain relevant phenomena or solve tasks. Therefore, students that possess the concept of the Earth's seasons would be expected to respond to phenomena related to seasons with consistent and coherent responses to probes and representations related to the Benchmark idea. The instrument development procedure compares assessment outcomes (cognitive model/framework) of about 30 general 7th grade students with little previous classroom exposure to learning about the seasons, to high achieving 8th graders who have studied the seasons, and to introductory astronomy college students, who presumably understand the reasons for Earth's seasons. In this paper, we report on the results of the initial administrations of the instrument for these three groups.

Faubert, R. M.; Pyke, C.; Lynch, S.; Ochsendorf, R.

2003-12-01

224

Genomic and genetic analyses of diversity and plant interactions of Pseudomonas fluorescens  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudomonas fluorescens are common soil bacteria that can improve plant health through nutrient cycling, pathogen antagonism and induction of plant defenses. The genome sequences of strains SBW25 and Pf0-1 were determined and compared to each other and with P. fluorescens Pf-5. A functional genomic in vivo expression technology (IVET) screen provided insight into genes used by P. fluorescens in its natural environment and an improved understanding of the ecological significance of diversity within this species. Results Comparisons of three P. fluorescens genomes (SBW25, Pf0-1, Pf-5) revealed considerable divergence: 61% of genes are shared, the majority located near the replication origin. Phylogenetic and average amino acid identity analyses showed a low overall relationship. A functional screen of SBW25 defined 125 plant-induced genes including a range of functions specific to the plant environment. Orthologues of 83 of these exist in Pf0-1 and Pf-5, with 73 shared by both strains. The P. fluorescens genomes carry numerous complex repetitive DNA sequences, some resembling Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs). In SBW25, repeat density and distribution revealed 'repeat deserts' lacking repeats, covering approximately 40% of the genome. Conclusions P. fluorescens genomes are highly diverse. Strain-specific regions around the replication terminus suggest genome compartmentalization. The genomic heterogeneity among the three strains is reminiscent of a species complex rather than a single species. That 42% of plant-inducible genes were not shared by all strains reinforces this conclusion and shows that ecological success requires specialized and core functions. The diversity also indicates the significant size of genetic information within the Pseudomonas pan genome.

Silby, Mark W; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana M; Vernikos, Georgios S; Giddens, Stephen R; Jackson, Robert W; Preston, Gail M; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Moon, Christina D; Gehrig, Stefanie M; Godfrey, Scott AC; Knight, Christopher G; Malone, Jacob G; Robinson, Zena; Spiers, Andrew J; Harris, Simon; Challis, Gregory L; Yaxley, Alice M; Harris, David; Seeger, Kathy; Murphy, Lee; Rutter, Simon; Squares, Rob; Quail, Michael A; Saunders, Elizabeth; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Brettin, Thomas S; Bentley, Stephen D; Hothersall, Joanne; Stephens, Elton; Thomas, Christopher M; Parkhill, Julian; Levy, Stuart B; Rainey, Paul B; Thomson, Nicholas R

2009-01-01

225

Measuring plant diversity in the tall threetip sagebrush steppe: influence of previous grazing management practices.  

PubMed

In July 2000, a 490-ha wildfire burned a portion of a long-term grazing study that had been established in 1924 at the US Sheep Experiment Station north of Dubois, Idaho, USA. Earlier vegetation measurements in this tall threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita spp. tripartita) bunchgrass plant community documented significant changes in vegetation due to grazing and the timing of grazing by sheep. A study was initiated in May 2001 using 12 multiscale modified Whittaker plots to determine the consequences of previous grazing practices on postfire vegetation composition. Because there was only one wildfire and it did not burn all of the original plots, the treatments are not replicated in time or space. We reduce the potential effects of psuedoreplication by confining our discussion to the sample area only. There were a total of 84 species in the sampled areas with 69 in the spring-grazed area and 70 each in the fall- and ungrazed areas. Vegetation within plots was equally rich and even with similar numbers of abundant species. The spring-grazed plots, however, had half as much plant cover as the fall- and ungrazed plots and the spring-grazed plots had the largest proportion of plant cover composed of introduced (27%) and annual (34%) plants. The fall-grazed plots had the highest proportion of native perennial grasses (43%) and the lowest proportion of native annual forbs (1%). The ungrazed plots had the lowest proportion of introduced plants (4%) and the highest proportion of native perennial forbs (66%). The vegetation of spring-grazed plots is in a degraded condition for the environment and further degradation may continue, with or without continued grazing or some other disturbance. If ecosystem condition was based solely on plant diversity and only a count of species numbers was used to determine plant diversity, this research would have falsely concluded that grazing and timing of grazing did not impact the condition of the ecosystem. PMID:14753648

Seefeldt, Steven S; McCoy, Scott D

2003-08-01

226

Assessment of the bacterial diversity in soils: Evolution of approaches and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review analyzes the publications of Russian and foreign microbiologists presenting new approaches and methods for assessing\\u000a the bacterial diversity of soils in the last twenty years. Using the example of peat soils, it is shown how the concepts of\\u000a the diversity of the bacterial communities changed in conformity with the evolution of the analytical methods—from the traditional\\u000a cultural to

T. G. Dobrovol’skaya; A. V. Golovchenko; T. A. Pankratov; L. V. Lysak; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2009-01-01

227

Relating UV-B radiation screening effectiveness of foliage to absorbing-compound concentration and anatomical characteristics in a diverse group of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 300 nm) screening effectiveness of foliage of a diverse group of plants was examined by measuring epidermal transmittance and depth of penetration of UV-B with a fiberoptic microprobe. In addition, the concentration of UV-B-absorbing compounds and various anatomical characteristics were measured to assess whether they were useful predictors of UV-B screening. Sun foliage of naturally growing

T. A. Day

1993-01-01

228

Chloroplast DNA diversity is low in a wild plant, Lupinus texensis.  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast DNA diversity was measured in an annual flowering plant, Lupinus texensis. Individual plants were collected from 21 local populations throughout the range of the species in Texas. Chloroplast DNA was isolated separately from each plant and digested with seven restriction enzymes. The most common form of the 150-kilobase-pair genome was cut at 134 sites, so that about 0.5% of the base pairs in the genome were sampled. Of the 100 plants examined, 88 had identical restriction fragment patterns. Three variant forms were found in different local populations. Two, represented in single plants, differed from wild type in the presence or absence of single restriction sites. The third variant was fixed in one of the local populations; it had lost a restriction site and also had a deletion of approximately equal to 100 base pairs. The data suggest that chloroplast DNA in this plant is much less polymorphic than mitochondrial DNA from animals and is probably less polymorphic than nuclear genes in the same plant or in animals. Images

Banks, J A; Birky, C W

1985-01-01

229

Methods for assessing the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microorganisms play important roles in soil quality and plant productivity. The development of effective methods for studying the diversity, distribution, and behavior of microorganisms in soil habitats is essential for a broader understanding of soil health. Traditionally, the analysis of soil microbial communities has relied on culturing techniques using a variety of culture media designed to maximize the recovery

G. T. Hill; N. A. Mitkowski; L. Aldrich-Wolfe; L. R. Emele; D. D. Jurkonie; A. Ficke; S. Maldonado-Ramireza; S. T. Lynch; E. B. Nelson

2000-01-01

230

An Assessment of Preservice Teachers' Tolerance of Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' responses to a survey that assessed their tolerance of difference in race, gender, religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, and sexual preference. It also investigated their perspectives concerning welfare recipients and non-English speaking people. During the fall 1998 semester, 117…

Rowland, Sidney; Harlan, Joan; Arnold, Mit

231

Self-Assessment and Dialogue as Tools for Appreciating Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As social work educators continue to examine methods and techniques to provide meaningful knowledge about racism and discrimination, the role of self-assessment and dialogue should also be explored. This teaching note presents a tool for students and educators to use in considering literature discrimination and increasing awareness of…

O'Neal, Gwenelle S.

2012-01-01

232

Variations in AOC and microbial diversity in an advanced water treatment plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe objective of this study was to evaluate the variations in assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial diversities in an advanced water treatment plant. The efficiency of biofiltration on AOC removal using anthracite and granular activated carbon (GAC) as the media was also evaluated through a pilot-scale column experiment. Effects of hydrological factors (seasonal effects and river flow) on AOC concentrations in raw water samples and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biofiltration on AOC treatment were also evaluated. Results show that AOC concentrations in raw water and clear water of the plant were about 138 and 27 ?g acetate-C/L, respectively. Higher AOC concentrations were observed in wet seasons probably due to the resuspension of organic-contained sediments and discharges of non-point source (NPS) pollutants from the upper catchment. This reveals that seasonal effect played an important role in the variations in influent AOC concentrations. Approximately 82% and 70% of AOC removal efficiencies were observed in GAC and anthracite columns, respectively. Results from column experiment reveal that the applied treatment processes in the plant and biofiltration system were able to remove AOC effectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal significant decrease in microbial diversities after the ozonation process. Higher HRT caused higher microbial contact time, and thus, more microbial colonies and higher microbial diversity were observed in the latter part of the biofilters. Some of the dominant microbial species in the biofiltration columns belonged to the beta- proteobacterium, which might contribute to the AOC degradation. Results of this study provide us insight into the variations in AOC and microbial diversity in the advanced water treatment processes.

Yang, B. M.; Liu, J. K.; Chien, C. C.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

2011-10-01

233

Biochemical survey of the polar head of plant glycosylinositolphosphoceramides unravels broad diversity.  

PubMed

Although Glycosyl-Inositol-Phospho-Ceramides (GIPCs) are the main sphingolipids of plant tissues, they remain poorly characterized in term of structures. This lack of information, notably with regard to polar heads, currently hampers the understanding of GIPC functions in biological systems. This situation prompted us to undertake a large scale-analysis of plant GIPCs: 23 plant species chosen in various phylogenetic groups were surveyed for their total GIPC content. GIPCs were extracted and their polar heads were characterized by negative ion MALDI and ESI mass spectrometry. Our data shed light on an unexpected broad diversity of GIPC distributions within Plantae, and the occurrence of yet-unreported GIPC structures in green and red algae. In monocots, GIPCs with three saccharides were apparently found to be major, whereas a series with two saccharides was dominant in Eudicots within a few notable exceptions. In plant cell cultures, GIPC polar heads appeared to bear a higher number of glycan units than in the tissue from which they originate. Perspectives are discussed in term of GIPC metabolism diversity and function of these lipids. PMID:23993446

Cacas, Jean-Luc; Buré, Corinne; Furt, Fabienne; Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Badoc, Alain; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Antajan, Elvire; Mongrand, Sébastien

2013-12-01

234

Disentangling the roles of plant diversity and precipitation in structuring microbial community composition and function in a tropical rain forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shifting frequency and intensity of precipitation events is expected to impact soil fungi through a variety of complex feedbacks, although the general patterns and mechanisms are not fully understood. Precipitation and plant diversity often covary, and disentangling the relative contribution of each is important for predicting changes in global C and N fluxes. In order to test the relative contributions of plant diversity and precipitation in shaping fungal community structure and function, soil samples (0-10cm) from six established 1-ha plots across a natural precipitation gradient on the isthmus of Panama were collected. These plots co-vary in mean annual precipitation and plant diversity. Fungal DNA was sequenced using general fungal primers for the 18S region and 454 pyrosequencing. We found that total fungal taxa significantly increased with increasing mean annual precipitation, but not with plant diversity. Activity for some extracellular enzymes increased, whereas as others decreased with mean annual precipitation, indicating that the effect of shifting precipitation on nutrient transformations may be process-specific. To directly test for effects of plant species richness on fungal diversity and function, we experimentally re-created litter diversity gradients in nylon, 2 mm screen litter bags with 1, 25, and 50 species of plant leaf litter. After six months, we found a significant effect of plant litter diversity on decomposition rate, but only after the increase from one to 25 species of leaf litter. Total fungal taxa as determined by 454 sequencing and extracellular enzyme activity did not track plant species richness, suggesting that precipitation may be a more important factor than plant diversity in structuring soil fungi in tropical rain forests.

McGuire, Krista; Treseder, Kathleen; Fierer, Noah; Turner, Benjamin

2010-05-01

235

Evolution and diversity of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily in plants.  

PubMed

The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily is the second largest enzyme family in the plant genome, and its members are involved in various oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions. Despite their biochemical significance in metabolism, a systematic analysis of plant 2OGDs remains to be accomplished. We present a phylogenetic classification of 479 2OGDs in six plant models, ranging from green algae to angiosperms. These were classified into three classes - DOXA, DOXB and DOXC - based on amino acid sequence similarity. The DOXA class includes plant homologs of Escherichia coli AlkB, which is a prototype of 2OGD involved in the oxidative demethylation of alkylated nucleic acids and histones. The DOXB class is conserved across all plant taxa and is involved in proline 4-hydroxylation in cell wall protein synthesis. The DOXC class is involved in specialized metabolism of various phytochemicals, including phytohormones and flavonoids. The vast majority of 2OGDs from land plants were classified into the DOXC class, but only seven from Chlamydomonas, suggesting that this class has diversified during land plant evolution. Phylogenetic analysis assigned DOXC-class 2OGDs to 57 phylogenetic clades. 2OGD genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis were conserved among vascular plants, and those involved in flavonoid and ethylene biosynthesis were shared among seed plants. Several angiosperm-specific clades were found to be involved in various lineage-specific specialized metabolisms, but 31 of the 57 DOXC-class clades were only found in a single species. Therefore, the evolution and diversification of DOXC-class 2OGDs is partly responsible for the diversity and complexity of specialized metabolites in land plants. PMID:24547750

Kawai, Yosuke; Ono, Eiichiro; Mizutani, Masaharu

2014-04-01

236

How Do Earthworms, Soil Texture and Plant Composition Affect Infiltration along an Experimental Plant Diversity Gradient in Grassland?  

PubMed Central

Background Infiltration is a key process in determining the water balance, but so far effects of earthworms, soil texture, plant species diversity and their interaction on infiltration capacity have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured infiltration capacity in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density nested in plots of different plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and plant functional group richness and composition (1 to 4 groups; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs). In summer, earthworm presence significantly increased infiltration, whereas in fall effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration were due to plant-mediated changes in earthworm biomass. Effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration even reversed effects of texture. We propose two pathways: (i) direct, probably by modifying the pore spectrum and (ii) indirect, by enhancing or suppressing earthworm biomass, which in turn influenced infiltration capacity due to change in burrowing activity of earthworms. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties can be explained by biotic processes, especially the presence of certain plant functional groups affecting earthworm biomass, while soil texture had no significant effect. Therefore biotic parameters should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

Fischer, Christine; Roscher, Christiane; Jensen, Britta; Eisenhauer, Nico; Baade, Jussi; Attinger, Sabine; Scheu, Stefan; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Schumacher, Jens; Hildebrandt, Anke

2014-01-01

237

Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels  

PubMed Central

We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

Ferrer-Paris, Jose R.; Sanchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Angel L.; Donaldson, John

2013-01-01

238

Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.  

PubMed

We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

2013-01-01

239

Marine Macroalgal Diversity Assessment of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles  

PubMed Central

Background Located in the Dutch Windward Islands, Saba Bank is a flat-topped seamount (20–45 m deep in the shallower regions). The primary goals of the survey were to improve knowledge of biodiversity for one of the world's most significant, but little-known, seamounts and to increase basic data and analyses to promote the development of an improved management plan. Methodology/Principal Findings Our team of three divers used scuba to collect algal samples to depths of 50 m at 17 dive sites. Over 360 macrophyte specimens (12 putative new species) were collected, more than 1,000 photographs were taken in truly exceptional habitats, and three astonishing new seaweed community types were discovered. These included: (1) “Field of Greens” (N 17°30.620?, W 63°27.707?) dominated by green seaweeds as well as some filamentous reds, (2) “Brown Town” (N 17°28.027?, W 63°14.944?) dominated by large brown algae, and (3) “Seaweed City” (N 17°26.485?, W 63°16.850?) with a diversity of spectacular fleshy red algae. Conclusions/Significance Dives to 30 m in the more two-dimensional interior habitats revealed particularly robust specimens of algae typical of shallower seagrass beds, but here in the total absence of any seagrasses (seagrasses generally do not grow below 20 m). Our preliminary estimate of the number of total seaweed species on Saba Bank ranges from a minimum of 150 to 200. Few filamentous and thin sheet forms indicative of stressed or physically disturbed environments were observed. A more precise number still awaits further microscopic and molecular examinations in the laboratory. The expedition, while intensive, has only scratched the surface of this unique submerged seamount/atoll.

Littler, Mark M.; Littler, Diane S.; Brooks, Barrett L.

2010-01-01

240

Successful herbivore attack due to metabolic diversion of a plant chemical defense.  

PubMed

Plants protect themselves against herbivory with a diverse array of repellent or toxic secondary metabolites. However, many herbivorous insects have developed counteradaptations that enable them to feed on chemically defended plants without apparent negative effects. Here, we present evidence that larvae of the specialist insect, Pieris rapae (cabbage white butterfly, Lepidoptera: Pieridae), are biochemically adapted to the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the major chemical defense of their host plants. The defensive function of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system results from the toxic isothiocyanates that are released when glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinases on tissue disruption. We show that the hydrolysis reaction is redirected toward the formation of nitriles instead of isothiocyanates if plant material is ingested by P. rapae larvae, and that the nitriles are excreted with the feces. The ability to form nitriles is due to a larval gut protein, designated nitrile-specifier protein, that by itself has no hydrolytic activity on glucosinolates and that is unrelated to any functionally characterized protein. Nitrile-specifier protein appears to be the key biochemical counteradaptation that allows P. rapae to feed with impunity on plants containing glucosinolates and myrosinases. This finding sheds light on the ecology and evolution of plant-insect interactions and suggests novel highly selective pest management strategies. PMID:15051878

Wittstock, Ute; Agerbirk, Niels; Stauber, Einar J; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hippler, Michael; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Vogel, Heiko

2004-04-01

241

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginseng and their potential for plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria have been found in virtually every plant studied, where they colonize the internal tissues of their host plant and can form a range of different beneficial relationships. The diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng plants of varying age levels in Korea was investigated. Fifty-one colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng stems. Although a mixed composition of endophyte communities was recovered from ginseng based on the results of 16S rDNA analysis, bacteria of the genus Bacillus and Staphylococcus dominated in 1-year-old and 4-year-old plants, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria, with Firmicutes being predominant. To evaluate the plant growth promoting activities, 18 representative isolates were selected. Amplification of nifH gene confirmed the presence of diazotrophy in only two isolates. Half of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Except four, all the other endophytic isolates produced significant amounts of indole acetic acid in nutrient broth. Iron sequestering siderophore production was detected in seven isolates. Isolates E-I-3 (Bacillus megaterium), E-I-4 (Micrococcus luteus), E-I-8 (B. cereus), and E-I-20 (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) were positive for most of the plant growth promoting traits, indicating their role in growth promotion of ginseng. PMID:21046332

Vendan, Regupathy Thamizh; Yu, Young Joon; Lee, Sun Hee; Rhee, Young Ha

2010-10-01

242

Plant-Species Diversity Correlates with Genetic Variation of an Oligophagous Seed Predator  

PubMed Central

Several characteristics of habitats of herbivores and their food-plant communities, such as plant-species composition and plant quality, influence population genetics of both herbivores and their host plants. We investigated how different ecological and geographic factors affect genetic variation in and differentiation of 23 populations of the oligophagous seed predator Lygaeus equestris (Heteroptera) in southwestern Finland and in eastern Sweden. We tested whether genetic differentiation of the L. equestris populations was related to the similarity of vegetation, and whether there was more within-population genetic variation in habitats with a high number of plant species or in those with a large population of the primary food plant, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. We also tested whether genetic differentiation of the populations was related to the geographic distance, and whether location of the populations on islands or on mainland, island size, or population size affected within-population genetic variation. Pairwise FST ranged from 0 to 0.1 indicating low to moderate genetic differentiation of populations. Differentiation increased with geographic distance between the populations, but was not related to the similarity of vegetation between the habitats. Genetic variation within the L. equestris populations did not increase with the population size of the primary food plant. However, the more diverse the plant community the higher was the level of genetic variation within the L. equestris population. Furthermore, the level of genetic variation did not vary significantly between island and mainland populations. The effect of the population size on within-population genetic variation was related to island size. Usually small populations are susceptible to loss of genetic variation, but small L. equestris populations on large islands seemed to maintain a relatively high level of within-population genetic variation. Our findings suggest that, in addition to geographic and species-specific ecological factors, the plant community affects population genetic structure of oligophagous herbivores.

Laukkanen, Liisa; Mutikainen, Pia; Muola, Anne; Leimu, Roosa

2014-01-01

243

The changes of understory plant diversity in continuous cropping system of Eucalyptus plantations, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of biodiversity in managed plantations has become an important issue for long-term sustainability of the ecosystem.\\u000a The continuous cropping system (CCS) is common practice in Eucalyptus plantations in southern China. In order to clarify the effects of such a practice on species compositions, species diversity,\\u000a and functional type compositions of understory vegetation, a field trial was installed in

Yuanguang WenDuo; Duo Ye; Fang Chen; Shirong Liu; Hongwen Liang

2010-01-01

244

Proposals for nutritional assessments of feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) increased from 1.7 to 81 million. ha from 1996 to 2004 (James, 2004). Scientists and farmers, but also consumers, are asking for a nutritional assessment, including safety aspects, of feeds from those plants. Substantial equivalence was created as a framework for the compositional assessment of feeds from GMP of the so-called first generation

G. Flachowsky; H. Böhme

245

Characterization of bacterial diversity in two aerated lagoons of a wastewater treatment plant using PCR-DGGE analysis.  

PubMed

Aerated lagoons are commonly used for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment due to their low cost and minimal need of operational requirements. However, little information is known regarding microbial communities that inhabit these ecosystems. In this study, a 16S-DGGE approach was used to estimate bacterial diversity and to monitor community changes in two aerated lagoons from a wastewater treatment plant receiving urban and industrial effluents. Pronounced shifts between bacterial communities collected in winter-spring and summer-autumn months were detected. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were the variables that most influenced the bacterial communities. Phylogenetic affiliation of predominant members was assessed by the determination of the 16S rDNA sequence of correspondent bands. Affiliations to Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Firmicutes, and beta- and epsilon-proteobacteria were found. PMID:17681740

Moura, Alexandra; Tacão, Marta; Henriques, Isabel; Dias, Joana; Ferreira, Pedro; Correia, António

2009-01-01

246

Desert Farming Benefits from Microbial Potential in Arid Soils and Promotes Diversity and Plant Health  

PubMed Central

Background To convert deserts into arable, green landscapes is a global vision, and desert farming is a strong growing area of agriculture world-wide. However, its effect on diversity of soil microbial communities, which are responsible for important ecosystem services like plant health, is still not known. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the impact of long-term agriculture on desert soil in one of the most prominent examples for organic desert farming in Sekem (Egypt). Using a polyphasic methodological approach to analyse microbial communities in soil as well as associated with cultivated plants, drastic effects caused by 30 years of agriculture were detected. Analysing bacterial fingerprints, we found statistically significant differences between agricultural and native desert soil of about 60%. A pyrosequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene regions showed higher diversity in agricultural than in desert soil (Shannon diversity indices: 11.21/7.90), and displayed structural differences. The proportion of Firmicutes in field soil was significantly higher (37%) than in the desert (11%). Bacillus and Paenibacillus play the key role: they represented 96% of the antagonists towards phytopathogens, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in the amplicon library and for isolates were detected. The proportion of antagonistic strains was doubled in field in comparison to desert soil (21.6%/12.4%); disease-suppressive bacteria were especially enriched in plant roots. On the opposite, several extremophilic bacterial groups, e.g., Acidimicrobium, Rubellimicrobium and Deinococcus-Thermus, disappeared from soil after agricultural use. The N-fixing Herbaspirillum group only occurred in desert soil. Soil bacterial communities were strongly driven by the a-biotic factors water supply and pH. Conclusions/Significance After long-term farming, a drastic shift in the bacterial communities in desert soil was observed. Bacterial communities in agricultural soil showed a higher diversity and a better ecosystem function for plant health but a loss of extremophilic bacteria. Interestingly, we detected that indigenous desert microorganisms promoted plant health in desert agro-ecosystems.

Koberl, Martina; Muller, Henry; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Berg, Gabriele

2011-01-01

247

Changes in soil diversity and global activities following invasions of the exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis L., decrease the growth of native sahelian Acacia species.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine whether the invasive plant Amaranthus viridis influenced soil microbial and chemical properties and to assess the consequences of these modifications on native plant growth. The experiment was conducted in Senegal at two sites: one invaded by A. viridis and the other covered by other plant species. Soil nutrient contents as well as microbial community density, diversity and functions were measured. Additionally, five sahelian Acacia species were grown in (1) soil disinfected or not collected from both sites, (2) uninvaded soil exposed to an A. viridis plant aqueous extract and (3) soil collected from invaded and uninvaded sites and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that the invasion of A. viridis increased soil nutrient availability, bacterial abundance and microbial activities. In contrast, AM fungi and rhizobial development and the growth of Acacia species were severely reduced in A. viridis-invaded soil. Amaranthus viridis aqueous extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on rhizobial growth, indicating an antibacterial activity of this plant extract. However, the inoculation of G. intraradices was highly beneficial to the growth and nodulation of Acacia species. These results highlight the role of AM symbiosis in the processes involved in plant coexistence and in ecosystem management programs that target preservation of native plant diversity. PMID:19656191

Sanon, Arsene; Béguiristain, Thierry; Cébron, Aurelie; Berthelin, Jacques; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Leyval, Corinne; Sylla, Samba; Duponnois, Robin

2009-10-01

248

Decoupled plant and insect diversity after the end-Cretaceous extinction.  

PubMed

Food web recovery from mass extinction is poorly understood. We analyzed insect-feeding damage on 14,999 angiosperm leaves from 14 latest Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene sites in the western interior United States. Most Paleocene floras have low richness of plants and of insect damage. However, a low-diversity 64.4-million-year-old flora from southeastern Montana shows extremely high insect damage richness, especially of leaf mining, whereas an anomalously diverse 63.8-million-year-old flora from the Denver Basin shows little damage and virtually no specialized feeding. These findings reveal severely unbalanced food webs 1 to 2 million years after the end-Cretaceous extinction 65.5 million years ago. PMID:16931760

Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C; Johnson, Kirk R; Ellis, Beth

2006-08-25

249

Risk management tools and the case study Brassica napus: Evaluating possible effects of genetically modified plants on soil microbial diversity.  

PubMed

The cultivation of GMPs in Europe raises many questions about the environmental risks, in particular about their ecological impact on non-target organisms and on soil properties. The aim of a multidisciplinary group engaged in a LIFE+project (MAN-GMP-ITA) was to validate and improve an existing environmental risk assessment (ERA) methodology on GMPs within the European legislative framework on GMOs. Given the impossibility of evaluating GMO impact directly, as GMPs are banned in Italy, GMPs have not been used at any stage of the project. The project thus specifically focused on the conditions for the implementation of ERA in different areas of Italy, with an emphasis on some sensitive and protected areas located in the North, Centre, and South of the country, in order to lay the necessary baseline for evaluating the possible effects of a GMP on soil communities. Our sub-group carried out soil analyses in order to obtain soil health and fertility indicators to be used as baselines in the ERA model. Using various methods of chemical, biochemical, functional and genetic analysis, our study assessed the changes in diversity and functionality of bacterial populations, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The results show that plant identity and growth, soil characteristics, and field site climatic parameters are key factors in contributing to variation in microbial community structure and diversity, thus validating our methodological approach. Our project has come to the conclusion that the uneven composition and biological-agronomical quality of soils need to be taken into consideration in a risk analysis within the framework of ERA for the release of genetically modified plants. PMID:25014185

Canfora, Loredana; Sbrana, Cristiana; Avio, Luciano; Felici, Barbara; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Neri, Ulderico; Benedetti, Anna

2014-09-15

250

Designing a tool allowing for a standardized assessment of resistance to drug diversion.  

PubMed

Objectives: Drug diversion is a growing problem in numerous countries. Some laboratories have developed tamper-resistant formulations. The problem for healthcare authorities is now to assess new formulations developed to limit the risk of diversion for administration by another mode and intended mode. It would be helpful to have a pertinent panel of in vitro tests allowing assessment of how a formulation may be altered, both for healthcare authorities and for laboratories, so as to implement adequate sanitary measures. We designed a methodology/tool allowing assessment, in a standardized manner, of the formulation's resistance to drug diversion. We present the various steps leading to the construction of the scale and to its first use. Methods: Creating a Steering Committee - Choosing assays or parameters - standardized by a monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia and pragmatic assays related to users' behaviors - for the assessment of formulation resistance to drug diversion. Designing a scale: i) applying all these tests to a panel of formulations; ii) applying a score by drug and by test; and iii) attribution of weighting per test and calculating the total score for a drug. Results: Eight tests or parameters and 14 drugs (diverted drugs and controls) were chosen. Buprenorphine Subutex® had the lowest score and flunitrazepam Rohypnol® the highest. Conclusions: Our tool allowed classification of the various drugs selected. This classification correlated with results of postmarketing authorization assessment. Rohypnol®, which was the object of many measures, including formulation changes, obtained the highest score in our study. PMID:24820178

Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Collin, Cedric; Messina-Gourlot, Catherine; Raffournier, Christel; Mallaret, Michel; Besse, Jérôme; Courne, Marie-Anne; Richard, Nathalie; Sébille, Véronique; Arnaud, Philippe

2014-07-01

251

Diversity and regulation of plant Ca2+ pumps: insights from expression in yeast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial and temporal regulation of calcium concentration in plant cells depends on the coordinate activities of channels and active transporters located on different organelles and membranes. Several Ca2+ pumps have been identified and characterized by functional expression of plant genes in a yeast mutant (K616). This expression system has opened the way to a genetic and biochemical characterization of the regulatory and catalytic features of diverse Ca2+ pumps. Plant Ca(2+)-ATPases fall into two major types: AtECA1 represents one of four or more members of the type IIA (ER-type) Ca(2+)-ATPases in Arabidopsis, and AtACA2 is one of seven or more members of the type IIB (PM-type) Ca(2+)-ATPases that are regulated by a novel amino terminal domain. Type IIB pumps are widely distributed on membranes, including the PM (plasma membrane), vacuole, and ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The regulatory domain serves multiple functions, including autoinhibition, calmodulin binding, and sites for modification by phosphorylation. This domain, however, is considerably diverse among several type IIB ATPases, suggesting that the pumps are differentially regulated. Understanding of Ca2+ transporters at the molecular level is providing insights into their roles in signaling networks and in regulating fundamental processes of cell biology.

Sze, H.; Liang, F.; Hwang, I.; Curran, A. C.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

252

Plant P450s as versatile drivers for evolution of species-specific chemical diversity  

PubMed Central

The irreversible nature of reactions catalysed by P450s makes these enzymes landmarks in the evolution of plant metabolic pathways. Founding members of P450 families are often associated with general (i.e. primary) metabolic pathways, restricted to single copy or very few representatives, indicative of purifying selection. Recruitment of those and subsequent blooms into multi-member gene families generates genetic raw material for functional diversification, which is an inherent characteristic of specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolism. However, a growing number of highly specialized P450s from not only the CYP71 clan indicate substantial contribution of convergent and divergent evolution to the observed general and specialized metabolite diversity. We will discuss examples of how the genetic and functional diversification of plant P450s drives chemical diversity in light of plant evolution. Even though it is difficult to predict the function or substrate of a P450 based on sequence similarity, grouping with a family or subfamily in phylogenetic trees can indicate association with metabolism of particular classes of compounds. Examples will be given that focus on multi-member gene families of P450s involved in the metabolic routes of four classes of specialized metabolites: cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates, mono- to triterpenoids and phenylpropanoids.

Hamberger, Bjorn; Bak, S?ren

2013-01-01

253

Plant diversity effects on leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen from an experimental grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaching of nitrogen (N) from soil represents a resource loss and, in particular leaching of nitrate, can threaten drinking water quality. As plant diversity leads to a more exhaustive resource use, we investigated the effects of plant species richness, functional group richness, and the presence of specific functional groups on nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic N (DON), and total dissolved N (TDN) leaching from an experimental grassland in the first 4 years after conversion from fertilized arable land to unfertilized grassland. The experiment is located in Jena, Germany, and consists of 82 plots with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 60 plant species and 1-4 functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall herbs, non-leguminous small herbs). Nitrate, ammonium, and TDN concentrations in soil solution in the 0-0.3 m soil layer were measured every second week during 4 years on 62 plots and DON concentrations were calculated as difference between TDN and inorganic N. Missing concentrations in soil solution were estimated using a Bayesian statistical model. Downward water fluxes (DF) per plot from the 0-0.3 m soil layer were simulated in weekly resolution with a water balance model in connection with a Bayesian model for simulating missing soil water content measurements. To obtain annual nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching from the 0-0.3 m soil layer per plot, we multiplied the respective concentrations in soil solution with DF and aggregated the data to annual sums. TDN leaching resulted from summation of nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching. DON leaching contributed most to TDN leaching, particularly in plots without legumes. Dissolved inorganic N leaching in this grassland was dominated by nitrate. The amount of annual ammonium leaching was small and little influenced by plant diversity. Species richness affected DON leaching only in the fourth and last investigated year, possibly because of a delayed soil biota effect that increased microbial transformation of organic N to inorganic N in species-rich mixtures or because of complementary resource use of amino-acid DON of species-rich mixtures. Nitrate and TDN leaching generally decreased with increasing species richness likely because of more exhaustive resource use of more diverse plant mixtures. Functional group richness did not have a significant effect on nitrate, ammonium, DON, and TDN leaching. Legumes increased and grasses decreased nitrate, DON, and TDN leaching because of their N-fixing ability and their extensive rooting system, respectively. TDN leaching was highest in the first year after conversion from arable to grassland which can be related to former fertilization. Quantitative differences in nitrate leaching between plant diversity treatments were also highest in the first year after conversion. However, the percentage reduction of nitrate leaching by species richness, the presence of grasses, or the presence of small herbs increased with time since land-use change possibly because of a strengthening of diversity effects with time. We conclude that especially shortly after land-use change from fertilized arable land to unfertilized grassland, N leaching, in particular nitrate leaching, can be reduced considerably if highly diverse mixtures without legumes are established.

Leimer, Sophia; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wirth, Christian; Wilcke, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

254

A structural equation model analysis of postfire plant diversity in California shrublands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigates patterns of plant diversity following wildfires in fire-prone shrublands of California, seeks to understand those patterns in terms of both local and landscape factors, and considers the implications for fire management. Ninety study sites were established following extensive wildfires in 1993, and 1000-m2 plots were used to sample a variety of parameters. Data on community responses were collected for five years following fire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to relate plant species richness to plant abundance, fire severity, abiotic conditions, within-plot heterogeneity, stand age, and position in the landscape. Temporal dynamics of average richness response was also modeled. Richness was highest in the first year following fire, indicating postfire enhancement of diversity. A general decline in richness over time was detected, with year-to-year variation attributable to annual variations in precipitation. Peak richness in the landscape was found where (1) plant abundance was moderately high, (2) within-plot heterogeneity was high, (3) soils were moderately low in nitrogen, high in sand content, and with high rock cover, (4) fire severity was low, and (5) stands were young prior to fire. Many of these characteristics were correlated with position in the landscape and associated conditions. We infer from the SEM results that postfire richness in this system is strongly influenced by local conditions and that these conditions are, in turn, predictably related to landscape-level conditions. For example, we observed that older stands of shrubs were characterized by more severe fires, which were associated with a low recovery of plant cover and low richness. These results may have implications for the use of prescribed fire in this system if these findings extrapolate to prescribed burns as we would expect. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Grace, J. B.; Keeley, J. E.

2006-01-01

255

Multiscale sampling of plant diversity: Effects of minimum mapping unit size  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only a small portion of any landscape can be sampled for vascular plant diversity because of constraints of cost (salaries, travel time between sites, etc.). Often, the investigator decides to reduce the cost of creating a vegetation map by increasing the minimum mapping unit (MMU), and/or by reducing the number of vegetation classes to be considered. Questions arise about what information is sacrificed when map resolution is decreased. We compared plant diversity patterns from vegetation maps made with 100-ha, 50-ha, 2-ha, and 0.02-ha MMUs in a 754-ha study area in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, United States, using four 0.025-ha and 21 0.1-ha multiscale vegetation plots. We developed and tested species-log(area) curves, correcting the curves for within-vegetation type heterogeneity with Jaccard's coefficients. Total species richness in the study area was estimated from vegetation maps at each resolution (MMU), based on the corrected species-area curves, total area of the vegetation type, and species overlap among vegetation types. With the 0.02-ha MMU, six vegetation types were recovered, resulting in an estimated 552 species (95% CI = 520-583 species) in the 754-ha study area (330 plant species were observed in the 25 plots). With the 2-ha MMU, five vegetation types were recognized, resulting in an estimated 473 species for the study area. With the 50-ha MMU, 439 plant species were estimated for the four vegetation types recognized in the study area. With the 100-ha MMU, only three vegetation types were recognized, resulting in an estimated 341 plant species for the study area. Locally rare species and keystone ecosystems (areas of high or unique plant diversity) were missed at the 2-ha, 50-ha, and 100-ha scales. To evaluate the effects of minimum mapping unit size requires: (1) an initial stratification of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and rare habitat types; and (2) an evaluation of within-type and between-type heterogeneity generated by environmental gradients and other factors. We suggest that at least some portions of vegetation maps created at a coarser level of resolution be validated at a higher level of resolution.

Stohlgren, T. J.; Chong, G. W.; Kalkhan, M. A.; Schell, L. D.

1997-01-01

256

Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species.

Granada, Camille E.; Strochein, Marcos; Vargas, Luciano K.; Bruxel, Manuela; de Sa, Enilson Luiz Saccol; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

2014-01-01

257

Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

2009-01-01

258

Neurobehavioral assessment of children presenting diverse congenital cardiopathologies.  

PubMed

Brain maturation in 1-36 month old children suffering from congenital cardiopathologies was assessed after a study of psychomotor development. The Rogers' test (Rogers et al., Developmental programming for infants and young children. Volume 2. Early intervention developmental profile, Revised edition, ESL/ELT Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1981) was applied to 65 children, of whom 21 presented with simple cardiopathologies (CpS) and 22 with complex cardiopathologies (CpC). All children were matched by age, sex and socioeconomic status to 22 healthy children in a control group (C). Mean differences between the three groups were established by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, and mean differences between the C and CpS/CpC groups were determined using the Mann-Whitney test. The proportion of cases evaluated as "low" in each group was calculated by applying the Rogers' test, and a test of proportion differences was applied between the C and CpS/CpC groups. CpS children performed similarly to the C, whereas CpC children scored significantly lower than C children on all variables. It is highly likely that the suboptimal psychomotor performance observed in CpC children was due to compromised hemodynamics and related to subclinical immaturity of cerebral development. PMID:22886702

Porcayo-Mercado, M Rosario; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria A; Pliego-Rivero, F Bernardo; Aguirre-Pérez, Dalia M; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

2013-03-01

259

Effects of the brown anole invasion and betelnut palm planting on arthropod diversity in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

The brown anole ( Anolis sagrei ) occurs naturally in various localities in Central America, and an exotic invasive population was first reported in Sheishan District, Chiayi County, Taiwan, in 2000. Previous studies showed that following the invasion of A. sagrei , the diversity and abundance of local terrestrial arthropods, such as orb spiders and arboreal insects, were severely affected. In this study, we assessed the impact of A. sagrei on arthropod diversity in Taiwan by comparing spider and insect diversities among betelnut palm plantations, in which this lizard species was either present or absent, and a secondary forest. In addition, enclosures were established in which the density of A. sagrei was manipulated to investigate the effect of this predator on spiders. The results of a lizard stomach content analysis showed that spiders comprised 7% and insects 90% of the prey consumed. Among the insects consumed by A. sagrei , more than 50% were ants. The abundances of the major arthropod prey of A. sagrei , such as jumping spiders and hymenopterans, in the lizard-present sites were much lower than in the lizard-removed sites. The enclosure experiments also showed that predation by the lizards significantly reduced the abundance of jumping spiders. All these results indicated that the introduced lizard greatly affected the diversity and abundance of terrestrial arthropods in agricultural areas in southern Taiwan. PMID:19267623

Huang, Shao-Chang; Norval, Gerrut; Wei, Chia-Shian; Tso, I-Min

2008-11-01

260

Diversity and functionality of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in three plant communities in semiarid Grasslands National Park, Canada.  

PubMed

Septate endophytes proliferating in the roots of grasslands' plants shed doubts on the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses in dry soils. The functionality and diversity of the AM symbioses formed in four replicates of three adjacent plant communities (agricultural, native, and restored) in Grasslands National Park, Canada were assessed in periods of moisture sufficiency and deficiency typical of early and late summer in the region. The community structure of AM fungi, as determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, varied with sampling time and plant community. Soil properties other than soil moisture did not change significantly with sampling time. The DNA sequences dominating AM extraradical networks in dry soil apparently belonged to rare taxa unreported in GenBank. DNA sequences of Glomus viscosum, Glomus mosseae, and Glomus hoi were dominant under conditions of moisture sufficiency. In total, nine different AM fungal sequences were found suggesting a role for the AM symbioses in semiarid areas. Significant positive linear relationships between plant P and N concentrations and active extraradical AM fungal biomass, estimated by the abundance of the phospholipid fatty acid marker 16:1 omega 5, existed under conditions of moisture sufficiency, but not under dry conditions. Active extraradical AM fungal biomass had significantly positive linear relationship with the abundance of two early season grasses, Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. and Koeleria gracilis Pers., but no relationship was found under dry conditions. The AM symbioses formed under conditions of moisture sufficiency typical of early summer at this location appear to be important for the nutrition of grassland plant communities, but no evidence of mutualism was found under the dry conditions of late summer. PMID:20082070

Yang, Chao; Hamel, Chantal; Schellenberg, Michael P; Perez, Juan C; Berbara, Ricardo L

2010-05-01

261

Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Keeley, J. E.; Fotheringham, C. J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

2005-01-01

262

Convergence or Divergence: Alignment of Standards, Assessment, and Issues of Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, teacher educators scrutinize the relationships between the standards and assessment movement in education and the United States' increasingly multicultural population. The papers include: "Foreword" (Jacqueline Jordan Irvine); (1) "Diversity and Standards: Defining the Issues" (Norvella P. Carter); (2) "Accountability and…

Carter, Norvella, Ed.

263

Practicum assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse early childhood pre-service teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practicum is an integral component of teacher education courses, but culturally and linguistically diverse pre-service teachers can face particular struggles in meeting assessment requirements on the practicum in early childhood settings. This paper reports from a small, exploratory study of early childhood practicum handbooks from four Australian universities, interviews with early childhood pre-service teachers whose home language is not

Joce Nuttall; Michelle Ortlipp

2012-01-01

264

Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

2014-01-01

265

Constructing a questionnaire for assessment of awareness and acceptance of diversity in healthcare institutions  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a healthcare environment that is congruent with diversity among care providers and care recipients and to eliminate ethnic discrimination, it’s important to map out and assess caregivers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity. Because of a lack of standardized questionnaires in the Swedish context, this study designed and standardized a questionnaire: the Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions (AAAD, for short). Method The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments. Results Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76). The result of the factor analysis identified six dimensions in the questionnaire: 1) Attitude toward discrimination, 2) Interaction between staff, 3) Stereotypic attitude toward working with a person with a Swedish background, 4) Attitude toward working with a patient with a different background, 5) Attitude toward communication with persons with different backgrounds, 6) Attitude toward interaction between patients and staff. Conclusion This study introduces a newly developed questionnaire with good reliability and validity values that can assess healthcare workers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity in the healthcare environment and healthcare delivery.

2013-01-01

266

Practicum Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practicum is an integral component of teacher education courses, but culturally and linguistically diverse pre-service teachers can face particular struggles in meeting assessment requirements on the practicum in early childhood settings. This paper reports from a small, exploratory study of early childhood practicum handbooks from four…

Nuttall, Joce; Ortlipp, Michelle

2012-01-01

267

A Faculty Assessment of the Campus Climate for Diversity. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on a multi-faceted assessment effort for diversity underway at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The four major elements of this project include: (1) archival research of the institution's history of segregation and desegregation; (2) a report on the status of women and minority faculty, staff, and students;…

Conley, Valerie Martin; Hyer, Patricia B

268

Involving Families in Education: Using Diverse Teaching and Assessment Strategies To Prepare Teachers for This Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes three presentations on the diverse teaching and assessment strategies used in a course designed to prepare preservice teachers for involving families and the community in the education of children. The course is required for early childhood and elementary teacher education majors at the University of Memphis (Tennessee). The…

Morris, Vivian Gunn; And Others

269

Community Structure and Diversity of Biofilms from a Beer Bottling Plant as Revealed Using 16S rRNA Gene Clone Libraries†  

PubMed Central

The microbial composition of biofilms from a beer bottling plant was analyzed by a cultivation independent analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Clone libraries were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis and representative clones from each group were sequenced. The diversity of the clone libraries was comparable with the diversity found for environmental samples. No evidences for the presence of strictly anaerobic taxa or important beer spoilers were found, indicating that biofilms developed for more than 6 months at the plant formed no appropriate habitat for those microorganisms. The genus Methylobacterium was one of the dominating groups of the clone libraries. The size of this population was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and fatty acid analysis. In addition, considerable numbers of clones were assigned to uncultivated organisms.

Timke, Markus; Wang-Lieu, Ngoc Quynh; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Lipski, Andre

2005-01-01

270

Exploring the Diversity of Plant DNA Viruses and Their Satellites Using Vector-Enabled Metagenomics on Whiteflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual

Terry Fei Fan Ng; Siobain Duffy; Jane E. Polston; Elise Bixby; Gary E. Vallad; Mya Breitbart

2011-01-01

271

Evaluating methods for isolating total RNA and predicting the success of sequencing phylogenetically diverse plant transcriptomes.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ? 1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers. PMID:23185583

Johnson, Marc T J; Carpenter, Eric J; Tian, Zhijian; Bruskiewich, Richard; Burris, Jason N; Carrigan, Charlotte T; Chase, Mark W; Clarke, Neil D; Covshoff, Sarah; Depamphilis, Claude W; Edger, Patrick P; Goh, Falicia; Graham, Sean; Greiner, Stephan; Hibberd, Julian M; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid; Kutchan, Toni M; Leebens-Mack, James; Melkonian, Michael; Miles, Nicholas; Myburg, Henrietta; Patterson, Jordan; Pires, J Chris; Ralph, Paula; Rolf, Megan; Sage, Rowan F; Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Stevenson, Dennis; Stewart, C Neal; Surek, Barbara; Thomsen, Christina J M; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu

2012-01-01

272

Accuracy assessment of hydro power plants models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the issue of cascade hydro system scheduling is addressed. Various techniques for hydro power plants modeling are discussed and a detailed comparison of various models is given. First, a detailed simulation model of a generic hydro power plant is presented. Although computationally very demanding, it produces perfectly accurate results. Therefore it can be used as a reference.

T. Stokelj; R. Golob; F. Gubina

1999-01-01

273

Human factors in risk assessments of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current state of the human factor in assessments of risk at commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) vis-a-vis the safety goals of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and introduces an approach for enhancing the risk assessment process to more fully support those safety goals. It is suggested that risk assessments of NPPs, to date, generally have

Ryan

1986-01-01

274

Applications of DNA barcoding to fish landings: authentication and diversity assessment  

PubMed Central

Abstract DNA barcoding methodologies are being increasingly applied not only for scientific purposes but also for diverse real-life uses. Fisheries assessment is a potential niche for DNA barcoding, which serves for species authentication and may also be used for estimating within-population genetic diversity of exploited fish. Analysis of single-sequence barcodes has been proposed as a shortcut for measuring diversity in addition to the original purpose of species identification. Here we explore the relative utility of different mitochondrial sequences (12S rDNA, COI, cyt b, and D-Loop) for application as barcodes in fisheries sciences, using as case studies two marine and two freshwater catches of contrasting diversity levels. Ambiguous catch identification from COI and cyt b was observed. In some cases this could be attributed to duplicated names in databases, but in others it could be due to mitochondrial introgression between closely related species that may obscure species assignation from mtDNA. This last problem could be solved using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. We suggest to simultaneously analyze one conserved and one more polymorphic gene to identify species and assess diversity in fish catches.

Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2013-01-01

275

Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Dothideomycetes Fungi  

PubMed Central

The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here, we compare genome features of 18 members of this class, including 6 necrotrophs, 9 (hemi)biotrophs and 3 saprotrophs, to analyze genome structure, evolution, and the diverse strategies of pathogenesis. The Dothideomycetes most likely evolved from a common ancestor more than 280 million years ago. The 18 genome sequences differ dramatically in size due to variation in repetitive content, but show much less variation in number of (core) genes. Gene order appears to have been rearranged mostly within chromosomal boundaries by multiple inversions, in extant genomes frequently demarcated by adjacent simple repeats. Several Dothideomycetes contain one or more gene-poor, transposable element (TE)-rich putatively dispensable chromosomes of unknown function. The 18 Dothideomycetes offer an extensive catalogue of genes involved in cellulose degradation, proteolysis, secondary metabolism, and cysteine-rich small secreted proteins. Ancestors of the two major orders of plant pathogens in the Dothideomycetes, the Capnodiales and Pleosporales, may have had different modes of pathogenesis, with the former having fewer of these genes than the latter. Many of these genes are enriched in proximity to transposable elements, suggesting faster evolution because of the effects of repeat induced point (RIP) mutations. A syntenic block of genes, including oxidoreductases, is conserved in most Dothideomycetes and upregulated during infection in L. maculans, suggesting a possible function in response to oxidative stress.

Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabian; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2012-01-01

276

Global sampling of plant roots expands the described molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

We aimed to enhance understanding of the molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by building a new global dataset targeting previously unstudied geographical areas. In total, we sampled 96 plant species from 25 sites that encompassed all continents except Antarctica. AMF in plant roots were detected by sequencing the nuclear SSU rRNA gene fragment using either cloning followed by Sanger sequencing or 454-sequencing. A total of 204 AMF phylogroups (virtual taxa, VT) were recorded, increasing the described number of Glomeromycota VT from 308 to 341 globally. Novel VT were detected from 21 sites; three novel but nevertheless widespread VT (Glomus spp. MO-G52, MO-G53, MO-G57) were recorded from six continents. The largest increases in regional VT number were recorded in previously little-studied Oceania and in the boreal and polar climatic zones - this study providing the first molecular data from the latter. Ordination revealed differences in AM fungal communities between different continents and climatic zones, suggesting that both biogeographic history and environmental conditions underlie the global variation of those communities. Our results show that a considerable proportion of Glomeromycota diversity has been recorded in many regions, though further large increases in richness can be expected in remaining unstudied areas. PMID:23422950

Öpik, Maarja; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan J; Davison, John; Facelli, José M; Hiiesalu, Inga; Jairus, Teele; Kalwij, Jesse M; Koorem, Kadri; Leal, Miguel E; Liira, Jaan; Metsis, Madis; Neshataeva, Valentina; Paal, Jaanus; Phosri, Cherdchai; Põlme, Sergei; Reier, Ülle; Saks, Ülle; Schimann, Heidy; Thiéry, Odile; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

2013-07-01

277

Diverse lifestyles and strategies of plant pathogenesis encoded in the genomes of eighteen Dothideomycetes fungi.  

PubMed

The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here, we compare genome features of 18 members of this class, including 6 necrotrophs, 9 (hemi)biotrophs and 3 saprotrophs, to analyze genome structure, evolution, and the diverse strategies of pathogenesis. The Dothideomycetes most likely evolved from a common ancestor more than 280 million years ago. The 18 genome sequences differ dramatically in size due to variation in repetitive content, but show much less variation in number of (core) genes. Gene order appears to have been rearranged mostly within chromosomal boundaries by multiple inversions, in extant genomes frequently demarcated by adjacent simple repeats. Several Dothideomycetes contain one or more gene-poor, transposable element (TE)-rich putatively dispensable chromosomes of unknown function. The 18 Dothideomycetes offer an extensive catalogue of genes involved in cellulose degradation, proteolysis, secondary metabolism, and cysteine-rich small secreted proteins. Ancestors of the two major orders of plant pathogens in the Dothideomycetes, the Capnodiales and Pleosporales, may have had different modes of pathogenesis, with the former having fewer of these genes than the latter. Many of these genes are enriched in proximity to transposable elements, suggesting faster evolution because of the effects of repeat induced point (RIP) mutations. A syntenic block of genes, including oxidoreductases, is conserved in most Dothideomycetes and upregulated during infection in L. maculans, suggesting a possible function in response to oxidative stress. PMID:23236275

Ohm, Robin A; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Barry, Kerrie W; Condon, Bradford J; Copeland, Alex C; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabian; Hesse, Cedar N; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A; Bradshaw, Rosie E; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C; Kema, Gert H J; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A; Spatafora, Joseph W; Turgeon, B Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B; Grigoriev, Igor V

2012-01-01

278

Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-01-01

279

Genetic diversity in some perennial plant species with-in short distances.  

PubMed

Distinct morphophysiological variations observed for over 2 years with-in short distances among four perennial plants indicated genetic diversity among the lines growing at three places. The isozyme and SDS polyacrylamide gel banding patterns as genetic markers were used to investigate four perennial species, namely Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Delonix regia (Boj.) Refin., Cassia fistula L. and Calotropis procera R. Br. Plant materials collected from three locations (Agra, Gwalior and Lucknow) differing in climo-edaphic variables were examined for 4 enzyme systems, viz., esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (EST, PPO, PRX and SOD). Among the four isozymes SOD and PRX revealed best discriminating power. Protein banding patterns as well as zymogram revealed that Dalbergia sissoo growing at Gwalior was closer to that of Agra; Delonix regia depicted highest similarity between Lucknow and Agra and Calotropis procera of Lucknow location was more closer to Gwalior than Agra. The results confirm genetic diversity in the species as a means of adaptation to differing climo-edaphic variables. PMID:17717991

Pandeya, S C; Chandra, A; Pathak, P S

2007-01-01

280

Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30 %. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

Lanta, Vojt?ch; Doležal, Ji?í; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

2012-06-01

281

Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.  

PubMed

Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214.6 mg/I, respectively. There was an increase in the results of conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, and TDS in carbon filter effluent which was attributed to the desorption of adsorbed ions on the carbon media. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, total hardness, and TDS indicated the high efficiency of the cationic filter. The annual removal efficiencies of conductivity, turbidity, chloride, and TDS proved the efficiency of the anionic filter for removing the dissolved and suspended ions. All of the recorded values of the pH, conductivity, turbidity, chlorides, hardness, and TDS of the mixed bed effluent indicated that the water at this stage was of high quality for boiler feed. The study recommended adjustment of coagulant and residual chlorine doses as well as contact time, and continuous monitoring and maintenance of the different units. PMID:17216967

El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

2002-01-01

282

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: GLASS CONTAINER MANUFACTURING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of a study to gather and analyze background information and technical data related to air emissions from glass container manufacturing operations. It covers emissions from three plant areas: raw materials preparation and handling, glass melting, and ...

283

Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The...

B. Kjellstroem

1996-01-01

284

Coastal plants : chemical sensitivities and risk assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of plant-dominated ecosystems to improve water quality and provide habitat for biodiversity are important ecological services. These services are impacted by natural and anthropogenic stressors which includes contaminant toxicity. Scientific information describing the...

285

7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...319.40-11 Plant pest risk assessment standards...to determine the plant pest risks associated with each...

2014-01-01

286

Woody plants and the prediction of climate-change impacts on bird diversity  

PubMed Central

Current methods of assessing climate-induced shifts of species distributions rarely account for species interactions and usually ignore potential differences in response times of interacting taxa to climate change. Here, we used species-richness data from 1005 breeding bird and 1417 woody plant species in Kenya and employed model-averaged coefficients from regression models and median climatic forecasts assembled across 15 climate-change scenarios to predict bird species richness under climate change. Forecasts assuming an instantaneous response of woody plants and birds to climate change suggested increases in future bird species richness across most of Kenya whereas forecasts assuming strongly lagged woody plant responses to climate change indicated a reversed trend, i.e. reduced bird species richness. Uncertainties in predictions of future bird species richness were geographically structured, mainly owing to uncertainties in projected precipitation changes. We conclude that assessments of future species responses to climate change are very sensitive to current uncertainties in regional climate-change projections, and to the inclusion or not of time-lagged interacting taxa. We expect even stronger effects for more specialized plant–animal associations. Given the slow response time of woody plant distributions to climate change, current estimates of future biodiversity of many animal taxa may be both biased and too optimistic.

Kissling, W. D.; Field, R.; Korntheuer, H.; Heyder, U.; Bohning-Gaese, K.

2010-01-01

287

Partitioning the effects of environmental and spatial heterogeneity on distribution of plant diversity in the Yellow River Estuary.  

PubMed

For successful conservation and restoration of biodiversity, it is important to understand how diversity is regulated. In the ecological research community, a current topic of interest is how much of the variation in plant species richness and composition is explained by environmental variation (niche-based model), relative to spatial processes (neutral theory). The Yellow River Estuary (YRE) is a newly formed and fragile wetland ecosystem influenced by both the Yellow River and Bohai Bay. Here, we applied variance partitioning techniques to assess the relative effects of spatial and environmental variables on species richness and composition in the YRE. We also conducted a species indicator analysis to identify characteristic species for three subestuaries within the YRE. Partial redundancy analysis showed that the variations in species richness and composition were explained by both environmental and spatial factors. The majority of explained variation in species richness and composition was attributable to local environmental factors. Among the environmental variables, soil salinity made the greatest contribution to species abundance and composition. Soil salinity was the most important factor in the Diaokou subestuary, while soil moisture was the most important factor influencing species richness in the Qingshui and Chahe subestuaries. The combined effects of soil salinity and moisture determined species richness and composition in the wetlands. These results increase our understanding of the organization and assembly of estuarine plant communities. PMID:22744185

Yuan, Xiu; Ma, Keming; Wang, De

2012-06-01

288

Plant metabolomics is not ripe for environmental risk assessment.  

PubMed

Metabolomics separates and detects small molecules and helps determine the composition of plant materials. This makes it appear to be a possible contributor to environmental risk assessment (ERA) of transgenic plants. Here we argue that, despite important advances in the technology, limited annotation and our limited knowledge of the role of metabolites in plant-environment interactions means that metabolomics is not yet ripe for ERA. PMID:24908381

Hall, Robert D; de Maagd, Ruud A

2014-08-01

289

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty

X. Zeng; M. Anitescu; C. Pereira; M. Regalbuto

2009-01-01

290

AQUATIC PLANT COMMUNITIES FOR IMPACT MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The studies revewed here suggest that both structural and functional assessments of aquatic plant communities are valuable tools in the determination of environmental impacts and water quality. I am not suggesting that aquatic plants be used in lieu of macronivertebrates or fish ...

291

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COKE BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an initial screening study, initiating a multimedia environmental assessment of coke by-product recovery plants in the U.S. The study included both the gathering and analysis of existing data and sampling and analysis at one plant based on EPA's Indust...

292

Multipathway health risk assessment of power plant water discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemicals released with water discharges from a fossil-fueled power plant may present health risks through a variety of exposure pathways including ingestion of drinking water, fish consumption and dermal absorption while swimming. The Total Risk of Utility Emissions (TRUE) model provides a framework that allows one to assess the multipathway health risks associated with water discharges from power plants.

C. Seigneur; E. Constantinou; L. Levin

1996-01-01

293

Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2010-01-01

294

Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may

Ellingwood

1994-01-01

295

Climate interacts with soil to produce beta diversity in Californian plant communities.  

PubMed

Spatially distinct communities can arise through interactions and feedbacks between abiotic and biotic factors. We suggest that, for plants, patches of infertile soils such as serpentine may support more distinct communities from those in the surrounding non-serpentine matrix in regions where the climate is more productive (i.e., warmer and/or wetter). Where both soil fertility and climatic productivity are high, communities may be dominated by plants with fast-growing functional traits, whereas where either soils or climate impose low productivity, species with stress-tolerant functional traits may predominate. As a result, both species and functional composition may show higher dissimilarity between patch and matrix in productive climates. This pattern may be reinforced by positive feedbacks, in which higher plant growth under favorable climate and soil conditions leads to higher soil fertility, further enhancing plant growth. For 96 pairs of sites across a 200-km latitudinal gradient in California, we found that the species and functional dissimilarities between communities on infertile serpentine and fertile non-serpentine soils were higher in more productive (wetter) regions. Woody species had more stress-tolerant functional traits on serpentine than non-serpentine soil, and as rainfall increased, woody species functional composition changed toward fast-growing traits on non-serpentine, but not on serpentine soils. Soil organic matter increased with rainfall, but only on non-serpentine soils, and the difference in organic matter between soils was positively correlated with plant community dissimilarity. These results illustrate a novel mechanism wherein climatic productivity is associated with higher species, functional, and landscape-level dissimilarity (beta diversity). PMID:24279272

Fernandez-Going, B M; Harrison, S P; Anacker, B L; Safford, H D

2013-09-01

296

[Chemical and genetic diversity of Ligularia plants collected in the Hengduan Mountains, China].  

PubMed

The Hengduan Mountains area of China is rich in plant resources. The Ligularia species, which belong to Senecioneae and Asteraceae, distributed in this area are highly diversified and contain 6 sections and over 100 species, and are considered to be in on-going evolution and diversification. To understand the inter- and intra-specific diversity of these plants and to elucidate the mechanism of diversification, we analyzed Ligularia plants by chemical, genetic, geographical, ecological, and morphological approaches. We investigated 4 species, and isolated 26 novel compounds. Based on the chemical composition of root extract as well as nucleotide sequence variations in internal transcribed spacers (ITS), we obtained 3 findings. (i) L. virgaurea is classified into two groups, ligularol type and virgaurenone type from the view point of chemical constituents, which are phylogenetically distinguished from each other, (ii) L. subspicata and L. lamarum have an overlapped chemical spectrum, but showed no clear genetic correlation, and (iii) L. cyathiceps showed no significant variations in either chemical constituents or nucleotide sequences. PMID:23208053

Saito, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

297

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Highly Incomplete SNP Genotype Data with Imputations: An Empirical Assessment  

PubMed Central

Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) recently has emerged as a promising genomic approach for assessing genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. However, concerns are not lacking about the uniquely large unbalance in GBS genotype data. Although some genotype imputation has been proposed to infer missing observations, little is known about the reliability of a genetic diversity analysis of GBS data, with up to 90% of observations missing. Here we performed an empirical assessment of accuracy in genetic diversity analysis of highly incomplete single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes with imputations. Three large single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype data sets for corn, wheat, and rice were acquired, and missing data with up to 90% of missing observations were randomly generated and then imputed for missing genotypes with three map-independent imputation methods. Estimating heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient from original, missing, and imputed data revealed variable patterns of bias from assessed levels of missingness and genotype imputation, but the estimation biases were smaller for missing data without genotype imputation. The estimates of genetic differentiation were rather robust up to 90% of missing observations but became substantially biased when missing genotypes were imputed. The estimates of topology accuracy for four representative samples of interested groups generally were reduced with increased levels of missing genotypes. Probabilistic principal component analysis based imputation performed better in terms of topology accuracy than those analyses of missing data without genotype imputation. These findings are not only significant for understanding the reliability of the genetic diversity analysis with respect to large missing data and genotype imputation but also are instructive for performing a proper genetic diversity analysis of highly incomplete GBS or other genotype data.

Fu, Yong-Bi

2014-01-01

298

Effect of PCR amplicon size on assessments of clone library microbial diversity and community structure  

PubMed Central

Summary PCR-based surveys of microbial communities commonly use regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene to determine taxonomic membership and estimate total diversity. Here we show that the length of the target amplicon has a significant effect on assessments of microbial richness and community membership. Using OTU- and taxonomy-based tools, we compared the V6 hypervariable region of the bacterial SSU rRNA gene of three amplicon libraries of ca. 100 base pair (bp), 400bp, and 1000bp from each of two hydrothermal vent fluid samples. We found that the smallest amplicon libraries contained more unique sequences, higher diversity estimates, and a different community structure than the other two libraries from each sample. We hypothesize that a combination of polymerase dissociation, cloning bias, and mis-priming due to secondary structure accounts for the differences. While this relationship is not linear, it is clear that the smallest amplicon libraries contained more different types of sequences, and accordingly, more diverse members of the community. Because divergent and lower abundant taxa can be more readily detected with smaller amplicons, they may provide better assessments of total community diversity and taxonomic membership than longer amplicons in molecular studies of microbial communities.

Huber, Julie A.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Huse, Susan M.; Neal, Phillip R.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Mark Welch, David B.

2009-01-01

299

Diversity and evolution of a trait mediating ant-plant interactions: insights from extrafloral nectaries in Senna (Leguminosae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants display a wide range of traits that allow them to use animals for vital tasks. To attract and reward aggressive ants that protect developing leaves and flowers from consumers, many plants bear extrafloral nectaries (EFNs). EFNs are exceptionally diverse in morphology and locations on a plant. In this study the evolution of EFN diversity is explored by focusing on the legume genus Senna, in which EFNs underwent remarkable morphological diversification and occur in over 80 % of the approx. 350 species. Methods EFN diversity in location, morphology and plant ontogeny was characterized in wild and cultivated plants, using scanning electron microscopy and microtome sectioning. From these data EFN evolution was reconstructed in a phylogenetic framework comprising 83 Senna species. Key Results Two distinct kinds of EFNs exist in two unrelated clades within Senna. ‘Individualized’ EFNs (iEFNs), located on the compound leaves and sometimes at the base of pedicels, display a conspicuous, gland-like nectary structure, are highly diverse in shape and characterize the species-rich EFN clade. Previously overlooked ‘non-individualized’ EFNs (non-iEFNs) embedded within stipules, bracts, and sepals are cryptic and may represent a new synapomorphy for clade II. Leaves bear EFNs consistently throughout plant ontogeny. In one species, however, early seedlings develop iEFNs between the first pair of leaflets, but later leaves produce them at the leaf base. This ontogenetic shift reflects our inferred diversification history of iEFN location: ancestral leaves bore EFNs between the first pair of leaflets, while leaves derived from them bore EFNs either between multiple pairs of leaflets or at the leaf base. Conclusions EFNs are more diverse than previously thought. EFN-bearing plant parts provide different opportunities for EFN presentation (i.e. location) and individualization (i.e. morphology), with implications for EFN morphological evolution, EFN–ant protective mutualisms and the evolutionary role of EFNs in plant diversification.

Marazzi, Brigitte; Conti, Elena; Sanderson, Michael J.; McMahon, Michelle M.; Bronstein, Judith L.

2013-01-01

300

Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services.  

PubMed

The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. PMID:24051446

Gilioli, G; Schrader, G; Baker, R H A; Ceglarska, E; Kertész, V K; Lövei, G; Navajas, M; Rossi, V; Tramontini, S; van Lenteren, J C

2014-01-15

301

Hot Mix Asphalt Plants Emission Assessment Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an assessment of emissions from hot mix asphalt (HMA) manufacturing facilities. Included in the report is a description of the manufacturing process and the emissions associated with HMA production; the procedures for developing emiss...

2000-01-01

302

Does Plant Diversity Affect Carbon and Water-Use Efficiency in Grasslands? Evidence from a Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of rapid species loss on a global scale it is imperative that we shed more light on how this loss of diversity will affect the functioning and functions of ecosystems. Previous research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has shown that plant biodiversity often has a positive relationship to net primary productivity (NPP), and/or net ecosystem productivity (NEP), particularly in temperate grassland systems (Hector et al 2002). One of the big ensuing questions is whether plant diversity also affects nutrient cycling and biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems. A more detailed look at the dynamics of carbon and water-use changes caused by plant diversity has only recently occurred (Caldeira et al 2001) but there is still much work to be done in this area. A large-scale grassland experiment entitled "The Jena Experiment" was started in spring 2002 in Germany in order to investigate the effect of plant diversity on ecosystem functioning, focussing mainly on element cycling and trophic interactions. Out of a total species pool of 60 species mixtures of 1 to 16 species and one to four functional groups were randomly selected and seeded as newly established communities on 82 plots of 20 x 20 m. The four functional groups consist of grasses, small and tall herbs, and legume species. With the use of natural abundance stable isotope ratios (?13C and ? 15N) in aboveground plant material, the relationship between plant diversity (both functional and species-driven) and productivity, water-use efficiency and nitrogen cycling was investigated. Results so far, show increased above-ground productivity with increasing species diversity as well as with increasing functional diversity of plants in a system. At community level, both carbon and nitrogen concentrations as well as ?13C in plants remained similar across the diversity gradient. In contrast we found a decrease in ? 15N values with increasing plant diversity. This suggests that bigger total carbon pools in more diverse systems can be attributed only to higher biomass, whereas some form of fractionation of ? 15N seems to be occurring during N uptake or in the soil in the most species-rich systems. Soil carbon also did not tend to respond to plant diversity levels. At the whole system scale there was no evidence for changes in water-use efficiency over the diversity gradient. Implications for the functioning of future grassland systems with reduced diversity will be discussed. References Caldeira, M. C., R. J. Ryel, et al. (2001) Mechanisms of positive biodiversity-production relationships: insights provided by delta C-13 analysis in experimental Mediterranean grassland plots. Ecology Letters 4(5): 439-443. Hector, A., E. Bazeley-White, et al. (2002). Overyielding in grassland communities: testing the sampling effect hypothesis with replicated biodiversity experiments. Ecology Letters 5(4): 502-511.

Temperton, V. M.; Buchmann, N.; Steinbeiß, S.; Gleixner, G.; Schulze, D.

2004-12-01

303

Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges  

PubMed Central

Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n?=?403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total ?-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific ?-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot ?-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot ?-diversity). We found strong region effects on total ?-diversity, habitat-specific ?-diversity and plot-to-plot ?-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot ?-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot ?-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal ability may increase plot ?-diversity and compensate for low total ?-diversity.

Lenoir, Jonathan; Gegout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2010-01-01

304

Phylogenetic, Microbiological, and Glycoside Hydrolase Diversities within the Extremely Thermophilic, Plant Biomass-Degrading Genus Caldicellulosiruptor?  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic, microbiological, and comparative genomic analyses were used to examine the diversity among members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor, with an eye toward the capacity of these extremely thermophilic bacteria to degrade the complex carbohydrate content of plant biomass. Seven species from this genus (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, C. hydrothermalis, C. owensensis, C. kronotskyensis, C. lactoaceticus, and C. kristjanssonii) were compared on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and cross-species DNA-DNA hybridization to a whole-genome C. saccharolyticus oligonucleotide microarray, revealing that C. saccharolyticus was the most divergent within this group. Growth physiology of the seven Caldicellulosiruptor species on a range of carbohydrates showed that, while all could be cultivated on acid-pretreated switchgrass, only C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, C. kronotskyensis, and C. lactoaceticus were capable of hydrolyzing Whatman no. 1 filter paper. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the secretomes from cells grown on microcrystalline cellulose revealed that the cellulolytic species also had diverse secretome fingerprints. The C. saccharolyticus secretome contained a prominent S-layer protein that appears in the cellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor species, suggesting a possible role in cell-substrate interactions. Growth physiology also correlated with glycoside hydrolase (GH) and carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) inventories for the seven bacteria, as deduced from draft genome sequence information. These inventories indicated that the absence of a single GH and CBM family was responsible for diminished cellulolytic capacity. Overall, the genus Caldicellulosiruptor appears to contain more genomic and physiological diversity than previously reported, and this argues for continued efforts to isolate new members from high-temperature terrestrial biotopes.

Blumer-Schuette, Sara E.; Lewis, Derrick L.; Kelly, Robert M.

2010-01-01

305

Molecular Evidence for Novel Planctomycete Diversity in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

We examined anoxic and aerobic basins and an anaerobic digestor of a municipal wastewater treatment plant for the presence of novel planctomycete-like diversity. Three 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed by using a 16S rRNA-targeted universal reverse primer and a forward PCR primer specific for Planctomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of 234 16S rRNA gene sequences defined 110 operational taxonomic units. The majority of these sequences clustered with the four known genera, Pirellula (32%), Planctomyces (18.4%), Gemmata (3.8%), and Isosphaera (0.4%). More interestingly, 42.3% of the sequences appeared to define two distantly separated monophyletic groups. The first group, represented by 35.5% of the sequences, was related to the Planctomyces group and branched as a monophyletic cluster. It exhibited between 11.9 and 20.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity in comparisons with cultivated planctomycetes. The second group, represented by 6.8% of the sequences, was deeply rooted within the Planctomycetales tree. It was distantly related to the anammox sequences (level of dissimilarity, 20.3 to 24.4%) and was a monophyletic cluster. The retrieved sequences extended the intralineage phylogenetic depth of the Plantomycetales from 23 to 30.6%. The lineages described here may have a broad diversity of undiscovered biochemical and metabolic novelty. We developed a new 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe and localized members of one of the phylogenetic groups using the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. Our results indicate that activated sludge contains very diverse representatives of this group, which grow under aerobic and anoxic conditions and even under anaerobic conditions. The majority of species in this group remain poorly characterized.

Chouari, Rakia; Le Paslier, Denis; Daegelen, Patrick; Ginestet, Philippe; Weissenbach, Jean; Sghir, Abdelghani

2003-01-01

306

Bacterial diversity in biofilms formed on condenser tube surfaces in a nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

To elucidate the bacterial diversity in biofilms formed on a condenser tube from a nuclear power plant, 16S rRNA gene sequences were examined using a PCR-cloning-sequencing approach. Twelve operational taxonomic units were retrieved in the clone library, and the estimated species richness was low (13.2). Most of the clones (94.7%) were affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria; Planctomycetes and ?-Proteobacteria were much rarer. Interestingly, except for one clone belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, most of the sequences displayed sequence similarities <97% of those of the closest type strains. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, most bacteria were assigned to novel taxa above the species level. The low species richness and unusual bacterial composition may be attributable to selective pressure from chlorine in the cooling water. To prevent or control bacterial biofilms in cooling circuits, additional studies of the physiology and ecology of these species will be essential. PMID:21058056

Choi, Dong H; Noh, Jae H; Yu, Ok H; Kang, Yeon S

2010-11-01

307

[Diversity of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) using aromatic plants (Apiaceae) as survival and reproduction sites in agroecological system].  

PubMed

Studies show that Apiaceae may provide concentrated vital resources for predator insects, stimulating their abundance, diversity and persistence in agricultural systems, thereby increasing their efficiency as biological control agents. Among the predatory insects, Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) on many different species both as larvae and adults, complementing their diet with pollen and/or nectar. This study aimed to determine the diversity and relative abundance of Coccinellidae species visiting plants of Anethum graveolens (dill), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Foeniculum vulgare (sweet fennel) (all Apiaceae), particularly in their blooming seasons, and to evaluate the potential of these aromatic species for providing the resources for survivorship and reproduction of coccinelids. Coccinellids were collected by removal of samplings from September to October, 2007. Besides one unidentified species of Chilocorinae, five species of Coccinellinae were collected: Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr), Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa (Germar) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Meneville. Dill provided a significant increase in the abundance of coccinellids as compared to coriander and sweet fennel. These aromatic species were used by coccinellids as survival and reproduction sites, providing food resources (pollen and/or prey), shelter for larvae, pupae and adults, and mating and oviposition sites as well. PMID:20676507

Lixa, Alice T; Campos, Juliana M; Resende, André L S; Silva, Joice C; Almeida, Maxwell M T B; Aguiar-Menezes, Elen L

2010-01-01

308

Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities at each step of treatment plant for potable water generation.  

PubMed

The dynamics of bacterial and eukaryotic community associated with each step of a water purification plant in China was investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR based approaches. Analysis of pyrosequencing revealed that a high degree diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic communities is present in the drinking water treatment process before sand filtration. In addition, the microbial compositions of the biofilm in the sand filters and those of the water of the putatively clear tanks were distinct, suggesting that sand filtration and chlorination treatments played primary roles in removing exposed microbial communities. Potential pathogens including Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Legionella, and Mycobacterium, co-occurred with protozoa such as Rhizopoda (Hartmannellidae), and fungi such as Penicillium and Aspergillus. Furthermore, this study supported the ideas based on molecular level that biofilm communities were different from those in corresponding water samples, and that the concentrations of Mycobacterium spp., Legionella spp., and Naegleria spp. in the water samples declined with each step of the water treatment process by qPCR. Overall, this study provides the first detailed evaluation of bacterial and eukaryotic diversity at each step of an individual potable water treatment process located in China. PMID:24268295

Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Hongxun; Thompson, Ian P

2014-04-01

309

Clonal genetic structure and diversity in populations of an aquatic plant with combined vs. separate sexes.  

PubMed

Clonality is often implicated in models of the evolution of dioecy, but few studies have explicitly compared clonal structure between plant sexual systems, or between the sexes in dioecious populations. Here, we exploit the occurrence of monoecy and dioecy in clonal Sagittaria latifola (Alismataceae) to evaluate two main hypotheses: (i) clone sizes are smaller in monoecious than dioecious populations, because of constraints imposed on clone size by costs associated with geitonogamy; (ii) in dioecious populations, male clones are larger and flower more often than female clones because of sex-differential reproductive costs. Differences in clone size and flowering could result in discordance between ramet- and genet-based sex ratios. We used spatially explicit sampling to address these hypotheses in 10 monoecious and 11 dioecious populations of S. latifolia at the northern range limit in Eastern North America. In contrast to our predictions, monoecious clones were significantly larger than dioecious clones, probably due to their higher rates of vegetative growth and corm production, and in dioecious populations, there was no difference in clone size between females and males; ramet- and genet-based sex ratios were therefore highly correlated. Genotypic diversity declined with latitude for both sexual systems, but monoecious populations exhibited lower genotypic richness. Differences in life history between the sexual systems of S. latifolia appear to be the most important determinants of clonal structure and diversity. PMID:24815077

Yakimowski, Sarah B; Barrett, Spencer C H

2014-06-01

310

Assessing the Mycorrhizal Diversity of Soils and Identification of Fungus Fruiting Bodies and Axenic Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For assessment of mycorrhizal diversity of soils and for identification of fungal fruiting bodies, many techniques are used.\\u000a The classical fungal identification starts with collection of field notes, and laboratory processing which involves the isolation\\u000a of fungal cultures from soils, fruiting bodies, and spores by using direct or indirect plating methods for microbial screening.\\u000a The wet-sieving and decanting technique for

Dirk Krüger; Manisha Sharma; Ajit Varma

311

Assessment of alkaliphilic haloarchaeal diversity in Sua pan evaporator ponds in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation-dependent and molecular-based culture-independent methods were used to assess alkaliphilic haloarchaeal diversity at Sua pan evaporator ponds in Botswana. Isolates belonging to the genera Natrialba, Natronococcus and Natronorubrum were recovered from brine samples by enrichment and identified through a series of biochemical tests as well as sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments. In addition, an environmental 16S rRNA library was constructed

Ashant Pravin Gareeb; Mathabatha Evodia Setati

2009-01-01

312

Fungal diversity and plant growth promotion of endophytic fungi from six halophytes in Suncheon Bay.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi were isolated from roots of six halophytes in Suncheon Bay. The endophytic fungi of 35 species isolated from halophytes were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) containing the ITS1, 5.8s, and ITS2 regions. All fungal strains were analyzed to diversity at the genus level. Fungal culture filtrates (FCF) of endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-c rice (WR) seedling for plant growth-promoting verification. It was confirmed that fungal strain Sj-2-2 provided plant growth promotion (PGP) to WR seedling. Then, PGP of Suaeda japonica was confirmed by treating culture filtrate of Sj-2-2. As a result, it was verified that culture filtrate of Sj-2-2 had more advanced PGP than positive control when treated to S. japonica. The secondary metabolites involved in culture filtrate of Sj-2-2 were identified by HPLC and GC-MS SIM analysis. The presence of physiologically bioactive gibberellins (GAs) and other inactive GAs in culture filtrate of Sj-2-2 was detected. The molecular analysis of sequences of Sj-2-2 showed the similarity to Penicillium sp. of 99% homology. The PGP of Sj-2-2 as well as symbiosis between endophytic fungi and halophytes growing naturally in salt marsh was confirmed. Sj-2-2 was identified as a new fungal strain producing GAs by molecular analysis of sequences. Consequently, the Sj-2-2 fungal strain was named as Penicillium sp. Sj-2-2. In this study, the diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from roots of halophytes in salt marsh and the PGP of a new gibberellin-producing fungal strain were confirmed. PMID:23124347

You, Young-Hyun; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Sang-Mo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Lee, Jin-Man; Kim, Jong-Guk

2012-11-01

313

Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.  

PubMed

Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis. PMID:24810761

Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

2014-01-01

314

Mycorrhizal fungi of Vanilla: diversity, specificity and effects on seed germination and plant growth.  

PubMed

Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the germination of orchid seeds. However, the specificity of orchids for their mycorrhizal fungi and the effects of the fungi on orchid growth are controversial. Mycorrhizal fungi have been studied in some temperate and tropical, epiphytic orchids, but the symbionts of tropical, terrestrial orchids are still unknown. Here we study diversity, specificity and function of mycorrhizal fungi in Vanilla, a pantropical genus that is both terrestrial and epiphytic. Mycorrhizal roots were collected from four Vanilla species in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Cuba. Cultured and uncultured mycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA (nrITS) and part of the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU), and by counting number of nuclei in hyphae. Vanilla spp. were associated with a wide range of mycorrhizal fungi: Ceratobasidium, Thanatephorus and Tulasnella. Related fungi were found in different species of Vanilla, although at different relative frequencies. Ceratobasidium was more common in roots in soil and Tulasnella was more common in roots on tree bark, but several clades of fungi included strains from both substrates. Relative frequencies of genera of mycorrhizal fungi differed significantly between cultured fungi and those detected by direct amplification. Ceratobasidium and Tulasnella were tested for effects on seed germination of Vanilla and effects on growth of Vanilla and Dendrobium plants. We found significant differences among fungi in effects on seed germination and plant growth. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi on Vanilla and Dendrobium were similar: a clade of Ceratobasidium had a consistently positive effect on plant growth and seed germination. This clade has potential use in germination and propagation of orchids. Results confirmed that a single orchid species can be associated with several mycorrhizal fungi with different functional consequences for the plant. PMID:18065002

Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

2007-01-01

315

Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum  

PubMed Central

Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis.

Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

2014-01-01

316

An Assessment of Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizer on the Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Onion and Sugar Beet  

PubMed Central

The impact of a urea-formaldehyde (UF) fertilizer on bacterial diversity in onion bulbs and main roots of sugar beet were examined using a 16S rRNA gene clone library. The UF fertilizer markedly increased bacterial diversity in both plants. The results of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that nearly 30% of the variance observed in bacterial diversity in both the onion and sugar beet was attributed to the fertilization conditions and also that the community structures in both plants shifted unidirectionally in response to the UF fertilizer.

Ikeda, Seishi; Suzuki, Keijiro; Kawahara, Makoto; Noshiro, Masao; Takahashi, Naokazu

2014-01-01

317

An assessment of urea-formaldehyde fertilizer on the diversity of bacterial communities in onion and sugar beet.  

PubMed

The impact of a urea-formaldehyde (UF) fertilizer on bacterial diversity in onion bulbs and main roots of sugar beet were examined using a 16S rRNA gene clone library. The UF fertilizer markedly increased bacterial diversity in both plants. The results of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that nearly 30% of the variance observed in bacterial diversity in both the onion and sugar beet was attributed to the fertilization conditions and also that the community structures in both plants shifted unidirectionally in response to the UF fertilizer. PMID:24882062

Ikeda, Seishi; Suzuki, Keijiro; Kawahara, Makoto; Noshiro, Masao; Takahashi, Naokazu

2014-07-19

318

Rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with long-lived perennial prairie plants vary in diversity, composition, and structure.  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to investigate the variation in rhizosphere microbial community composition, diversity, and structure among individual Andropogon gerardii Vitman (big bluestem) and Lespedeza capitata Michx. (bush clover). Bacterial communities from the rhizosphere of 10 plants of each species (n = 20 plants total) were explored using a culture-independent pipeline. Microbial communities associated with both host plants had high bacterial diversity within individual plant rhizosphere and taxa unique to individual rhizospheres. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of A. gerardii were consistently more diverse than those associated with L. capitata, and there were significant differences between plant species in rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Differences included microbial taxa with no known functional relationship with their preferred host species, including sulfide-methylating obligate anaerobes (Holophaga), complete denitrifiers (Rhodoplanes), sludge inhabitants (Ktedonobacter), and nitrate oxidizers (Nitrospira). These results suggest the potential for plant species to have significant impacts on a broad array of ecosystem functions (e.g., cycling of carbon, nitrogen sulfurs, metals, and trace elements) via their selective impacts on soil microbes. However, sequence-based community analysis and the corresponding lack of intact microbial cultures limits understanding of the potential influences of enriched microbial taxa on plant hosts and their roles in ecosystem functioning. PMID:23826959

Rosenzweig, N; Bradeen, J M; Tu, Z J; McKay, S J; Kinkel, L L

2013-07-01

319

Novel Symbiotic Protoplasts Formed by Endophytic Fungi Explain Their Hidden Existence, Lifestyle Switching, and Diversity within the Plant Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs) that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline “what, where, when and how”, opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that provide a robust framework for continued tests of the mycosome phase hypothesis.

Atsatt, Peter R.; Whiteside, Matthew D.

2014-01-01

320

Quantifying the importance of plant functional diversity for ecosystem functioning and resilience under scenarios of climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) typically employ only a small set of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to represent the vast diversity of observed vegetation forms and functioning. There is growing evidence, however, that this abstraction may not adequately represent the observed variation in plant functional traits, which is thought to play an important role for many ecosystem functions and for ecosystem resilience to environmental change. The geographic distribution of PFTs in these models is also often based on empirical relationships between present-day climate and vegetation patterns. Projections of future climate change, however, point toward the possibility of novel regional climates, which could lead to no-analog vegetation compositions incompatible with the PFT paradigm. Here, we present results from the Jena Diversity-DGVM (JeDi-DGVM), a novel traits-based vegetation model, which simulates a large number of hypothetical plant growth strategies constrained by functional tradeoffs, thereby allowing for a more flexible temporal and spatial representation of the terrestrial biosphere. We run two sets of model experiments forced with the latest bias-corrected climate change scenarios from several different global climate models. In the first set, we simulate a diverse biosphere using a large number of plant growth strategies, allowing the modelled ecosystems to adapt through emergent changes in ecosystem composition. We then aggregate the surviving growth strategies from the first set of diverse simulations to a small number of biome-averaged growth strategies, recreating something akin to PFTs. We use this smaller set of PFT-like growth strategies to represent a sparse or low-diversity biosphere in the second set of model experiments. We quantify the importance of functional diversity by comparing key metrics of ecosystem functioning across the two sets of simulations. The results reveal the implications of using the common PFT vegetation modelling paradigm versus a more diverse approach and may help to quantify the value of biodiversity conservation efforts.

Pavlick, R.; Drewry, D.; Kleidon, A.

2013-12-01

321

Risk assessment of GM plants: avoiding gridlock?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of genetically modified crops is presently based largely on four crops containing few transgenes and grown in four countries. This will soon change and pose new challenges for risk assessment. A more structured approach that is as generic as possible is advocated to study consequences of gene flow. Hazards should be precisely defined and prioritized, with emphasis on quantifying

Mike J. Wilkinson; Jeremy Sweet; Guy M. Poppy

2003-01-01

322

Medicinal parasitic plants on diverse hosts with their usages and barcodes.  

PubMed

Medicinal properties of parasitic plants were investigated by means of ethnobotanical study in some areas of northeastern Thailand. Important traditional usages are: Scurrula atropurpurea nourishes blood, Dendrophthoe pentandra decreases high blood pressure, and Helixanthera parasitica treats liver disease. Their systematics were also determined. The research is based on findings obtained from 100 parasite-host pairs. Of these, eight parasitic species were recorded; they are members of two families, viz. family Loranthaceae, namely D. lanosa, D. pentandra, H. parasitica, Macrosolen brandisianus, M. cochinchinensis and S. atropurpurea, and family Viscaceae, namely Viscum articulatum and V. ovalifolium. In addition, each parasitic species is found on diverse hosts, indicating non-host-parasitic specificity. Species-specific tagging of all species studied was carried out using the rbcL and psbA-trnH chloroplast regions. These tag sequences are submitted to GenBank databases under accession numbers JN687563-JN687578. Genetic distances calculated from nucleotide variations in a couple of species of each genus, Dendrophthoe, Macrosolen, and Viscum, were 0.032, 0.067 and 0.036 in the rbcL region, and 0.269, 0.073 and 0.264 in the psbA-trnH spacer region, respectively. These variations will be used for further identification of incomplete plant parts or other forms such as capsule, powder, dried or chopped pieces. PMID:22864809

Kwanda, Nantiya; Noikotr, Kowit; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Tanee, Tawatchai; Chaveerach, Arunrat

2013-07-01

323

Species diversity and population status of threatened plants in different landscape elements of the Rohtang Pass, western Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the quantitative estimates of plant species diversity and ecosystems of the Rohtang Pass, which is one\\u000a of the most preferred visiting spots by tourists in Himachal Pradesh (H.P.), India. In spite of high pressure of anthropogenic\\u000a activities, the Rohtang Pass still harbours a variety of flowering plants with economic value, including various medicinal\\u000a herbs. In order to

K. N. Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N. P. Todaria

2008-01-01

324

Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion in an Urban Community: The Results of an Ultra- Rapid Assessment  

PubMed Central

Objective Prescription drug diversion is a topic about which comparatively little is known, and systematic information garnered from prescription drug abusers and dealers on the specific mechanisms of diversion is extremely limited. Design A pilot ultra-rapid assessment was carried out in Wilmington, Delaware, during December 2006 to better understand the scope and dynamics of prescription drug abuse and diversion. This involved focus groups with prescription drug abusers, and key informant interviews with police, regulatory officials, prescription drug dealers, and pill brokers. Results The primary sources of prescription drugs on the street were the elderly, pain patients, and doctor shoppers, as well as pill brokers and dealers who work with all of the former. The popularity of prescription drugs in the street market was rooted in the abusers’ perceptions of these drugs as: 1) less stigmatizing; 2) less dangerous; and, 3) less subject to legal consequences than illicit drugs. For many, the abuse of prescription opioids also appeared to serve as a gateway to heroin use. Conclusion The diversion of prescription opioids might be reduced through physician education focusing on: 1) recognizing that a patient is misusing and/or diverting prescribed medications; 2) considering a patient’s risk for opioid misuse before initiating opioid therapy; and, 3) understanding the variation in the abuse potential of different opioid medications currently on the market. Patient education also appears appropriate in the areas of safeguarding medications, disposal of unused medications, and understanding the consequences of manipulating physicians and selling their medications.

Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Beard, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

325

Assessment of variations in taxonomic diversity, forest structure, and aboveground biomass using remote sensing along an altitudinal gradient in tropical montane forest of Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research sought to understand how alpha and beta diversity of plants vary and relate to the three-dimensional vegetation structure and aboveground biomass along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and along with abiotic factors (climate and edaphic) control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. It is well documented that strong subdivisions at local and regional scales are found mainly on geologic or climate gradients. These general determinants of biodiversity are best demonstrated in regions with natural gradients such as tropical montane forests. Altitudinal gradients provide a landscape scale changes through variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions on which we tested several theoretical and biological hypotheses regarding drivers of biodiversity. The study was performed by using forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from airborne lidar and radar sensors to quantify variations in forest structure. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree taxonomic alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using lidar and radar observations of forest structure and biomass. We assessed alpha and beta diversity at the species, genus, and family levels utilizing datasets provided by the Terrestrial Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network. Through the comparison to active remote sensing imagery, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D-structure, and alpha and beta diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the altitudinal gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we find distinct patterns along the environmental gradients defining species turnover and changes in functional diversity. The study will provide novel approaches to use detailed spatial information from remote sensing data to study relations between functional and taxonomic dimensions of diversity.

Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J.; Gillespie, T. W.; Rovzar, C. M.; Andelman, S.

2012-12-01

326

Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent  

PubMed Central

The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 sequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernable human fecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae genera. The fecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human fecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in fecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI – servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS – servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human fecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure.

McLellan, S.L.; Huse, S.M.; Mueller-Spitz, S.R.; Andreishcheva, E.N.; Sogin, M.L.

2009-01-01

327

Diversity and population structure of sewage-derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent.  

PubMed

The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernible human faecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae genera. The faecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human faecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in faecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI--servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS--servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human faecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. PMID:19840106

McLellan, S L; Huse, S M; Mueller-Spitz, S R; Andreishcheva, E N; Sogin, M L

2010-02-01

328

Diversity and Structure of Hyphomicrobium Populations in a Sewage Treatment Plant and Its Adjacent Receiving Lake  

PubMed Central

Budding methylotrophic bacteria resembling Hyphomicrobium spp. were counted for 12 months in a German sewage treatment plant by most-probable-number (MPN) methods. Influent samples contained up to 2 x 10(sup4) cells ml(sup-1), activated sludge consistently contained 1 x 10(sup5) to 5 x 10(sup5) cells ml(sup-1), and the effluent contained 1 x 10(sup3) to 4 x 10(sup3) cells ml(sup-1). The receiving lake had only 2 to 12 cells ml(sup-1). Six morphological groups with different growth requirements could be observed among 1,199 pure cultures that had been isolated from MPN dilutions. With dot blot DNA hybridizations, 671 isolates were assigned to 30 hybridization groups (HGs) and 84 could not be classified. Only HG 22 hybridized with a known species, Hyphomicrobium facilis IFAM B-522. Fourteen HGs (HGs 8 to 20 and HG 22) were specific for the lake; most others occurred only in the treatment plant. HGs 1, 3, and 26 were found in the activated sludge tank throughout the year, and HGs 27 and 28 were found for most of the year. In summary, it was demonstrated that bacteria with nearly identical and specific morphologies and nutritional types showed a high level of genetic diversity, although they were isolated under the same conditions and from the same treatment plant or its receiving lake. A directional exchange of these genetically different populations was possible but less significant, as was shown by the establishment of distinct populations in specific stations.

Holm, N. C.; Gliesche, C. G.; Hirsch, P.

1996-01-01

329

ASSESSING OFF-TARGET IMPACTS OF HERBICIDE DRIFT ON NATIVE PLANTS - IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANT COMMUNITIES AND WILDLIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

The off target movement of herbicidess onto nontarget vegetation can affect native plants, plant communities and ecosystems. Within the agroecosystem, plants provide the basis for food and shelter for wildlife. The risk assessment process to determine potential pesticide impacts...

330

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with desert ephemerals in plant communities of Junggar Basin, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization by and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with five common ephemerals, Eremopyrum orientale (L.) Jaub. et Spach., Gagea sacculifera Regel., Plantago minuta Pall., Tragopogon kasahstanicus S. Nikit., and Trigonella arcuata C. A. Mey. were investigated in four typical desert plant communities in Junggar Basin, northwest China. All five ephemerals examined were found to be colonized and formed

Z. Y. Shi; L. Y. Zhang; X. L. Li; G. Feng; C. Y. Tian; P. Christie

2007-01-01

331

Field Study of Plant Diversity: Extending the Whole-Class Knowledge Base through Open-Ended Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students following a pre-Certificate year in biology (the preliminary year of a 4-year BSc programme) learnt about plant diversity through integrated field and classroom studies carried out in an afforested area of north-east England. The students identified, listed and made interpretive drawings of their own choice of the specimens they had…

Goulder, Raymond; Scott, Graham W.

2009-01-01

332

Nontarget-plant risk assessment for pesticide registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach developed by Environment Canada to assess risk to aquatic and terrestrial plants in nontarget habitats potentially exposed to pesticides evaluated for registration is described. An anonymous sample of pesticide submissions is used to illustrate the approach and to examine its merits and limitations in relation to test species, response variability, testing protocols, ecological relevance, and comparability with other regulatory agencies. Future directions are identified, particularly in relation to impending nontarget-plant testing guidelines for pesticide registration in Canada. This approach incorporates some of the latest research and developments in the field of risk assessment for plants. The novelty of this approach also lies in the use of the plant screening data routinely generated by chemical pesticide companies, which is intended to provide a maximum amount of information to evaluators at minimal increment cost to registrants. The proposed approach can serve as a basis for guideline development and modernization for other jurisdictions.

Freemark, Kathryn; Boutin, Céline

1994-11-01

333

New chloroplast microsatellite markers suitable for assessing genetic diversity of Lolium perenne and other related grass species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is the most important forage grass species of temperate regions. We have previously released the chloroplast genome sequence of L. perenne ‘Cashel’. Here nine chloroplast microsatellite markers are published, which were designed based on knowledge about genetically variable regions within the L. perenne chloroplast genome. These markers were successfully used for characterizing the genetic diversity in Lolium and different grass species. Methods Chloroplast genomes of 14 Poaceae taxa were screened for mononucleotide microsatellite repeat regions and primers designed for their amplification from nine loci. The potential of these markers to assess genetic diversity was evaluated on a set of 16 Irish and 15 European L. perenne ecotypes, nine L. perenne cultivars, other Lolium taxa and other grass species. Key Results All analysed Poaceae chloroplast genomes contained more than 200 mononucleotide repeats (chloroplast simple sequence repeats, cpSSRs) of at least 7 bp in length, concentrated mainly in the large single copy region of the genome. Nucleotide composition varied considerably among subfamilies (with Pooideae biased towards poly A repeats). The nine new markers distinguish L. perenne from all non-Lolium taxa. TeaCpSSR28 was able to distinguish between all Lolium species and Lolium multiflorum due to an elongation of an A8 mononucleotide repeat in L. multiflorum. TeaCpSSR31 detected a considerable degree of microsatellite length variation and single nucleotide polymorphism. TeaCpSSR27 revealed variation within some L. perenne accessions due to a 44-bp indel and was hence readily detected by simple agarose gel electrophoresis. Smaller insertion/deletion events or single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by these new markers could be visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or DNA sequencing, respectively. Conclusions The new markers are a valuable tool for plant breeding companies, seed testing agencies and the wider scientific community due to their ability to monitor genetic diversity within breeding pools, to trace maternal inheritance and to distinguish closely related species.

Diekmann, Kerstin; Hodkinson, Trevor R.; Barth, Susanne

2012-01-01

334

Effect of Two Plant Species, Flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), on the Diversity of Soilborne Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonads.  

PubMed

Suppression of soilborne disease by fluorescent pseudomonads may be inconsistent. Inefficient root colonization by the introduced bacteria is often responsible for this inconsistency. To better understand the bacterial traits involved in root colonization, the effect of two plant species, flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), on the diversity of soilborne populations was assessed. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from an uncultivated soil and from rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and root tissue of flax and tomato cultivated in the same soil. Species and biovars were identified by classical biochemical and physiological tests. The ability of bacterial isolates to assimilate 147 different organic compounds and to show three different enzyme activities was assessed to determine their intraspecific phenotypic diversity. Numerical analysis of these characteristics allowed the clustering of isolates showing a high level (87.8%) of similarity. On the whole, the populations isolated from soil were different from those isolated from plants with respect to their phenotypic characteristics. The difference in bacteria isolated from uncultivated soil and from root tissue of flax was particularly marked. The intensity of plant selection was more strongly expressed with flax than with tomato plants. The selection was, at least partly, plant specific. The use of 10 different substrates allowed us to discriminate between flax and tomato isolates. Pseudomonas fluorescens biovars II, III, and V and Pseudomonas putida biovar A and intermediate type were well distributed among the isolates from soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane. Most isolates from root tissue of flax and tomato belonged to P. putida bv. A and to P. fluorescens bv. II, respectively. Phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates was well correlated with genotypic characterization based on repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting. PMID:16534950

Lemanceau, P; Corberand, T; Gardan, L; Latour, X; Laguerre, G; Boeufgras, J; Alabouvette, C

1995-03-01

335

An exotic invader drives the evolution of plant traits that determine mycorrhizal fungal diversity in a native competitor.  

PubMed

The symbiosis between land plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most widespread and ancient mutualisms on the planet. However, relatively little is known about the evolution of these symbiotic plant-fungal interactions in natural communities. In this study, we investigated the symbiotic AMF communities of populations of the native plant species Pilea pumila (Urticaceae) with varying histories of coexistence with a nonmycorrhizal invasive species, Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), known to affect mycorrhizal communities. We found that native populations of P. pumila with a long history of coexistence with the invasive species developed more diverse symbiotic AMF communities. This effect was strongest when A. petiolata plants were actively growing with the natives, and in soils with the longest history of A. petiolata growth. These results suggest that despite the ancient and widespread nature of the plant-AMF symbiosis, the plant traits responsible for symbiotic preferences can, nevertheless, evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. PMID:24118244

Lankau, Richard A; Nodurft, Rachel N

2013-11-01

336

Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

337

Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People’s attitudes toward them are however, largely\\u000a overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered\\u000a to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10–15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale\\u000a items that were loaded

Jana Fancovicová; Pavol Prokop

2010-01-01

338

Genetic diversity of Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae) species assessed by simple sequence repeat markers.  

PubMed

Lagerstroemia (crape myrtle) are famous ornamental plants with large pyramidal racemes, long flower duration, and diverse colors. However, little is known about the genetic structure and diversity of germplasm in Lagerstroemia. We genotyped 81 L. indica cultivars, five other species of Lagerstroemia, and 10 interspecific hybrids using 30 simple sequence repeat markers; 275 alleles were generated with a mean of nine alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content value, a measure of gene diversity, was 0.63, with a range from 0.25 to 0.86. The mean observed heterozygosity (0.51) tended to be lower than the mean expected heterozygosity (0.67). The mean F-statistics (F(ST), F(IS), and F(IT)) were 0.05, 0.20, and 0.24, respectively, indicating a high level of genetic variation among cultivars. Clustering analysis based on genetic distance divided the 96 genotypes into three distinct groups, which corresponded with their genetic backgrounds and geographic regions. L. indica cultivars and the other five L. species were grouped into different sub-clusters. Chinese and North American cultivars were divided into different clusters. These data about the genetic relationship among cultivars demonstrated the potential value of L. indica cultivars and other Lagerstroemia species for widening the genetic basis of breeding programs for this ornamental flower. PMID:23079847

He, D; Liu, Y; Cai, M; Pan, H T; Zhang, Q X; Wang, X Y; Wang, X J

2012-01-01

339

Genetic Identity Affects Performance of Species in Grasslands of Different Plant Diversity: An Experiment with Lolium perenne Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Recent biodiversity research has focused on ecosystem processes, but less is known about responses of populations of individual plant species to changing community diversity and implications of genetic variation within species. To address these issues, effects of plant community diversity on the performance of different cultivars of Lolium perenne were analysed. Methods Populations of 15 genetic cultivars of Lolium perenne were established in experimental grasslands varying in richness of species (from 1 to 60) and functional groups (from 1 to 4). Population sizes, mean size of individual plants, biomass of individual shoots and seed production were measured in the first and second growing season after establishment. Key Results Population sizes of all cultivars decreased with increasing community species richness. Plant individuals formed fewer shoots with a lower shoot mass in more species-rich plant communities. A large proportion of variation in plant size and relative population growth was attributable to effects of community species and functional group richness, but the inclusion of cultivar identity explained additional 4–7 % of variation. Cultivar identity explained most variation (28–51 %) at the shoot level (biomass of individual tillers and reproductive shoots, seed production, heading stage). Coefficients of variation of the measured variables across plant communities were larger in cultivars with a lower average performance, indicating that this variation was predominantly due to passive growth reductions and not a consequence of larger adaptive plastic responses. No single cultivar performed best in all communities. Conclusions The decreasing performance of Lolium perenne in plant communities of increasing species richness suggests a regulation of competitive interactions by species diversity. Genetic variation within species provides a base for larger phenotypic variation and may affect competitive ability. However, heterogeneous biotic environments (= plant communities of different species composition) are important for the maintenance of intra-specific genetic variation.

Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

2008-01-01

340

Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

1981-02-01

341

Rates of evolution in seed plants: Net increase in diversity of chromosome numbers and species numbers through time  

PubMed Central

An approach was made to the problem of estimating rates of chromosomal evolution in plants. This was done by considering variability in chromosome number within genera whose ages are known approximately from fossil and biogeographic evidence. The relative increases in chromosome number diversity per lineage per unit time were as follows: herbaceous angiosperms, 100; woody angiosperms, 14; conifers, 2; and cycads, 0. Rates of increase in species diversity were estimated in an analogous way. These rates were strongly correlated with the karyotypic rates. These evolutionary rate differences between major groups of seed plants are largely explicable in terms of the breeding structures of populations. Herbs usually have small to moderate effective population sizes, and relatively high dispersability. By contrast, woody angiosperms and gymnosperms are usually obligate outbreeders with large effective population sizes and low dispersability. Thus the probability of fixing and dispersing new karyotypes or novel character ensembles is higher in herbs than in other seed plants.

Levin, D. A.; Wilson, A. C.

1976-01-01

342

75 FR 73135 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Environmental Assessment...licensee), for operation of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP...Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

2010-11-29

343

Martinez Refinery Completes Plant-Wide Energy Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes how the Equilon Enterprises oil refinery in Martinez, California undertook a plant-wide energy assessment that focused on three key areas: waste minimization, process debottlenecking, and operations optimization. The assessment yielded recommendations, which, if implemented, can save more than 6,000,000 MMBtu per year and an estimated $52,000,000 per year, plus improve process control and reduce waste.

Not Available

2002-11-01

344

Genetic diversity in Tunisian Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia L. populations assessed using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • The genetic diversity of nine wild Tunisian Crataegus azarolus var. aronia L. populations from different bioclimates was assessed using RAPD markers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Eight selected primers generated a total of 105 bands, 81 of which were polymorphic. Shannon’s index (H?) ranged from 0.222 to 0.278 according to a population with an average of 0.245. The genetic variation within

Chayma Rajeb; Chokri Messaoud; Hnia Chograni; Afef Bejaoui; Abdennacer Boulila; Mohamed Nejib Rejeb; Mohamed Boussaid

2010-01-01

345

Diverse mechanisms of plant resistance to cauliflower mosaic virus revealed by leaf skeleton hybridization.  

PubMed

Plants not hosts for cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) may prevent systemic CaMV infection by interfering with dissemination of infection through the plant or by preventing viral replication and maturation. Leaf skeleton hybridization allows distinction between these two barriers. The technique assesses the spatial distribution of CaMV in an inoculated leaf by hybridization of a skeleton of the leaf with a CaMV DNA probe. Leaves or leaflets of soybean, cucumber, peanut, tomato, lettuce, spinach, pepper, onion, wheat, maize and barley, inoculated with CaMV DNA or CaMV virions were processed for leaf skeleton hybridization either immediately after inoculation or two weeks thereafter. Autoradiographic images of soybean and cucumber skeletons had many dark spots suggesting that CaMV DNA replication and local spread had occurred. Images of onion leaf skeletons prepared two weeks after inoculation with CaMV DNA had fewer spots. To test whether these spots resulted from CaMV replication, DNA was extracted from inoculated onion leaves and analyzed by electrophoresis, blotting and hybridization. Molecules recovered two weeks after inoculation resembled those inoculated, indicating absence of replication. For the other species, we found no evidence of local spread of CaMV infections. Thus, many plant species resist systemic CaMV infection by preventing replication or local spread of CaMV, while others solely prevent systemic movement of infection. PMID:1562237

Melcher, U; Brannan, C M; Gardner, C O; Essenberg, R C

1992-01-01

346

Isolation, Diversity, and Antimicrobial Activity of Rare Actinobacteria from Medicinal Plants of Tropical Rain Forests in Xishuangbanna, China? †  

PubMed Central

Endophytic actinobacteria are relatively unexplored as potential sources of novel species and novel natural products for medical and commercial exploitation. Xishuangbanna is recognized throughout the world for its diverse flora, especially the rain forest plants, many of which have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. However, little is known about the endophytic actinobacteria of this tropical area. In this work, we studied the diversity of actinobacteria isolated from medicinal plants collected from tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna. By the use of different selective isolation media and methods, a total of 2,174 actinobacteria were isolated. Forty-six isolates were selected on the basis of their morphologies on different media and were further characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed an unexpected level of diversity, with 32 different genera. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the isolation of Saccharopolyspora, Dietzia, Blastococcus, Dactylosporangium, Promicromonospora, Oerskovia, Actinocorallia, and Jiangella species from endophytic environments. At least 19 isolates are considered novel taxa by our current research. In addition, all 46 isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity and were screened for the presence of genes encoding polyketide synthetases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The results confirm that the medicinal plants of Xishuangbanna represent an extremely rich reservoir for the isolation of a significant diversity of actinobacteria, including novel species, that are potential sources for the discovery of biologically active compounds.

Qin, Sheng; Li, Jie; Chen, Hua-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

2009-01-01

347

Forest health in the Blue Mountains: A plant ecologist`s perspective on ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Natural disturbances are important to ecosystem processes. Disturbances historically have occurred in the vegetation of the Blue Mountain area of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The primary modifying events that historically have cycled through most of its plant communities are fire, grazing and browsing, insect and disease epidemics, windthrow, flooding, and erosion. Knowledge of plant successional pathways enables managers to predict the probable course of community development for a disturbance regime. Recommendations for restoring the Blue Mountains area are to reintroduce fire into the ecosystem, restore rangeland, and enhance biological diversity by practicing landscpe ecological management and by emulating natural patterns on the landscape. Periodic and timely sampling after these activities is critical to assessing the results by adaptive management needs.

Johnson, C.G.

1994-09-01

348

Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant  

PubMed Central

Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15?month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge.

2012-01-01

349

Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a plant using deep geothermal energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is a prerequisite to optimize plant reliability and economy. We investigated microbial, geochemical and mineralogical aspects of a geothermal groundwater system located in the Molasse Basin by fluid analysis. Fluids are characterized by temperatures ranging from 61°C to 103°C, salinities from 600 to 900 mg/l and a dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) between 6.4 to 19.3 mg C/l. The microbial population of fluid samples was analyzed by genetic fingerprinting techniques based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA- and dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes. Despite of the high temperatures, microbes were detected in all investigated fluids. Fingerprinting and DNA sequencing enabled a correlation to metabolic classes and biogeochemical processes. The analysis revealed a broad diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and mineral precipitation indicates that microorganisms could play an important role for the understanding of processes in engineered geothermal systems.

Alawi, Mashal; Lerm, Stephanie; Vetter, Alexandra; Wolfgramm, Markus; Seibt, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

2011-06-01

350

Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources  

PubMed Central

There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at province and department level in Ecuador and Peru, respectively.

van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, Maria A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, Cesar; Romero, Jose; Siguenas, Manuel; Hormaza, Jose I.

2012-01-01

351

Bayesian Seismic Hazard Assessment for a Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

: A seismic hazard assessment (SHA) for nuclear power plants (NPP) contains the so called seismichazard curve and uniform hazard spectra for mean return periods of earthquakes of up to 106years. In a SHA thereare always a lot of uncertainties imbedded. A major uncertainty is the lack of earthquake data. If one likes toestimate the magnitudes of earthquakes with mean

Pentti Varpasuo

352

Sustainaibility assessment of power plants projects firing on different fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is becoming an issue of public concern, particularly for large scale development projects. In this work, a multi-criteria approach, called the sustainability assessment method (SAM), is used to asses and rank the sustainability of various types of power plants firing on different types of fuel. It traces the impacts of using coal, oil, and natural gas for power generation

R. Yonaidi; M. H. Boosroh

2009-01-01

353

Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NUREG 0700 recommendations were assessed for implementation in the control rooms of Finnish nuclear power plants. Direct conclusions drawn from the American situation are misleading, because of differences in, for example, procurement of instruments or personnel training. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) is successful. It can also be used during planning to observe small discrepancies.

Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

1983-05-01

354

Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 refs.

Foppe, T.L.

1985-01-01

355

The effect of mating system differences on nucleotide diversity at the phosphoglucose isomerase locus in the plant genus Leavenworthia.  

PubMed Central

To test the theoretical prediction that highly inbreeding populations should have low neutral genetic diversity relative to closely related outcrossing populations, we sequenced portions of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (PgiC) gene in the plant genus Leavenworthia, which includes both self-incompatible and inbreeding taxa. On the basis of sequences of intron 12 of this gene, the expected low diversity was seen in both populations of the selfers Leavenworthia uniflora and L. torulosa and in three highly inbreeding populations of L. crassa, while high diversity was found in self-incompatible L. stylosa, and moderate diversity in L. crassa populations with partial or complete self-incompatibility. In L. stylosa, the nucleotide diversity was strongly structured into three haplotypic classes, differing by several insertion/deletion sequences, with linkage disequilibrium between sequences of the three types in intron 12, but not in the adjacent regions. Differences between the three kinds of haplotypes are larger than between sequences of this gene region from different species. The haplotype divergence suggests the presence of a balanced polymorphism at this locus, possibly predating the split between L. stylosa and its two inbreeding sister taxa, L. uniflora and L. torulosa. It is therefore difficult to distinguish between different potential causes of the much lower sequence diversity at this locus in inbreeding than outcrossing populations. Selective sweeps during the evolution of these populations are possible, or background selection, or merely loss of a balanced polymorphism maintained by overdominance in the populations that evolved high selfing rates.

Liu, F; Charlesworth, D; Kreitman, M

1999-01-01

356

Assessment of genetic and functional diversity of phosphate solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from rhizospheric soil  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for the growth of plants. However, in most soils a large portion of phosphorus becomes insoluble and therefore, unavailable to plants. Knowledge on biodiversity of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonads is essential to understand their ecological role and their utilization in sustainable agriculture. Results Of 443 fluorescent pseudomonad strains tested, 80 strains (18%) showed positive for the solubilization of tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) by the formation of visible dissolution halos on Pikovskaya's agar. These phosphate solubilizing strains showed high variability in utilizing various carbon sources. Numerical taxonomy of the phosphate solubilizing strains based on their carbon source utilization profiles resulted into three major phenons at a 0.76 similarity coefficient level. Genotypic analyses of strains by BOX (bacterial repetitive BOX element)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted into three distinct genomic clusters and 26 distinct BOX profiles at a 80% similarity level. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. mosselii, P. monteilii, P. plecoglossicida, P. putida, P. fulva and P. fluorescens. These phosphate solubilizing strains also showed the production of plant growth promoting enzymes, hormones and exhibited antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi that attack on various crops. Gene specific primers have identified the putative antibiotic producing strains. These putative strains were grown in fermentation media and production of antibiotics was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Conclusion Present study revealed a high degree of functional and genetic diversity among the phosphate solubilizing fluorescent pseudomonad bacteria. Due to their innate potential of producing an array of plant growth promoting enzymes, hormones and antifungal metabolites these phosphate solubilizing strains are considered to play a vital role in plant growth promotion, disease suppression and subsequent enhancement of yield.

Naik, Popavath Ravindra; Raman, Gurusamy; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan

2008-01-01

357

Explaining plant-soil diversity in Alpine ecosystems: more than just time since ecosystem succession started  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem succession in Alpine environments has been a focus of research for many decades. Following from the classic ideas of Jenny (1941, 1961), following perturbation, an ecosystem (flora, fauna and soil) should evolve as a function of time at a rate conditioned by external variables (relief, climate, geology). More recently, biogeomorphologists have focused upon the notion of co-evolution of geomorphic processes with ecosystems over very short through to very long (evolutionary) time-scales. Alpine environments have been a particular focus of models of co-evolution, as a means of understanding the rate of plant colonization of previously glaciated terrain. However, work in this field has tended to adopt an over simplified view of the relationship between perturbation and succession, including: how the landform and ecosystem itself conditions the impact of a perturbation to create a complex spatial impact; and how perturbations are not simply ecosystem destroyers but can be a significant source of ecosystem resources. What this means is that at the within landform scale, there may well be a complex and dynamic topographic and sedimentological template that co-evolves with the development of soil, flora and fauna. In this paper, we present and test conceptual models for such co-evolution for an Alpine alluvial fan and an Alpine piedmont braided river. We combine detailed floristic inventory with soil inventory, survey of edaphic variables above and below ground (e.g. vertical and lateral sedimentological structure, using electrical resistance tomography) and the analysis of historical aerial imagery. The floristic inventory shows the existence of a suite of distinct plant communities within each landform. Time since last perturbation is not a useful explanatory variable of the spatial distribution of these communities because: (1) perturbation impacts are spatially variable, as conditioned by the extent distribution of topographic, edaphic and ecological characteristics; (2) perturbations supply ecosystem resources, such as organic matter or fine sediment, that can substantially and locally accelerate ecosystem succession; and (3) both of these feed back into the development of the plant-soil community. The result is clear evidence of the co-evolution of floristic communities with geomorphic processes that, at the ensemble of the landform, controls the floristic diversity that is found.

Lane, Stuart; Baetz, Nico; Borgeaud, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Vittoz, Pascal

2014-05-01

358

N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones in Diverse Pectobacterium and Dickeya Plant Pathogens: Diversity, Abundance, and Involvement in Virulence  

PubMed Central

Soft-rot bacteria Pectobacterium and Dickeya use N-acyl homoserine lactones (NAHSLs) as diffusible signals for coordinating quorum sensing communication. The production of NAHSLs was investigated in a set of reference strains and recently-collected isolates, which belong to six species and share the ability to infect the potato host plant. All the pathogens produced different NAHSLs, among which the 3-oxo-hexanoyl- and the 3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactones represent at least 90% of total produced NAHSL-amounts. The level of NAHSLs varied from 0.6 to 2 pg/cfu. The involvement of NAHSLs in tuber maceration was investigated by electroporating a quorum quenching vector in each of the bacterial pathogen strains. All the NAHSL-lactonase expressing strains produced a lower amount of NAHSLs as compared to those harboring the empty vector. Moreover, all except Dickeya dadantii 3937 induced a lower level of symptoms in potato tuber assay. Noticeably, aggressiveness appeared to be independent of both nature and amount of produced signals. This work highlights that quorum sensing similarly contributed to virulence in most of the tested Pectobacterium and Dickeya, even the strains had been isolated recently or during the past decades. Thus, these key regulatory-molecules appear as credible targets for developing anti-virulence strategies against these plant pathogens.

Crepin, Alexandre; Beury-Cirou, Amelie; Barbey, Corinne; Farmer, Christine; Helias, Valerie; Burini, Jean-Francois; Faure, Denis; Latour, Xavier

2012-01-01

359

Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) Markers in Vicia faba L.  

PubMed Central

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments), of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

Alghamdi, Salem S.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Ammar, Megahed H.

2012-01-01

360

Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) Markers in Vicia faba L.  

PubMed

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments), of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding. PMID:23211669

Alghamdi, Salem S; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A; Migdadi, Hussein M; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; El-Harty, Ehab H; Ammar, Megahed H

2012-01-01

361

Assessment of genetic diversity and conservation priority of Omani local chickens using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Designing strategies for conservation and improvement livestock should be based on assessment of genetic characteristics of populations under consideration. In Oman, conservation programs for local livestock breeds have been started. The current study assessed the genetic diversity and conservation potential of local chickens from Oman. Twenty-nine microsatellite markers were analyzed in 158 birds from six agro-ecological zones: Batinah, Dhofar, North Hajar, East Hajar, Musandam, and East Coast. Overall, a total of 217 alleles were observed. Across populations, the average number of alleles per locus was 7.48 and ranged from 2 (MCW98 and MCW103) to 20 (LEI094). The mean expected heterozygosity (H E) was 0.62. Average fixation index among populations (F ST) was 0.034, indicating low population differentiation, while the mean global deficit of heterozygotes across populations (F IT) was 0.159. Based on Nei's genetic distance, a neighbor-joining tree was constructed for the populations, which clearly identified the Dhofar population as the most distant one of the Omani chicken populations. The analysis of conservation priorities identified Dhofar and Musandam populations as the ones that largely contribute to the maximal genetic diversity of the Omani chicken gene pool. PMID:24590534

Al-Qamashoui, Badar; Simianer, Henner; Kadim, Isam; Weigend, Steffen

2014-06-01

362

Managed livestock grazing is compatible with the maintenance of plant diversity in semidesert grasslands.  

PubMed

Even when no baseline data are available, the impacts of 150 years of livestock grazing on natural grasslands can be assessed using a combined approach of grazing manipulation and regional-scale assessment of the flora. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this method across 18 sites in the semidesert Mitchell grasslands of northeastern Australia. Fifteen-year-old exclosures (ungrazed and macropod grazed) revealed that the dominant perennial grasses in the genus Astrebla do not respond negatively to grazing disturbance typical of commercial pastoralism. Neutral, positive, intermediate, and negative responses to grazing disturbance were recorded amongst plant species with no single life-form group associated with any response type. Only one exotic species, Cenchrus ciliaris, was recorded at low frequency. The strongest negative response was from a native annual grass, Chionachne hubbardiana, an example of a species that is highly sensitive to grazing disturbance. Herbarium records revealed only scant evidence that species with a negative response to grazing have declined through the period of commercial pastoralism. A regional analysis identified 14 from a total of 433 plant species in the regional flora that may be rare and potentially threatened by grazing disturbance. However, a targeted survey precluded grazing as a cause of decline for seven of these based on low palatability and positive responses to grazing and other disturbance. Our findings suggest that livestock grazing of semidesert grasslands with a short evolutionary history of ungulate grazing has altered plant composition, but has not caused declines in the dominant perennial grasses or in species richness as predicted by the preceding literature. The biggest impact of commercial pastoralism is the spread of woody leguminous trees that can transform grassland to thorny shrubland. The conservation of plant biodiversity is largely compatible with commercial pastoralism provided these woody weeds are controlled, but reserves strategically positioned within water remote areas are necessary to protect grazing-sensitive species. This study demonstrates that a combination of experimental studies and regional surveys can be used to understand anthropogenic impacts on natural ecosystems where reference habitat is not available. PMID:24834736

Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Firn, J

2014-04-01

363

Tiger Team Assessment of the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the findings and associated root causes identified during the Tiger Team Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. This assessment was conducted by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety and Health between October 2 and 31, 1989. The scope of the assessment of the Pantex Plant covered all areas of environment, safety and health (ES H) activities, including compliance with federal, state, and local regulations, requirements, permits, agreements, orders and consent decrees, and DOE ES H Orders. The assessment also included an evaluation of the adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs. The draft findings were submitted to the Office of Defense Programs, the Albuquerque Operations Office, the Amarillo Area Office, and regulatory agencies at the conclusion of the on-site assessment activities for review and comment on technical accuracy. Final modifications and any other appropriate changes have been incorporated in the final report. The Tiger Team Assessment of the Pantex Plant is part of the larger Tiger Team Assessment program which will encompass over 100 DOE operating facilities. The assessment program is part of a 10-point initiative announced by Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins on June 27, 1989, to strengthen environmental protection and waste management activities in the Department. The results of the program will provide the Secretary with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends.

Not Available

1990-02-01

364

Biophysical methods for assessing plant responses to nanoparticle exposure.  

PubMed

As nanotechnology rapidly emerges into a new industry-driven by its enormous potential to revolutionize electronics, materials, and medicine-exposure of living species to discharged nanoparticles has become inevitable. Despite the increased effort on elucidating the environmental impact of nanotechnology, literature on higher plants exposure to nanoparticles remains scarce and often contradictory. Here we present our biophysical methodologies for the study of carbon nanoparticle uptake by Allium cepa cells and rice plants. We address the three essential aspects for such studies: identification of carbon nanoparticles in the plant species, quantification of nanotransport and aggregation in the plant compartments, and evaluation of plant responses to nanoparticle exposure on the cellular and organism level. Considering the close connection between plant and mammalian species in ecological systems especially in the food chain, we draw a direct comparison on the uptake of carbon nanoparticles in plant and mammalian cells. In addition to the above studies, we present methods for assessing the effects of quantum dot adsorption on algal photosynthesis. PMID:22975977

Ratnikova, Tatsiana A; Chen, Ran; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Ke, Pu Chun

2012-01-01

365

Assessing the effect of the time since transition to organic farming on plants and butterflies.  

PubMed

1.Environmental changes may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions, abundances or diversity. In order to estimate the effects of, for example, land-use changes caused by agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, information on the time-lag between the application of the scheme and the responses of organisms is essential.2.We examined the effects of time since transition (TST) to organic farming on plant species richness and butterfly species richness and abundance. Surveys were conducted in cereal fields and adjacent field margins on 60 farms, 20 conventional and 40 organic, in two regions in Sweden. The organic farms were transferred from conventional management between 1 and 25 years before the survey took place. The farms were selected along a gradient of landscape complexity, indicated by the proportion of arable land, so that farms with similar TST were represented in all landscape types. Organism responses were assessed using model averaging.3.Plant and butterfly species richness was c.20% higher on organic farms and butterfly abundance was about 60% higher, compared with conventional farms. Time since transition affected butterfly abundance gradually over the 25-year period, resulting in a 100% increase. In contrast, no TST effect on plant or butterfly species richness was found, indicating that the main effect took place immediately after the transition to organic farming.4.Increasing landscape complexity had a positive effect on butterfly species richness, but not on butterfly abundance or plant species richness. There was no indication that the speed of response to organic farming was affected by landscape complexity.5.Synthesis and applications. The effect of organic farming on diversity was rapid for plant and butterfly species richness, whereas butterfly abundance increased gradually with time since transition. If time-lags in responses to AESs turn out to be common, long-term effects would need to be included in management recommendations and policy to capture the full potential of such schemes. PMID:21731110

Jonason, Dennis; Andersson, Georg K S; Ockinger, Erik; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bengtsson, Jan

2011-06-01

366

Assessing the effect of the time since transition to organic farming on plants and butterflies  

PubMed Central

1.Environmental changes may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions, abundances or diversity. In order to estimate the effects of, for example, land-use changes caused by agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, information on the time-lag between the application of the scheme and the responses of organisms is essential. 2.We examined the effects of time since transition (TST) to organic farming on plant species richness and butterfly species richness and abundance. Surveys were conducted in cereal fields and adjacent field margins on 60 farms, 20 conventional and 40 organic, in two regions in Sweden. The organic farms were transferred from conventional management between 1 and 25 years before the survey took place. The farms were selected along a gradient of landscape complexity, indicated by the proportion of arable land, so that farms with similar TST were represented in all landscape types. Organism responses were assessed using model averaging. 3.Plant and butterfly species richness was c.20% higher on organic farms and butterfly abundance was about 60% higher, compared with conventional farms. Time since transition affected butterfly abundance gradually over the 25-year period, resulting in a 100% increase. In contrast, no TST effect on plant or butterfly species richness was found, indicating that the main effect took place immediately after the transition to organic farming. 4.Increasing landscape complexity had a positive effect on butterfly species richness, but not on butterfly abundance or plant species richness. There was no indication that the speed of response to organic farming was affected by landscape complexity. 5.Synthesis and applications. The effect of organic farming on diversity was rapid for plant and butterfly species richness, whereas butterfly abundance increased gradually with time since transition. If time-lags in responses to AESs turn out to be common, long-term effects would need to be included in management recommendations and policy to capture the full potential of such schemes.

Jonason, Dennis; Andersson, Georg K S; Ockinger, Erik; Rundlof, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bengtsson, Jan

2011-01-01

367

Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communities.  

PubMed

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at the conservation of all three levels of biodiversity, that is, ecosystems, species and genes. Genetic diversity represents evolutionary potential and is important for ecosystem functioning. Unfortunately, genetic diversity in natural populations is hardly considered in conservation strategies because it is difficult to measure and has been hypothesised to co-vary with species richness. This means that species richness is taken as a surrogate of genetic diversity in conservation planning, though their relationship has not been properly evaluated. We tested whether the genetic and species levels of biodiversity co-vary, using a large-scale and multi-species approach. We chose the high-mountain flora of the Alps and the Carpathians as study systems and demonstrate that species richness and genetic diversity are not correlated. Species richness thus cannot act as a surrogate for genetic diversity. Our results have important consequences for implementing the CBD when designing conservation strategies. PMID:23006492

Taberlet, Pierre; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Englisch, Thorsten; Tribsch, Andreas; Holderegger, Rolf; Alvarez, Nadir; Niklfeld, Harald; Coldea, Gheorghe; Mirek, Zbigniew; Moilanen, Atte; Ahlmer, Wolfgang; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Bona, Enzo; Bovio, Maurizio; Choler, Philippe; Cie?lak, El?bieta; Colli, Licia; Cristea, Vasile; Dalmas, Jean-Pierre; Frajman, Božo; Garraud, Luc; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gielly, Ludovic; Gutermann, Walter; Jogan, Nejc; Kagalo, Alexander A; Korbecka, Gra?yna; Küpfer, Philippe; Lequette, Benoît; Letz, Dominik Roman; Manel, Stéphanie; Mansion, Guilhem; Marhold, Karol; Martini, Fabrizio; Negrini, Riccardo; Niño, Fernando; Paun, Ovidiu; Pellecchia, Marco; Perico, Giovanni; Pi?ko?-Mirkowa, Halina; Prosser, Filippo; Pu?ca?, Mihai; Ronikier, Micha?; Scheuerer, Martin; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter; Schratt-Ehrendorfer, Luise; Schüpfer, Fanny; Selvaggi, Alberto; Steinmann, Katharina; Thiel-Egenter, Conny; van Loo, Marcela; Winkler, Manuela; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Wraber, Tone; Gugerli, Felix; Vellend, Mark

2012-12-01

368

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria

E. Nic Lughadha; J. Baillie; W. Barthlott; N. A. Brummitt; M. R. Cheek; A. Farjon; R. Govaerts; K. A. Hardwick; C. Hilton-Taylor; T. R. Meagher; J. Moat; J. Mutke; A. J. Paton; L. J. Pleasants; V. Savolainen; G. E. Schatz; P. Smith; I. Turner; P. Wyse-Jackson; P. R. Crane

2005-01-01

369

A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

2011-05-01

370

Risk assessment of conventional crop plants in analogy to transgenic plants.  

PubMed

The risk assessment of genetically-modified plants pursuant to Annex II B of EU Directive 94/15/EC assumes that it is possible to infer the environmental impacts of a crop plant from its characteristics, so most of Annex II should also be applicable to conventional plants. To test this, we surveyed reports on the ecological impacts of the cultivation of non-transgenic crop plants with novel or improved traits and, in three cases, investigated whether Annex II B would have been adequate to indicate the effects. Such an assessment appears to be feasible only if the time frame on which it is based is short, so that long-term effects cannot be assessed. Secondly, the plant must be genetically homogenous which is not always granted, e.g. with forest-trees. Thirdly, the cultivation area must be defined. Differences in the behaviour of foreign plants between their original and cultivation habitats may be ecologically relevant and should be assessed. In the (few) cases where direct inference of the observed effects was possible from inherent traits, these effects often correlated with poor adaptation to local environmental conditions. The ecological impacts of traits that had been introduced in order to overcome poor adaptation may differ widely according to the way in which the traits are exploited. In practice, the effects of agricultural measures are more important than the effects of gene transfer and invasiveness, although the latter currently play a major role in risk assessment. In the light of these deliberations, a modification of Annex II B of EU Directive 94/15/EC is suggested. PMID:19005817

Torgersen, H; Soja, G; Janssen, I; Gaugitsch, H

1998-01-01

371

Actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plant rhizosphere soils: diversity and screening of antifungal compounds, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 445 actinomycete isolates were obtained from 16 medicinal plant rhizosphere soils. Morphological and chemotaxonomic\\u000a studies indicated that 89% of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces, 11% were non-Streptomycetes: Actinomadura sp., Microbispora sp., Micromonospora sp., Nocardia sp, Nonomurea sp. and three isolates were unclassified. The highest number and diversity of actinomycetes were isolated from Curcuma mangga rhizosphere

Sutthinan Khamna; Akira Yokota; Saisamorn Lumyong

2009-01-01

372

High allozymic diversity in natural populations of Mycoheterotrophic Orchid Gastrodia elata, an endangered medicinal plant in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrodia elata Blume, a mycoheterotrophic orchid native to the Far East, is an endangered medicinal plant in China. Genetic variation among 19 natural populations of G. elata was examined in central China by using allozyme polymorphism (16 loci in six enzymatic systems). The species exhibited high level of genetic diversity (P=56.3%, A=2.2 and HE=0.221), which was mainly attributed to its

Yuan-Yuan Chen; Zhao-Xia Bao; Zuo-Zhou Li

2011-01-01

373

Effects of experimental nitrogen additions on plant diversity in tropical forests of contrasting disturbance regimes in southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of understory plant diversity to nitrogen (N) additions were investigated in reforested forests of contrasting disturbance regimes in southern China from 2003 to 2008: disturbed forest (with harvesting of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated forest (without harvesting). Experimental additions of N were administered as the following treatments: Control, 50 kg N ha?1 yr?1, and 100 kg N ha?1 yr?1. Nitrogen additions did not significantly affect understory

Xiankai Lu; Jiangming Mo; Frank S. Gilliam; Guirui Yu; Wei Zhang; Yunting Fang; Juan Huang

2011-01-01

374

Genetic Diversity of Frankia Microsymbionts in Root Nodules from Colletia hystrix (Clos.) Plants by Sampling at a Small-Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The genetic diversity of microsymbiont Frankia from Colletia hystrix (Clos.) plants growing in a restricted area, were investigated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. DNA from field-collected nodules was amplified by PCR with primers targeting two genomic regions; one included a large portion of the 3? end of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer, and the 5? end

Mónica Chávez; Margarita Caru ´

2006-01-01

375

Structural and functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities following woody plant encroachment in the southern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

In the southern Great Plains (USA), encroachment of grassland ecosystems by Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) is widespread. Mesquite encroachment alters net primary productivity, enhances stores of C and N in plants and soil, and leads to increased levels of soil microbial biomass and activity. While mesquite's impact on the biogeochemistry of the region is well established, it effects on soil microbial diversity and function are unknown. In this study, soils associated with four plant types (C{sub 3} perennial grasses, C{sub 4} midgrasses, C{sub 4} shortgrasses, and mesquite) from a mesquite-encroached mixed grass prairie were surveyed to in an attempt to characterize the structure, diversity, and functional capacity of their soil microbial communities. rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used in conjunction with the GeoChip functional gene array to evaluate these potential differences. Mesquite soil supported increased bacterial and fungal diversity and harbored a distinct fungal community relative to other plant types. Despite differences in composition and diversity, few significant differences were detected with respect to the potential functional capacity of the soil microbial communities. These results may suggest that a high level of functional redundancy exists within the bacterial portion of the soil communities; however, given the bias of the GeoChip toward bacterial functional genes, potential functional differences among soil fungi could not be addressed. The results of this study illustrate the linkages shared between above- and belowground communities and demonstrate that soil microbial communities, and in particular soil fungi, may be altered by the process of woody plant encroachment.

Hollister, Emily B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Ansley, R J [Texas A& M University; Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University

2010-01-01

376

Do plant species influence soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in a diverse tropical forest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether plant species influence greenhouse gas production in diverse ecosystems, we measured wet season soil CO2 and N2O fluxes close to ?300 large (>35 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH)) trees of 15 species at three clay-rich forest sites in central Amazonia. We found that soil CO2 fluxes were 38% higher near large trees than at control

Joost L. M. van Haren; R. Cosme de Oliveira Jr; Natalia Restrepo-Coupe; Lucy Hutyra; Plinio B. de Camargo; Michael Keller; Scott R. Saleska

2010-01-01

377

Comparison of Crenarchaeal Consortia Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Diverse Terrestrial Plants with Those in Bulk Soil in Native Environments  

PubMed Central

To explore whether the crenarchaeal consortium found in the rhizosphere is distinct from the assemblage of crenarchaeotes inhabiting bulk soil, PCR-single-stranded-conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) profiles were generated for 76 plant samples collected from native environments. Divergent terrestrial plant groups including bryophytes (mosses), lycopods (club mosses), pteridophytes (ferns), gymnosperms (conifers), and angiosperms (seed plants) were collected for this study. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between rhizosphere and bulk soil PCR-SSCP profiles (Hotelling paired T2 test, P < 0.0001), suggesting that a distinct crenarchaeal consortium is associated with plants. In general, phylotype richness increased in the rhizosphere compared to the corresponding bulk soil, although the range of this increase was variable. Examples of a major change in rhizosphere (versus bulk soil) PCR-SSCP profiles were detected for all plant groups, suggesting that crenarchaeotes form associations with phylogenetically diverse plants in native environments. In addition, examples of minor to no detectable difference were found for all terrestrial plant groups, suggesting that crenarchaeal associations with plants are mediated by environmental conditions.

Sliwinski, Marek K.; Goodman, Robert M.

2004-01-01

378

Are fire, soil fertility and toxicity, water availability, plant functional diversity, and litter decomposition related in a Neotropical savanna?  

PubMed

Understanding how biodiversity and ecosystem functioning respond to changes in the environment is fundamental to the maintenance of ecosystem function. In realistic scenarios, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning path may account for only a small share of all factors determining ecosystem function. Here, we investigated the strength to which variations in environmental characteristics in a Neotropical savanna affected functional diversity and decomposition. We sought an integrative approach, testing a number of pairwise hypotheses about how the environment, biodiversity, and functioning were linked. We used structural equation modelling to connect fire frequency, soil fertility, exchangeable Al, water availability, functional diversity of woody plants, tree density, tree height, and litter decomposition rates in a causal chain. We found significant effects of soil nutrients, water availability, and Al on functional diversity and litter decomposition. Fire did not have a significant direct effect on functional diversity or litter decomposition. However, fire was connected to both variables through soil fertility. Functional diversity did not influence rates of litter decomposition. The mediated effects that emerged from pairwise interactions are encouraging not only for predicting the functional consequences of changes in environmental variables and biodiversity, but also to caution against predictions based on only environmental or only biodiversity change. PMID:24748157

Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique; Batalha, Marco Antônio; Silva, Igor Aurélio; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Petchey, Owen L

2014-07-01

379

Using a Multi-Trait Approach to Manipulate Plant Functional Diversity in a Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Experiment  

PubMed Central

A frequent pattern emerging from biodiversity-ecosystem function studies is that functional group richness enhances ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. However, the manipulation of functional group richness goes along with major disadvantages like the transformation of functional trait data into categories or the exclusion of functional differences between organisms in the same group. In a mesocosm study we manipulated plant functional diversity based on the multi-trait Functional Diversity (FD)-approach of Petchey and Gaston by using database data of seven functional traits and information on the origin of the species in terms of being native or exotic. Along a gradient ranging from low to high FD we planted 40 randomly selected eight-species mixtures under controlled conditions. We found a significant positive linear correlation of FD with aboveground productivity and a negative correlation with invasibility of the plant communities. Based on community-weighted mean calculations for each functional trait, we figured out that the traits N-fixation and species origin, i.e. being native or exotic, played the most important role for community productivity. Our results suggest that the identification of the impact of functional trait diversity and the relative contributions of relevant traits is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the role of biodiversity for ecosystem functions such as aboveground biomass production and resistance against invasion.

Schittko, Conrad; Hawa, Mahmoud; Wurst, Susanne

2014-01-01

380

STOCHASTIC MODELS OF PLANT DIVERSITY: APPLICATION TO WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Diversity is an average property of a community and is identified as the species variety and abundance. The study of biodiversity is important because it is one of the central themes in ecology; the diversity of a system is often seen as an indicator of the well-being of the syst...

381

Unmanaged sexual reproduction and the dynamics of genetic diversity of a vegetatively propagated crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), in a traditional farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of intervarietal or interspecific natural crosses has been reported for many crop plants in traditional farming systems, underlining the potential importance of this source of genetic exchange for the dynamics of genetic diversity of crop plants. In this study, we use microsatellite loci to investigate the role of volunteer seedlings (plants originating from unmanaged sexual reproduction) in the dynamics

M. Elias; L. Penet; P. Vindry; D. McKey; O. Panaud; T. Robert

2001-01-01

382

Opportunities for recombinant antigen and antibody expression in transgenic plants--technology assessment.  

PubMed

Plants are now gaining widespread acceptance as a general platform for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The principle has been demonstrated by the success of a diverse repertoire of proteins, with therapeutic molecules showing the most potential for added value. Over the past 10 years, several efficient plant-based expression systems have emerged. However, a number of issues remain to be addressed before plant bioreactors can be accepted and adopted widely in preference to the established microbial and mammalian platforms. Overcoming bottlenecks imposed by low yields, poor and inconsistent product quality and difficulties with downstream processing are the most important goals for researchers working in this field. The achievement of these goals is conditional on the development of extraction and processing steps that comply with GMP standards, including extensive quality assurance and control procedures. Such rigorous and validated standards should be combined with measures applied earlier in production to ensure product sustainability and quality, such as the use of master seed banking procedures. Moreover, there are several further challenges concerning topics of environmental impact, biosafety and risk assessment, which reflect the release of transgenic plants, as well the safety of the plant-derived products themselves. We are facing a growing demand for protein diagnostics and therapeutics, but lack the capacity to meet those demands using established facilities. A shift to plant bioreactors may, therefore, become necessary within the next few years, making it more imperative that the technical and regulatory limitations are addressed and solved. The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants will only realize its huge potential if the products are provided at consistent high quality levels, allowing the delivery of clinical grade proteins that will gain regulatory approval and which can be used routinely in clinical trials. PMID:15734038

Schillberg, Stefan; Twyman, Richard M; Fischer, Rainer

2005-03-01

383

A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

2009-03-01

384

Assessing The Evolutionary Diversity Of Exon Skipping Events In Human, Mouse And Rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is to research on the cross-species comparative analysis of homologous genetic sequence among human, mouse and rat by bioinformatics method, hopefully assessing the evolutionary diversity through exon length, reading frame preservation and KA/KS ratio test of alternative splicing events. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mechanism in eukaryotic organism. We choose the ``exon skipping events'' from AS events for research. In the data of ``conserved exon skipping events'', we get 668 human-mouse conserved events, 179 human-rat conserved events and 266 conserved mouse-rat events. There are some extra data such as ``non-conserved exon skipping events'' and ``species-specific events''. We found out that the length of AS exon is shorter in conserved exon skipping event, but the ratio of reading frame preservation is higher. Among them, the minor form is the most special. We even got the same result in non-conserved exon skipping events. We calculated the KA/KS value by KA/KS ratio test and found out that the human-mouse KA/KS ratio is 0.158, the human-rat is 0.182 and the mouse-rat is 0.190. This represents that the human-mouse conserved events have the highest purifying selection pressure. In the end, we adopt KA/KS ratio test to do a further analysis between conserved and non-conserved exon skipping events and evaluate the evolutionary diversity of cross-species comparation.

Hsu, Fang-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Kuo, Min-Chieh; Chang, Hwan-You; Shia, Wei-Chung

2008-01-01

385

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  In Europe, the EU Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC lays out the main provisions of environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically\\u000a modified (GM) organisms that are interpreted very differently by different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to:\\u000a (a) describe the current implementation of ERA of GM plants in the EU and its scientific shortcomings, (b) present an improved\\u000a ERA

Angelika Hilbeck; Matthias Meier; Jörg Römbke; Stephan Jänsch; Hanka Teichmann; Beatrix Tappeser

2011-01-01

386

Nontarget-plant risk assessment for pesticide registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach developed by Environment Canada to assess risk to aquatic and terrestrial plants in nontarget habitats potentially\\u000a exposed to pesticides evaluated for registration is described. An anonymous sample of pesticide submissions is used to illustrate\\u000a the approach and to examine its merits and limitations in relation to test species, response variability, testing protocols,\\u000a ecological relevance, and comparability with other

Kathryn Freemark; Céline Boutin

1994-01-01

387

Genetic dissection of the developmental behaviours of plant height in wheat under diverse water regimes  

PubMed Central

Plant height (PH), a crucial trait related to yield potential in crop plants, is known to be typically quantitatively inherited. However, its full expression can be inhibited by a limited water supply. In this study, the genetic basis of the developmental behaviour of PH was assessed in a 150-line wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid population (Hanxuan 10×Lumai 14) grown in 10 environments (year×site×water regime combinations) by unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses in a mixed linear model. Genes that were expressed selectively during ontogeny were identified. No single QTL was continually active in all periods of PH growth, and QTLs with additive effects (A-QTLs) expressed in the period S1|S0 (the period from the original point to the jointing stage) formed a foundation for PH development. Additive main effects (a effects), which were mostly expressed in S1|S0, were more important than epistatic main effects (aa effects) or QTL×environment interaction (QE) effects, suggesting that S1|S0 was the most significant development period affecting PH growth. A few QTLs, such as QPh.cgb-6B.7, showed high adaptability for water-limited environments. Many QTLs, including four A-QTLs (QPh.cgb-2D.1, QPh.cgb-4B.1, QPh.cgb-4D.1, and QPh.cgb-5A.7) coincident with previously identified reduced height (Rht) genes (Rht8, Rht1, Rht2, and Rht9), interacted with more than one other QTL, indicating that the genetic architecture underlying PH development is a network of genes with additive and epistatic effects. Therefore, based on multilocus combinations in S1|S0, superior genotypes were predicted for guiding improvements in breeding for PH.

Wu, Xianshan; Wang, Zhenghang; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

2010-01-01

388

Sharing of Diverse Mycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi among Plant Species in an Oak-Dominated Cool-Temperate Forest  

PubMed Central

Most terrestrial plants interact with diverse clades of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in their roots. Through belowground plant–fungal interactions, dominant plants can benefit by interacting with host-specific mutualistic fungi and proliferate in a community based on positive plant–mutualistic fungal feedback. On the other hand, subordinate plant species may persist in the community by sharing other sets (functional groups) of fungal symbionts with each other. Therefore, revealing how diverse clades of root-associated fungi are differentially hosted by dominant and subordinate plant species is essential for understanding plant community structure and dynamics. Based on 454-pyrosequencing, we determined the community composition of root-associated fungi on 36 co-occurring plant species in an oak-dominated forest in northern Japan and statistically evaluated the host preference phenotypes of diverse mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi. An analysis of 278 fungal taxa indicated that an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus in the genus Lactarius and a possibly endophytic ascomycete fungus in the order Helotiales significantly favored the dominant oak (Quercus) species. In contrast, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were generally shared among subordinate plant species. Although fungi with host preferences contributed to the compartmentalization of belowground plant–fungal associations, diverse clades of ectomycorrhizal fungi and possible root endophytes were associated not only with the dominant Quercus but also with the remaining plant species. Our findings suggest that dominant-ectomycorrhizal and subordinate plant species can host different subsets of root-associated fungi, and diverse clades of generalist fungi can counterbalance the compartmentalization of plant–fungal associations. Such insights into the overall structure of belowground plant–fungal associations will help us understand the mechanisms that facilitate the coexistence of plant species in natural communities.

Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.

2013-01-01

389

Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.  

PubMed

The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale