Science.gov

Sample records for assessing cumulative health

  1. Using exposomics to assess cumulative risks and promote health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martyn T; de la Rosa, Rosemarie; Daniels, Sarah I

    2015-12-01

    Under the exposome paradigm all nongenetic factors contributing to disease are considered to be 'environmental' including chemicals, drugs, infectious agents, and psychosocial stress. We can consider these collectively as environmental stressors. Exposomics is the comprehensive analysis of exposure to all environmental stressors and should yield a more thorough understanding of chronic disease development. We can operationalize exposomics by studying all the small molecules in the body and their influence on biological pathways that lead to impaired health. Here, we describe methods by which this may be achieved and discuss the application of exposomics to cumulative risk assessment in vulnerable populations. Since the goal of cumulative risk assessment is to analyze, characterize, and quantify the combined risks to health from exposures to multiple agents or stressors, it seems that exposomics is perfectly poised to advance this important area of environmental health science. We should therefore support development of tools for exposomic analysis and begin to engage impacted communities in participatory exposome research. A first step may be to apply exposomics to vulnerable populations already studied by more conventional cumulative risk approaches. We further propose that recent migrants, low socioeconomic groups with high environmental chemical exposures, and pregnant women should be high priority populations for study by exposomics. Moreover, exposomics allows us to study interactions between chronic stress and environmental chemicals that disrupt stress response pathways (i.e., 'stressogens'). Exploring the impact of early life exposures and maternal stress may be an interesting and accessible topic for investigation by exposomics using biobanked samples. PMID:26475350

  2. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  3. Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of cumulative health risks from the combined effects of multiple environmental stressors is becoming a vital component of risk-based decisions aimed at protecting human populations and communities. This article briefly examines the historical development of cumulative risk assessment as an analytical tool, and discusses current approaches for evaluating cumulative health effects from exposure to both chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. A comparison of stressor-based and effects-based assessment methods is presented, and the potential value of focusing on viable risk management options to limit the scope of cumulative evaluations is discussed. The ultimate goal of cumulative risk assessment is to provide answers to decision-relevant questions based on organized scientific analysis; even if the answers, at least for the time being, are inexact and uncertain. PMID:22470298

  4. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: the Case of Radon and Smoking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case exam...

  5. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF APPROACHES FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population focused cumulative health risk assessment of a contaminated site or situation can include the evaluation of toxic risk from multiple chemicals, by multiple pathways, over different time frames of exposure, with multiple sensitive population subgroups, and possibly ot...

  7. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract d...

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE'S EXPOSURE FACTORS DATABASE FOR AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the risk analysis community has broadened its use of complex aggregate and cumulative residential exposure models (e.g., to meet the requirements of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act). The value of these models is their ability to incorporate a range of input...

  9. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  10. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects. PMID:22021317

  11. Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors Into Cumulative Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Cynthia V.; Dourson, Michael L.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Price, Paul S.; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The role of nonchemical stressors in modulating the human health risk associated with chemical exposures is an area of increasing attention. On 9 March 2011, a workshop titled “Approaches for Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment” took place during the 50th Anniversary Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting in Washington D.C. Objectives of the workshop included describing the current state of the science from various perspectives (i.e., regulatory, exposure, modeling, and risk assessment) and presenting expert opinions on currently available methods for incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Herein, distinct frameworks for characterizing exposure to, joint effects of, and risk associated with chemical and nonchemical stressors are discussed. PMID:22345310

  12. A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

  13. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT FOR QUANTITATIVE RESPONSE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Relative Potency Factor approach (RPF) is used to normalize and combine different toxic potencies among a group of chemicals selected for cumulative risk assessment. The RPF method assumes that the slopes of the dose-response functions are all equal; but this method depends o...

  14. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  15. Health inputs and cumulative health deficits among the older Chinese.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Sautter, Jessica; Huang, Cheng; Zeng, Yi

    2011-03-01

    Using a health economics framework, we examined how both individual level investments at different life stages and current community-level environmental factors affect individual health stock and flows at old ages. We used a nationwide dataset from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, which included more than 15,000 adults aged 65 and older from 22 provinces in mainland China. We measured health stock with a cumulative health deficit index, a measure developed in geriatrics and gerontology that reflects deficits, illnesses, and functional impairment in numerous domains of health. The cumulative health deficit index has not been used in health economics before, but is a significant contribution because it captures the health stock concept very well and overcomes the problems of inconsistency resulting from the use of different measures of health stock in research. Our results show that several proxy measures for individual health investments in both childhood (nutritional status and parental survival status) and adulthood (family financial condition and access to healthcare) yielded positive returns to health stock measured by the cumulative health deficit index. Investments in social connections and healthy behaviors (religious involvement, alcohol use, and exercise) also produced positive returns in health stock. Current community-level factors such as air quality and labor force participation rate were significantly associated with levels of health deficits in old age as well. Yet, most of these individual investment and community environment variables did not significantly affect short-term health flows (improvement or deterioration in health status over three years). Our findings have important implications for developing preventive health programs in the context of population aging by focusing on policy-relevant predictors and a comprehensive indicator of health status in later life. PMID:21306808

  16. Cumulative health risk assessment of halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matters in urban air.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Zheng-Xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) have been reported to occur widely in urban air. Nevertheless, knowledge about the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to HPAHs is scarce so far. In the present study, nine HPAHs and 16 PAHs were determined in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected from Shenzhen, China to address this issue. Concentrations of Σ9HPAHs varied from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/m(3) and from 0.09 to 0.4 ng/m(3) in PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. As for individuals, 9-bromoanthracene, 7-bromobenz(a)anthracene, and 9,10-dibromoanthracene were the dominant congeners. Levels of Σ16PAHs in PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 3.2 to 81 ng/m(3) and from 2.8 to 85 ng/m(3), respectively. Among individual PAHs, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were the main congeners. According to the season, concentrations of HPAHs and PAHs in atmospheric PM10/PM2.5 samples show a similar decreasing trend with an order: winter>autumn>spring>summer. The daily intake (DI) of PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were estimated. Our results indicated that children have the highest DI levels via inhalation exposure. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were calculated. The ILCR values showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults>children>seniors>adolescent. Overall, the ILCR values induced by HPAHs and PAHs were far below the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating no obvious cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs. PMID:25483369

  17. Concepts, Methods, and Data Sources for Cumulative Health Risk Assessment of Multiple Chemicals, Exposures and Effects: A Resource Document (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report is a resource document that provides concepts, methods and data sources to assist in the conduct of multi-chemical, population-focused cumulative risk assessments. It is not guidance, but rather a presentation of information that could assist in the development ...

  18. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  19. REGION 6 EPA CUMULATIVE RISK SCREENING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM USING GIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 6 EPA has developed a GIS based System to address cumulative risk. The System evaluates data for human health, ecological vulnerability, habitat fragmentation, industry regulatory compliance, and socio-economics. All criteria are mathematically associated allowing the dat...

  20. Data analysis techniques: a tool for cumulative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lalloué, Benoît; Monnez, Jean-Marie; Padilla, Cindy; Kihal, Wahida; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is subject to environmental exposures from various sources, with negative health impacts (air, water and soil contamination, noise, etc.or with positive effects (e.g. green space). Studies considering such complex environmental settings in a global manner are rare. We propose to use statistical factor and cluster analyses to create a composite exposure index with a data-driven approach, in view to assess the environmental burden experienced by populations. We illustrate this approach in a large French metropolitan area. The study was carried out in the Great Lyon area (France, 1.2 M inhabitants) at the census Block Group (BG) scale. We used as environmental indicators ambient air NO2 annual concentrations, noise levels and proximity to green spaces, to industrial plants, to polluted sites and to road traffic. They were synthesized using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA), a data-driven technique without a priori modeling, followed by a Hierarchical Clustering to create BG classes. The first components of the MFA explained, respectively, 30, 14, 11 and 9% of the total variance. Clustering in five classes group: (1) a particular type of large BGs without population; (2) BGs of green residential areas, with less negative exposures than average; (3) BGs of residential areas near midtown; (4) BGs close to industries; and (5) midtown urban BGs, with higher negative exposures than average and less green spaces. Other numbers of classes were tested in order to assess a variety of clustering. We present an approach using statistical factor and cluster analyses techniques, which seem overlooked to assess cumulative exposure in complex environmental settings. Although it cannot be applied directly for risk or health effect assessment, the resulting index can help to identify hot spots of cumulative exposure, to prioritize urban policies or to compare the environmental burden across study areas in an epidemiological framework. PMID:25248936

  1. Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered?

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, L.; Holman, J.

    1995-03-01

    The usual reason for preparing an environmental assessment (EA) is to ``provide sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare a finding of no significant impact or an environmental impact statement`` (40 CFR 1508.9). Significant impacts may result from direct, indirect, or cumulative impacts. Thus, in addition to assessing direct and indirect impacts, EAs should give enough evidence and analysis to determine whether or not the action contributes to a cumulatively significant impact. Consideration of cumulative impacts in NEPA documents in general, and EAs in particular, is less fully developed than consideration of impacts resulting solely from the proposed action. The authors analyzed 89 EAs to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1508. Only 35 EAs (39 %) mentioned cumulative impacts. Of these, 8 stated that there were no cumulative impacts without supporting evidence; 5 identified a potential for cumulative impacts and concluded they were insignificant but presented no evidence or analysis to support the conclusion; 19 addressed cumulative impacts of some resources but not others; and 18 EAs identified past, present, and future actions that could, with the proposed action, contribute to cumulative impacts, but only actions of a similar type were identified, usually those in the agency`s area of responsibility. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) Past, present, and reasonably foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and listed with, the proposed action. (2) For each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) Conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) Agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

  2. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  3. Tools to Assess Community-Based Cumulative Risk and Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple agents and stressors can interact in a given community to adversely affect human and ecological conditions. A cumulative risk assessment (CRA) analyzes, characterizes, and potentially quantifies the effects from multiple stressors, which include chemical agents (for exam...

  4. EPA/STAR Cumulative Risk Assessment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to different combinations of environmental stressors can contribute to increased risk for negative health consequences. Extensive studies show associations between disadvantaged communities and suboptimal health. Stressful social environments may also make a population t...

  5. Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, L. ); Holman, J. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyzed 89 environmental assessments published in the Federal Register from January 1 through June 30, 1992, to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1500-1508. Only 35 (39%) EAs mentioned cumulative impacts. Nineteen EAs addressed cumulative impacts of some resources, but not others. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) past, present and reasonable foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and be listed with, the proposed action. (2) for each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

  6. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... cumulative risk assessment for the naturally occurring pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides (often... synthetic pyrethroid pesticides, and has conducted a screening-level cumulative risk assessment for...

  7. Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and environmental species are rarely exposed to single chemicals. These chemicals typically affect multiple tissues through multiple modes of action, which may depend on the dose. Mixtures risk assessment may employ dose response information from the mixture of interest,...

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have highlighted the importance of understanding the accumulation of risks from multiple environmental stressors. These include the National Research Council's 1994 report Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment and the 1997 report by the Presidential/Cong...

  9. Study on the cumulative impact of reclamation activities on ecosystem health in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Zheng, Wei; Li, Fen; Peng, Shitao; Ding, Dewen

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop feasible tools to investigate the cumulative impact of reclamations on coastal ecosystem health, so that the strategies of ecosystem-based management can be applied in the coastal zone. An indicator system and model were proposed to assess the cumulative impact synthetically. Two coastal water bodies, namely Laizhou Bay (LZB) and Tianjin coastal waters (TCW), in the Bohai Sea of China were studied and compared, each in a different phase of reclamations. Case studies showed that the indicator scores of coastal ecosystem health in LZB and TCW were 0.75 and 0.68 out of 1.0, respectively. It can be concluded that coastal reclamations have a historically cumulative effect on benthic environment, whose degree is larger than that on aquatic environment. The ecosystem-based management of coastal reclamations should emphasize the spatially and industrially intensive layout. PMID:26763325

  10. Cumulative assessment: strategic choices to influence students’ study effort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students’ learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at helping initially low-scoring students improve their performance during a module, without impairing initially high-scoring students’ performance. We used performance as a proxy for study effort and investigated whether the program worked as intended. Methods We analysed students’ test scores in two second-year (n = 494 and n = 436) and two third-year modules (n = 383 and n = 345) in which cumulative assessment was applied. We used t-tests to compare the change in test scores of initially low-scoring students with that of initially high-scoring students between the first and second subtest and again between the combined first and second subtest and the third subtest. During the interpretation of the outcomes we took regression to the mean and test difficulty into account. Results Between the first and the second subtest in all four modules, the scores of initially low-scoring students increased more than the scores of initially high-scoring students decreased. Between subtests two and three, we found a similar effect in one module, no significant effect in two modules and the opposite effect in another module. Conclusion The results between the first two subtests suggest that cumulative assessment may positively influence students’ study effort. The inconsistent outcomes between subtests two and three may be caused by differences in perceived imminence, impact and workload between the third subtest and the first two. Cumulative assessment may serve as an example of how several evidence-based assessment principles can be integrated into a program for the benefit of student learning. PMID:24370117

  11. Integrating Nonchemicals in Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA):A Case Study of Particulate Matter (PM) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) quantitatively or qualitatively evaluate the risks of combined exposures to chemical and nonchemical stressors. CRAs also examine vulnerabilities (e.g., pre-existing health condition, genetic predisposition, poverty) as these may lead to variabi...

  12. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. PMID:25455887

  13. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  14. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  15. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and groups are more vulnerable to environmental risks than the general population. However, vulnerability has received little specific attention in the risk assessment literature. Objective Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmental risks. Discussion The literature provides substantial evidence on single environmental factors and simple conditions that increase vulnerability or reduce resilience for humans and ecologic systems. This observation is especially true for individual people and populations of wildlife. Little research directly addresses the topic of vulnerability in cumulative risk situations, especially at the community level. The community level of organization has not been adequately considered as an end point in either human or ecologic risk assessment. Furthermore, current information on human risk does not completely explain the level of response in cumulative risk conditions. Ecologic risk situations are similarly more complex and unpredictable for cases of cumulative risk. Conclusions Psychosocial conditions and responses are the principal missing element for humans. We propose a model for including psychologic and social factors as an integral component of cumulative risk assessment. PMID

  16. U.S. EPA Authority to Use Cumulative Risk Assessments in Environmental Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Sarah; Tilghman, Joan; Rosenbaum, Arlene; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA’s general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself. PMID:22829786

  17. The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Goedhart, Paul W; van der Heijden, Gerie W A M; Kennedy, Marc C; Boon, Polly E; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at mcra.rivm.nl. We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure. PMID:25455888

  18. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  19. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that

  20. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the “real world” environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. PMID:27398233

  1. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    PubMed

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. PMID:27398233

  2. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    PubMed

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. PMID:27534725

  3. 6.3 Incorporating Susceptibility Information into Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been an increased focus on understanding the differential health effects of environmental chemical exposures and on incorporating this information into risk assessments for environmental chemicals. Susceptibility is defined as increased likelihood of an...

  4. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure". PMID:22768736

  5. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  6. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  7. Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment (NAS Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. Cover ...</p>
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      <p><a target=Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age at Menopause in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Ki-Do; Nie, Linda H.; Hu, Howard; Korrick, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early menopause has been associated with many adverse health outcomes, including increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Lead has been found to be adversely associated with female reproductive function, but whether exposures experienced by the general population are associated with altered age at menopause has not been explored. Objective: Our goal was to assess the association between cumulative lead exposure and age at natural menopause. Methods: Self-reported menopausal status and bone lead concentration measured with K-shell X-ray fluorescence—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure—were obtained from 434 women participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. Results: The mean (± SD) age at natural menopause was 50.8 ± 3.6 years. Higher tibia lead level was associated with younger age at menopause. In adjusted analyses, the average age of menopause for women in the highest tertile of tibia lead was 1.21 years younger (95% CI: –2.08, –0.35) than for women in the lowest tertile (p-trend = 0.006). Although the number of cases was small (n = 23), the odds ratio for early menopause (< 45 years of age) was 5.30 (95% CI: 1.42, 19.78) for women in the highest tertile of tibia lead compared with those in the lowest tertile (p-trend = 0.006). There was no association between patella or blood lead and age at menopause. Conclusions: Our results support an association between low-level cumulative lead exposure and an earlier age at menopause. These data suggest that low-level lead exposure may contribute to menopause-related health outcomes in older women through effects on age at menopause. Citation: Eum KD, Weisskopf MG, Nie LH, Hu H, Korrick SA. 2014. Cumulative lead exposure and age at menopause in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:229–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206399 PMID:24398113

  8. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  9. A Modeling System to Examine Near-Road and Near-Source Air Toxics for Community-Scale Cumulative Assessments.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulative assessments consider a range of potential stressors that might impact the health of a receptor, such as a local neighborhood or wetland area. When receptors are located near pollution sources such as highways or ports (within 500-1,000 m), then they could be at risk of...

  10. 76 FR 82296 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... established in the Federal Register of November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69726) (FRL-8888-9). In that notice, the Agency announced the availability of EPA's cumulative risk assessment for the pyrethroids. Based on this...

  11. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requesting information and citations on approaches and methods for the planning, analysis, assessment, and characterization of cumulative risks to human populations and the environment. The EPA is developing guidelines for the assessment of cumulative risk as defined and characterized in the EPA 2003 publication Framework for......

  12. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K.; Slavich, George M.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  13. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    PubMed

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  14. HESI EXPOSURE FACTORS DATABASE FOR AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the risk analysis community has broadened its use of complex aggregate and cumulative residential exposure models (e.g., to meet the requirements of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act). The value of these models is their ability to incorporate a range of inp...

  15. Approaches and Sources of Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approaches and Sources of Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment JC Lipscomb U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Humans and environmental species are rarel...

  16. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific metho...

  17. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  18. The human relevant potency threshold: reducing uncertainty by human calibration of cumulative risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Borgert, C J; Sargent, E V; Casella, G; Dietrich, D R; McCarty, L S; Golden, R J

    2012-03-01

    The 2008 National Research Council report "Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: Tasks Ahead," rejected the underlying premises of TEQ-like approaches - e.g., chemicals are true congeners; are metabolized and detoxified similarly; produce the same biological effects by the same mode of action; exhibit parallel dose response curves - instead asserting that cumulative risk assessment should apply dose addition (DA) to all chemicals that produce "common adverse outcomes" (CAOS). Published mixtures data and a human health risk assessment for phthalates and anti-androgens were evaluated to determine how firmly the DA-CAOS concept is supported and with what level of statistical certainty the results may be extrapolated to lower doses in humans. Underlying assumptions of the DA-CAOS concept were tested for accuracy and consistency against data for two human pharmaceuticals and its logical predictions were compared to human clinical and epidemiological experience. Those analyses revealed that DA-CAOS is scientifically untenable. Therefore, an alternative approach was developed - the Human-Relevant Potency-Threshold (HRPT) - that appears to fit the data better and avoids the contradictions inherent in the DA-CAOS concept. The proposed approach recommends application of independent action for phthalates and other chemicals with potential anti-androgenic properties at current human exposure levels. PMID:22057094

  19. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  1. CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A DOSIMETRY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR MIXTURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report, Considerations for Developing a Dosimetry-Based Cumulative Risk Assessment Approach for Mixtures of Environmental Contaminants, addresses the justification for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for cumulative risk assessment....

  2. Cumulative Advantage in an Egalitarian Country? Socioeconomic Health Disparities over the Life Course in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Liliya

    2016-06-01

    According to the cumulative advantage hypothesis, health gaps between socioeconomic groups widen with age. In the United States, studies have supported this hypothesis. Outside this context, evidence remains scarce. The present study tests the cumulative advantage hypothesis in Sweden, a society that contrasts sharply with the United States in terms of policies designed to reduce social disparities in health-related resources. I draw on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 9,412 person-years), spanning the period between 1991 and 2010. The results show that gaps in self-rated health increase from early to middle adulthood. This applies to differences between educational groups and between occupational classes. In older age, health gaps remain constant. Cross-cohort analyses reveal a rising importance of cumulative advantage between educational groups but not between occupational classes. I conclude that the forces of accumulation prevail even in one of the most egalitarian welfare states. PMID:27284078

  3. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  4. Cumulative risk assessment of the exposure to pyrethroids through fruits consumption in China - Based on a 3-year investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixia; Nie, Jiyun; Lu, Zeqi; Xie, Hanzhong; Kang, Lu; Chen, Qiusheng; Li, An; Zhao, Xubo; Xu, Guofeng; Yan, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the long-term and short-term cumulative risks of pyrethroids exposured for the Chinese general population and children through fruits consumption were evaluated. A total of 1450 fruit samples and seven pyrethroids were included based on the pesticide residues monitoring programme of China from 2013 to 2015. The exposure was estimated using both deterministic approach and semi-probabilistic model for comparison. The hazard index approach was used to assess cumulative risk. 26% of samples contained pyrethroid residues with concentrations ranged from 0.0050 mg/kg to 1.2 mg/kg, of which 30% simultaneously with 2-4 mixture residues. Results demonstrated that the cumulative health risks were extremely low for both general population and children (1-6 years old) of China in the long term. Acute risk estimations calculated by deterministic method were several or many times overestimated than the results based on semi-probabilistic method. Acute cumulative exposure of children to pyrethroid compounds in 0.76% samples were exceeded 1 in worst case scenario. More detailed assessments with adequate data in the future use probabilistic method is expected to reduce the uncertainties of cumulative dietary exposure. PMID:27515867

  5. A Summary of Publications on Methods and Tools for Assessing Cumulative Risk, Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collection of eight publications on cumulative risk assessment was developed collaboratively among scientists within EPA’s Office of Research and Development and three other organizations. These include scientific collaborations through an Interagency Agreement with Argonne...

  6. Using Secondary Data to Evaluate Diverse Groups of Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    A main impediment of performing cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) is having data for multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors in the same individuals or populations. Therefore, secondary data analysis can be utilized as a screening approach to integrate population characteri...

  7. Assessing cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, T.A.; Witmer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the method, using the potential for cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer from multiple hydroelectric development in the Salmon River Basin of Idaho. We attempted to incorporate knowledge of elk and mule deer habitat needs into a paradigm to assess cumulative impacts and aid in the regulatory decision making process. Undoubtedly, other methods could be developed based on different needs or constraints, but we offer this technique as a means to further refine cumulative impact assessment. Our approach is divided into three phases: analysis, evaluation, and documentation. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Ultrasonic assessment of cumulative internal damage in filled polymers (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Knollman, G.C.; Martinson, R.H.; Bellin, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    An ultrasonic technique previously developed for studying dewetting and cumulative internal damage in filled polymers, such as solid rocket propellents, has been improved. The previous theoretical treatment is here expanded to include internal vacuoles of general spheroidal (rather than spherical) shape. Experimental measurements of sound speed and attenuation in a solid propellant material are utilized together with the modified theoretical model to calculate the internal damage parameters of effective vacuole size and number density as functions of applied uniaxial tensile strain. Results obtained from the model near the point of material failure are in excellent agreement with those provided by independent microscopic observations made on several rupture surfaces of propellant samples stressed to failure.

  9. Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute

    PubMed Central

    Ellickson, Kristie M.; Sevcik, Sarah M.; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility’s emissions are likely to be deposited.” Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”. PMID:22163199

  10. Poor Child Health, Family Capital and Cumulative Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of health and social stratification can be enriched by testing tenets of cumulative inequality theory that emphasize how the accumulation of inequality is dependent on the developmental stage being considered; the duration and stability of poor health; and the family resources available to children. I analyze longitudinal data from the British National Child Development Study (N=9,252) to ask: 1) if child health is a source of cumulative inequality in academic achievement; 2) whether this relationship depends on the timing and duration of poor health; and 3) whether trajectories are sensitive to levels of family capital. The results suggest that the relationship between health and academic achievement emerges very early in life and persists, and that whether we observe shrinking or widening inequality as children age depends on when we measure their health, and whether children have access to compensatory resources. PMID:25926564

  11. Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California

    PubMed Central

    August, Laura Meehan; Faust, John B.; Cushing, Lara; Zeise, Lauren; Alexeeff, George V.

    2012-01-01

    Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure. PMID:23202671

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wahida, Kihal-Talantikite; Padilla, Cindy M.; Denis, Zmirou-Navier; Olivier, Blanchard; Géraldine, Le Nir; Philippe, Quenel; Séverine, Deguen

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i) retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii) a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs. PMID:26999170

  13. Using Cumulative Risk to Screen for Mental Health Problems in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Barth, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that information typically collected during a maltreatment investigation can be used to screen children for mental health problems. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Cumulative risk scores were created for 3,022 children and compared to reports of clinical-level…

  14. FRAMEWORK FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have highlighted the importance of understanding the accumulation of risks from multiple environmental stressors. These include the National Research Councils 1994 report Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment and the 1997 report by the Presidential/Congressional...

  15. Cumulative Violence Exposure, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Community Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    Sundermann, Jane M.; Chu, Ann T.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence) – referred to here as cumulative violence exposure – are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims’ emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of three types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment seeking community sample of women (N = 89; Mage = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test three mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women’s cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations. PMID:23282048

  16. Tools Available to Communities for Conducting Cumulative Exposure and Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes and assesses over 70 tools that could aid with gathering information and taking action on environmental issues related to community-based cumulative risk assessments (CBCRA). Information on tool use, development and research needs, was gathered from websites...

  17. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  18. Community, state, and federal approaches to cumulative risk assessment: challenges and opportunities for integration.

    PubMed

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Wilson, Sacoby; Wilson, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) risk analysis and ranking, and (3) risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels. PMID:25918910

  19. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    PubMed Central

    Barzyk, Timothy M.; Wilson, Sacoby; Wilson, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) risk analysis and ranking, and (3) risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels. PMID:25918910

  20. Health risks of children's cumulative and aggregative exposure to metals and metalloids in a typical urban environment in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Chen, Yiting; Wang, Beibei; Sun, Chengye; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Rapid development of industrialization and urbanization results in serious environmental contamination by metal(loid)s, which would consequently cause deleterious health effects to the exposed people through multi-pathways. Therefore, total health risk assessment for the population in urban environment is very important. Unfortunately, few studies to date investigate the cumulative health risks of metal(loid)s through aggregative pathways in Children who are often susceptible population. 12 metal(loid)s including Lead(Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Arsenic(As), Chromium(Cr), Zinc(Zn), Copper(Cu), Nickel(Ni), Manganese(Mn), Cobalt(Co), Selenium(Se), Antimony(Se) and Vanadium(V), were analyzed in PM10, drinking water, food, soil and indoor dust in this study. The cumulative and aggregative risks of these metal(loid)s among the local children were then evaluated on a field sampling and questionnaire-survey basis. The results showed that the environments were heavily polluted by metal(loid)s. For most metal(loid)s, food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total daily exposure dose. The non-cancer risks were up to 30 times higher than the acceptable level due to the food ingestion via Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Sb, and the PM10 inhalation via Cr and Mn. While, the cancer risks were mainly attributed to Cr via food ingestion and As via food and dust ingestion, and approximately 100 times of the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study highlights the cumulative and aggregative exposure assessment, instead of pollutant investigation to evaluate the potential health risks and emphasizes concerns to improve indoor hygienic and environmental quality and to decrease the potential harmful health effects of children living in urban area. PMID:26774306

  1. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  2. The Validation of a Case-Based, Cumulative Assessment and Progressions Examination

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Adeola O.; Copeland, Jeffrey T.; Gottlieb, Helmut B.; Horlen, Cheryl; Smith, Helen E.; Urteaga, Elizabeth M.; Ramsinghani, Sushma; Zertuche, Alejandra; Maize, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess content and criterion validity, as well as reliability of an internally developed, case-based, cumulative, high-stakes third-year Annual Student Assessment and Progression Examination (P3 ASAP Exam). Methods. Content validity was assessed through the writing-reviewing process. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing student scores on the P3 ASAP Exam with the nationally validated Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Reliability was assessed with psychometric analysis comparing student performance over four years. Results. The P3 ASAP Exam showed content validity through representation of didactic courses and professional outcomes. Similar scores on the P3 ASAP Exam and PCOA with Pearson correlation coefficient established criterion validity. Consistent student performance using Kuder-Richardson coefficient (KR-20) since 2012 reflected reliability of the examination. Conclusion. Pharmacy schools can implement internally developed, high-stakes, cumulative progression examinations that are valid and reliable using a robust writing-reviewing process and psychometric analyses. PMID:26941435

  3. Evaluating Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Computational Models in Supporting Cumulative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yu-Mei; Clewell, Harvey; Campbell, Jerry; Andersen, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous or sequential exposure to multiple chemicals may cause interactions in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or pharmacodynamics (PD) of the individual chemicals. Such interactions can cause modification of the internal or target dose/response of one chemical in the mixture by other chemical(s), resulting in a change in the toxicity from that predicted from the summation of the effects of the single chemicals using dose additivity. In such cases, conducting quantitative cumulative risk assessment for chemicals present as a mixture is difficult. The uncertainties that arise from PK interactions can be addressed by developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to describe the disposition of chemical mixtures. Further, PK models can be developed to describe mechanisms of action and tissue responses. In this article, PBPK/PD modeling efforts conducted to investigate chemical interactions at the PK and PD levels are reviewed to demonstrate the use of this predictive modeling framework in assessing health risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures. PMID:21655141

  4. Estimating Greenspace Exposure and Benefits for Cumulative Risk Assessment Applications (Summary Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a summary of the technical meeting on greenspace (GS) and cumulative risk assessment convened May 4−5, 2015 in Cincinnati, OH, by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) National Center for Environmental As...

  5. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society. PMID:24771993

  6. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  7. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A F; Petersen, A; Granby, K

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals. PMID:13129794

  8. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    PubMed

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. PMID:24631976

  9. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, Jill; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-03-15

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  10. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Shah, Manasi; Abdelbary, Bassent; Gay, Jennifer L.; Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI) as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a) ethnic concentration and (b) geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric) were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region. PMID:22754475

  11. Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models

    PubMed Central

    White, Heather L.; O’Campo, Patricia; Moineddin, Rahim; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI) models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP). We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions) using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework. PMID:23528813

  12. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  13. HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the Health Sector Assessment. The Health Sector Assessment was co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan A. Patz, Director of the Program on the Health Effects of Global Environmental Change...

  14. Cumulative risk and developmental health: an argument for the importance of a family-wide science.

    PubMed

    Browne, Dillon T; Plamondon, Andre; Prime, Heather; Puente-Duran, Sofia; Wade, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A substantial body of research links social disadvantage and developmental health via a cascade running from poverty, to cumulative psychosocial risk, to disrupted family dynamics, to child biological regulatory systems and neurocognitive processing, and finally to morbidity across the lifespan. Most research in this area employs single-dyad or between-family methodology. While informative, there are limitations to this approach. Specifically, it is impossible to determine how risk alters psychosocial environments that are similar for all persons within a household, versus processes that are unique to particular children. This is important in light of literature citing the primacy of child-specific environments in driving developmental health. Methodologically speaking, there are both benefits and challenges to family-wide approaches that differentiate between- and within-family environments. This review describes literature linking cumulative risk and developmental health via family process, while articulating the importance of family-wide approaches. Areas of shortcoming and recommendations for a family-wide science are provided. PMID:26263428

  15. Role of slope stability in cumulative impact assessment of hydropower development: North Cascades, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Two environmental assessments considered the potential cumulative environmental impacts resulting from the development of eight proposed hydropower projects in the Nooksack River Basin and 11 proposed projects in the Skagit River Basin, North Cascades, Washington, respectively. While not identified as a target resource, slope stability and the alteration of sediment supply to creeks and river mainstems significantly affect other resources. The slope stability assessment emphasized the potential for cumulative impacts under disturbed conditions (e.g., road construction and timber harvesting) and a landslide-induced pipeline rupture scenario. In the case of small-scale slides, the sluicing action of ruptured pipeline water on the fresh landslide scarp was found to be capable of eroding significantly more material than the original landslide. For large-scale landslides, sluiced material was found to be a small increment of the original landslide. These results predicted that hypothetical accidental pipeline rupture by small-scale landslides may result in potential cumulative impacts for 12 of the 19 projects with pending license applications in both river basins. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. PMID:26545619

  17. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Struelens, L; Auvinen, A; Jacob, S; Koukorava, C; Schnelzer, M; Vanhavere, F; Clairand, I

    2015-04-01

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. PMID:25316910

  18. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.). PMID:25963760

  19. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youths Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    PubMed Central

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study was to elucidate the relation between cumulative risk and mental health symptomatology within a sample of 252 maltreated youths (aged 9–11) placed in out-of-home care. Results confirmed the high-risk nature of this sample and identified seven salient risk variables. The cumulative risk index comprised of these seven indicators was a strong predictor of mental health symptoms, differentiating between children who scored in the clinical range with regard to mental health symptoms and those who did not. Finally, the data supported a linear model in which each incremental increase in cumulative risk was accompanied by an increase in mental health problems. This is the first known study to examine cumulative risk within a sample of youths in out-of-home care. PMID:20932576

  20. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  1. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-05-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006-2009, while residue data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007-2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile) was calculated to 9% of the Adjusted Reference Value (ARV) for the effect on nipple retention and to 1% of the ARV for the effect on increased gestation period. PMID:23333574

  2. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. PMID:25704365

  3. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low. PMID:25341819

  4. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Senner, Robert

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  5. Cumulative impact assessment in coastal wetland watersheds: Jacoby Creek, Humboldt County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    This work tests the transferability of a model cumulative impact assessment method - developed for an agricultural/residential watershed in central California - to a forested/residential watershed in northern California. The method focuses on coastal wetland sedimentation caused by development in the surrounding watershed. The premise of the method is that future wetland impacts will resemble those of the past if future anthropogenic disturbances and natural processes occur at the same intensity as those experienced over the historical record. The method quantifies historic land-use disturbance and wetland change, and establishes a recommended upper limit for future land-use intensity based on historic site disturbance. Indices of site disturbance are keyed to local erosional processes. Measures include impervious surface coverage, bare ground disturbance, location of mass-movement features, and intersections of roads with streams. For Jacoby Creek it was found that the creek-mouth delta grew nearly 18 acres between 1931 and 1978 due to deposition of sediment from the 17 sq. mi. watershed. Approximately 8 acres of the delta have become vegetated; established salt marsh remains unchanged. The method is potentially transferable to other cumulative impact problems where land-use intensity is an important variable.

  6. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105 μg/l (median 25 μg/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88 μg/l (10 μg/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248 μg/l (28 μg/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.8 μg/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80 μg/l (2.6 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.9 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219 μg/l (11 μg/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188 μg/l (1.6 μg/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3 cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105 μg/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among

  7. IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT USING COMMON MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, potential health risk assessments from exposure to contaminated food, drinking water, or environmental media have been conducted on individual pesticides or chemicals in each medium of concern. However, humans are generally exposed to multiple chemicals and stress...

  8. Evaluating Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors in a Cumulative Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristically toxicological and epidemiological studies involving chemical mixtures (e.g., multi-pollutant exposures) have been increasing. Human health assessment of chemical and nonchemical mixture risk remains rare. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on integr...

  9. ANALYTICAL STRATEGIES FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AND NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will assess the relative impact of community-level and individual-level stressors – including multiple chemical, social and psychosocial stressors -- on biologic markers of health effects across neighborhoods and vulnerable populations in Texas City, Texas...

  10. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Hegmann, George; Yarranton, G.A.

    2011-09-15

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  11. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  12. The Comprehensive Health Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

    This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

  13. Novel genetic variants in differentiated thyroid cancer and assessment of the cumulative risk

    PubMed Central

    Figlioli, Gisella; Chen, Bowang; Elisei, Rossella; Romei, Cristina; Campo, Chiara; Cipollini, Monica; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Bambi, Franco; Paolicchi, Elisa; Hoffmann, Per; Herms, Stefan; Kalemba, Michał; Kula, Dorota; Pastor, Susana; Marcos, Ricard; Velázquez, Antonia; Jarząb, Barbara; Landi, Stefano; Hemminki, Kari; Gemignani, Federica; Försti, Asta

    2015-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on a high-incidence Italian population followed by replications on low-incidence cohorts suggested a strong association of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9q22.33, 2q35, 20q11.22-q12 and 14q24.3. Moreover, six additional susceptibility loci were associated with the disease only among Italians. The present study had two aims, first to identify loci involved in DTC risk and then to assess the cumulative effect of the SNPs identified so far in the Italian population. The combined analysis of the previous GWAS and the present Italian study provided evidence of association with rs7935113 (GALNTL4, OR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.20–1.53, p-value = 7.41 × 10−7) and rs1203952 (FOXA2, OR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.16–1.44, p-value = 4.42 × 10−6). Experimental ENCODE and eQTL data suggested that both SNPs may influence the closest genes expression through a differential recruitment of transcription factors. The assessment of the cumulative risk of eleven SNPs showed that DTC risk increases with an increasing number of risk alleles (p-trend = 3.13 × 10−47). Nonetheless, only a small fraction (about 4% on the disease liability scale) of DTC is explained by these SNPs. These data are consistent with a polygenic model of DTC predisposition and highlight the importance of association studies in the discovery of the disease hereditability. PMID:25753578

  14. Cumulative risk assessment lessons learned: a review of case studies and issue papers.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sarah S; Rice, Glenn E; Scarano, Louis J; Teuschler, Linda K; Bollweg, George; Martin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) examine potential risks posed by exposure to multiple and sometimes disparate environmental stressors. CRAs are more resource intensive than single chemical assessments, and pose additional challenges and sources of uncertainty. CRAs may examine the impact of several factors on risk, including exposure magnitude and timing, chemical mixture composition, as well as physical, biological, or psychosocial stressors. CRAs are meant to increase the relevance of risk assessments, providing decision makers with information based on real world exposure scenarios that improve the characterization of actual risks and hazards. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated a number of CRAs, performed by or commissioned for the Agency, to seek insight into CRA concepts, methods, and lessons learned. In this article, ten case studies and five issue papers on key CRA topics are examined and a set of lessons learned are identified for CRA implementation. The lessons address the iterative nature of CRAs, importance of considering vulnerability, need for stakeholder engagement, value of a tiered approach, new methods to assess multiroute exposures to chemical mixtures, and the impact of geographical scale on approach and purpose. PMID:25462315

  15. EFFECTS-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT IN A LOW-INCOME URBAN COMMUNITY NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will introduce into the cumulative risk assessment framework novel methods for non-cancer risk assessment, techniques for dose-response modeling that extend insights from chemical mixtures frameworks to non-chemical stressors, multilevel statistical methods used to address ...

  16. (BOSC) DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PRESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE US EPA'S N-METHYL CARBAMATE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (NMCRA) ASSESSES THE EFFECT ON ACETYLCHOLINE ESTERASE (AChE) ACTIVITY OF EXPOSURE TO 10 N-METHLY CARBAMATE (NMC)PESTICIDES THROUGH DIETARY, DRINKING WATER, AND RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURES. THESE DATA THUS INFORM, BUT DO NOT COM...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA FOR EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE, DOSE AND HEALTH RISKS FOR PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is part of a multi-laboratory and center study whose goal is to develop a cumulative risk assessment for pyrethroid pesticides. NHEERL's role is to understand the relationship between exposure, dose and response for individual pyrethroids and mixtures of these chem...

  18. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETICS/PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: CASE STUDY FOR THE N-METHYL CARBMATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 [PL 104-170: 110 STAT. 1513] requires EPA to consider potential cumulative human health risks resulting from aggregate exposure to pesticide chemicals acting through a common mechanism of toxicity. This includes all anticipated dietary e...

  19. New approaches to uncertainty analysis for use in aggregate and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C; van der Voet, Hilko; Roelofs, Victoria J; Roelofs, Willem; Glass, C Richard; de Boer, Waldo J; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Hart, Andy D M

    2015-05-01

    Risk assessments for human exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) have traditionally focussed on single routes of exposure and single compounds. Extensions to estimate aggregate (multi-source) and cumulative (multi-compound) exposure from PPPs present many new challenges and additional uncertainties that should be addressed as part of risk analysis and decision-making. A general approach is outlined for identifying and classifying the relevant uncertainties and variabilities. The implementation of uncertainty analysis within the MCRA software, developed as part of the EU-funded ACROPOLIS project to address some of these uncertainties, is demonstrated. An example is presented for dietary and non-dietary exposures to the triazole class of compounds. This demonstrates the chaining of models, linking variability and uncertainty generated from an external model for bystander exposure with variability and uncertainty in MCRA dietary exposure assessments. A new method is also presented for combining pesticide usage survey information with limited residue monitoring data, to address non-detect uncertainty. The results show that incorporating usage information reduces uncertainty in parameters of the residue distribution but that in this case quantifying uncertainty is not a priority, at least for UK grown crops. A general discussion of alternative approaches to treat uncertainty, either quantitatively or qualitatively, is included. PMID:25688423

  20. INTERPRETING BIOMARKER DATA FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress, the public, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and other expert panels have urged EPA to rationally address aggregate exposure and cumulative risk. Of special concern are estimates of cumulative risk resulting from aggregate exposure of sensitive sub-populations (i...

  1. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. VULNERABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RESOURCES IN CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the ...

  3. Benchmark Dose Analysis from Multiple Datasets: The Cumulative Risk Assessment for the N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s N-Methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk assessment was based on the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 NMC pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures, assuming the effects of joint exposure to NMCs is dose-...

  4. The use of in vitro testing to refine cumulative assessment groups of pesticides: The example of teratogenic conazoles.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Angelo; Di Renzo, Francesca; Giavini, Erminio; Metruccio, Francesca; Menegola, Elena

    2015-05-01

    The most relevant issues in cumulative risk assessment (CRA) are the identification of cumulative assessment groups and the hypothesis of dose-additivity, at relevant human exposures. In vitro methods can provide meaningful data to help solving those issues. Integration of in vitro studies, selected in vivo studies, and PBPK modeling for teratogenic conazoles confirmed that in vitro studies may give results in a cheaper and faster fashion. In particular, in vitro studies with explanted rat embryos provided support for dose-additivity for conazoles causing cranio-facial malformations. Although this could not be immediately quantitatively transferred to the in vivo situation, they provided indication on how to conduct targeted in vivo studies. In addition, by means of PBPK modeling, it was possible to estimate the dose in humans associated with a defined teratogenic risk and also to conclude that for cumulative risk assessment only exposures occurring within a short period of time (a day or less) need to be cumulated. Although PBPK modeling cannot be widely applied, at least in the short term, it should be considered if available. It is recommended to incorporate in vitro testing and PBPK modeling, whenever available and feasible in the process of risk assessment, particularly of CRA. PMID:25047212

  5. A conceptual framework for assessing cumulative impacts on the hydrology of nontidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Wetlands occur in geologic and hydrologic settings that enhance the accumulation or retention of water. Regional slope, local relief, and permeability of the land surface are major controls on the formation of wetlands by surface-water sources. However, these landscape features also have significant control over groundwater flow systems, which commonly play a role in the formation of wetlands. Because the hydrologic system is a continuum, any modification of one component will have an effect on contiguous components. Disturbances commonly affecting the hydrologic system as it relates to wetlands include weather modification, alteration of plant communities, storage of surface water, road construction, drainage of surface water and soil water, alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas, and pumping of groundwater. Assessments of the cumulative effects of one or more of these disturbances on the hydrologic system as related to wetlands must take into account uncertainty in the measurements and in the assumptions that are made in hydrologic studies. For example, it may be appropriate to assume that regional groundwater flow systems are recharged in uplands and discharged in lowlands. However, a similar assumption commonly does not apply on a local scale, because of the spatial and temporal dynamics of groundwater recharge. Lack of appreciation of such hydrologic factors can lead to misunderstanding of the hydrologic function of wetlands within various parts of the landscape and mismanagement of wetland ecosystems. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  6. Utilizing geographic information systems technology in the Wyoming cumulative hydrologic impact assessment modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerlinck, J.D.; Oakleaf, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The coal-permitting process places heavy demands on both permit applicants and regulatory authorities with respect to the management and analysis of hydrologic data. Currently, this correlation is being addressed for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming by the ongoing Cumulative Hydrologic Impact Assessment (CHIA) efforts at the University of Wyoming. One critical component of the CHIA is the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) for support, management, manipulation, pre-analysis, and display of data associated with the chosen groundwater and surface water models. This paper will discuss the methodology in using of GIS technology as an integrated tool with the MODFLOW and HEC-1 hydrologic models. Pre-existing GIS links associated with these two models served as a foundation for this effort. However, due to established standards and site specific factors, substantial modifications were performed on existing tools to obtain adequate results. The groundwater-modeling effort required the use of a refined grid in which cell sizes varied based on the relative locations of ongoing mining activities. Surface water modeling was performed in a semi-arid region with very limited topographic relief and predominantly ephemeral stream channels. These were substantial issues that presented challenges for effective GIS/model integration.

  7. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  8. Health care technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  9. Cumulative effect assessment in Canada: a regional framework for aquatic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, Monique G

    2003-10-01

    Sustainable development of the aquatic environment depends upon routine and defensible cumulative effects assessment (CEA). CEA is the process of predicting the consequences of development relative to an assessment of existing environmental quality. Theoretically, it provides an on-going mechanism to evaluate if levels of development exceed the environment's assimilative capacity; i.e., its ability to sustain itself. In practice, the link between CEA and sustainable development has not been realized because CEA concepts and methods have developed along two dichotomous tracks. One track views CEA as an extension of the environmental assessment (EA) process for project developments. Under this track, stressor-based (S-B) methods have been developed where the emphasis is on local, project-related stressors, their link with aquatic indicators, and the potential for environmental effects through stressor-indicator interactions. S-B methods focus on the proposed development and prediction of project-related effects. They lack a mechanism to quantify existing aquatic quality especially at scales broader than an isolated development. This limitation results in the prediction of potential effects relative to a poorly defined baseline state. The other track views CEA as a broader, regional assessment tool where effects-based (E-B) methods specialize in quantification of existing aquatic effects over broad spatial scales. However, the predictive capabilities of E-B methods are limited because they are retrospective, i.e., the stressor causing the effect is identified after the effect has been measured. When used in isolation, S-B and E-B methods do not address CEA in the context necessary for sustainable development. However, if the strengths of these approaches were integrated into a holistic framework for CEA, an operational mechanism would exist to better monitor and assess sustainable development of our aquatic resources. This paper reviews the existing conceptual basis

  10. Metals in residential soils and cumulative risk assessment in Yaqui and Mayo agricultural valleys, northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Gandolfi, A Jay; Santana-Alcántar, María Ernestina; Klimecki, Walter T; Aguilar-Apodaca, María Guadalupe; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; De la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Mendivil-Quijada, Héctor; Valencia, Martín; Meza-Figueroa, Diana

    2012-09-01

    This investigation examines the extent of soil metal pollution associated with the Green Revolution, relative to agricultural activities and associated risks to health in the most important agricultural region of Mexico. Metal contents in bulk soil samples are commonly used to assess contamination, and metal accumulations in soils are usually assumed to increase with decreasing particle size. This study profiled the spatial distribution of metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, V, Hg, Co, P, Se, and Mn) in bulk soil and fine-grained fractions (soil-derived dust) from 22 towns and cities. The contamination of soil was assessed through the use of a geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI). The results of this study indicated that a number of towns and cities are moderately to highly polluted by soil containing Be, Co, Hg, P, S, V, Zn, Se, Cr, and Pb in both size fractions (coarse and fine). Hazard index in fine fraction (HI(children)=2.1) shows that risk assessment based on Co, Mn, V, and Ni spatially related to power plants, have the potential to pose health risks to local residents, especially children. This study shows that risk assessment based on metal content in bulk soil could be overestimated when compared to fine-grained fraction. Our results provide important information that could be valuable in establishing risk assessment associated with residential soils within agricultural areas, where children can ingest and inhale dust. PMID:22820616

  11. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n = 364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

  12. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, Christo

    2016-01-01

    Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe) cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as "krimpsiekte", cotyledonosis or "nenta". "Krimpsiekte" is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans. PMID:27102163

  13. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    PubMed Central

    Sadd, James L.; Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Scoggins, Justin; Jesdale, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB), have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ) advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM) as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1) hazard proximity and land use; (2) air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3) social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES) measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI) score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns. PMID:21655129

  14. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  15. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  16. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B H; Petersen, A; Christensen, T

    2009-07-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 microg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children and adults, respectively. When we used methamidophos as the index compound, the cumulative acute intakes were calculated to 31.3% and 13.8% of the ARfD of 3 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) at P99.9 for children and adults, respectively. With both index compounds, the greatest contributor to the cumulative acute exposure was apple. The results show that there is no cumulative acute risk for Danish consumers to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. PMID:19680979

  17. INTERPRETING BIOMARKER DATA FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, EPA's decisions are being challenged on the basis that the Agency has not adequately addressed aggregate exposure and cumulative risk arising from exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals. In addition to Congress and the public, the National Academy of Sciences (...

  18. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  19. Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60–99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems. PMID:24324585

  20. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A

    2013-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems. PMID:24324585

  1. EPA Peer Consultation Workshop on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates: Potential Options and Methods for Evaluating the Cumulative Hazard Associated with Six Selected Phthalates

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA held a 2-day workshop on December 8 and 9, 2010 at the Doubletree Hotel Washington DC-Crystal City in Arlington, Viriginia. The goal of this workshop was to evaulate methods of determining cumulative risk associated with exposure to mulitple phthalates for inclusion in the EP...

  2. Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial, reflect increased interest in consideratio of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop co...

  3. The Interplay Between Child and Maternal Health: Reciprocal Relationships and Cumulative Disadvantage During Childhood and Adolescence*

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana

    2015-01-01

    While many studies use parental socioeconomic status and health to predict children's health, this study examines the interplay over time between child and maternal health across childhood and adolescence. Using data from women in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort and their children (N = 2,225), autoregressive cross-lagged models demonstrate that at particular points during childhood and adolescence, there are direct effects of child activity limitations on maternal health limitations two years later and direct effects of maternal health limitations on child activity limitations two years later, net of a range of health-relevant time-varying and time-invariant covariates. Furthermore, there are indirect effects of child activity limitations on subsequent maternal health limitations and indirect effects of maternal health limitations on subsequent child activity limitations via intervening health statuses. This study examines how the interplay between child and maternal health unfolds over time and describes how these interdependent statuses jointly experience health disadvantages. PMID:24578398

  4. Valued ecosystem components for watershed cumulative effects: an analysis of environmental impact assessments in the South Saskatchewan River watershed, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Murray A; Noble, Bram F; Dubé, Monique G

    2013-07-01

    The accumulating effects of human development are threatening water quality and availability. In recognition of the constraints to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) under traditional environmental impact assessment (EIA), there is an emerging body of research dedicated to watershed-based cumulative effects assessment (WCEA). To advance the science of WCEA, however, a standard set of ecosystem components and indicators is required that can be used at the watershed scale, to inform effects-based understanding of cumulative change, and at the project scale, to inform regulatory-based project based impact assessment and mitigation. A major challenge, however, is that it is not clear how such ecosystem components and indicators for WCEA can or should be developed. This study examined the use of aquatic ecosystem components and indicators in EIA practice in the South Saskatchewan River watershed, Canada, to determine whether current practice at the project scale could be "scaled up" to support ecosystem component and indicator development for WCEA. The hierarchy of assessment components and indicators used in a sample of 35 environmental impact assessments was examined and the factors affecting aquatic ecosystem component selection and indicator use were identified. Results showed that public environmental impact statements are not necessarily publically accessible, thus limiting opportunities for data and information sharing from the project to the watershed scale. We also found no consistent terminology across the sample of impact statements, thus making comparison of assessment processes and results difficult. Regulatory compliance was found to be the dominant factor influencing the selection of ecosystem components and indicators for use in project assessment, rather than scientific reasoning, followed by the mandate of the responsible government agency for the assessment, public input to the assessment process, and preexisting water licensing arrangements external

  5. Assessing Nonchemical factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): A Case Study of the Association between Lower Heart Rate Variability and Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increased interest in the integration of chemicals (e.g. particulate matter, lead) and nonchemicals (e.g., genetics, gender, lifestyle) in cumulative risk assessment (CRA). Because few toxicological or epidemiological studies on these complex mixtures have been con...

  6. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  7. Resource Asymmetries and Cumulative Advantages: Canadian and US Research Universities and the Field of Global Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly; Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    Global health is becoming an important area of inquiry and learning in North American research universities, stemming from on-going and new commitments to the field by multiple governmental and non-governmental agents. External demands for research and education in global health require enhanced inter-disciplinary, inter-sectoral and international…

  8. Linking large scale landscape change to water quality and quantity response in the lower Athabasca River, Canada: toward Cumulative Effects Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, N. E.; Westbrook, C. J.; Dubé, M.; Squires, A.

    2010-12-01

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. The accumulation of multiple landscape stressors that interact over space and time are defined as cumulative effects and are subject to Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA), the process of evaluating the impact a development project may have on the ecological surroundings, under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. One of the shortcomings of CEA for river systems is determining appropriate indicators of ecosystem health. The Athabasca River is amongst the most stressed river systems in Canada. The lower reaches of the Athabasca River (88,000 km2) were chosen for study because they have been subject to development of a diverse range of land uses. Our objectives were to: i) evaluate land use change in the lower reaches of the Athabasca River Basin from 1976-2006 and ii) identify appropriate CEA indicators by evaluating whether any anthropogenic land use changes can be linked to observed changes in river water quality and quantity in the form of stressor- and- effect- based relationships. Landscape change was quantified with datasets describing forest harvest, forest fires, census of agriculture, census of population, and water consumption, and satellite imagery. River response was quantified with concentration data for six solutes, specific conductance and turbidity, and discharge and river stage data. Linkages between landscape change and river response were evaluated using correlation analyses and step-wise, multiple regression. Notable landscape changes include increased industrial development (particularly expansion of oil sands mining) and forest cut-blocks, made evident from the satellite imagery and supporting ancillary datasets. Preliminary results suggest appropriate CEA indicators for discharge and water quality in this river may be water abstraction and forest harvest, respectively. The results highlight the

  9. Assessing cumulative impacts to wintering Bald Eagles and their habitats in western Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Witmer, G.W.; O'Neil, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of Washington, the largest wintering population in the lower 48 states, are subject to numerous pressures and impacts from human activites. An evaluative method potential cumulative impacts of multiple hydroelectric development and logging activities on known and potential eagle use areas. Four resource components include food supply, roost sites, mature riparian forest, and disturbance. In addition to actual estimates of losses in food supply (fish biomass in kg) and habitat (km/sup 2/) in one river basin, impact levels from 0 (none) to 4 (high) were assigned for each development and for each component based on the impacts anticipated and the estimated value of the site to eagles. Midwinter eagle surveys, aerial photography, topographic and forest stand maps, and site visits were used in the analysis. Impacts were considered additive for all but the disturbance component, which was adjusted for potential synergism between developments. Adjustments were made for mitigation before the impacts were aggregated into a single, dimensionless cumulative impact score. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  11. Assessing Long-Term, System-Wide Cumulative Benefits of Multiple Restoration Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most river restoration projects in North America have been at a relatively small scale, and even most large restoration programs consist of multiple small projects. The CALFED Bay-Delta Program, encompassing the San Francisco Estuary system and its watershed in northern California, is one of the largest ongoing restoration programs in the nation, with over 500 million invested in restoration projects from 1997 to 2004. Yet when we look at the results of these and other restoration efforts to date in the context of habitat losses and fish population declines since European settlement in 1850, it is clear that even a restoration effort on this scale will not reverse large-scale historical changes, so restoration in this context must involve making incremental improvements within a highly altered system. The question becomes how to best allocate the (always limited) available resources strategically to achieve realistic restoration goals. For example, is it better to make small investments in many rivers or concentrate on larger projects in one or a few? An overall conceptual model on a basin scale and over a long time period is needed as a framework in which to evaluate the cumulative contributions of different possible projects. Along the Merced and Tuolumne Rivers, multiple abandoned gravel pits interrupt sediment transport continuity and provide habitat for exotic fish that prey on juvenile salmon. To reduce predation and restore river function, some of these pits have been repaired (and the channel restored), at a cost to date of about 30 million. Assuming different response functions, we can project the potential cumulative benefits of multiple projects.

  12. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  13. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Atkinson, S.F.

    2011-09-15

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  14. A geographic model to assess and limit cumulative ecological degradation from Marcellus Shale exploitation in New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, John B.; Robinson, George R.

    2012-01-01

    When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km²), using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey), percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program), and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments) within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the number of

  15. Cumulative Risk, Cumulative Outcome: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E.; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a “mediated net of adversity” model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

  17. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  18. Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.

    PubMed

    Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

  19. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670 ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306 ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  20. Reprint of "Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model".

    PubMed

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-06-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27150444

  1. Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model.

    PubMed

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-05-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27005579

  2. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock’s term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can have lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farm worker children’s ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality. PMID:20550093

  3. Stigmatized biologies: Examining the cumulative effects of oral health disparities for Mexican American farmworker children.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C

    2010-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality. PMID:20550093

  4. Assessing health apps.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A survey commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence aims to explore the way nurses and midwives engage with mobile technologies, such as smartphones, tablets and health apps. It is seeking opinions on how these apps should be evaluated, and about online patient feedback. Results will inform NICE's plan to develop a central process for evaluating and endorsing health apps, which will enable patients, healthcare professionals and hospitals to identify the most useful. Nurses or midwives practising in the UK, and involved with direct patient care are welcome to take part in the survey. PMID:27369711

  5. NEW APPROACHES AND TOOLS FOR THE CONDUCT OF COMMUNITY-BASED CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals have differential exposures and potential risk of adverse health effects, regardless of whether chemical exposure occurs singly or as mixtures of several chemicals. Elevated exposures can result from frequent contact with environmental contaminants and depends on the...

  6. The EPA's Human Exposure Research Program for Assessing Cumulative Risk in Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communities are faced with challenges in identifying and prioritizing environmental issues, taking actions to reduce their exposures, and determining their effectiveness for reducing human health risks. Additional challenges include determining what scientific tools are available...

  7. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  8. APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

  9. An Overview of Measurement Method Tools Available to Communities for Conducting Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community-based programs for assessing and mitigating nvironmental risks represent a challenge to participants because each brings a different level of understanding of the issues affecting the community. These programs often require the collaboration of several community sectors...

  10. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty...

  11. Assessing Cumulative Impact and Risk - Approaches at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mission and regulatory mandate to protect human health and the environment. EPA’s primary role is to implement environmental laws by developing and enforcing national regulation. Cogent to the goals of this workshop, key envi...

  12. Health Effects Assessment for Ammonia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  13. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  14. Health Effects Assessment for Bromomethane

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  15. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development on Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 2, Example and Procedural Guidelines, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    A hypothetical example of multiple hydroelectric development is used to demonstrate the applicability of the integrated tabular methodology (ITM) that was recommended for cumulative effects assessment in Volume 1. The example consists of an existing mainstem dam and four proposed small hydroelectric developments in a small river basin containing elk summer and winter range and chinook salmon spawning areas. Single-project impact assessments are used collectively in the methodology to estimate the cumulative effects of the projects on elk and salmon. The steps in cumulative assessment are (1) establishing a conceptual and schematic representation of each cumulative effect, (2) calculating interaction coefficients for each pair of projects, (3) developing interaction and impact matrices, (4) multiplying these matrices, (5) evaluating the contribution of shared project features to cumulative effects, and (6) incorporating the effects of already existing projects. The ITM is most effective when single-project assessments are accomplished in a detailed, quantitative manner. The methodology involves the use of impact response curves (such as fry emergence as a function of fine sediment or habitat suitability as a function of road density) for each impact being assessed. 14 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  17. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ETHYLBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  18. Health Effects Assessment for Naphthalene

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  19. Introducing a novel method to assess cumulative steroid concentrations: increased hair cortisol concentrations over 6 months in medicated patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Muhtz, Christoph; Skoluda, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Hinkelmann, Kim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Otte, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol concentrations using point measures taken from urine, blood, or saliva samples. However, with regard to hypercortisolism-induced consequences, long-term cumulative cortisol burden is of relevance. Our objective was to use hair analysis as a new method to assess cortisol exposure over 6 months in depressed patients and healthy controls. We examined 23 depressed patients (8 men and 15 women, mean age: 41.6 years ( ± standard deviation (SD), 13.1 years); mean duration of current depressive episode 9 months ( ± SD, 13 months)) and 64 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Cortisol concentrations in two 3-cm hair segments from near to the scalp were analyzed, representing cortisol secretion during the 6 months prior to sampling. Compared with healthy individuals, depressed patients had higher hair cortisol concentrations in the first (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 20.8 vs. 18.7 ± 11.5 pg/mg, p < 0.05) and second hair segment (mean ±  SD: 21.9 ± 23.7 vs. 13.4 ± 9.6 pg/mg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, hair cortisol analysis confirmed enhanced cortisol secretion in depressed patients over a prolonged time period. Because of the retrospective and cumulative nature of cortisol in hair, the assessment of hair cortisol concentration may help in addressing unanswered questions regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and associated health consequences in psychiatric disorders. PMID:22043813

  20. Cumulative organophosphate pesticide exposure and risk assessment among pregnant women living in an agricultural community: a case study from the CHAMACOS cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Bradman, Asa; McKone, Thomas E; Barr, Dana B; Harnly, Martha E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 230,000 kg of organophosphate (OP) pesticides are applied annually in California's Salinas Valley. These activities have raised concerns about exposures to area residents. We collected three spot urine samples from pregnant women (between 1999 and 2001) enrolled in CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas), a longitudinal birth cohort study, and analyzed them for six dialkyl phosphate metabolites. We used urine from 446 pregnant women to estimate OP pesticide doses with two deterministic steady-state modeling methods: method 1, which assumed the metabolites were attributable entirely to a single diethyl or dimethyl OP pesticide; and method 2, which adapted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) draft guidelines for cumulative risk assessment to estimate dose from a mixture of OP pesticides that share a common mechanism of toxicity. We used pesticide use reporting data for the Salinas Valley to approximate the mixture to which the women were exposed. Based on average OP pesticide dose estimates that assumed exposure to a single OP pesticide (method 1), between 0% and 36.1% of study participants' doses failed to attain a margin of exposure (MOE) of 100 relative to the U.S. EPA oral benchmark dose(10) (BMD(10)), depending on the assumption made about the parent compound. These BMD(10) values are doses expected to produce a 10% reduction in brain cholinesterase activity compared with background response in rats. Given the participants' average cumulative OP pesticide dose estimates (method 2) and regardless of the index chemical selected, we found that 14.8% of the doses failed to attain an MOE of 100 relative to the BMD(10) of the selected index. An uncertainty analysis of the pesticide mixture parameter, which is extrapolated from pesticide application data for the study area and not directly quantified for each individual, suggests that this point estimate could range from 1 to 34%. In future analyses, we

  1. Estimation of the Cumulative Fault Area Under Critical State Based on Microseismic Dataset at Hydraulic Stimulation for Seismic Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuhira, Y.; Asanuma, H.; Häring, M. O.; Ito, T.

    2014-12-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude has been considered as critical environmental burden associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, and creation of engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Therefore, studies for understandings of the large events and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated (e.g. Ellsworth, 2013 or McGarr, 2014). Many of the risk assessment models is based on the seismological statistics and they use only basic information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. In this study, we originally developed the risk assessment model based on the more physical interpretation of microseismic events. We newly defined new index reffered to as "Slip-able area (SAA)", which describes the cumulative fault areas under critical state in a study area during/after the stimulation. The informations used in estimating SAA were given by the analysis of microseismic events. This model can provide the potentially slip-able area in semi real time nature. SAA can be directly converted into the event magnitude, therefore this model can contribute to the short (one or two days) or middle (week) term the risk assessment of the large seismic event. SAA is defined as simple product of slipped area density and stimulated volume using the equation (1). Aslip=K×Vstimu (1) where Aslip is the cumulative SAA, K is slipped area density, and Vstimuis the stimulated volume by fluid injection. K, slipped area density is defined as the summation of fault areas of the seismic events which occurred during given time step from given volume. Vstimu means the rock volume whose permeability was enhanced by the fluid stimulation. So, Vstimuis estimated by distribution of the hypocenter location. In order to verify the feasibility of this model, SAA is estimated using the microseismic data set from Basel, Switzerland and compared the observed seismic fault area. In this process, slipped area density was calculated using

  2. Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Research shows that AIDS-orphaned children are more likely to experience clinical-range psychological problems. Little is known about possible interactions between factors mediating these high distress levels. We assessed how food insecurity, bullying, and AIDS-related stigma interacted with each other and with likelihood of experiencing clinical-range disorder. In South Africa, 1025 adolescents completed standardised measures of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. 52 potential mediators were measured, including AIDS-orphanhood status. Logistic regressions and hierarchical log-linear modelling were used to identify interactions among significant risk factors. Food insecurity, stigma and bullying all independently increased likelihood of disorder. Poverty and stigma were found to interact strongly, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 19% to 83%. Similarly, bullying interacted with AIDS-orphanhood status, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 12% to 76%. Approaches to alleviating psychological distress amongst AIDS-affected children must address cumulative risk effects. PMID:19713022

  3. Quantitative assessment of cumulative carcinogenic risk for multiple genotoxic impurities in a new drug substance.

    PubMed

    Bercu, Joel P; Hoffman, Wherly P; Lee, Cindy; Ness, Daniel K

    2008-08-01

    In pharmaceutical development, significant effort is made to minimize the carcinogenic potential of new drug substances (NDS). This involves appropriate genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing of the NDS, and understanding the genotoxic potential of its impurities. Current available guidance recommends the use of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) for a single impurity where mutagenicity but no carcinogenicity information exists. Despite best efforts, the presence of more than one genotoxic impurity in an NDS may occur at trace levels. This paper repeats the analysis performed by others for a single genotoxic compound, but also uses statistical simulations to assess the impact on cancer risk for a mixture of genotoxic compounds. In summary, with the addition of multiple impurities all controlled to the TTC, an increase in cancer risk was observed. This increase is relatively small when considering the conservative assumptions of the TTC. If structurally similar compounds had an assumed strong correlation (+/-10-fold from the first randomly selected impurity) in cancer potency, the resulting cancer risk was not negatively impacted. Findings based on probabilistic analysis here can be very useful in making appropriate decisions about risk management of multiple genotoxic impurities measured in the final drug substance. PMID:18550240

  4. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  5. Sensor based soil health assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification and assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Due to high cost, labor requirements, and soil disturbance, traditional laboratory analyses cannot provide high resolut...

  6. Magnetic cumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovskij, A. I.

    1990-08-01

    The second half of 40-th -finish of 60-th of the XX-th Century were prolific y ears of scientific activity of A.D. Sakharov (1921-1990), when his unique creati ve aptitudes and inventivity has found a wide manifestation. Besides of his decis ive contribution to creation of Soviet thermonuclear weapons, in the area of his interests entered various problems of tehrmonuclaer energetics. In 1950 I.E. Tam m and A.D. Sakharov formulated the principles of magnetic thermoisolation of High temperature Plasmas, which put a beginning to controlled thermonuclear synthesis in the U.S.S.R. In 1951 A.D. Sakharov developed the theory of magnetic stationa ry thermonuclear reactor, which are closed to modern Tokamaks. Approximately in 1960-1961 He examined the possibility of thermonuclear synthesis on the basis of L aser compression of a spherical target. The idea of magnetic cumulation was forwrded by A.D. Sakharov as one of the ways of the obtaining of a controlled impulse thermonuclear reaction.

  7. Combining Field and Modeling Tools As an Approach to Assess Cumulative Surface Erosion in Alberta Eastern Slopes and Foothills.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.; Wagner, M. J.; Hirshfield, F.; Howard, M.; Silins, U.; Benda, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is a large province with diverse forested landscapes and heavy industrial, range and recreation use. Hillslopes are generally stable but the cumulative surface erosion from bare areas (e.g. roads, well pad, trails, burns and pipelines) is a major concern for downstream water users, aquatic ecology and stream habitat. Most streams are not exhibiting issues from additional coarse soil (e.g. obvious changes to geomorphology) however, soils with high proportion of fines and phosphorus have been attributed to long lasting aquatic ecology impacts and associated downstream water quality issues. For this project we take a watershed scale approach to determine if we can reduce field effort by using high quality digital terrain data available for most of Alberta combined with tools such as the Geomorphic Road Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) and landscape scale GIS assessment and modeling tools such as NetMap. We examine two contrasting regions of Alberta: (1) a tributary of the Oldman River in southwest Alberta that has steep topography, intense storms and heavy motorized recreation from the neighboring 1.5 Million people, and (2) the Foothills area that has fine lacustrine soil, low topography and extremely heavy industrial activity from energy, mining and forestry. We present the initial results of field data combined with GIS analysis for the eastern slopes as part of a larger project that is assessing these tools in represented end member watersheds for forested areas within the foothills and eastern slopes region (area of Alberta where watersheds have meaningful topography). Initial results suggest that GIS and associated modeling are very useful in providing rapid direction for field campaigns to refine the level of uncertainty, make prescriptive field plans and will likely be platforms that can track changes in predicated watershed scale erosion rates through time.

  8. Gait analysis and the cumulative gait index (CGI): Translational tools to assess impairments exhibited by rats with olivocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Kim, S H; Wecker, L

    2014-11-01

    Deviations from 'normal' locomotion exhibited by humans and laboratory animals may be determined using automated systems that capture both temporal and spatial gait parameters. Although many measures generated by these systems are unrelated and independent, some may be related and dependent, representing redundant assessments of function. To investigate this possibility, a treadmill-based system was used to capture gait parameters from normal and ataxic rats, and a multivariate analysis was conducted to determine deviations from normal. Rats were trained on the treadmill at two speeds, and gait parameters were generated prior to and following lesions of the olivocerebellar pathway. Control (non-lesioned) animals exhibited stable hindlimb gait parameters across assessments at each speed. Lesioned animals exhibited alterations in multiple hindlimb gait parameters, characterized by significant increases in stride frequency, braking duration, stance width, step angle, and paw angle and decreases in stride, stance, swing and propulsion durations, stride length and paw area. A principal component analysis of initial hindlimb measures indicated three uncorrelated factors mediating performance, termed Rhythmicity, Thrust and Contact. Deviation in the performance of each animal from the group mean was determined for each factor and values summed to yield the cumulative gait index (CGI), a single value reflecting variation within the group. The CGI for lesioned animals increased 2.3-fold relative to unlesioned animals. This study characterizes gait alterations in laboratory rats rendered ataxic by destruction of the climbing fiber pathway innervating Purkinje cells and demonstrates that a single index can be used to describe overall gait impairments. PMID:25116252

  9. What roles do contemporaneous and cumulative incomes play in the income-child health gradient for young children? Evidence from an Australian panel.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Hong Son; Connelly, Luke Brian

    2014-08-01

    The literature to date shows that children from poorer households tend to have worse health than their peers, and the gap between them grows with age. We investigate whether and how health shocks (as measured by the onset of chronic conditions) contribute to the income-child health gradient and whether the contemporaneous or cumulative effects of income play important mitigating roles. We exploit a rich panel dataset with three panel waves called the Longitudinal Study of Australian children. Given the availability of three waves of data, we are able to apply a range of econometric techniques (e.g. fixed and random effects) to control for unobserved heterogeneity. The paper makes several contributions to the extant literature. First, it shows that an apparent income gradient becomes relatively attenuated in our dataset when the cumulative and contemporaneous effects of household income are distinguished econometrically. Second, it demonstrates that the income-child health gradient becomes statistically insignificant when controlling for parental health and health-related behaviours or unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:23780648

  10. Health Literacy and Adult Basic Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golbeck, Amanda L.; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Paschal, Angelia M.

    2005-01-01

    Adult basic education (ABE) is an ideal venue for developing health literacy skills. Literacy and numeracy assessments used in ABE were identified and the most common were examined for health components. Only the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) included health. The two most common health literacy assessments used in general…

  11. Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The document is directed to public health physicians, scientists, and engineers employed by The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and other State and Federal agencies who perform health assessments. It sets forth the health assessment process as defined by ATSDR and clarifies the methodologies and guidelines that will be used by ATSDR staff and agents of ATSDR in conducting these health assessments. The individual steps for performing a health assessment are discussed in Chapters 3 through 8 of the document. Chapter 9 discusses how the health assessment report should be written and the format in which it should be presented.

  12. Assessing the Role of Current and "Cumulative" Exposure in Simultaneous Bilingual Acquisition: The Case of Dutch Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of amount of current and "cumulative" exposure in bilingual development and ultimate attainment by exploring the extent to which simultaneous bilingual children's knowledge of grammatical gender is affected by current and previous amount of exposure, including in the early years. Elicited production and…

  13. Risk assessment of the cumulative acute exposure of Hungarian population to organophosphorus pesticide residues with regard to consumers of plant based foods.

    PubMed

    Zentai, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Hungarian pesticide residues monitoring data of the last five years and the consumption data collected within a 3-day dietary record survey in 2009 (more than 2 million pesticide residue results and almost 5000, 0-101-year-old consumers 3 non-consecutive-day personal fruit and vegetable consumption data), the cumulative acute exposure of organophosphorus pesticide residues was evaluated. The relative potency factor approach was applied, with acephate chosen as index compound. According to our conservative calculation method, applying the measured residues only, the 99.95% of the 99th percentiles of calculated daily intakes was at or below 87 μg/kgbwday, indicating that the cumulative acute exposure of the whole Hungarian population (including all age classes) to organophosphorus compounds was not a health concern. PMID:26807885

  14. Head Start Oral Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Reed, Rebecca; York, Jill; Dady, Nadege; Chaviano-Moran, Rosa; Jiang, Shuying; Holtzman, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Purpose A Head Start program located in Paterson, New Jersey considered establishing a school-based dental clinic to address unmet oral health needs such as access to care and the need for restorative treatment. The purpose of this study was to establish the oral health status of Head Start children, their treatment needs, and parents' interest and willingness to utilize a school-based dental clinic. Description School-based dental care has been used to address access to care issues, particularly among children who live in underserved areas. A 21 item survey was used to correlate the results of an oral exam performed on the Head Start children and the parents' preferences, beliefs and access patterns. Fisher's exact test and Chi squared test were used to study the association among variable with significance levels set at 0.05. Assessment The oral exam revealed a high caries rate amongst all of the children. Parental responses indicated strong support for the establishment of a school-based clinic and identified the need for further parental education. Having a regular source of care was found to be unrelated to treatment needs. Conclusion Further education of the parents regarding the child's oral health is critical to the success and viability of this school-based clinic. PMID:27017227

  15. Health technology assessment and haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A; O'Mahony, B; Cassar, J

    2012-03-01

    Although the funding of rare diseases such as haemophilia in developing countries remains a low priority, pressures on the funding of haemophilia treatment are also emerging in developed economies affected by the global economic downturn and the other demands on health care budgets. This is leading advisory bodies and payers alike to explore the tools of Health Technology Assessment (HTAs) in deriving recommendations for reimbursement policies. In particular, the use of cost utility analysis (CUA) in deriving costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) for different interventions is being used to rank interventions in order of priorities relative to a threshold cost per QALY. In these exercises, rare chronic disorders such as haemophilia emerge as particularly unattractive propositions for reimbursement, as the accepted methodology of deriving a CUA. For e.g. the use of prophylaxis in haemophilia leads to a range of costs/QALY which exceed the willingness to pay thresholds of most payers. In this commentary, we review the principles utilized in a recent systematic review of the use of haemophilia products carried out in Sweden as part of an HTA. We suggest that ranking haemophilia related interventions with the standard interventions of therapeutics and public health in CUA comparisons is inappropriate. Given that haemophilia treatment is a form of blood replacement therapy, we propose that such comparisons should be made with the interventions of mainstream blood transfusion. We suggest that unequivocally effective treatments such as haemophilia therapies should be assessed differently from mainstream interventions, that new methodologies are required for these kinds of diseases and that evidence of a societal willingness to support people with rare disorders needs to be recognized when reimbursement policies are developed. PMID:22335450

  16. Cumulants, free cumulants and half-shuffles

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Patras, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Free cumulants were introduced as the proper analogue of classical cumulants in the theory of free probability. There is a mix of similarities and differences, when one considers the two families of cumulants. Whereas the combinatorics of classical cumulants is well expressed in terms of set partitions, that of free cumulants is described and often introduced in terms of non-crossing set partitions. The formal series approach to classical and free cumulants also largely differs. The purpose of this study is to put forward a different approach to these phenomena. Namely, we show that cumulants, whether classical or free, can be understood in terms of the algebra and combinatorics underlying commutative as well as non-commutative (half-)shuffles and (half-) unshuffles. As a corollary, cumulants and free cumulants can be characterized through linear fixed point equations. We study the exponential solutions of these linear fixed point equations, which display well the commutative, respectively non-commutative, character of classical and free cumulants.

  17. Community Health Needs Assessment: Potential for Population Health Improvement.

    PubMed

    Pennel, Cara L; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Burdine, James N; Matarrita-Cascante, David; Wang, Jia

    2016-06-01

    Derived from various health care policies and initiatives, the concept of population health has been newly adopted by health care and medicine. In particular, it has been suggested that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provision that requires nonprofit hospitals to conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) and implement strategies to address health priorities has the potential to improve population health. A mixed methods study design was used to examine the potential for population health improvements to occur through the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-mandated nonprofit hospital CHNA and planning processes. Methods involved a 2-phased approach composed of (1) content analysis of 95 CHNA/implementation strategies reports and (2) interviews with key informants, consultants, and community stakeholders involved in CHNA and planning processes. Although this is a great opportunity for the nonprofit hospital assessment and planning processes to influence population health outcomes, the findings from the first 3-year assessment and planning cycle (2011-2013) suggest this is unlikely. As nonprofit hospitals begin the second 3-year assessment and planning cycle, this article offers recommendations to increase the potential for nonprofit hospitals to improve population health. These recommendations include clarifying the purpose of IRS CHNA regulations, engaging community stakeholders in collaborative assessment and planning, understanding disease etiology and identifying and addressing broader determinants of health, adopting a public health assessment and planning model, and emphasizing population health improvement. (Population Health Management 2016;19:178-186). PMID:26440370

  18. Assessing Health Professional Education: Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuff, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    "Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…

  19. CONSUMER ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH PLANS SURVEY (CAHPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 5-year project has been used for consumers to identify the best health care plans and services for their needs. The goals of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (CAHPS?) are to (1) develop and test questionnaires that assess health plans and services, (2) produce easily ...

  20. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  1. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  2. Health insurance and outcomes: comprehensive assessment of health system outputs.

    PubMed

    Perkins, N A

    1991-01-01

    Outcomes analysis in health care has historically meant the examination of clinical results of inpatient hospitalization. In response to climbing health care and health insurance costs, the organization of health care providers, the location of service delivery and reimbursement mechanisms have changed. As the health care industry changes, so too must the definition of outcomes. This article presents a conceptual framework for the analysis of health outcomes as health industry outputs, with an emphasis on the ways in which such outputs are being assessed and improved. PMID:10116955

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts in California: Evidence From a Statewide Environmental Justice Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1)

    PubMed Central

    Faust, John; August, Laura Meehan; Cendak, Rose; Wieland, Walker; Alexeeff, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used an environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1) to compare the distribution of environmental hazards and vulnerable populations across California communities. Methods. CalEnviroScreen 1.1 combines 17 indicators created from 2004 to 2013 publicly available data into a relative cumulative impact score. We compared cumulative impact scores across California zip codes on the basis of their location, urban or rural character, and racial/ethnic makeup. We used a concentration index to evaluate which indicators were most unequally distributed with respect to race/ethnicity and poverty. Results. The unadjusted odds of living in one of the 10% most affected zip codes were 6.2, 5.8, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 times greater for Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and other or multiracial individuals, respectively, than for non-Hispanic Whites. Environmental hazards were more regressively distributed with respect to race/ethnicity than poverty, with pesticide use and toxic chemical releases being the most unequal. Conclusions. Environmental health hazards disproportionately burden communities of color in California. Efforts to reduce disparities in pollution burden can use simple screening tools to prioritize areas for action. PMID:26378826

  4. Is cumulative exposure to economic hardships more hazardous to women's health than men's? A 16‐year follow‐up study of the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Fredlund, Peeter; Wamala, Sarah P

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown an association between cumulative economic hardships and various health outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of economic hardships in regard to gender differences have not been given enough attention. Methods 1981 women and 1799 men were followed up over a period of 16 years (1981–1997), using data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions panel study. The temporal association between economic hardships and self‐rated health, psychological distress and musculoskeletal disorders was analysed. Results A dose–response effect on women's health was observed with increasing scores of cumulative exposure to financial stress but not with low income. Women exposed to financial stress at both T1 and T2 had an increased risk of 1.4–1.6 for all health measures compared with those who were not exposed. A similar consistent dose–response effect was not observed among men. Conclusions There is a temporal relationship between cumulative economic hardships and health outcomes, and health effects differ by gender. Financial stress seems to be a stronger predictor of poor health outcomes than low income, particularly among women. Policies geared towards reducing health inequalities should recognise that long‐term exposure to economic hardships damages health, and actions need to be taken with a gender perspective. PMID:17372294

  5. Assessing cumulative impacts of forest development on the distribution of furbearers using expert-based habitat modeling.

    PubMed

    Bridger, M C; Johnson, C J; Gillingham, M P

    2016-03-01

    Cumulative impacts of anthropogenic landscape change must be considered when managing and conserving wildlife habitat. Across the central-interior of British Columbia, Canada, industrial activities are altering the habitat of furbearer species. This region has witnessed unprecedented levels of anthropogenic landscape change following rapid development in a number of resource sectors, particularly forestry. Our objective was to create expert-based habitat models for three furbearer species: fisher (Pekania pennanti), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and American marten (Martes americana) and quantify habitat change for those species. We recruited 10 biologist and 10 trapper experts and then used the analytical hierarchy process to elicit expert knowledge of habitat variables important to each species. We applied the models to reference landscapes (i.e., registered traplines) in two distinct study areas and then quantified the change in habitat availability from 1990 to 2013. There was strong agreement between expert groups in the choice of habitat variables and associated scores. Where anthropogenic impacts had increased considerably over the study period, the habitat models showed substantial declines in habitat availability for each focal species (78% decline in optimal fisher habitat, 83% decline in optimal lynx habitat, and 79% decline in optimal marten habitat). For those traplines with relatively little forest harvesting, the habitat models showed no substantial change in the availability of habitat over time. The results suggest that habitat for these three furbearer species declined significantly as a result of the cumulative impacts of forest harvesting. Results of this study illustrate the utility of expert knowledge for understanding large-scale patterns of habitat change over long time periods. PMID:27209791

  6. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  7. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

    2005-01-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

  8. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  9. Ground-Truthing Validation to Assess the Effect of Facility Locational Error on Cumulative Impacts Screening Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past three decades, a number of researchers in the fields of environmental justice (EJ) and environmental public health have highlighted the existence of regional and local scale differences in exposure to air pollution, as well as calculated health risk and impacts of a...

  10. Findings from ATSDR's Health Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susten, Allan S.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes findings from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concerning the evaluation of data about hazardous substance release into the environment. Identifies the hazardous substances, exposure, health effects, and public health impact from 951 facilities identified on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the Environmental…

  11. Assessing the cumulative effect of the weather variability on wetlands and the hydrological connection between wetlands and downstream waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, I. Y.; Lang, M. W.; Lee, S.; Mccarty, G.; Peng, Y.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are crucial ecosystem features that provide important ecological benefits to improve water quality and reduce the climate change impact. This ecosystem functioning of wetlands is largely dependent upon their hydrological characteristics and linkage to the downstream waters. However, the cumulative impacts of the climate on wetlands and the hydrological connection between wetlands and downstream waters have been rarely quantified at the landscape scale. This study reports findings from time series satellite observation that can illustrate the changes in extent of wetland inundation at a high spatial resolution (30-m) over the period 1985-2010. This remote sensing based observation provides crucial information to gain insights onto inter-annual variability of inundation dynamics, and we analyze this product with the drought indices, streamflows, the USFS NWI-hydrologic modifier. This study focuses on natural palustrine wetlands, densely distributed in the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). We observe inundation patterns change in response to the weather variability, and it is proportionally related to the downstream flow discharge. While those wetlands with a longer hydro-period (i.e., permanently ponded wetlands during the growing season) show the strongest relationship with stream discharge (including baseflow, contributed from the shallow groundwater), inundation patterns of headwater/isolated wetlands are also strongly related to stream discharge. It shows the strong relationship between wetlands and downstream water regardless of geographic isolation and their mutual reliance on groundwater. The study provides the support for the conservation of wetlands through section 404 of the Clean Water Act.

  12. Assessment of cumulative evidence for the association between glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and lung cancer: application of the Venice interim guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Vineis, Paolo; Taioli, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    There is an overwhelming abundance of genetic association studies available in the literature, which often can be collectively difficult to interpret. To address this issue, the Venice interim guidelines were established for determining the credibility of the cumulative evidence. The objective of this report is to evaluate the literature on the association of common GST variants (GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism) and lung cancer, and to assess the credibility of the associations using the newly proposed cumulative evidence guidelines. Information from the literature was enriched with an updated meta-analysis and a pooled analysis using data from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database. There was a significant association between GSTM1 null and lung cancer for the meta- (meta OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10–1.25) and pooled analysis (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.16), although substantial heterogeneity was present. No overall association between lung cancer and GSTT1 null or GSTP1 Ile105Val was found. When the Venice criteria was applied, cumulative evidence for all associations were considered “weak”, with the exception of East Asian carriers of the G allele of GSTP1 Ile105Val, which was graded as “moderate” evidence. In spite of large amounts of studies, and several statistically significant summary estimates produced by meta-analyses, the application of the Venice criteria suggests extensive heterogeneity and susceptibility to bias for the studies on association of common genetic polymorphisms, such as with GST variants and lung cancer. PMID:20729793

  13. Assessing cumulative watershed stressors: Using LIDAR to assess the amount of open lands and young forest associated with in-channel erosion for North Shore tributaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologists with the US Forest Service have demonstrated the cumulative impacts of land use change, particularly additional open lands and young forest (< 15 yrs) on bank full flows and in-channel erosion. Mapping these impacts has been difficult due to challenges associated ...

  14. Assessment of health risks of policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana; and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  15. Comparison of Select Health Outcomes by Deployment Health Assessment Completion.

    PubMed

    Luse, Tina M; Slosek, Jean; Rennix, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) requires service members to complete regular health assessments for identification of deployment-related physical/behavioral issues and environmental/occupational exposures. Compliance among active duty Department of the Navy personnel varies; however, and the impact of incomplete assessments on generalizability of results is unclear. This study examines the differences between Navy and Marine Corps service members who completed both the Post-Deployment Health Assessment and Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (n = 9,452) as compared to service members who never attempted either form (n = 5,603) in fiscal year 2010. Deployment rosters, assessments, and clinical data were analyzed to determine certified assessment completion rates and incidence of certain health conditions in these populations. Only 38.9% of applicable personnel met the completion and certification criteria for the required assessments. Service members who did not complete the forms were distinctly different demographically and at increased risk for psychotropic drug use, post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and traumatic brain injury diagnosis following deployment. The prevailing assumption that the risk of adverse health effects on operational forces can be estimated using the population that completed the required assessments is incorrect, and the true operational impact and medical burden of these conditions may be underestimated. PMID:26837080

  16. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. PMID:26455783

  17. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  18. Health Risk Assessments for Alumina Refineries

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10−6. Conclusions: The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries. PMID:24806721

  19. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TIN AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  20. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR VANADIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  1. Office for prevention and health services assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James A.

    1994-12-01

    The Air Force Surgeon General has established the Office for Prevention and Health Care ASsessment (OPHSA) to become the center of excellence for preventive services and health care assessment in the U.S. Air Force and the Department of Defense. OPHSA using the principles of total quality management and integrated teams will evaluate, compare, and modify preventive services delivery guidelines to preserve the fighting force by preventing illness and injuries in military populations. OPHSA will evaluate and formulate health care delivery guidelines to improve health care access and delivery to military patient populations. OPHSA will develop data to determine the health status and health needs to beneficiary populations so medical managers can deliver medical care in the most cost effective manner. OPHSA is located at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. OPHSA will have thirty seven active duty military, civil service, and contract employees and should be fully functional by the end of 1995.

  2. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessments for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Direct brine release

    SciTech Connect

    STOELZEL,D.M.; O'BRIEN,D.G.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SCOTT,L.N.

    2000-05-19

    The following topics related to the treatment of direct brine releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented analyses indicate that direct brine releases do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for direct brine releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (4O CFR 191.40 CFR 194).

  3. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    SciTech Connect

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  4. A Stochastic Approach To Human Health Risk Assessment Due To Groundwater Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P.; Rubin, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We present a probabilistic framework to addressing adverse human health effects due to groundwater contamination. One of the main challenges in health risk assessment is in relating it to subsurface data acquisition and to improvement in our understanding of human physiological responses to contamination. In this paper we propose to investigate this problem through an approach that integrates flow, transport and human health risk models with hydrogeological characterization. A human health risk cumulative distribution function is analytically developed to account for both uncertainty and variability in hydrogeological as well as human physiological parameters. With our proposed approach, we investigate under which conditions the reduction of uncertainties from flow physics, human physiology and exposure related parameters might contribute to a better understanding of human health risk assessment. Results indicate that the human health risk cumulative distribution function is sensitive to physiological parameters at low risk values associated with longer travel times. The results show that the worth of hydrogeological characterization in human health risk is dependent on the residence time of the contaminant plume in the aquifer and on the exposure duration of the population to certain chemicals.

  5. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  6. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TRIVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  8. Content Assessment of Selected College Health Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    Six college health textbooks published between 1980 and 1987 were analyzed to determine the extent of coverage of 10 selected content areas from "Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention." Content areas assessed included: motor vehicle accidents, alcohol and drug misuse, teenage pregnancy, sexually…

  9. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  10. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR GLYCOL ETHERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  11. [Approaches for assessing forest ecosystem health].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Hao, Zhanqing

    2003-06-01

    Assessment and indicator system become the key issues in the research on ecosystem health in 21st century. Assessing forest ecosystem health gradually attach much attention because it is an important component of terrestrial ecosystem. The definition, measurement, evaluation and its management had been discussed broadly, and some theories, assessing methods and frameworks had been proposed, which provides a new concept and a serial research approaches for dealing with the crisis of terrestrial ecosystems, even the environment problems in the world. Now, the common operational models for assessing forest ecosystem health do not exist owing to the manifold limitations. This paper discussed forest ecosystem health problem, and brought forward three preconditions for assessing forest ecosystem health: 1) a clear conceptual framework; 2) adequate data sets; 3) proper research and analysis techniques. The issues of three preconditions were discussed, and the possible approaches for the assessing research on forest ecosystem health, e.g., long-term studies and environment monitoring, space-for-time substation studies, e.g., history approaches, economics valuation and others were expariated. PMID:12974013

  12. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  13. The Relationship between Cumulative Credits and Student Learning Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Information Literacy and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonney, Teresa; Montgomery, Joe C.

    2015-01-01

    This article relates the efforts of faculty at one community college to define standards for achievement of two SLOs (critical thinking and effective communication) and to gather and analyze evidence of how well students meet those standards. Faculty from 13 disciplines assessed writing samples from 265 students. We found that, in general,…

  14. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF 1,3-BUTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment was conducted to review the new information that has become available since EPA's 1985 health assessment of 1,3-butadiene.

    1,3-Butadiene is a gas used commercially in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber, plastics, and thermoplastic resins. The major...

  15. The Prenatal Assessment of Fetal Health

    PubMed Central

    Parboosingh, J.; Mousseau, J.; Deacon, J.

    1979-01-01

    This article reviews the objectives, indications and methods currently used to assess fetal health in pregnancies at risk of fetoplacental dysfunction. The graphic display of clinical data encourages the physician to recognize deviations from the norm and assists in the selection of patients for assessment by the more sophisticated tests of fetoplacental function. PMID:21297709

  16. Smart Sensors Assess Structural Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA frequently inspects launch vehicles, fuel tanks, and other components for structural damage. To perform quick evaluation and monitoring, the Agency pursues the development of structural health monitoring systems. In 2001, Acellent Technologies Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a hybrid Stanford Multi-Actuator Receiver Transduction (SMART) Layer for aerospace vehicles and structures. As a result, Acellent expanded the technology's capability and now sells it to aerospace and automotive companies; construction, energy, and utility companies; and the defense, space, transportation, and energy industries for structural condition monitoring, damage detection, crack growth monitoring, and other applications.

  17. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  18. Health assessment of exposure to developmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, C.A.

    1987-07-01

    In 1984, the U.S. EPA published proposed Guidelines for the Health Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. The assessment of data from studies on developmental effects of chemical exposure and the estimation of risk for humans is a difficult process. Although structure/activity relationships and data from short-term tests are often used in the risk-assessment process for assessing carcinogens, these are not useful as the first step in developmental toxicity risk assessment. Human epidemiological data are used, if available, but often the only available evidence is from animal studies. Therefore, the guidelines focus on the evaluation of data from routine animal testing studies.

  19. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  20. 42 CFR 90.3 - Procedures for requesting health assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for requesting health assessments. 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  1. 42 CFR 90.3 - Procedures for requesting health assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for requesting health assessments. 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES §...

  2. Psychophysiological assessment of stress and screening of health risk in peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Rouja; Aleksiev, Lyubomir; Vukov, Mircho

    2007-01-01

    Medical surveillance for military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions (PKMs) is required to define the effect of stress on health status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stress on the autonomic cardiovascular control and health risk of 72 Bulgarian peacekeepers participating in a PKM in Kosovo. The assessment of psychophysiological stress and determination of stress characteristics were implemented with analysis of heart rate variability and personal interviews. As a response to the cumulative exposure to the effect of stress on cognitive function, we observed reductions in parasympathetic function and baroreceptor modulation of heart rhythm. The alteration in cardiovascular control was registered as decreases in short-term variability and spectral powers of cardiointervals in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Traube-Hering-Mayer bands. The advantage of psychophysiological stress assessment and screening of health risk in PKMs is that results indicate the mechanisms of the effects of stress on cognitive function and health status. PMID:17274265

  3. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  4. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  5. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  6. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  7. Model-based tolerance intervals derived from cumulative historical composition data: application for substantial equivalence assessment of a genetically modified crop.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H

    2014-10-01

    Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop. PMID:25208038

  8. An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

  9. Community health assessment. The first step in community health planning.

    PubMed

    Rice, J A

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face a paradigm shift: from planning service delivery to population-based community health planning. Comprehensive community health planning is a two-step process: assessment and action, in that order. Assessment identifies community problems and resources; action follows planning, which determines which of those problems should be addressed with which resources. This paper provides an overview of the community assessment process. The first challenge in launching a community health initiative is to identify and recruit partners drawn from the ranks of prominent community organizations, such as school boards, public health agencies, and elected officials. The best enlistment strategies are those that empower persons outside the hospital to take visible control. Defining the community is the first step in analyzing the community. It is important that everyone involved in the assessment process agree on the definition, which should take in those characteristics that make the community unique, including its social systems, environmental factors, and demographics. The next step in the process is developing a community health profile, a set of key community indicators or measures that will help you set priorities, document successes and failures, and monitor trends. There are a number of models available to consult in developing indicators, whether traditional, medically oriented determinants of health or broader parameters, such as housing and public safety. Criteria for selecting indicators include validity, stability and reliability, and responsiveness. Most indicators will be developed using secondary, or already existing, sources of data, such as census data, Medicare and Medicaid files, police records, and hospital admission and exit records. Conducting the community assessment involves putting together a list of problems to be solved and a list of available resources, both of which can be compiled using the same four-step process of gathering and

  10. Assessing the safety of co-exposure to food packaging migrants in food and water using the maximum cumulative ratio and an established decision tree.

    PubMed

    Price, Paul; Zaleski, Rosemary; Hollnagel, Heli; Ketelslegers, Hans; Han, Xianglu

    2014-01-01

    Food contact materials can release low levels of multiple chemicals (migrants) into foods and beverages, to which individuals can be exposed through food consumption. This paper investigates the potential for non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple migrants using the Cefic Mixtures Ad hoc Team (MIAT) decision tree. The purpose of the assessment is to demonstrate how the decision tree can be applied to concurrent exposures to multiple migrants using either hazard or structural data on the specific components, i.e. based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or the threshold of toxicological concern. The tree was used to assess risks from co-exposure to migrants reported in a study on non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) eluting from food contact-grade plastic and two studies of water bottles: one on organic compounds and the other on ionic forms of various elements. The MIAT decision tree assigns co-exposures to different risk management groups (I, II, IIIA and IIIB) based on the hazard index, and the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR). The predicted co-exposures for all examples fell into Group II (low toxicological concern) and had MCR values of 1.3 and 2.4 (indicating that one or two components drove the majority of the mixture's toxicity). MCR values from the study of inorganic ions (126 mixtures) ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 for glass and from 1.1 to 5.0 for plastic containers. The MCR values indicated that a single compound drove toxicity in 58% of the mixtures. MCR values also declined with increases in the hazard index for the screening assessments of exposure (suggesting fewer substances contributed as risk potential increased). Overall, it can be concluded that the data on co-exposure to migrants evaluated in these case studies are of low toxicological concern and the safety assessment approach described in this paper was shown to be a helpful screening tool. PMID:24320041