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Sample records for assessing organ specific

  1. Establishment and use of surgical rat models for assessment of organ specific in vivo clearance.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Bill

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of clearance plays a key role in the development of new drug entities, especially in the development of improved analogues for treatment of chronic conditions. Improved pharmacokinetic properties can be used to increase dosing interval and thereby improve patient compliance. This will lead to improved treatment outcome or decreased risk of treatment failure when treating chronic conditions. Therefore, animal models for assessment of organ-specific clearance are of great value in preclinical drug development. These models can be used to obtain insights into the relative importance of a clearance organ and thereby guide drug design of new analogues in early drug discovery. The current PhD project was undertaken to explore surgical in vivo models, which could be used in the assessment of the relative importance of major clearance organs. It was the aim of the PhD project to establish and validate both a nephrectomy model and a hepatectomy model as tools to investigate relative importance of renal and hepatic clearance. Furthermore, the project aim was to investigate renal clearance of rFVIIa and rhGH using a nephrectomy model in rats. The thesis is composed of a short theoretical background, a literature review, two papers based on experimental work as well as experimental work not included in the papers. Chapter one is an introduction with the specific aims and hypotheses. The chapters from two to five contain theoretical background of the clearance concept, anatomical and physiological description of clearance organs and a brief overview of potential clearance models including in vivo models. Chapters six through nine highlight the experimental work with the results obtained during the PhD project. Lastly, the chapters from ten to twelve contain a general discussion, conclusion and perspectives of the current thesis. Paper I "Nephrectomized and hepatectomized animal models as tools in preclinical pharmacokinetics" provides a literature review of animal

  2. Assessing the Learning Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing the learning organization. "Measuring Organizational Learning: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an Organization Survey" (Jamie Callahan Fabian, Ralph O. Mueller, Dail L. Fields) compares two models for measuring four constructs inherent to Schwandt's model of organizational learning…

  3. A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Groundwater Contaminants Using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When organic contaminants are degraded in the environment, the ratio of stable isotopes will often change, and the extent of degradation can be recognized and predicted from the change in the ratio of stable isotopes. Recent advances in analytical chemistry make it possible to p...

  4. [Specific infections in organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Cornberg, M; Schlevogt, B; Rademacher, J; Schwarz, A; Sandherr, M; Maschmeyer, G

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with the important topic of infections associated with organ transplantation and includes a discussion on four subtopics. The first section describes the current options in the prevention and therapy of viral hepatitis in association with liver transplantation. Infections with hepatitis B, C, D (delta) and E are discussed with special emphasis on the interferon-free treatment of hepatitis C with the new antiviral drugs.The second section deals with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections following lung transplantation (LuTx), which is one of the most frequently detected pathogens in the airway after LuTx. Patients with cystic fibrosis are particularly affected. This is important because studies have shown a clear correlation between chronic PA infections after LuTx and development of chronic transplant failure. Even if the data are still sparse, recommendations on prevention and therapeutic strategies are given. The theme of the third section is the high importance of viral infections after kidney transplantation. In addition to acquired infections, the transplanted organ as well as the recipient can be the source of the infection. The better the transplanted organ is tolerated under moderate immunosuppression, the less common and severe virus infections are. The focus of this section is on three common pathogens: cytomegalovirus, polyomavirus BK and hepatitis viruses.The final section deals with Aspergillus infections following transplantation of various organs. In this context Aspergillus spp. are one of the most commonly occurring fungal diseases. The epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of invasive aspergillosis are presented. PMID:26782282

  5. Quantification of the 35S promoter in DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction and specificity assessment on various genetically modified organisms, part I: operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sophie; Charles-Delobel, Chrystèle; Geldreich, Angèle; Berthier, Georges; Boyer, Francine; Collonnier, Cécile; Coué-Philippe, Géraldine; Diolez, Annick; Duplan, Marie-Noëlle; Kebdani, Naïma; Romaniuk, Marcel; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive quantitative real-time assay targeted on the 35S promoter of a commercial genetically modified organism (GMO) was characterized (sF/sR primers) and developed for an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System and TaqMan chemistry. The specificity assessment and performance criteria of sF/sR assay were compared to other P35S-targeted published assays. sF/sR primers amplified a 79 base pair DNA sequence located in a part of P35S that is highly conserved among many caulimovirus strains, i.e., this consensus part of CaMV P35S is likely to be present in many GM events. According to the experimental conditions, the absolute limit of detection for Bt176 corn was estimated between 0.2 and 2 copies of equivalent genome (CEG). The limit of quantification was reached below 0.1% Bt176 content. A Cauliflower Mosaic Virus control (CaMV) qualitative assay targeted on the ORF III of the viral genome was also used as a control (primers 3F/3R) to assess the presence of CaMV in plant-derived products. The specificity of this test was assessed on various CaMV strains, including the Figwort Mosaic Virus (FMV) and solanaceous CaMV strains. Considering the performance of sF/sR quantification test, the highly conserved sequence, and the small size of the amplicon, this assay was tested in a collaborative study in order to be proposed as an international standard. PMID:15859083

  6. Surviving at a distance: organ specific metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of metastasis in a vital organ is the final stage of cancer progression and the main culprit of cancer related mortality. Once established, metastasis is devastating, yet only a small proportion of the cancer cells that leave a tumor succeed at infiltrating, surviving, and ultimately overtaking a distant organ. The bottlenecks that challenge cancer cells in newly invaded microenvironments are organ specific and consequently demand distinct mechanisms for metastatic colonization. Here we review the metastatic traits that allow cancer cells to colonize distinct organ sites. PMID:26693180

  7. ORGAN AND SPECIES SPECIFICITY IN CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of the Symposium and this volume is the relative susceptibility of specific animal species strains and organs to various carcinogens. For the first time, investigators in chemical carcinogenesis are able to pool their discoveries in this area. Once analyzed, this data c...

  8. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers. Vanadium levels were evaluated in samples of edible sea cucumbers and were demonstrated exhibit differences in different seasons, species and sampling sites. High vanadium concentrations were measured in the sea cucumbers, and all of the vanadium detected was in an organic form. Mean vanadium concentrations were considerably higher in the blood (sea cucumber) than in the other studied tissues. The highest concentration of vanadium (2.56 μg g(-1)), as well as a higher degree of organic vanadium (85.5 %), was observed in the Holothuria scabra samples compared with all other samples. Vanadium levels in Apostichopus japonicus from Bohai Bay and Yellow Sea have marked seasonal variations. Average values of 1.09 μg g(-1) of total vanadium and 0.79 μg g(-1) of organic vanadium were obtained in various species of sea cucumbers. Significant positive correlations between vanadium in the seawater and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 81.67 %, p = 0.00), as well as between vanadium in the sediment and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 77.98 %, p = 0.00), were observed. Vanadium concentrations depend on the seasons (salinity, temperature), species, sampling sites and seawater environment (seawater, sediment). Given the adverse toxicological effects of inorganic vanadium and positive roles in controlling the development of diabetes in humans, a regular monitoring programme of vanadium content in edible sea cucumbers can be recommended. PMID:25732906

  9. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  10. Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf . Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  12. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-07-12

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

  13. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  14. Organ-specific Differences in Achieving Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Kreisel, Daniel; Madsen, Joren C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review When it comes to tolerance induction, kidney allografts behave differently from heart allografts which behave differently from lung allografts. Here, we examine how and why different organ allografts respond differently to the same tolerance induction protocol. Recent findings Allograft tolerance has been achieved in experimental and clinical kidney transplantation. However, inducing tolerance in experimental recipients of heart and lung allografts has proven to be more challenging. New protocols being developed in nonhuman primates based on mixed chimerism and co-transplantation of tolerogenic organs may provide mechanistic insights to help overcome these challenges. Summary Tolerance induction protocols that are successful in patients transplanted with “tolerance-prone” organs such as kidneys and livers will most likely not succeed in recipients of “tolerance-resistant” organs such as hearts and lungs. Separate clinical trials using more robust tolerance protocols will be required to achieve tolerance in heart and lung recipients. PMID:26147678

  15. Assessing the Learning Organization: Part 2--Exploring Practical Assessment Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosey, Paul; Smith, Peter A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents two approaches to assessing learning organizations: (1) Focus, Will, Capability, Performance System and (2) organizations as energies. Describes ways in which behavior change is measured in each approach. (SK)

  16. Assessing Specificity of Anticancer Drugs In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kluwe, Lan

    2016-01-01

    A procedure for assessing specificity of anticancer drugs in vitro using cultures containing both tumor and non-tumor cells is demonstrated. The key element is the quantitative determination of a tumor-specific genetic alteration in relation to a universal sequence using a dual-probe digital PCR assay and the subsequent calculation of the proportion of tumor cells. The assay is carried out on a culture containing tumor cells of an established line and spiked-in non-tumor cells. The mixed culture is treated with a test drug at various concentrations. After the treatment, DNA is prepared directly from the survived adhesive cells in wells of 96-well plates using a simple and inexpensive method, and subjected to a dual-probe digital PCR assay for measuring a tumor-specific genetic alteration and a reference universal sequence. In the present demonstration, a heterozygous deletion of the NF1 gene is used as the tumor-specific genetic alteration and a RPP30 gene as the reference gene. Using the ratio NF1/RPP30, the proportion of tumor cells was calculated. Since the dose-dependent change of the proportion of tumor cells provides an in vitro indication for specificity of the drug, this genetic and cell-based in vitro assay will likely have application potential in drug discovery. Furthermore, for personalized cancer-care, this genetic- and cell-based tool may contribute to optimizing adjuvant chemotherapy by means of testing efficacy and specificity of candidate drugs using primary cultures of individual tumors. PMID:27078035

  17. Assessing Specificity of Anticancer Drugs In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kluwe, Lan

    2016-01-01

    A procedure for assessing specificity of anticancer drugs in vitro using cultures containing both tumor and non-tumor cells is demonstrated. The key element is the quantitative determination of a tumor-specific genetic alteration in relation to a universal sequence using a dual-probe digital PCR assay and the subsequent calculation of the proportion of tumor cells. The assay is carried out on a culture containing tumor cells of an established line and spiked-in non-tumor cells. The mixed culture is treated with a test drug at various concentrations. After the treatment, DNA is prepared directly from the survived adhesive cells in wells of 96-well plates using a simple and inexpensive method, and subjected to a dual-probe digital PCR assay for measuring a tumor-specific genetic alteration and a reference universal sequence. In the present demonstration, a heterozygous deletion of the NF1 gene is used as the tumor-specific genetic alteration and a RPP30 gene as the reference gene. Using the ratio NF1/RPP30, the proportion of tumor cells was calculated. Since the dose-dependent change of the proportion of tumor cells provides an in vitro indication for specificity of the drug, this genetic and cell-based in vitro assay will likely have application potential in drug discovery. Furthermore, for personalized cancer-care, this genetic- and cell-based tool may contribute to optimizing adjuvant chemotherapy by means of testing efficacy and specificity of candidate drugs using primary cultures of individual tumors. PMID:27078035

  18. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Preface Endothelial cells lining blood vessel capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establish specialized vascular niches that deploy specific sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors, which actively participate in inducing, specifying, patterning, and guiding organ regeneration and maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. Angiocrine factors upregulated in response to injury orchestrates self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific repopulating resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the precise mechanisms whereby physiological-levels of angiocrine factors are spatially and temporally produced, and distributed by organotypic endothelium to repopulating cells, will lay the foundation for driving organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  19. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-21

    Endothelial cells that line capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establishes specialized vascular niches that deploy sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors. These cues participate actively in the induction, specification, patterning and guidance of organ regeneration, as well as in the maintainance of homeostasis and metabolism. When upregulated following injury, they orchestrate self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the mechanisms by which organotypic endothelium distributes physiological levels of angiocrine factors both spatially and temporally will lay the foundation for clinical trials that promote organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for organization 1700.

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2007-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Organization 1700 in June, 2006. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist Organization 1700 in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, analyses performed and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Pollution Prevention staff will continue to work with Organization 1700 to implement the recommendations.

  1. A metabonomic analysis of organ specific response to USPIO administration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianghua; Liu, Huili; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Lu, Lehui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    As ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been widely used in clinical medicine as MRI contrast agents, hence their potential toxicity and adverse effects following administration have attracted particular attention. In the present study, high resolution magic-angle-spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used to directly determine the metabolic consequences of specific-tissues, including kidney, liver and spleen following the intravenous administration of USPIO. Alterations of renal, hepatic and splenic function were reflected by changes in a number of metabolic pathways including small molecules involved in energy, lipid, glucose, and amino acids metabolism. The toxicological potential and metabolic fate of USPIO seems to be linked to their surface chemistry and particle size. Hierarchical principal component analysis was used to explore the multidimensional metabolic relationships between various biological matrices such as kidney, liver, spleen, plasma and urine. Information on the involvement of USPIO in transportation, absorption, biotransformation, biodistribution and secretion was derived from metabolic correlation analysis between different organs and biofluids. Such a metabonomic strategy provides methodology for investigating the potential adverse biological effects of similar nanoparticles on the environmental and human health and assessing the drug interventions on the targeted organ. PMID:21641028

  2. Teaching about Assessment in Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurylo, Anastacia

    2007-01-01

    Students learning about professional communication are not often taught about assessment as indicated by its omission as a chapter topic in many major textbooks in the field. Nonetheless, students need to be educated on this topic because, increasingly, there is a push towards instituting assessment practices in business organizations.…

  3. Integrating in vitro organ-specific function with the microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Monica L.; George, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    There is significant interest within the tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industries to create 3D microphysiological systems of human organ function. The interest stems from a growing concern that animal models and simple 2D culture systems cannot replicate essential features of human physiology that are critical to predict drug response, or simply to develop new therapeutic strategies to repair or replace damaged organs. Central to human organ function is a microcirculation that not only enhances the rate of nutrient and waste transport by convection, but also provides essential additional physiological functions that can be specific to each organ. This review highlights progress in the creation of in vitro functional microvessel networks, and emphasizes organ-specific functional and structural characteristics that should be considered in the future mimicry of four organ systems that are of primary interest: lung, brain, liver, and muscle (skeletal and cardiac). PMID:24729953

  4. The Education Policies of International Organizations: Specific Differences and Convergences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Lauwerier, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that international organizations play in orienting education reforms and changes, based on an examination of key texts these organizations produced in the 1990s. The analysis shows that some specific trends persist: UNESCO and UNICEF centre their philosophy on a humanistic and child-centered vision of education,…

  5. Organ-specific features of natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; La Cava, Antonio; Van Kaer, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can be swiftly mobilized by danger signals and are among the earliest arrivals at target organs of disease. However, the role of NK cells in mounting inflammatory responses is often complex and sometimes paradoxical. Here, we examine the divergent phenotypic and functional features of NK cells, as deduced largely from experimental mouse models of pathophysiological responses in the liver, mucosal tissues, uterus, pancreas, joints and brain. Moreover, we discuss how organ-specific factors, the local microenvironment and unique cellular interactions may influence the organ-specific properties of NK cells. PMID:21941294

  6. Geography Assessment and Exercise Specifications for the 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. for Research, Washington, DC. Washington Research Center.

    This document lists and outlines the specific educational objectives of the content of the 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress's Geography Assessment. The document is divided into two sections: "Assessment Specifications" and "Exercise Specifications." The "Assessment Specifications" provide an overall description of the construction,…

  7. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  8. A compound-specific n-alkane δ 13C and δD approach for assessing source and delivery processes of terrestrial organic matter within a forested watershed in northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Osamu; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Shibata, Hideaki; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2010-01-01

    We measured molecular distributions and compound-specific hydrogen (δD) and stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ 13C) of mid- and long-chain n-alkanes in forest soils, wetland peats and lake sediments within the Dorokawa watershed, Hokkaido, Japan, to better understand sources and processes associate with delivery of terrestrial organic matter into the lake sediments. δ 13C values of odd carbon numbered C 23-C 33n-alkanes ranged from -37.2‰ to -31.5‰, while δD values of these alkanes showed a large degree of variability that ranged from -244‰ to -180‰. Molecular distributions in combination with stable carbon isotopic compositions indicate a large contribution of C3 trees as the main source of n-alkanes in forested soils whereas n-alkanes in wetland soil are exclusively derived from marsh grass and/or moss. We found that the n-alkane δD values are much higher in forest soils than wetland peat. The higher δD values in forest samples could be explained by the enrichment of deuterium in leaf and soil waters due to increased evapotranspiration in the forest or differences in physiology of source plants between wetland and forest. A δ 13C vs. δD diagram of n-alkanes among forest, wetland and lake samples showed that C 25-C 31n-alkanes deposited in lake sediments are mainly derived from tree leaves due to the preferential transport of the forest soil organic matter over the wetland or an increased contribution of atmospheric input of tree leaf wax in the offshore sites. This study demonstrates that compound-specific δD analysis provides a useful approach for better understanding source and transport of terrestrial biomarkers in a C3 plant-dominated catchment.

  9. Circulating Organ-Specific MicroRNAs Serve as Biomarkers in Organ-Specific Diseases: Implications for Organ Allo- and Xeno-Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming; Hara, Hidetaka; Dai, Yifan; Mou, Lisha; Cooper, David K. C.; Wu, Changyou; Cai, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Different cell types possess different miRNA expression profiles, and cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNAs (or profiles) indicate different diseases. Circulating miRNA is either actively secreted by living cells or passively released during cell death. Circulating cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNA may serve as a non-invasive biomarker for allo- or xeno-transplantation to monitor organ survival and immune rejection. In this review, we summarize the proof of concept that circulating organ-specific miRNAs serve as non-invasive biomarkers for a wide spectrum of clinical organ-specific manifestations such as liver-related disease, heart-related disease, kidney-related disease, and lung-related disease. Furthermore, we summarize how circulating organ-specific miRNAs may have advantages over conventional methods for monitoring immune rejection in organ transplantation. Finally, we discuss the implications and challenges of applying miRNA to monitor organ survival and immune rejection in allo- or xeno-transplantation. PMID:27490531

  10. Systems engineering process and organization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results of an eight week assessment of NASA/MSFC Phase A and Phase B systems engineering processes, methodologies, and activities. Specifically, fourteen inconsistencies or weaknesses were identified and recommendations for corrective action were generated. A 1.5 hour briefing on these results was given in EL51 on 8-11-92; that documentation is available from the author or either NASA Colleague.

  11. Reactive oxygen species in organ-specific autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Di Dalmazi, Giulia; Hirshberg, Jason; Lyle, Daniel; Freij, Joudeh B; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2016-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied in the induction of inflammation and tissue damage, especially as it relates to aging. In more recent years, ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here, ROS accumulation leads to apoptosis and autoantigen structural changes that result in novel specificities. ROS have been implicated not only in the initiation of the autoimmune response but also in its amplification and spreading to novel epitopes, through the unmasking of cryptic determinants. This review will examine the contribution of ROS to the pathogenesis of four organ specific autoimmune diseases (Hashimoto thyroiditis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and vitiligo), and compare it to that of a better characterized systemic autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis). It will also discuss tobacco smoking as an environmental factor endowed with both pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant properties, thus capable of differentially modulating the autoimmune response. PMID:27491295

  12. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  13. Organ-Specific and Memory Treg Cells: Specificity, Development, Function, and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Iris K.; Campbell, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential for establishing and maintaining self-tolerance, and also inhibit immune responses to innocuous environmental antigens. Imbalances and dysfunction in Treg cells lead to a variety of immune-mediated diseases, as deficits in Treg cell function contribute to the development autoimmune disease and pathological tissue damage, whereas overabundance of Treg cells can promote chronic infection and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the fact that Treg cells themselves are a diverse collection of phenotypically and functionally specialized populations, with distinct developmental origins, antigen-specificities, tissue-tropisms, and homeostatic requirements. The signals directing the differentiation of these populations, their specificities and the mechanisms by which they combine to promote organ-specific and systemic tolerance, and how they embody the emerging property of regulatory memory are the focus of this review. PMID:25076948

  14. In vivo organ specific drug delivery with implantable peristaltic pumps.

    PubMed

    Speed, Joshua S; Hyndman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Classic methods for delivery of agents to specific organs are technically challenging and causes superfluous stress. The current study describes a method using programmable, implantable peristaltic pumps to chronically deliver drugs in vivo, while allowing animals to remain undisturbed for accurate physiological measurements. In this study, two protocols were used to demonstrate accurate drug delivery to the renal medulla. First, the vasopressin receptor-2 agonist, dDAVP, was delivered to the renal medulla resulting in a significant increase in water retention, urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 expression and phosphorylation. Second, in a separate group of rats, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, MS275, was delivered to the renal medulla. HDAC inhibition resulted in a significant increase in histone H3-acetylation, the hallmark for histone deacetylase inhibition. However, this was confined to the medulla, as the histone H3-acetylation was similar in the cortex of vehicle and MS275 infused rats, suggesting targeted drug delivery without systemic spillover. Thus, implantable, peristaltic pumps provide a number of benefits compared to externalized chronic catheters and confer specific delivery to target organs. PMID:27185292

  15. In vivo organ specific drug delivery with implantable peristaltic pumps

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Joshua S.; Hyndman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Classic methods for delivery of agents to specific organs are technically challenging and causes superfluous stress. The current study describes a method using programmable, implantable peristaltic pumps to chronically deliver drugs in vivo, while allowing animals to remain undisturbed for accurate physiological measurements. In this study, two protocols were used to demonstrate accurate drug delivery to the renal medulla. First, the vasopressin receptor-2 agonist, dDAVP, was delivered to the renal medulla resulting in a significant increase in water retention, urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 expression and phosphorylation. Second, in a separate group of rats, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, MS275, was delivered to the renal medulla. HDAC inhibition resulted in a significant increase in histone H3-acetylation, the hallmark for histone deacetylase inhibition. However, this was confined to the medulla, as the histone H3-acetylation was similar in the cortex of vehicle and MS275 infused rats, suggesting targeted drug delivery without systemic spillover. Thus, implantable, peristaltic pumps provide a number of benefits compared to externalized chronic catheters and confer specific delivery to target organs. PMID:27185292

  16. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. PMID:27496408

  17. Lake County, Illinois Educational and Training Needs-Assessment of Gerontological Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Markus, Colleen; Heck, Melissa

    In response to the need for an increase in services directed specifically to the elderly, a training and educational needs assessment of the existing elder service organizations in Lake County (Illinois) was conducted. Thirteen gerontological organizations were chosen for participation; the organizations were categorized into these groups: nursing…

  18. The Connectivity Between Site-Specific Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Site-Specific Weighting

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of many LCIAs is to come to a single score with all of the impacts from a wide variety of impact assessments weighted to form this single score. My past experiences with developing site-specific impact assessment methodologies and how this can change the valuation porti...

  19. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Weyland, Mark D.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed.

  20. Identification and chemical characterization of specific organic constituents of petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Botalova, Oxana; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Frauenrath, Tom; Dsikowitzky, Larissa

    2009-08-01

    Based on extensive GC/MS screening analyses, the molecular diversity of petrochemical effluents discharged to a river in North Rhine-Westphalia was characterised. Within a wide spectrum of organic wastewater constituents, specific compounds that might act as source indicators have been determined. This differentiation was based on (i) the individual molecular structures, (ii) the quantitative appearance of organic compounds in treated effluents and (iii) the information on their general occurrence in the technosphere and hydrosphere. Principally, site-specific indicators have been distinguished from candidates to act as general petrochemical indicators. Further on, monitoring the environmental behaviour of target organic contaminants in an aquatic system shortly after their release into the river allowed a first evaluation of the impact of the petrogenic emission in terms of the quantity and spatial distribution. The identification of petrogenic contaminants was not restricted to constituents of the effluents only, but comprised the compounds circulating in the wastewater systems within a petrochemical plant. A number of environmentally relevant and structurally specific substances that are normally eliminated by wastewater treatment facilities were identified. Insufficient wastewater treatment, careless waste handling or accidents at industrial complexes are potential sources for a single release of the pollutants. This study demonstrates the relevance of source specific organic indicators to be an important tool for comprehensive assessment of the potential impact of petrochemical activities to the contamination of an aquatic environment. PMID:19577787

  1. Ambulatory assessment in panic disorder and specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Georg W

    2009-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Ambulatory assessment, or ecological momentary assessment, can further the understanding of the natural course and scope of symptoms under ecologically valid circumstances. Because bodily symptoms are integral to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders, the objective assessment of physiological responses in the patients' natural environment is particularly important. On the one hand, research has highlighted intriguing discrepancies between the experience of symptoms and physiology during panic attacks. On the other hand, it has validated symptom reporting during therapeutic exposure to phobic situations. Therefore, ambulatory assessment can yield useful information about the psychopathology of anxiety disorders, and it can be used to monitor change during clinical interventions. PMID:19947782

  2. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: A Guide for Students. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.; Nolfi, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    This "Assessing and Improving Student Organization" (AISO) program is intended as a guide for leaders of student-led college organizations. It is designed to promote the assessment of their organization by leaders and members, help them with planning and improvement, and assist them in responding to reviews by governing bodies and national…

  3. Memory T Cell-Specific Therapeutics in Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrew J.; Ford, Mandy L.; Kirk, Allan D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Review This review details the role of memory T cells in physiologic and allospecific immunity, and summarizes the effects of immunosuppressive agents used to manipulate their function in the context of organ transplantation. Recent Findings Memory T cells are lymphocytes with characteristics that are thought to promote anamnestic immune responses. They have a unique capacity to generate rapid effector functions upon secondary exposure to a pathogen, and this is achieved through truncated requirements for antigen presentation, reduced activation thresholds, and enhanced trafficking and adhesion mechanisms. In general, these same mechanisms also appear to evoke improved efficiency in mediating allograft rejection. The phenotype of these cells has been increasingly well defined and associated with a characteristic pattern of susceptibility to immunosuppressive agents. This knowledge is now being exploited in the development of immune therapeutic regimens to selectively mollify T memory cell effects. Summary A specific targeting of memory T cells has potential to prevent allograft rejection in a more precise manner that current means of immunosuppression. However, these benefits will be balanced by the reciprocal risk of susceptibility to recurrent infection. PMID:19779342

  4. Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Respiratory Chain Supercomplex Organization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dayan; Li, Bin; Qiu, Ruyi; Fang, Hezhi; Lyu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory chain complexes are organized into large supercomplexes among which supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is the only one that can directly transfer electrons from NADH to oxygen. Recently, it was reported that the formation of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in mice largely depends on their genetic background. However, in this study, we showed that the composition of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is well conserved in various mouse and human cell lines. Strikingly, we found that a minimal supercomplex In + IIIn, termed "lowest supercomplex" (LSC) in this study because of its migration at the lowest position close to complex V dimers in blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was associated with complex IV to form a supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in some, but not all of the human and mouse cells. In addition, we observed that the 3697G>A mutation in mitochondrial-encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) in one patient with Leigh's disease specifically affected the assembly of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn containing LSC, leading to decreased cellular respiration and ATP generation. In conclusion, we showed the existence of LSC In + IIIn + IVn and impairment of this supercomplex causes disease. PMID:27338358

  5. Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Respiratory Chain Supercomplex Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dayan; Li, Bin; Qiu, Ruyi; Fang, Hezhi; Lyu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory chain complexes are organized into large supercomplexes among which supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is the only one that can directly transfer electrons from NADH to oxygen. Recently, it was reported that the formation of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in mice largely depends on their genetic background. However, in this study, we showed that the composition of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn is well conserved in various mouse and human cell lines. Strikingly, we found that a minimal supercomplex In + IIIn, termed “lowest supercomplex” (LSC) in this study because of its migration at the lowest position close to complex V dimers in blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was associated with complex IV to form a supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn in some, but not all of the human and mouse cells. In addition, we observed that the 3697G>A mutation in mitochondrial-encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) in one patient with Leigh’s disease specifically affected the assembly of supercomplex In + IIIn + IVn containing LSC, leading to decreased cellular respiration and ATP generation. In conclusion, we showed the existence of LSC In + IIIn + IVn and impairment of this supercomplex causes disease. PMID:27338358

  6. Myasthenia gravis, a model of organ-specific autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Berrih-Aknin, S

    1995-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder of autoimmune origin. Most patients have antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) that interfere with neuromuscular transmission. MG is a model of organ-specific autoimmune disease in which the autoantigen, AChR, is well characterized. However, several questions remain unanswered. Why is AChR, which is present in the thymus, not tolerized? Why does the anti-AChR antibody titre not correlate with clinical manifestations, and why do some patients not have such antibodies? What genetic elements are involved in disease susceptibility? How is the expression of AChR regulated after its attack by autoantibodies? Could MG patients benefit from new immunomodulatory treatments? At the IVth EuroMyasthenia meeting, held in Versailles in April 1994, almost 200 researchers and physicians met to discuss the pathophysiology and treatment of myasthenia gravis and to provide answers to some of these questions. The sessions covered immunological, genetic and clinical aspects of MG. PMID:7612144

  7. Organ- and species-specific biological activity of rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Iswandana, R; Pham, B T; van Haaften, W T; Luangmonkong, T; Oosterhuis, D; Mutsaers, H A M; Olinga, P

    2016-04-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a compound found in several plant species, has beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. We investigated the toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects of RA using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from human, mouse, and rat tissue. PCLS and PCIS were cultured up to 48h in the absence or presence of RA. Gene expression of the inflammatory markers: IL-6, IL-8/CXCL1/KC, and IL-1β, as well as the fibrosis markers: pro-collagen 1a1, heat shock protein 47, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin (Fn2) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were evaluated by qPCR. RA was only toxic in murine PCIS. RA failed to mitigate the inflammatory response in most models, while it clearly reduced IL-6 and CXCL1/KC gene expression in murine PCIS at non-toxic concentrations. With regard to fibrosis, RA decreased the gene levels of Fn2 and PAI-1 in murine PCLS, and Fn2 in murine PCIS. Yet, no effect was observed on the gene expression of fibrosis markers in human and rat PCIS. In conclusion, we observed clear organ- and species-specific effects of RA. RA had little influence on inflammation. However, our study further establishes RA as a potential candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:26804033

  8. Systemically Administered, Target Organ-Specific Therapies for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and other agents that could potentially enhance tissue regeneration have been identified, but their therapeutic value in clinical medicine has been limited for reasons such as difficulty to maintain bioactivity of locally applied therapeutics in the protease-rich environment of regenerating tissues. Although human diseases are treated with systemically administered drugs in general, all current efforts aimed at enhancing tissue repair with biological drugs have been based on their local application. The systemic administration of growth factors has been ruled out due to concerns about their safety. These concerns are warranted. In addition, only a small proportion of systemically administered drugs reach their intended target. Selective delivery of the drug to the target tissue and use of functional protein domains capable of penetrating cells and tissues could alleviate these problems in certain circumstances. We will present in this review a novel approach utilizing unique molecular fingerprints (“Zip/postal codes”) in the vasculature of regenerating tissues that allows target organ-specific delivery of systemically administered therapeutic molecules by affinity-based physical targeting (using peptides or antibodies as an “address tag”) to injured tissues undergoing repair. The desired outcome of targeted therapies is increased local accumulation and lower systemic concentration of the therapeutic payload. We believe that the physical targeting of systemically administered therapeutic molecules could be rapidly adapted in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26437400

  9. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  10. Domain Specific vs Domain General: Implications for Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniel, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    The article responds to the need for evidence-based dynamic assessment. The article is divided into two sections: In Part 1 we examine the scientific answer to the question of how far human mental activities and capabilities are domain general (DG) / domain specific (DS). A highly complex answer emerges from the literature review of domains such…

  11. Domain Specificity and Generality of Epistemic Cognitions: Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    As administers in higher education search for learning outcome measures, the assessment of epistemic cognitions, or how students critically think and reason about real-world issues, is paramount. The current study examined if students' expertise in a domain of study (i.e., domain specificity) influenced their scores on an empirically supported…

  12. Gene expression and specificity in the mature zone of the lobster olfactory organ.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, Ruben; Day, Kristen; Urban, Jason; Hardin, Debra L; Shetty, Ranjit S; Derby, Charles D; Ache, Barry W; McClintock, Timothy S

    2006-04-13

    The lobster olfactory organ is an important model for investigating many aspects of the olfactory system. To facilitate study of the molecular basis of olfaction in lobsters, we made a subtracted cDNA library from the mature zone of the olfactory organ of Homarus americanus, the American lobster. Sequencing of the 5'-end of 5,184 cDNA clones produced 2,389 distinct high-quality sequences consisting of 1,944 singlets and 445 contigs. Matches to known sequences corresponded with the types of cells present in the olfactory organ, including specific markers of olfactory sensory neurons, auxiliary cells, secretory cells of the aesthetasc tegumental gland, and epithelial cells. The wealth of neuronal mRNAs represented among the sequences reflected the preponderance of neurons in the tissue. The sequences identified candidate genes responsible for known functions and suggested new functions not previously recognized in the olfactory organ. A cDNA microarray was designed and tested by assessing mRNA abundance differences between two of the lobster's major chemosensory structures: the mature zone of the olfactory organ and the dactyl of the walking legs, a taste organ. The 115 differences detected again emphasized the abundance of neurons in the olfactory organ, especially a cluster of mRNAs encoding cytoskeletal-associated proteins and cell adhesion molecules such as 14-3-3zeta, actins, tubulins, trophinin, Fax, Yel077cp, suppressor of profilin 2, and gelsolin. PMID:16614458

  13. Organ-specific proteome analysis for identification of abiotic stress response mechanism in crop

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Hossain, Zahed

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as flooding, drought, salinity, and high/low temperatures, are the major constraints that global crop production faces at present. Plants respond to a stress by modulating abundance of candidate proteins, either by up-regulating expression or by the synthesizing novel proteins primarily associated with plant defense system. The cellular mechanisms of stress sensing and signal transduction into cellular organelles have been reported. Nevertheless, the responses of plant cells to abiotic stresses differ in each organ. As the correlation between the expression of mRNAs and the abundance of their corresponding proteins is difficult to assess in specific organs, proteomics techniques provide one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome. The present review summarizes the organ-specific proteome analyses for better understanding of the response mechanisms of crops to abiotic stresses, including flooding, drought, and salinity. The differential organ-specific responses against each of these stresses are discussed in detail to provide new insights into plant stress response mechanisms at protein level. PMID:23565117

  14. The process and results of departmental specific safety surveys for health care organizations. Successful program.

    PubMed

    Meittunen, E; Snyder, B; Meyer, M

    2001-04-01

    1. Meeting compliance and accreditation standards can be challenging for any organization, especially in the health care setting. Safety surveys can play a strategic role in proactively preparing for such events. 2. Implementing department specific safety surveys offers a tailored approach to monitoring and addressing the occupational safety issues that occur within each department. 3. Safety surveys are a method for assessing and monitoring the environment and employee training needs, and for driving safety decisions. 4. Safety in the workplace must be a shared and continuous responsibility among employees. A formal safety survey process instilling a culture of responsibility and "buy in" by all employees is necessary. PMID:11760523

  15. Automatic Severity Assessment of Dysarthria using State-Specific Vectors.

    PubMed

    Sriranjani, R; Umesh, S; Reddy, M Ramasubba

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to assess the severity of the dysarthria using state-specific vector (SSV) of phone-cluster adaptive training (phone-CAT) acoustic modeling technique is proposed. The dominant component of the SSV represents the actual pronunciations of a speaker. Comparing the dominant component for unimpaired and each dysarthric speaker, a phone confusion matrix is formed. The diagonal elements of the matrix capture the number of correct pronunciations for each dysarthric speaker. As the degree of impairment increases, the number of phones correctly pronounced by the speaker decreases. Thus the trace of the confusion matrix can be used as objective cue to assess di?erent severity levels of dysarthria based on a threshold rule. Our proposed objective measure correlates with the standard Frenchay dysarthric assessment scores by 74 % on Nemours database. The measure also correlates with the intelligibility scores by 82 % on universal access dysarthric speech database. PMID:25996705

  16. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

  17. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C. NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX )

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs.

  18. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  19. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  20. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  1. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR POLYCYCLIC ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document responds to Section 122 of the Clean Air Act as Amended August 1977, which requires the Administrator to decide whether atmospheric emissions of polycyclic organic matter (POM) potentially endanger public health. This document reviews POM data on chemical and physica...

  2. Assessing Specific Sexual Behavior: Instrument Development and Validation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Monica C.; Chaney, J. Don; Chen, W. William; Dodd, Virginia J.; Huang, I-Chan; Sanders, Sadie

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of multi-modal methods, the purpose of this study was to develop and assess measurement properties of an instrument evaluating specific sexual behaviors of college students and the role alcohol intoxication plays in one’s intention to participate in these behaviors. A modified version of N. Krause’s instrument development process was applied to create a behavior-specific instrument assessing oral, vaginal, and anal sex behaviors. The process included a review by expert scholars in relevant fields, cognitive interviews with the target population using screen-capture program Camtasia, piloting to assess measurement scales, and a formal investigation. The applied instrument development process employed screen capture software and web-based surveying in a cost-effective format suitable for mixed-method measurement development. The development and application of the instrument provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between alcohol use and sexual activity and aids in the development of effective public health interventions and policies. PMID:27066593

  3. Brine organisms and the question of habitat-specific adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.

    1984-01-01

    The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.

  4. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either “the more, the better” or “not too much and not too little.” This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between “maximum performance” and “typical performance” is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system. PMID:21713072

  5. Assessing Cell and Organ Senescence Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Blasco, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal in cancer and aging research is to discriminate the biochemical modifications that happen locally that could account for the healthiness or malignancy of tissues. Senescence is one general antiproliferative cellular process that acts as a strong barrier for cancer progression, playing a crucial role in aging. Here, we focus on the current methods to assess cellular senescence, discriminating the advantages and disadvantages of several senescence biomarkers. PMID:22723221

  6. SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

  7. Computational assessment of organic photovoltaic candidate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borunda, Mario; Dai, Shuo; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are emerging as a possible renewable alternative to petroleum based resources and are needed to meet our growing demand for energy. Although not as efficient as silicon based cells, OPV cells have as an advantage that their manufacturing cost is potentially lower. The Harvard Clean Energy Project, using a cheminformatic approach of pattern recognition and machine learning strategies, has ranked a molecular library of more than 2.6 million candidate compounds based on their performance as possible OPV materials. Here, we present a ranking of the top 1000 molecules for use as photovoltaic materials based on their optical absorption properties obtained via time-dependent density functional theory. This computational search has revealed the molecular motifs shared by the set of most promising molecules.

  8. Organizing and Evaluating Results from Multiple Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of understanding how reading abilities vary within the classroom can be daunting. This article offers techniques to organize a variety of assessment data to give teachers a clear picture of individual achievement, how students compare with one another, and how reliably various assessment instruments yield an accurate picture of…

  9. Argumentativeness in the Organization: Employees Assess Its Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Brenda J.

    A study explored employees' perceptions of argumentativeness in the organization, specifically examining (1) how employees perceive argumentativeness and the value of argumentativeness in the organization, (2) to what extent employees argue in the workplace, and (3) whether there is any relationship between these two variables, the perception of…

  10. SHOCK VOLUME: A PATIENT-SPECIFIC INDEX THAT PREDICTS TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS AND ORGAN DYSFUNCTION IN MULTIPLY INJURED PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Todd O; McCarroll, Tyler; Gaski, Greg E; Frantz, Travis L; Zarzaur, Ben L; Terry, Colin; Steenburg, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    Multiply injured patients (MIPs) in hemorrhagic shock develop oxygen debt which causes organ dysfunction and can lead to death. We developed a noninvasive patient-specific index, Shock Volume (SV), to quantify the magnitude of hypoperfusion. SV integrates the magnitude and duration that incremental shock index values are elevated above known thresholds of hypoperfusion using serial individual vital sign data. SV can be monitored in real time to assess ongoing hypoperfusion. The goal of this study was to determine how SV corresponded to transfusion requirements and organ dysfunction in a retrospective cohort of 74 MIPs. We measured SV in 6-h increments for 48 h after injury in multiply injured adults (18-65; Injury Severity Score ≥18). Patients who had accumulated 40 units of SV within 6 h of injury and 100 units of SV within 12 h of injury were at high risk for requiring massive transfusion or multiple critical administration transfusions. SV measurements were equally sensitive and specific as compared with base deficit values in predicting transfusions. SV measurements at 6 h after injury stratified patients at risk for multiple organ failure determined by Denver scores. In addition, SV values corresponded to the magnitude of organ failure determined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. SV is a patient-specific index that can be quantified in real time in critically injured patients. It is a surrogate for cumulative hypoperfusion and it predicts high-volume transfusions and organ dysfunction. PMID:26529663

  11. Cancer risk estimates for gamma-rays with regard to organ-specific doses Part II: site-specific solid cancers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Rühm, Werner; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2004-12-01

    Part I of this study presented an analysis of the solid cancer mortality data for 1950-1997 from the Japanese life-span study of the A-bomb survivors to assess the cancer risk for gamma-rays in terms of the organ-specific dose for all solid cancers combined. Compared to earlier analyses, considerably more curvature in the dose-effect relation is indicated by these computations, which now suggests a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor of about 2. The computations are extended here in order to explore the site-specific solid cancer risks for various organs. A computational method has been developed whereby the site-specific cancer risks are all simultaneously computed with global age and gender effect modifiers. This provides a more parsimonious representation with fewer parameters and avoids the large relative standard errors which would otherwise result. The sensitivity of site-specific risks to the choices of the neutron RBE is examined. The site-specific risk estimates are quite sensitive to the neutron RBE for the least shielded organs such as the breast, bladder and oesophagus. For the deeper lying organs, such as the gallbladder, pancreas and uterus, the impact of the neutrons is much lower. With an assumed neutron RBE of 35, which is in line with results on low neutron doses in major past studies on rodents and which corresponds approximately to the current ICRP radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the neutrons appear to contribute about 40% of the observed excess cancer risk in the breast, i.e. the organ that is closest to the body surface. However, this neutron contribution fraction is only about 10% for deeper lying organs, such as the colon. PMID:15645312

  12. Generation of Organ-conditioned Media and Applications for Studying Organ-specific Influences on Breast Cancer Metastatic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Piaseczny, Matthew M; Pio, Graciella M; Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Nguyen, Kim; Goodale, David; Allan, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to the lymph node, bone, lung, brain and liver in breast cancer patients. Previous research efforts have focused on identifying factors inherent to breast cancer cells that are responsible for this observed metastatic pattern (termed organ tropism), however much less is known about factors present within specific organs that contribute to this process. This is in part because of a lack of in vitro model systems that accurately recapitulate the organ microenvironment. To address this, an ex vivo model system has been established that allows for the study of soluble factors present within different organ microenvironments. This model consists of generating conditioned media from organs (lymph node, bone, lung, and brain) isolated from normal athymic nude mice. The model system has been validated by demonstrating that different breast cancer cell lines display cell-line specific and organ-specific malignant behavior in response to organ-conditioned media that corresponds to their in vivo metastatic potential. This model system can be used to identify and evaluate specific organ-derived soluble factors that may play a role in the metastatic behavior of breast and other types of cancer cells, including influences on growth, migration, stem-like behavior, and gene expression, as well as the identification of potential new therapeutic targets for cancer. This is the first ex vivo model system that can be used to study organ-specific metastatic behavior in detail and evaluate the role of specific organ-derived soluble factors in driving the process of cancer metastasis. PMID:27341354

  13. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Resources for Facilitators CD-ROM. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This companion to the "Guide for Students" and "Student Workbook" includes the complete set of PowerPoint slides, a PDF of the Facilitator's Guide in PPT (PowerPoint) slide show format, and PDFs of all scoring sheets, handouts and project planning guides needed for the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) process. The Assessing and…

  14. Assessment of plant uptake models used in exposure assessment tools for soils contaminated with organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2014-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve the accuracy of plant uptake models for neutral hydrophobic organic pollutants (1 < logK(OW) < 9, -8 < logK(AW) < 0) used in regulatory exposure assessment tools, using uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The models considered were RAIDAR, EUSES, CSOIL, CLEA, and CalTOX. In this research, CSOIL demonstrated the best performance of all five exposure assessment tools for root uptake from polluted soil in comparison with observed data, but no model predicted shoot uptake well. Recalibration of the transpiration and volatilisation parameters improved the performance of CSOIL and CLEA. The dominant pathway for shoot uptake simulated differed according to the properties of the chemical under consideration; those with a higher air-water partition coefficient were transported into shoots via the soil-air-plant pathway, while chemicals with a lower octanol-water partition coefficient and air-water partition coefficient were transported via the root. The soil organic carbon content was a particularly sensitive parameter in each model and using a site specific value improved model performance. PMID:25203369

  15. Diagenesis of Organic Matter in a Virginia Salt Marsh: Evaluation Through Compound Specific Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Geyer, M.

    2004-05-01

    Resolving the early diagenetic pathways to preservation of organic matter in a sedimentary sequence is one of the most intriguing challenges in organic geochemistry. What is preserved is usually ascribed to be either the product of retention of refractory materials or "protected" remnants of the destruction of the more labile matter, or more likely, a combination of both processes. A third mechanism, acquisition of newly synthesized material resulting from microbially mediated reactions, is less frequently invoked. In this study, the sources for the preserved organic matter and the sedimentary history of a Spartina marsh sequence on North Hog Island at the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR-LTER) site are reported. Through the utilization of both carbon and nitrogen bulk isotopic compositions and compound specific isotopic analyses (CSIA) as well as the distributions of individual fatty acids, the depositional sequences are assessed. The variations in the cores for bulk organic carbon and nitrogen delta 13C and delta 15N typically ranged from -17 to -15 permil and +4 to +10 permil, respectively. The isotopic compositions generally show a trend of increasing in the heavy isotope downcore. These variations can be attributed to microbial utilization of amino acids resulting in bulk isotopic enrichments in deeper layers. Extensive microbial activity was evidenced at depth with increased amounts of odd-chain and branched-chain fatty acids. Overall, there is a decline with increasing depth in the amount of quantifiable fatty acids. Through the CSIA measurements, the original source of the preserved molecular components was observed to be essentially that of the Spartina, with loss of unsaturation deeper in the sequence. At greater depths, newly synthesized, longer-chain, unsaturated fatty acids were observed, possibly resulting from anaerobic pathways. Through mass balance using isotopic compositions of proposed bacterial endmember fatty acids, a

  16. Organ-Specific Cancer Metabolism and Its Potential for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Ilaria; Schmieder, Roberta; Christen, Stefan; Fendt, Sarah-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Targeting cancer metabolism has the potential to lead to major advances in tumor therapy. Numerous promising metabolic drug targets have been identified. Yet, it has emerged that there is no singular metabolism that defines the oncogenic state of the cell. Rather, the metabolism of cancer cells is a function of the requirements of a tumor. Hence, the tissue of origin, the (epi)genetic drivers, the aberrant signaling, and the microenvironment all together define these metabolic requirements. In this chapter we discuss in light of (epi)genetic, signaling, and environmental factors the diversity in cancer metabolism based on triple-negative and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, early- and late-stage prostate cancer, and liver cancer. These types of cancer all display distinct and partially opposing metabolic behaviors (e.g., Warburg versus reverse Warburg metabolism). Yet, for each of the cancers, their distinct metabolism supports the oncogenic phenotype. Finally, we will assess the therapeutic potential of metabolism based on the concepts of metabolic normalization and metabolic depletion. PMID:25912014

  17. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate. PMID:26443423

  18. T cells in the control of organ-specific autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Bour-Jordan, Hélène; Cheng, Mickie; Anderson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Immune tolerance is critical to the avoidance of unwarranted immune responses against self antigens. Multiple, non-redundant checkpoints are in place to prevent such potentially deleterious autoimmune responses while preserving immunity integral to the fight against foreign pathogens. Nevertheless, a large and growing segment of the population is developing autoimmune diseases. Deciphering cellular and molecular pathways of immune tolerance is an important goal, with the expectation that understanding these pathways will lead to new clinical advances in the treatment of these devastating diseases. The vast majority of autoimmune diseases develop as a consequence of complex mechanisms that depend on genetic, epigenetic, molecular, cellular, and environmental elements and result in alterations in many different checkpoints of tolerance and ultimately in the breakdown of immune tolerance. The manifestations of this breakdown are harmful inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues driven by innate immunity and self antigen–specific pathogenic T and B cells. T cells play a central role in the regulation and initiation of these responses. In this Review we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in these fundamental checkpoints, the pathways that are defective in autoimmune diseases, and the therapeutic strategies being developed with the goal of restoring immune tolerance. PMID:25985270

  19. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  20. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  1. Using Web-Based Video as an Assessment Tool for Student Performance in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew; Fredricks, Susan; Dudkin, Elizabeth; Kistler, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the potential for using video responses to specific questions as part of the assessment process in an organic chemistry class. These exercises have been used with a postbaccalaureate cohort of 40 students, learning in an online environment, over a period of four years. A second cohort of 25 second-year students taking the…

  2. Organ localization: Toward prospective patient-specific organ dosimetry in computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Segars, W. P.; Rybicki, K.; Norris, Hannah; Frush, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With increased focus on radiation dose from medical imaging, prospective radiation dose estimates are becoming increasingly desired. Using available populations of adult and pediatric patient phantoms, radiation dose calculations can be catalogued and prospectively applied to individual patients that best match certain anatomical characteristics. In doing so, the knowledge of organ size and location is a required element. Here, the authors develop a predictive model of organ locations and volumes based on an analysis of adult and pediatric computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Fifty eight adult and 69 pediatric CT datasets were segmented and utilized in the study. The maximum and minimum points of the organs were recorded with respect to the axial distance from the tip of the sacrum. The axial width, midpoint, and volume of each organ were calculated. Linear correlations between these three organ parameters and patient age, BMI, weight, and height were determined. Results: No statistically significant correlations were found in adult patients between the axial width, midpoint, and volume of the organs versus the patient age or BMI. Slight, positive linear trends were found for organ midpoint versus patient weight (max r2 = 0.382, mean r2 = 0.236). Similar trends were found for organ midpoint versus height (max r2 = 0.439, mean r2 = 0.200) and for organ volume versus height (max r2 = 0.410, mean r2 = 0.153). Gaussian fits performed on probability density functions of the adult organs resulted in r2-values ranging from 0.96 to 0.996. The pediatric patients showed much stronger correlations overall. Strong correlations were observed between organ axial midpoint versus age, height, and weight (max r2 = 0.842, mean r2 = 0.790; max r2 = 0.949, mean r2 = 0.894; and max r2 = 0.870, mean r2 = 0.847, respectively). Moderate linear correlations were also observed for organ axial width versus height (max r2 = 0.772, mean r2 = 0.562) and for organ volume versus

  3. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... submissions of responses. Analysis Agency: Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY...: Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). OMB Number:...

  4. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...). Analysis Agency: Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Office of... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY...--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). DHS...

  5. Management and organizational assessments: a review of selected organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, M.V.; Kerwin, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report is part of a larger project designed to assist the NRC in its responsibilities for assessing the management and organization of utilities applying for an operating license for a nuclear power plant. This report reviews the processes and criteria used by other organizations that conduct management and organization audits and evaluations. It was undertaken in order to provide data and a basis for future analysis by taking a comparative perspective. When considering changes in criteria and procedures as the NRC is doing, a standard benchmark is the performance of other organizations that are similarly situated. It was our goal to directly inform the NRC about the activities of other organizations so that a reconsideration of NRC activities could benefit from the perspective of organizations with a longer, broader, and different experience than the NRC has in the management and organization area. Data collected for this report has provided useful information in designing organization and administration guidelines and assessment procedures for consideration by the NRC.

  6. Implications of Different Worldviews to Assess Soil Organic Carbon Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, S.

    2012-04-01

    Profound shifts have occurred over the last three centuries in which human actions have become the main driver to global environmental change. In this new epoch, the Anthropocene, human-driven changes such as climate and land use change, are pushing the Earth system well outside of its normal operating range causing severe and abrupt environmental change. Changes in land use management and land cover are intricately linked to the carbon cycle, but our knowledge on its spatially and temporally explicit impact on carbon dynamics across different scales is still poorly understood. To elucidate on the magnitude of change in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to human-induced stressors different philosophical worldviews may be considered including (i) empiricism - direct measurements of properties and processes at micro, site-specific or field scales; (ii) metaphysics and ontology - conceptual models to assess soil change (e.g., STEP-AWBH); (iii) epistemology - indirect approaches (e.g., meta-analysis or spectral informed prediction models); (iv) reductionism - e.g., carbon flux measurements; (iv) determinism - mechanistic simulation models and biogeochemical investigations (e.g., Century or DNDC); (v) holism - national or global soil databases and aggregate maps; or (vi) integral - fusing individual, social, economic, cultural and empirical perspectives. The strengths and limitations of each of these philosophical approaches are demonstrated using case examples from Florida and U.S.A. The sensitivity to assess SOC change and uncertainty, backcasting and forecasting ability, scaling potential across space and time domains, and limitations and constraints of different worldviews are discussed.

  7. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-26

    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  8. Assessing UAV platform types and optical sensor specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altena, B.; Goedemé, T.

    2014-05-01

    Photogrammetric acquisition with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has grown extensively over the last couple of years. Such mobile platforms and their processing software have matured, resulting in a market which offers off-the-shelf mapping solutions to surveying companies and geospatial enterprises. Different approaches in platform type and optical instruments exist, though its resulting products have similar specifications. To demonstrate differences in acquisitioning practice, a case study over an open mine was flown with two different off-the-shelf UAVs (a fixed-wing and a multi-rotor). The resulting imagery is analyzed to clarify the differences in collection quality. We look at image settings, and stress the fact of photographic experience if manual setting are applied. For mapping production it might be safest to set the camera on automatic. Furthermore, we try to estimate if blur is present due to image motion. A subtle trend seems to be present, for the fast flying platform though its extent is of similar order to the slow moving one. It shows both systems operate at their limits. Finally, the lens distortion is assessed with special attention to chromatic aberration. Here we see that through calibration such aberrations could be present, however detecting this phenomena directly on imagery is not straightforward. For such effects a normal lens is sufficient, though a better lens and collimator does give significant improvement.

  9. Organ localization: Toward prospective patient-specific organ dosimetry in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P. Rybicki, K.; Norris, Hannah; Samei, E.; Frush, D.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: With increased focus on radiation dose from medical imaging, prospective radiation dose estimates are becoming increasingly desired. Using available populations of adult and pediatric patient phantoms, radiation dose calculations can be catalogued and prospectively applied to individual patients that best match certain anatomical characteristics. In doing so, the knowledge of organ size and location is a required element. Here, the authors develop a predictive model of organ locations and volumes based on an analysis of adult and pediatric computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Fifty eight adult and 69 pediatric CT datasets were segmented and utilized in the study. The maximum and minimum points of the organs were recorded with respect to the axial distance from the tip of the sacrum. The axial width, midpoint, and volume of each organ were calculated. Linear correlations between these three organ parameters and patient age, BMI, weight, and height were determined. Results: No statistically significant correlations were found in adult patients between the axial width, midpoint, and volume of the organs versus the patient age or BMI. Slight, positive linear trends were found for organ midpoint versus patient weight (max r{sup 2} = 0.382, mean r{sup 2} = 0.236). Similar trends were found for organ midpoint versus height (max r{sup 2} = 0.439, mean r{sup 2} = 0.200) and for organ volume versus height (max r{sup 2} = 0.410, mean r{sup 2} = 0.153). Gaussian fits performed on probability density functions of the adult organs resulted in r{sup 2}-values ranging from 0.96 to 0.996. The pediatric patients showed much stronger correlations overall. Strong correlations were observed between organ axial midpoint versus age, height, and weight (max r{sup 2} = 0.842, mean r{sup 2} = 0.790; max r{sup 2} = 0.949, mean r{sup 2} = 0.894; and max r{sup 2} = 0.870, mean r{sup 2} = 0.847, respectively). Moderate linear correlations were also observed for organ axial width

  10. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike

    2013-07-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus a Bayesian approach to

  11. Evaluating greenhouse gas impacts of organic waste management options using life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dung; Shan, Jilei; Iacoboni, Mario; Maguin, Stephen R

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to divert organics away from landfills are viewed by many as an important measure to significantly reduce the climate change impacts of municipal solid waste management. However, the actual greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of organics diversion from landfills have yet to be thoroughly evaluated and whether such a diversion provides significant environmental benefits in terms of GHG impacts must be answered. This study, using California-specific information, aimed to analyse the GHG impacts of organics diversion through a life-cycle assessment (LCA). This LCA considered all aspects of organics management including transportation, materials handling, GHG emissions, landfill gas capture/utilization, energy impacts, and carbon sequestration. The LCA study evaluated overall GHG impacts of landfilling, and alternative management options such as composting and anaerobic digestion for diverted organic waste. The LCA analysis resulted in net GHG reductions of 0.093, 0.048, 0.065 and 0.073 tonnes carbon equivalent per tonne organic waste for landfilling, windrow composting, aerated static pile composting, and anaerobic digestion, respectively. This study confirms that all three options for organics management result in net reductions of GHG emissions, but it also shows that organics landfilling, when well-managed, generates greater GHG reductions. The LCA provides scientific insight with regards to the environmental impacts of organics management options, which should be considered in decision and policy-making. The study also highlights the importance of how site and case-specific conditions influence project outcomes when considering organic waste management options. PMID:22588112

  12. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

  13. Assessing Mentoring in Organizations: An Evaluation of Commercial Mentoring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Brad; Rose, Gail L.; Dietrich, Kim E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform readers about the types of instruments available for assessing and improving mentoring in organizations. Extensive review of the psychological, business and medical literature was conducted to identify commercially published, practitioner-oriented instruments. All of the instruments that were…

  14. ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO ANAEROBIC TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid but dependable and repeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals on anaerobic treatment processes. his protocol provides information on the rate limiting biological reactions and the concentration of toxi...

  15. Quantitative Assessment of a Senge Learning Organization Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiedrowski, P. Jay

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess a Senge learning organization (LO) intervention to determine if it would result in improved employee satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: A Senge LO intervention in Division 123 of Company ABC was undertaken in 2000. Three employee surveys using likert-scale questions over five years and correlation analysis…

  16. Mental Snapshots: Creating an Organized Plan for Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fosbrook, Susan Curro

    2015-01-01

    Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. PMID:26428347

  17. Variations in the emissions of volatile organic compounds from the toner for a specific photocopier.

    PubMed

    Henschel, D B; Fortmann, R C; Roache, N F; Liu, X

    2001-05-01

    A laboratory thermal desorption apparatus was used to measure emissions from a number of nominally identical photocopier toners--manufactured to meet the specifications of one specific model copier--when these toners were heated to fuser temperature (180-200 degrees C). The objective was to assess how potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the toner for a given copier can vary, depending upon the production run and the supplier. Tests were performed on a series of toner (and associated raw polymer feedstock) samples obtained directly from a toner manufacturer, representing two production runs using a nonvented extrusion process, and on toner cartridges purchased from two local retailers, representing three different production lots (histories unknown). The results showed that the retailer toners consistently had up to 350% higher emissions of some major compounds (expressed as microgram of compound emitted/g of toner), and up to 100% lower emissions of others, relative to the manufacturer toners (p < or = 0.01). The manufacturer toners from one production run had emissions of certain compounds, and of total VOCs, that were modestly higher (13-18%) than those from the other run (p < or = 0.01). The emission differences between the retailer and manufacturer toners are probably due to differences in the manufacturing processes and/or feedstocks used to produce the toners from these different sources. PMID:11355458

  18. Organ-specific mediation of lifespan extension: more than a gut feeling?

    PubMed Central

    Rera, Michael; Azizi, Masoud J.; Walker, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of an interactive network of various tissues that are functionally organized as discrete organs. If aging were slowed in a specific tissue or organ how would that impact longevity at the organismal level? In recent years, molecular genetic approaches in invertebrate model systems have dramatically improved our understanding of the aging process and have provided insight into the preceding question. In this review, we discuss tissue and organ-specific interventions that prolong lifespan in the nematode C. elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. These interventions include reduced Insulin/IGF-1 signaling, knockdown of genes important for mitochondrial electron transport chain function and, finally, up-regulation of the Drosophila PGC-1 homolog. An emerging theme from these studies is that the intestine is an important target organ in mediating lifespan extension at the organismal level. PMID:22706186

  19. The Relevance of Rodent-Specific Tumors in Cancer Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory animal species have organs that do not specifically occur in humans and somtimes tumors arise in these organs. The lack of direct site concordance frequently results in significant debate on the human relevance of tumors that arise from rodent specific organs. The re...

  20. Standardised Library Instruction Assessment: An Institution-Specific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Shannon M.; Branch, Nicole A.; Hewitt, Tom L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We explore the use of a psychometric model for locally-relevant, information literacy assessment, using an online tool for standardised assessment of student learning during discipline-based library instruction sessions. Method: A quantitative approach to data collection and analysis was used, employing standardised multiple-choice…

  1. Approaches for monitoring of non virus-specific and virus-specific T-cell response in solid organ transplantation and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Calarota, Sandra A; Aberle, Judith H; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Baldanti, Fausto

    2015-09-01

    Opportunistic viral infections are still a major complication following solid organ transplantation. Immune monitoring may allow the identification of patients at risk of infection and, eventually, the modulation of immunosuppressive strategies. Immune monitoring can be performed using virus-specific and non virus-specific assays. This article describes and summarizes the pros and cons of the different technical approaches. Among the assays based on non virus-specific antigens, the enumeration of T-cell subsets, the quantification of cytokines and chemokines and the quantification of intracellular adenosine triphosphate following mitogen stimulation are described and their clinical applications to determine the risk for viral infection are discussed. In addition, current specific methods available for monitoring viral-specific T-cell responses are summarized, such as peptide-MHC multimer staining, intracellular cytokine staining, enzyme-linked immunospot and virus-specific IFN-γ ELISA assays, and their clinical applications to determine the individual risk for opportunistic viral infections with human cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and polyoma BK virus are discussed. The standardization of the procedure, the choice of the antigen(s) and the criteria to define cut-off values for positive responses are needed for some of these approaches before their implementation in the clinic. Nevertheless, immune monitoring combined with virological monitoring in transplant recipients is increasingly regarded as a helpful tool to identify patients at risk of infection as well as to assess treatment efficacy. PMID:26305832

  2. Involvement of Sialic Acid on Endothelial Cells in Organ-Specific Lymphocyte Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven D.; Singer, Mark S.; Yednock, Ted A.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.

    1985-05-01

    Mouse lymphocytes incubated on cryostat-cut sections of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) specifically adhere to the endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV), the specialized blood vessels to which recirculating lymphocytes attach as they migrate from the blood into the parenchyma of the lymphoid organs. Treatment of sections with sialidase eliminated the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node HEV, had no effect on binding to Peyer's patch HEV, and had an intermediate effect on mesenteric lymph node HEV. These results suggest that sialic acid on endothelial cells may be an organ-specific recognition determinant for lymphocyte attachment.

  3. Ambulatory Assessment in Panic Disorder and Specific Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpers, Georg W.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory.…

  4. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part II: Quantification of specific organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    The major goal of this study was to investigate the organic pollution of a river on a quantitative basis. To this end, 14 anthropogenic contaminants which were identified in Lippe River water samples as reported in part I (Dsikowitzky et al., submitted parallel to this manuscript) were surveyed. Dissolved organic loads of the specific compounds were calculated on the basis of their concentrations in water and river runoff on the day of sampling. The organic loads of each compound were compiled along the longitudinal section of the river in order to generate individual spatial pollution profiles. It was observed that distribution of organic loads along the river showed distinctive patterns, depending upon the input situation and physico-chemical properties of the compound. The compounds were classified into three types of which Type 1, due to their stability in the aqueous phase, are of special interest for potential application as anthropogenic markers. PMID:15519373

  5. The Evolutionary Panorama of Organ-Specifically Expressed or Repressed Orthologous Genes in Nine Vertebrate Species

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Libing; Liu, Gangbiao; Zou, Yangyun; Zhou, Zhan; Su, Zhixi; Gu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology provides the detailed transcriptomic information for a biological sample. Using the RNA-Seq data of six organs from nine vertebrate species, we identified a number of organ-specifically expressed or repressed orthologous genes whose expression patterns are mostly conserved across nine species. Our analyses show the following results: (i) About 80% of these genes have a chordate or more ancient origin and more than half of them are the legacy of one or multiple rounds of large-scale gene duplication events. (ii) Their evolutionary rates are shaped by the organ in which they are expressed or repressed, e.g. the genes specially expressed in testis and liver generally evolve more than twice as fast as the ones specially expressed in brain and cerebellum. The organ-specific transcription factors were discriminated from these genes. The ChIP-seq data from the ENCODE project also revealed the transcription-related factors that might be involved in regulating human organ-specifically expressed or repressed genes. Some of them are shared by all six human organs. The comparison of ENCODE data with mouse/chicken ChIP-seq data proposes that organ-specifically expressed or repressed orthologous genes are regulated in various combinatorial fashions in different species, although their expression features are conserved among these species. We found that the duplication events in some gene families might help explain the quick organ/tissue divergence in vertebrate lineage. The phylogenetic analysis of testis-specifically expressed genes suggests that some of them are prone to develop new functions for other organs/tissues. PMID:25679776

  6. Examiners and Content and Site: Oh My! a National Organization's Investigation of Score Variation in Large-Scale Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebok, Stefanie S.; Roy, Marguerite; Klinger, Don A.; De Champlain, André F.

    2015-01-01

    Examiner effects and content specificity are two well known sources of construct irrelevant variance that present great challenges in performance-based assessments. National medical organizations that are responsible for large-scale performance based assessments experience an additional challenge as they are responsible for administering…

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers for the pre-concentration of polar organic micropollutants for compound-specific isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas B.

    2014-05-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a promising tool for assessing transformations of polar organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and consumer chemicals in aquatic systems. There are, however, two major challenges: (1) Polar organic micropollutants occur at very low levels and, as a consequence, large amounts of water are required to achieve analyte enrichment with factors of 50'000 and more, inevitably leading to large interferences from the aqueous matrix. (2) The polarity of these micropollutants impedes the use of typical non-polar sorbates for solid-phase enrichment. In view of these challenges, the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) is a promising approach to produce tailor-made materials for highly selective enrichment of polar organic micropollutants with reduced matrix interferences. In this work, we explore the use of MIP to selectively enrich benzotriazoles, an important class of polar aquatic micropollutants. Polymers were synthesized in the presence of 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole as a template, which leaves cavities in the polymer matrix with a very high affinity to the template and closely related structures including our main target analyte, 1H-benzotrizole. After extraction of the template, specific recognition of substituted benzotriazoles is expected by the synthesized MIPs. As the MIP has no specific affinity to the matrix, there is also expected to be negligible enrichment of the matrix. Retention factors of the MIP are compared for different synthetic procedures and to non-imprinted polymers where no specific intermolecular interactions with benzotriazoles are expected. Optimum performance of the MIP is demonstrated in this study in terms of the selectivity of enrichment, recoveries of analytes and the goodness of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios measured by gas chromatography isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). This approach will enable us to enrich large amounts of aqueous samples while

  8. The COA360: a tool for assessing the cultural competency of healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Relosa, Rachel; Sawaya, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau projects that by 2050, non-Hispanic whites will be in the numerical minority. This rapid diversification requires healthcare organizations to pay closer attention to cross-cultural issues if they are to meet the healthcare needs of the nation and continue to maintain a high standard of care. Although scorecards and benchmarking are widely used to gauge healthcare organizations' performance in various areas, these tools have been underused in relation to cultural preparedness or initiatives. The likely reason for this is the lack of a validated tool specifically designed to examine cultural competency. Existing validated cultural competency instruments evaluate individuals, not organizations. In this article, we discuss a study to validate the Cultural Competency Organizational Assessment--360 or the COA360, an instrument designed to appraise a healthcare organization's cultural competence. The Office of Minority Health and the Joint Commission have each developed standards for measuring the cultural competency of organizations. The COA360 is designed to assess adherence to both of these sets of standards. For this validation study, we enlisted a panel of national experts. The panel rated each dimension of the COA360, and the combination of items for each of the scale's 14 dimensions was rated above 4.13 (on 5-point scale). Our conclusion points to the validity of the COA360. As such, it is a valuable tool not only for assessing a healthcare organization's cultural readiness but also for benchmarking its progress in addressing cultural and diversity issues. PMID:18720687

  9. Fabrication and life cycle assessment of organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, Annick

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for renewable energy has resulted in a new interest for alternative technologies such as organic photovoltaics. With efficiencies exceeding 8% for both polymer and small molecule photovoltaics, organic photovoltaics are now being commercialized due to their flexibility and low weight which allow for their adoption in new applications such as portable electronics, smart fabrics, and building-integrated photovoltaics. To date, most research efforts have been focused on increasing power efficiency with little assessment of potential negative impacts associated with their large scale production. It is generally assumed that organic photovoltaics have low environmental impacts and are by nature inexpensive to produce since they are often solution processed. In the present work, a comprehensive analysis of the life cycle embodied energy for C60 and C70 fullerenes which are the most common acceptor molecules in organic photovoltaics, has been performed from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes. The embodied energy of all fullerenes was calculated to be an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals. These results have enabled the life cycle impact associated with the production of various types of organic photovoltaics to be calculated, including polymer, small molecule and multi-junction devices. An outcome of the life cycle assessment for organic photovoltaics shows that small molecule devices require significant fabrication energy from high vacuum processing and their efficiency is limited by poor absorption in the near-infrared (NIR). Therefore, a solution processing approach with novel NIR absorbing molecules in multi-junction devices has been developed in order to minimize the total cumulative energy. The combined efforts have led to the first demonstration of a spray-coated small molecule photovoltaic NIR device, using a combination of ZnPc and Al

  10. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  11. Assessment of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, B. A.; Nguyen, T.; Pradhan, B.; Dangol, P.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic contributions to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the Southeast Asian regional haze were assessed by measurement of particle-phase isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene photooxidation products in fine particles (PM2.5) at Godavari, Nepal, located in the Himalayas at an elevation of 1600 meters. Organic species were measured in solvent-extracts of filter samples using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and chemical derivatization. Molecular markers for primary aerosol sources—including motor vehicles, biomass burning, and detritus—and SOA tracers were measured. High concentrations of isoprene derivatives, particularly in the late summer months, point to biogenic SOA as a significant source of organic carbon in the Himalayan region. First-generation SOA products from alpha-pinene were detected in all samples, whereas multi-generation products were not, suggesting that monoterpenes were at an early stage of oxidation at Godavari. Biogenic SOA contributions to PM2.5 organic carbon in the 2005 monsoon and post-monsoon season ranged from 2-19% for isoprene, 1-5% for monoterpenes, and 1-4% for sesquiterpenes. Primary and secondary biogenic sources combined accounted for approximately half of observed organic aerosol, suggesting additional aerosol sources and/or precursors are significant in this region.

  12. Strategically Assessing International Business Course-Specific Learning Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashlak, Roger; Lorenzi, Peter; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there have been calls for universities and business schools to internationalize curriculum, students and faculty. As most U.S. business schools have added international components to their respective programs, the assessment of these programs was subsequently recommended from accreditation and competitive perspectives. To…

  13. SMALL POPULATIONS REQUIRE SPECIFIC MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    All populations face non-zero risks of extinction. However, the risks for small populations, and therefore the modeling approaches necessary to predict them, are different from those of large populations. These differences are currently hindering assessment of risk to small pop...

  14. Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299

  15. Risk assessment for organic trace compounds in wastewater: comparison of conventional and advanced treatment.

    PubMed

    Schwätter, F; Hannich, C B; Nöthe, T; Oehlmann, J; Fahlenkamp, H

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of organic trace compounds in municipal wastewater was analysed at three German wastewater treatment plants. Additionally, the effects of advanced treatment, membrane filtration, adsorption and oxidation processes were investigated. To assess the ecotoxicity of effluents, a number of tools were used: substance-specific evaluation, case studies for combined effects and risk assessment on the basis of cumulative parameters. The results of the research projects revealed that aquatic environmental risks can be reduced significantly using advanced treatment technologies for wastewater treatment plants. PMID:17881832

  16. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  17. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P.; Kuske, C.; Willardson, B.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  18. Assessing the impact of integrating POGIL in Elementary Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatila, Ahmad

    Organic chemistry is a difficult subject to teach especially to non-chemistry majors. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, is an introductory course in organic chemistry given to non-chemistry majors. It is usually taught the traditional way using lectures as the main method of presentation. In the fall of 2006, POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) activities were introduced in this course. POGIL is a program that integrates guided inquiry and cooperative learning in chemistry education. The purpose of this research study was to determine the effect of using POGIL activities in elementary organic chemistry. CHE 251, Elementary Organic Chemistry, was taught using a mixture of traditional teaching, lecturing, and POGIL activities. This was assessed by looking at the effect of using POGIL activities on student achievement. Furthermore, the study investigated possible effects of POGIL activities on students' attitudes toward chemistry. Archival data on 28 students enrolled in the fall 2004 semester were used in this study. In addition, 27 students enrolled in the 2006 semester participated in the study by completing an attitudinal survey that was developed by the researcher. Finally, 9 students enrolled in the 2006 semester were interviewed to give additional insight to the study. The quantitative data concerning achievement revealed no significant difference between groups, students who used POGIL did not differ from students who did not. Further, the quantitative data concerning confidence levels of students in understanding and applying organic chemistry before and after going through the POGIL activities revealed no significant difference. This study showed that students in general (88.8% of surveyed students) liked POGIL activities and preferred them over lecturing. Students thought that POGIL activities helped them better understand and learn chemistry. Furthermore, students acknowledged the benefits of guided inquiry and cooperative learning, the

  19. SPECIES SPECIFIC DIETARY ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: THE NEED TO ESTIMATE BIOACCESSIBILITY AND ASSESSING THE IMPLIED PRESYSTEMIC METABOLISM IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical form specific toxicity of arsenic dictates the need for species specific quantification in order to accurately assess the risk from an exposure. The literature has begun to produce preliminary species specific databases for certain dietary sources, but a quantitativ...

  20. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. PMID:26708763

  1. Chemical and biomarker responses for site-specific quality assessment of the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Pedriali, Alessandra; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s, the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) has been recognized as an aquatic environment contaminated by DDTs and other persistent organic pollutants, but to date just few studies were carried out to investigate the effects of pollution to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was the application of a stepwise approach based on chemical data, a suite of biomarkers and the integration of their responses into a biomarker response index (BRI) to evaluate the site-specific quality assessment in different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, one of the largest European lakes. We used as biological model the freshwater bivalve Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Several hundred bivalve specimens were sampled on May 2011 from eight sampling sites located along the lake shoreline. We measured levels of DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and PAHs accumulated in D. polymorpha soft tissues by GC/MSn, while the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were evaluated in homogenates from native bivalves as oxidative stress indices. Moreover, DNA damage was investigated by the alkaline precipitation assay. Significant imbalances of enzymatic activity were found in mussels from most of the sampling sites, as well as notable increases of damage to macromolecules. Health status of mussels from Baveno was greatly affected by lake pollution, probably due to high levels of DDTs measured in this site, while a wide variability in biomarker responses was found in all the other stations. The application of a BRI allowed distinguishing impacts of pollution to bivalves, confirming mussels from Baveno as the most threatened and revealing that also the health status of bivalves from Suna, Brissago, Pallanza, and Laveno is affected. These evidences suggest the usefulness of a specific index to integrate all the biomarker endpoints in order to provide a correct environmental

  2. Soccer-specific video simulation for improving movement assessment.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Nelson; Blount, Elaine; Ringleb, Stacie; Onate, James A

    2011-03-01

    The improvement of ecological validity of laboratory research studies has recently come to the forefront of technology with virtual reality scenarios. The purpose of this study was to assess differences between unanticipated and anticipated lower extremity biomechanics while performing a sidestep cutting task. A visualization software was developed for this purpose, which would recreate a soccer game situation for use in a laboratory setting. Thirteen participants volunteered for this study. Lower extremity biomechanical data were collected with a VICON motion analysis system and two force plates, under anticipated and unanticipated conditions while performing a sidestep cutting task. Paired t-tests were conducted to assess possible differences between conditions. Alpha level was set a priori at 0.05. We found an increased knee adduction angle (unanticipated: -7.2 +/- 5.30 degrees; anticipated: -4.0 +/- 5.3 degrees), and knee internal rotation (unanticipated: 8.1 +/- 4.7 degrees; anticipated: 5.2 +/- 6.5 degrees) when performing the unanticipated condition (p < 0.05). The methodological approaches for studies investigating the factors possibly associated with ACL injury may need to take into account the laboratory environment and how the task(s) are presented to the participants. PMID:21560749

  3. Assessing treatment effects through changes in perceptions and cognitive organization.

    PubMed

    Szalay, L; Bovasso, G; Vilov, S; Williams, R E

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested the Associative Group Analysis (AGA) for its analytic sensitivity in assessing perceptions and attitudes and in mapping changes in cognitive organization indicative of substance abuse. Based on inferences drawn from the distributions of thousands of spontaneous, free associations elicited by strategically selected stimulus themes, AGA offers an unstructured approach to assess images and meanings, and to map systems of mental representation evasive to the more direct methods of using questions or scales. This article compares pretreatment and posttreatment samples, tracing the psychosocial effects of treatment. The investigations focus on variables related to substance abuse such as self-image, social nexus, and perceptions of illicit substances. The results indicate a sensitive approach, useful in treatment evaluation. PMID:1449123

  4. 77 FR 39710 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ..., 2006 (71 FR 77314), FDA published a proposed rule on organ-specific warnings and related labeling for OTC IAAA drug products. In the Federal Register of April 29, 2009 (74 FR 19385), FDA published the final rule (2009 final rule). In the Federal Register of November 25, 2009 (74 FR 61512), FDA...

  5. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  6. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  7. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  8. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  9. 78 FR 30245 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific Requirements of the Disturbance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Environmental Policy Act, Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. Regulations Preambles... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific... for approval by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, the Commission-certified...

  10. DEVELOP NEW TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON/SPECIFIC UV ABSORBANCE METHOD WITH EXPANDED QUALITY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to provide a total organic carbon (TOC)/specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) method that will be used by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) to support monitoring requirements of the Stage 2 Disinfectant/Disinfection By-products ...

  11. 75 FR 50770 - Guidance for Industry on Organ-Specific Warnings: Internal Analgesic, Antipyretic, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ..., Antipyretic, and Antirheumatic Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Use; Final Monograph'' (74 FR 19385, April 29, 2009).\\1\\ The guidance describes the organ-specific labeling requirements in plain language and... accordance with the Small Business Regulatory Fairness Act. \\1\\ As amended November 25, 2009 (74 FR...

  12. Stochastic sensors designed for assessment of biomarkers specific to obesity.

    PubMed

    Cioates Negut, Catalina; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Ungureanu, Eleonora-Mihaela; Udeanu, Denisa Ioana

    2016-09-01

    Two stochastic sensors based on the following oleamides: 1-adamantyloleamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-oleylamidoethyl)amine physically immobilized on graphite paste were designed. The sensors were able to determine simultaneously from the whole blood of Wistar rats three biomarkers specific to obesity: leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). The whole blood samples were obtained from Wistar rats treated with oleoylethanolamide (OEA), (Z)-N-[(1S)-2-hidroxy-1-(phenylmethyl) ethyl]-9octadecenamide (OLA), and with the aqueous solution of 1% Tween 80 used as solvent for oleamides formulations (control samples). The proposed sensors were very sensitive and reliable for the assay of obesity biomarkers in whole blood of rats. PMID:27288757

  13. Accuracy of patient specific organ-dose estimates obtained using an automated image segmentation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilat-Schmidt, Taly; Wang, Adam; Coradi, Thomas; Haas, Benjamin; Star-Lack, Josh

    2016-03-01

    The overall goal of this work is to develop a rapid, accurate and fully automated software tool to estimate patient-specific organ doses from computed tomography (CT) scans using a deterministic Boltzmann Transport Equation solver and automated CT segmentation algorithms. This work quantified the accuracy of organ dose estimates obtained by an automated segmentation algorithm. The investigated algorithm uses a combination of feature-based and atlas-based methods. A multiatlas approach was also investigated. We hypothesize that the auto-segmentation algorithm is sufficiently accurate to provide organ dose estimates since random errors at the organ boundaries will average out when computing the total organ dose. To test this hypothesis, twenty head-neck CT scans were expertly segmented into nine regions. A leave-one-out validation study was performed, where every case was automatically segmented with each of the remaining cases used as the expert atlas, resulting in nineteen automated segmentations for each of the twenty datasets. The segmented regions were applied to gold-standard Monte Carlo dose maps to estimate mean and peak organ doses. The results demonstrated that the fully automated segmentation algorithm estimated the mean organ dose to within 10% of the expert segmentation for regions other than the spinal canal, with median error for each organ region below 2%. In the spinal canal region, the median error was 7% across all data sets and atlases, with a maximum error of 20%. The error in peak organ dose was below 10% for all regions, with a median error below 4% for all organ regions. The multiple-case atlas reduced the variation in the dose estimates and additional improvements may be possible with more robust multi-atlas approaches. Overall, the results support potential feasibility of an automated segmentation algorithm to provide accurate organ dose estimates.

  14. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. PMID:27235899

  15. Compositional effects of organic material in HC potential assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. P.; Tsai, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of petroleum system is the main theme of hydrocarbon potential assessment, in which the characteristics of source rock is especially worth noticed. In recent years, besides the growth of conventional hydrocarbon resources being rapidly utilized, the exploration of unconventional deposits is getting more and more important. Since Taiwan has a strong energy demand and still highly relied on imported fossil fuel, the development of unconventional gas resources needs to be considered. This research discussed the relationship among characteristics and thermal maturity of different organic material versus their hydrocarbon potential. In order to compare the compositional effects from different organic material, torbanites from Huangxian basin, China and Miocene humic coal from Chuhuangkeng Anticline (one of the most productive oil and gas fields), Taiwan were examined and compared. Torbanites from China had relatively low maturation with vitrinite reflectance 0.38~0.51%, whereas the maturation of humic coal from Chuhuangkeng Anticline are a little bit higher with vitrinite reflectance 0.55~0.6%, plus some methane explored. Methods of study include petrographic analysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement (Ro%), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and other geochemical parameters. The conclusions were derived after comparing experimental results and the regional geologic information of samples studied. In conclude, sample from China is type I kerogen, and its organic matter is mostly algae, whereas the humic coal sample from Taiwan belongs to type III kerogen. The analytic results indicate that the characteristics organic matters affect their maturity. Even though the thermal history and depositional environments are different in Taiwan and China, their organic micelles still exhibit a similar trend in the process of coalification. The role of maceral composition played in HC potential needs to be considered in future shale gas exploration.

  16. Recent conjugation strategies of small organic fluorophores and ligands for cancer-specific bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yonghwang; Choi, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-03-25

    Conjugation between various small fluorophores and specific ligands has become one of the main strategies for bioimaging in disease diagnosis, medicinal chemistry, immunology, and fluorescence-guided surgery, etc. Herein, we present our review of recent studies relating to molecular fluorescent imaging techniques for various cancers in cell-based and animal-based models. Various organic fluorophores, especially near-infrared (NIR) probes, have been employed with specific ligands. Types of ligands used were small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and aptamers; each has specific affinities for cellular receptor proteins, cancer-specific antigens, enzymes, and nucleic acids. This review can aid in the selection of cancer-specific ligands and fluorophores, and may inspire the further development of new conjugation strategies in various cellular and animal models. PMID:26892219

  17. The Differential Effects of Task Complexity on Domain-Specific and Peer Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zundert, Marjo J.; Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Konings, Karen D.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the relationship between domain-specific skills and peer assessment skills as a function of task complexity is investigated. We hypothesised that peer assessment skills were superposed on domain-specific skills and will therefore suffer more when higher cognitive load is induced by increased task complexity. In a mixed factorial…

  18. 75 FR 51467 - ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN...

  19. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). PMID:26196069

  20. Of plasticity and specificity: dialectics of the micro- and macro-environment and the organ phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramray; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of biological form and how it arises is the domain of the developmental biologists; but once the form is achieved, the organ poses a fascinating conundrum for all the life scientists: how are form and function maintained in adult organs throughout most of the life of the organism? That they do appears to contradict the inherently plastic nature of organogenesis during development. How do cells with the same genetic information arrive at, and maintain such different architectures and functions, and how do they keep remembering that they are different from each other? It is now clear that narratives based solely on genes and an irreversible regulatory dynamics cannot answer these questions satisfactorily, and the concept of microenvironmental signaling needs to be added to the equation. During development, cells rearrange and differentiate in response to diffusive morphogens, juxtacrine signals and the extracellular matrix (ECM). These components, which constitute the modular microenvironment, are sensitive to cues from other tissues and organs of the developing embryo as well as from the external macroenvironment. On the other hand, once the organ is formed, these modular constituents integrate and constrain the organ architecture, which ensures structural and functional homeostasis and therefore, organ specificity. We argue here that a corollary of the above is that once the organ architecture is compromised in adults by mutations or by changes in the microenvironment such as aging or inflammation, that organ becomes subjected to the developmental and embryonic circuits in search of a new identity. But since the microenvironment is no longer embryonic, the confusion leads to cancer: hence as we have argued, tumors become new evolutionary organs perhaps in search of an elusive homeostasis. PMID:24678448

  1. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  2. Islet Cell Surface Antibodies in Graves’ Disease; As Organ Non-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Il-Min; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1988-01-01

    To define ICA positiveness and its clinical correlation in AITD, ICSA were checked in Graves’ patients by indirect IF test using rat insulinoma (RINr) cells. Also Ig adherence to rat thyroid (FRTL5) and EB virus cloned human B lymphocytes that do not produce immunoglobulins were measured as the same method of ICSA with determination of organ specific antibodies in the sera. The incidence of ICSA in Graves’ disease was 23.1 % (9/39) and the degree of the positiveness measured as % binding was roughly correlated to those of Ig adherence to FRTL5 and B cells. This ability to bind multiple organs of different species was not found to have any correlation with the titers of organ specific antibodies, but the incidence of organ specific antibody positiveness was much higher in the ICSA positive sera. Also there was a significant difference on the absorption pattern to FRTL5 and RINr cells between the sera of ICSA positive IDDM and Graves’ patients, where absorption and % binding to FRTL5, cell in ICSA positive diabetic sera were significantly lower than those to RINr cells in ICSA positive Graves’. PMID:3153792

  3. Cognitive Approach to Assessing Pragmatic Language Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva; Schulz, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment in children with specific language impairment has proved difficult to assess, and the nature of their abilities to comprehend pragmatic meaning has not been fully investigated. Aims: To develop both a cognitive approach to pragmatic language assessment based on Relevance Theory and an assessment tool for…

  4. Microbial utilization of sugars in soil assessed by position-specific labeling and compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostel, Carolin; Dippold, Michaela; Glaser, Bruno; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    For the transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil, which is an important process in the turnover of organic matter, microbial utilization is one of the most important processes. Position-specific labeling combined with compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis allows a closer look on the mechanisms of LMWOS transformation in soil. We assessed short- (3 and 10 days) and long-term (half year) transformations of monosaccharides by adding position-specifically 13C labeled glucose and ribose to soil in a field experiment conducted on an agriculturally used luvisol located in north-western Bavaria. We quantified the microbial utilization of the different functional groups by 13C-analysis of microbial biomass with the chloroform-fumigation-extraction method (CFE). 13C-PLFA analysis enabled us to distinguish individual microbial groups and compare their C-utilization. Preferential degradation of glucoses C-3 and C-4 respectively C-1 position enabled differentiation between the two main hexose metabolic pathways - glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Microbial groups revealed different incorporation of specific C positions into their PLFA. The highest incorporation was reached by the prokaryotic gram- negative groups. The application of position-specifically labeled substances, coupled with compound-specific 13C-PLFA analysis opens a new way to investigate the microbial transformations of LMWOS in soil. Observing single C atoms and their utilization by specific microbial groups allow conclusions about the mechanisms and kinetics of microbial utilization and interaction between these groups and therefore will improve our understanding of soil carbon fluxes.

  5. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  6. Organ assessment and repair centers: The future of transplantation is near

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Bryan A; Black, Sylvester M

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is limited by suitable donor organ availability and the geographic limitations that lead to prolonged ischemic times. Ex vivo organ perfusion is an evolving technology that enables assessment of organ function prior to transplantation. As a byproduct, overall out of body organ times are able to be extended. The future implications organ assessment and repair centers utilizing this technology are discussed. PMID:25032094

  7. Distinct organ-specific metastatic potential of individual breast cancer cells and primary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Minn, Andy J.; Kang, Yibin; Serganova, Inna; Gupta, Gaorav P.; Giri, Dilip D.; Doubrovin, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Gerald, William L.; Blasberg, Ronald; Massagué, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We used bioluminescence imaging to reveal patterns of metastasis formation by human breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. Individual cells from a population established in culture from the pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient showed distinct patterns of organ-specific metastasis. Single-cell progenies derived from this population exhibited markedly different abilities to metastasize to the bone, lung, or adrenal medulla, which suggests that metastases to different organs have different requirements. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that these different single-cell progenies similarly express a previously described “poor-prognosis” gene expression signature. Unsupervised classification using the transcriptomic data set supported the hypothesis that organ-specific metastasis by breast cancer cells is controlled by metastasis-specific genes that are separate from a general poor-prognosis gene expression signature. Furthermore, by using a gene expression signature associated with the ability of these cells to metastasize to bone, we were able to distinguish primary breast carcinomas that preferentially metastasized to bone from those that preferentially metastasized elsewhere. These results suggest that the bone-specific metastatic phenotypes and gene expression signature identified in a mouse model may be clinically relevant. PMID:15630443

  8. Organ-specific exposure and response to sulforaphane, a key chemopreventive ingredient in broccoli: implications for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Omkara L; Bhattacharya, Arup; Marshall, James R; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2013-01-14

    Naturally occurring sulforaphane (SF) has been extensively studied for cancer prevention. However, little is known as to which organs may be most affected by this agent, which impedes its further development. In the present study, SF was administered to rats orally either in a single dose or once daily for 7 d. Tissue distribution of SF was measured by a HPLC-based method. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), two well-known cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes, were measured using biochemical assays to assess tissue response to SF. SF was delivered to different organs in vastly different concentrations. Tissue uptake of SF was the greatest in the stomach, declining rapidly in the descending gastro-intestinal tract. SF was rapidly eliminated through urinary excretion, and urinary concentrations of SF equivalents were 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than those of plasma. Indeed, tissue uptake level of SF in the bladder was second only to that in the stomach. Tissue levels of SF in the colon, prostate and several other organs were very low, compared to those in the bladder and stomach. Moreover, induction levels of GST and NQO1 varied by 3- to 6-fold among the organs of SF-treated rats, though not strictly correlated with tissue exposure to SF. Thus, there is profound organ specificity in tissue exposure and response to dietary SF, suggesting that the potential chemopreventive benefit of dietary SF may differ significantly among organs. These findings may provide a basis for prioritising organs for further chemopreventive study of SF. PMID:22464629

  9. Origin and Fate of Organic Compounds in Water: Characterization by Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten C.; Jochmann, Maik A.

    2012-07-01

    Within the past 15 years, compound-specific stable isotope analysis has continued to increase in popularity in the area of contaminant hydrology of organic molecules. In particular, in cases where concentration data alone are insufficient to elucidate environmental processes unequivocally, the isotope signature can provide additional unique information. Specifically, it can help answer questions about contaminant source apportionment, quantification of biotic and abiotic processes, and identification of transformation reactions on a mechanistic level. We review advances in laboratory and field investigations and exemplary applications in contaminant hydrology via stable isotope analysis. We also highlight future directions in the field.

  10. Assessment of opacimeter calibration according to International Standard Organization 10155.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration method for opacimeters issued by the International Standard Organization (ISO) 10155 with the manual reference method for determination of dust content in stack gases. ISO 10155 requires at least nine operational measurements, corresponding to three operational measurements per each dust emission range within the stack. The procedure is assessed by comparison with previous calibration methods for opacimeters using only two operational measurements from a set of measurements made at stacks from pulp mills. The results show that even if the international standard for opacimeter calibration requires that the calibration curve is to be obtained using 3 x 3 points, a calibration curve derived using 3 points could be, at times, acceptable in statistical terms, provided that the amplitude of individual measurements is low. PMID:11218423

  11. Characterizing and Assessing a Large-Scale Software Maintenance Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1995-01-01

    One important component of a software process is the organizational context in which the process is enacted. This component is often missing or incomplete in current process modeling approaches. One technique for modeling this perspective is the Actor-Dependency (AD) Model. This paper reports on a case study which used this approach to analyze and assess a large software maintenance organization. Our goal was to identify the approach's strengths and weaknesses while providing practical recommendations for improvement and research directions. The AD model was found to be very useful in capturing the important properties of the organizational context of the maintenance process, and aided in the understanding of the flaws found in this process. However, a number of opportunities for extending and improving the AD model were identified. Among others, there is a need to incorporate quantitative information to complement the qualitative model.

  12. Organ-specific adaptive signaling pathway activation in metastatic breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Riesa M.; Craven, Kelly E.; Krishnamurthy, Purna; Goswami, Chirayu P.; Badve, Sunil; Crooks, Peter; Mathews, William P.; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasizes to bone, visceral organs, and/or brain depending on the subtype, which may involve activation of a host organ-specific signaling network in metastatic cells. To test this possibility, we determined gene expression patterns in MDA-MB-231 cells and its mammary fat pad tumor (TMD-231), lung-metastasis (LMD-231), bone-metastasis (BMD-231), adrenal-metastasis (ADMD-231) and brain-metastasis (231-BR) variants. When gene expression between metastases was compared, 231-BR cells showed the highest gene expression difference followed by ADMD-231, LMD-231, and BMD-231 cells. Neuronal transmembrane proteins SLITRK2, TMEM47, and LYPD1 were specifically overexpressed in 231-BR cells. Pathway-analyses revealed activation of signaling networks that would enable cancer cells to adapt to organs of metastasis such as drug detoxification/oxidative stress response/semaphorin neuronal pathway in 231-BR, Notch/orphan nuclear receptor signals involved in steroidogenesis in ADMD-231, acute phase response in LMD-231, and cytokine/hematopoietic stem cell signaling in BMD-231 cells. Only NF-κB signaling pathway activation was common to all except BMD-231 cells. We confirmed NF-κB activation in 231-BR and in a brain metastatic variant of 4T1 cells (4T1-BR). Dimethylaminoparthenolide inhibited NF-κB activity, LYPD1 expression, and proliferation of 231-BR and 4T1-BR cells. Thus, transcriptome change enabling adaptation to host organs is likely one of the mechanisms associated with organ-specific metastasis and could potentially be targeted therapeutically. PMID:25926557

  13. Organ-specific adaptive signaling pathway activation in metastatic breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Riesa M; Craven, Kelly E; Krishnamurthy, Purna; Goswami, Chirayu P; Badve, Sunil; Crooks, Peter; Mathews, William P; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

    2015-05-20

    Breast cancer metastasizes to bone, visceral organs, and/or brain depending on the subtype, which may involve activation of a host organ-specific signaling network in metastatic cells. To test this possibility, we determined gene expression patterns in MDA-MB-231 cells and its mammary fat pad tumor (TMD-231), lung-metastasis (LMD-231), bone-metastasis (BMD-231), adrenal-metastasis (ADMD-231) and brain-metastasis (231-BR) variants. When gene expression between metastases was compared, 231-BR cells showed the highest gene expression difference followed by ADMD-231, LMD-231, and BMD-231 cells. Neuronal transmembrane proteins SLITRK2, TMEM47, and LYPD1 were specifically overexpressed in 231-BR cells. Pathway-analyses revealed activation of signaling networks that would enable cancer cells to adapt to organs of metastasis such as drug detoxification/oxidative stress response/semaphorin neuronal pathway in 231-BR, Notch/orphan nuclear receptor signals involved in steroidogenesis in ADMD-231, acute phase response in LMD-231, and cytokine/hematopoietic stem cell signaling in BMD-231 cells. Only NF-κB signaling pathway activation was common to all except BMD-231 cells. We confirmed NF-κB activation in 231-BR and in a brain metastatic variant of 4T1 cells (4T1-BR). Dimethylaminoparthenolide inhibited NF-κB activity, LYPD1 expression, and proliferation of 231-BR and 4T1-BR cells. Thus, transcriptome change enabling adaptation to host organs is likely one of the mechanisms associated with organ-specific metastasis and could potentially be targeted therapeutically. PMID:25926557

  14. Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

  15. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment. PMID:25690682

  16. Human Exposure Assessment: Development of methods to assess the bioaccessibility of organic contaminants sorbed to soils and house dusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research task- Are physicochemical properties of soil and house dust predictive of the bioaccessibility of sorbed organic compoundsGoalIdentify dust and soil characteristics that influence the bioaccessibility of organic compounds and provide chemical specific data on the fractio...

  17. Venous-derived angioblasts generate organ-specific vessels during zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Hen, Gideon; Nicenboim, Julian; Mayseless, Oded; Asaf, Lihee; Shin, Masahiro; Busolin, Giorgia; Hofi, Roy; Almog, Gabriella; Tiso, Natascia; Lawson, Nathan D.; Yaniv, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Formation and remodeling of vascular beds are complex processes orchestrated by multiple signaling pathways. Although it is well accepted that vessels of a particular organ display specific features that enable them to fulfill distinct functions, the embryonic origins of tissue-specific vessels and the molecular mechanisms regulating their formation are poorly understood. The subintestinal plexus of the zebrafish embryo comprises vessels that vascularize the gut, liver and pancreas and, as such, represents an ideal model in which to investigate the early steps of organ-specific vessel formation. Here, we show that both arterial and venous components of the subintestinal plexus originate from a pool of specialized angioblasts residing in the floor of the posterior cardinal vein (PCV). Using live imaging of zebrafish embryos, in combination with photoconvertable transgenic reporters, we demonstrate that these angioblasts undergo two phases of migration and differentiation. Initially, a subintestinal vein forms and expands ventrally through a Bone Morphogenetic Protein-dependent step of collective migration. Concomitantly, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-dependent shift in the directionality of migration, coupled to the upregulation of arterial markers, is observed, which culminates with the generation of the supraintestinal artery. Together, our results establish the zebrafish subintestinal plexus as an advantageous model for the study of organ-specific vessel development and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling its formation. More broadly, our findings suggest that PCV-specialized angioblasts contribute not only to the formation of the early trunk vasculature, but also to the establishment of late-forming, tissue-specific vascular beds. PMID:26525671

  18. Accurate assessment of Congo basin forest carbon stocks requires forest type specific assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonen, Pieter C. J.; Van Ballaert, Siege; Verbist, Bruno; Boyemba, Faustin; Muys, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Due to a limited number of field-based studies estimations of carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin remain highly uncertain. In particular, more information is needed about the variation in stocks between forest types and on the factors explaining these differences. This study presents results from biomass and soil carbon inventories in 46 0.25ha old-growth forest plots located in three study sites in Tshopo District, Democratic Republic of Congo. Four forest community types were identified using cluster and indicator species analysis based on the plots' large tree (>30cm DBH) species composition. Carbon stocks were calculated using newly established forest type specific tree height-diameter relationships to prevent errors related to the use of inappropriate regional relationships from literature. Using the Akaike criterion it became clear that for one site and a few forest types separate tree height-diameter relationships gave a robust and significant better fit, showing that there was a clear and significant interaction effect between sites and forest type. Mean above-ground carbon stocks were estimated at 165 ±44 Mg ha-1. Significant differences were found between forest types, but not between sites for a given forest type. Largest stocks were found in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forests (187 ± 37 Mg C ha-1), which occurred in all sites. Smallest stocks (91 ± 14 Mg C ha-1) were found in the Margaritaria discoidea mixed forest type, which occurred only in one site, while two other mixed forest types showed intermediate stocks (148 ± 28 Mg C ha-1 and 160 ± 36 Mg C ha-1 respectively). The observed differences in aboveground stocks between forest types could be explained by forest structure related variables including number of large trees (DBH>70cm), average wood density and dominant height. When comparing the G. dewevrei monodominant type with mixed forest types within each study site, the former showed equal basal area and sometimes higher

  19. Organ-specific remodeling of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in response to spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight presents a novel environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. Full activation of the International Space Station as a science platform complete with sophisticated plant growth chambers, laboratory benches, and procedures for effective sample return, has enabled a new level of research capability and hypothesis testing in this unique environment. The opportunity to examine the strategies of environmental sensing in spaceflight, which includes the absence of unit gravity, provides a unique insight into the balance of influence among abiotic cues directing plant growth and development: including gravity, light, and touch. The data presented here correlate morphological and transcriptome data from replicated spaceflight experiments. Results The transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated organ-specific changes in response to spaceflight, with 480 genes showing significant changes in expression in spaceflight plants compared with ground controls by at least 1.9-fold, and 58 by more than 7-fold. Leaves, hypocotyls, and roots each displayed unique patterns of response, yet many gene functions within the responses are related. Particularly represented across the dataset were genes associated with cell architecture and growth hormone signaling; processes that would not be anticipated to be altered in microgravity yet may correlate with morphological changes observed in spaceflight plants. As examples, differential expression of genes involved with touch, cell wall remodeling, root hairs, and cell expansion may correlate with spaceflight-associated root skewing, while differential expression of auxin-related and other gravity-signaling genes seemingly correlates with the microgravity of spaceflight. Although functionally related genes were differentially represented in leaves, hypocotyls, and roots, the expression of individual genes varied substantially across organ types, indicating that there is no single

  20. Relevance of regulatory T cell promotion of donor-specific tolerance in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sagoo, Pervinder; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Current clinical strategies to control the alloimmune response after transplantation do not fully prevent induction of the immunological processes which lead to acute and chronic immune-mediated graft rejection, and as such the survival of a solid organ allograft is limited. Experimental research on naturally occurring CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) has indicated their potential to establish stable long-term graft acceptance, with the promise of providing a more effective therapy for transplant recipients. Current approaches for clinical use are based on the infusion of freshly isolated or ex vivo polyclonally expanded Tregs into graft recipients with an aim to redress the in vivo balance of T effector cells to Tregs. However mounting evidence suggests that regulation of donor-specific immunity may be central to achieving immunological tolerance. Therefore, the next stages in optimizing translation of Tregs to organ transplantation will be through the refinement and development of donor alloantigen-specific Treg therapy. The altering kinetics and intensity of alloantigen presentation pathways and alloimmune priming following transplantation may indeed influence the specificity of the Treg required and the timing or frequency at which it needs to be administered. Here we review and discuss the relevance of antigen-specific regulation of alloreactivity by Tregs in experimental and clinical studies of tolerance and explore the concept of delivering an optimal Treg for the induction and maintenance phases of achieving transplantation tolerance. PMID:22811678

  1. Sub-cellular internalization and organ specific oral elivery of PABA nanoparticles by side chain variation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic nanomaterials having specific biological properties play important roles in in vivo delivery and clearance from the live cells. To develop orally deliverable nanomaterials for different biological applications, we have synthesized several fluorescently labelled, self-assembled PABA nanoparticles using possible acid side chain combinations and tested against insect and human cell lines and in vivo animal model. Flurophores attached to nanostructures help in rapid in vivo screening and tracking through complex tissues. The sub-cellular internalization mechanism of the conjugates was determined. A set of physio-chemical parameters of engineered nanoskeletons were also defined that is critical for preferred uptake in multiple organs of live Drosophila. Results The variability of side chains alter size, shape and surface texture of each nanomaterial that lead to differential uptake in human and insect cells and to different internal organs in live Drosophila via energy dependent endocytosis. Our results showed that physical and chemical properties of C-11 and C-16 acid chain are best fitted for delivery to complex organs in Drosophila. However a distinct difference in uptake of same nanoparticle in human and insect cells postulated that different host cell physiology plays a critical role in the uptake mechanism. Conclusions The physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticle produced by variation in the acid side chains that modify size and shape of engineered nanostructure and their interplay with host cell physiology might be the major criteria for their differential uptake to different internal organs. PMID:21443763

  2. A Note on Intelligence Assessment within Studies of Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camarata, Stephen; Swisher, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Research procedures used to evaluate the intelligence of children with specific language impairment are reviewed. Almost half of the 167 studies did not include adequate descriptions of intelligence assessment. (Author/JDD)

  3. Subcellular Targeting of Methylmercury Lyase Enhances Its Specific Activity for Organic Mercury Detoxification in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Bizily, Scott P.; Kim, Tehryung; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that biomagnifies in the aquatic food chain with severe consequences for humans and other animals. In an effort to remove this toxin in situ, we have been engineering plants that express the bacterial mercury resistance enzymes organomercurial lyase MerB and mercuric ion reductase MerA. In vivo kinetics experiments suggest that the diffusion of hydrophobic organic mercury to MerB limits the rate of the coupled reaction with MerA (Bizily et al., 2000). To optimize reaction kinetics for organic mercury compounds, the merB gene was engineered to target MerB for accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and for secretion to the cell wall. Plants expressing the targeted MerB proteins and cytoplasmic MerA are highly resistant to organic mercury and degrade organic mercury at 10 to 70 times higher specific activity than plants with the cytoplasmically distributed wild-type MerB enzyme. MerB protein in endoplasmic reticulum-targeted plants appears to accumulate in large vesicular structures that can be visualized in immunolabeled plant cells. These results suggest that the toxic effects of organic mercury are focused in microenvironments of the secretory pathway, that these hydrophobic compartments provide more favorable reaction conditions for MerB activity, and that moderate increases in targeted MerB expression will lead to significant gains in detoxification. In summary, to maximize phytoremediation efficiency of hydrophobic pollutants in plants, it may be beneficial to target enzymes to specific subcellular environments. PMID:12586871

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds, Specific Conductance, and Temperature in the Bottom Sediments of Mill Pond, Ashland, Massachusetts, April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Peter E.; Lyford, Forest P.; Clifford, Scott

    2002-01-01

    A plume of volatile organic compounds in ground water extends northward from the former Nyanza Property in Ashland, Massachusetts, and discharges into the Sudbury River and the upstream end of Mill Pond. A network of polyethylene-membrane passive-vapor-diffusion samplers was installed in February 2001 to help define the lateral extent of the plume under the pond, including an area vegetated by wetland herbs, sedges, and shrubs. Chlorobenzene and trichloroethene were detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers at five locations in the bottom sediments of the southern part of the approximate one acre of vegetated area in Mill Pond. Vapor concentrations of chlorobenzene ranged from 178 to 2,210 parts per billion by volume, and vapor concentrations of trichloroethene ranged from 20 to 96 parts per billion by volume. Chlorobenzene also was detected in one sediment-pore-water sample extracted with a push-point sampler in this area; the concentration was 25 micrograms per liter. Toluene was detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers at three sites in the open pond area north of the vegetated areas. Vapor concentrations of toluene ranged from 20 to 90 parts per billion by volume. Specific conductance and temperature of sediment-pore waters were measured at selected sampling sites in Mill Pond to examine their possible associations with the presence of volatile organic compounds. Temperature in the sediment-pore water also was measured to convert vapor concentrations of volatile organic compounds collected with diffusion samplers to equivalent water concentrations. These equivalent water concentrations were then to be compared with water concentrations collected with a push-point sampler. Because of the limited detections of volatile organic compounds at sites where water samples were collected and where specific conductance and temperature were measured, these potential associations and conversions could not be assessed.

  5. Compound specific 13C- and 18O-isotope analysis of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blees, Jan; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    The wide ranging environmental and health effects of aerosols are increasingly coming to light. Various studies have further highlighted the complex nature of organic aerosols, particularly oxidised organics with multiple functional groups. Source apportionment studies on aerosols are crucial to successful implementation of mitigation strategies, but this is complicated by their complex nature. Ideally, individual components of aerosols can be tracked from their source to their atmospheric sink. However, chemical alteration and the formation of secondary aerosols in the atmosphere often preclude this direct tracking on a compound specific basis. Compound specific isotope analysis could overcome these problems, as certain processes and sources impose characteristic isotope ratios on products, which may be retained even after chemical alteration in the atmosphere. Progress has been made over the past decades in the separation and identification of individual compounds that contribute to aerosol formation. Compound separation by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), has enabled identification of organic compounds of various sources. On the other hand, only few studies have addressed the isotopic composition of these compounds. For successful isotopic analysis of specific compounds, using GC coupled to isotope ratio MS (GC-irMS), several challenges must be faced that go beyond the requirements for GC-MS-based compound identification. Sample extraction and handling techniques must avoid isotope fractionation. This is especially important in the light of sample extraction by e.g. thermal desorption, which may impose a temperature-induced fractionation on complex organics. Furthermore, derivatisation techniques, necessary for adequate GC compound separation, must not lead to exchange reactions of the element of interest, which would alter the measured isotope ratio. So far most studies have dealt with carbon, and other elements have been neglected

  6. Assessing the Learning Organization. Symposium 10. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on assessing the learning organization. The first paper, "Relationship between Learning Organization Strategies and Performance Driver Outcomes" (Elwood F. Holton III, Sandra M. Kaiser), reports on a study of a new learning organization assessment instrument that was administered to 440 employees…

  7. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  8. Podocyte-specific expression of organic cation transporter PMAT: implication in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Li; Zhou, Mingyan; Kalhorn, Thomas F.; Ho, Horace T. B.; Wang, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a novel polyspecific organic cation transporter that transports organic cations and the purine nucleoside, adenosine. PMAT is expressed in the kidney, but the specific localization and function of this transporter in renal cells are unclear. In this study, we developed a polyclonal antibody toward a 14-amino acid sequence in the last intracellular loop of PMAT and determined the precise cellular localization of PMAT in human and rat kidneys. Surprisingly, we found that the PMAT protein was predominantly expressed in the glomerulus with minimal expression in tubular cells. Within the glomerulus, dual-color immunofluorescence labeling showed that the PMAT protein was specifically localized to the visceral glomerular epithelial cells, i.e., podocytes. There was no significant PMAT immunoreactivity in mesangial or glomerular endothelial cells. We further showed that puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN), a classic podocyte toxin that induces massive proteinuria and severe glomerulopathy, is transported by PMAT. Expression of PMAT in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells significantly increased cell sensitivity to PAN. Decynium 22, a potent PMAT inhibitor, abolished PAN toxicity in PMAT-expressing cells. Together, our data suggest that PMAT is specifically expressed in podocytes and may play an important role in PAN-induced kidney injury. PMID:19357181

  9. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  10. Applying Dynamic Assessment Principles to Online Peer Revisions in Written English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thouësny, Sylvie; Bradley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent of the applicability of dynamic assessment with respect to peer written student online revisions. More specifically, it observes how groups of Swedish computer engineering students learning English for Specific Purposes engage in cooperative interactions and negotiations with their peers as they work…

  11. Assessing Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Academic Outcomes: The Case for Specificity and Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank

    Guidelines regarding self-efficacy assessment are highlighted in the first section of this paper. In the second section, the issue of specificity versus generality of measurement is clarified. And last, preliminary results of a study of eighth graders (n=172) are presented which demonstrate that: (1) the optimal level of specificity of any…

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization of off-specification compost: a byproduct of the organic municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniele; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Fiori, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to apply the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to off-specification compost (EWC 19.05.03) at present landfilled was investigated in this work. The aim was to produce a carbonaceous solid fuel for energy valorization, with the perspective of using HTC as a complementary technology to common organic waste treatments. Thus, samples of EWC 19.05.03 produced by a composting plant were processed through HTC in a batch reactor. Analytical activities allowed to characterize the HTC products and their yields. The hydrochar was characterized in terms of heating value, thermal stability and C, H, O, N, S and ash content. The liquid phase was characterized in terms of total organic carbon and mineral content. The composition of the gas phase was measured. Results show that the produced hydrochar has a great potentiality for use as solid fuel. PMID:25700341

  13. Organ-Specific Quantitative Genetics and Candidate Genes of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Ali, Mahmoud; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A.; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are proving to be increasingly important for human health and in crop development, defense and adaptation. In spite of the economical importance of Brassica crops in agriculture, the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds presents in these species remain unknown. The genetic and metabolic basis of phenolics accumulation was dissected through analysis of total phenolics concentration and its individual components in leaves, flower buds, and seeds of a double haploid (DH) mapping population of Brassica oleracea. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) that had an effect on phenolics concentration in each organ were integrated, resulting in 33 consensus QTLs controlling phenolics traits. Most of the studied compounds had organ-specific genomic regulation. Moreover, this information allowed us to propose candidate genes and to predict the function of genes underlying the QTL. A number of previously unknown potential regulatory regions involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified and this study illustrates how plant ontogeny can affect a biochemical pathway. PMID:26858727

  14. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-06-01

    Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue.

  15. Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Christopher J.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Temporal focusing is a technique for performing axially resolved widefield multiphoton microscopy with a large field of view. Despite significant advantages over conventional point-scanning multiphoton microscopy in terms of imaging speed, the need to collect the whole image simultaneously means that it is expected to achieve a lower penetration depth in common biological samples compared to point-scanning. We assess the penetration depth using a rigorous objective criterion based on the modulation transfer function, comparing it to point-scanning multiphoton microscopy. Measurements are performed in a variety of mouse organs in order to provide practical guidance as to the achievable penetration depth for both imaging techniques. It is found that two-photon scanning microscopy has approximately twice the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy, and that penetration depth is organ-specific; the heart has the lowest penetration depth, followed by the liver, lungs, and kidneys, then the spleen, and finally white adipose tissue. PMID:25844509

  16. Assessment of riverbank filtration using selected organic micropollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Bruenjes, Robert; Lange, Frank Thomas; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Managed riverbank filtration (MRBF) is frequently used as a (pre)treatment step to improve surface water quality for drinking water use. In a managed RBF systems the understanding of flow patterns, mixing processes and groundwater residence times is a key factor to assess the effectiveness of the natural attenuation processes and to secure a good water quality. This study evaluates a suite of organic micropollutants (selected artificial sweeteners, pharmaceuticals and the MRI contrast agent gadolinium) as tracers for river water infiltration into a glaciofluvial aquifer. In particular, the transport behaviour of the selected micropollutants and their suitability to estimate groundwater residence times at a small scale (< 100 m) are assessed. The investigated MRBF system is located in a sub-alpine river valley in a rural catchment and the river permanently infiltrates into the aquifer. The aquifer consists of coarse carbonaceous gravel and is characterized by high permeabilities and groundwater flow velocities. The aquifer thickness reaches values of 16m with a saturated thickness of approximately 6m. The field site was instrumented with ten rhizons (Rhizosphere® microfiltration membrane pore water samplers) along a transect in groundwater flow direction to allow for a high spatial and temporal monitoring resolution. The rhizons were installed beneath the river bed and in the aquifer at different depths (7-13 m) and at different distances (20-60 m) to the river. The selected micropollutants were monitored over a period of ten days, water samples were collected as 12h composite samples. In addition to the selected micropollutants also conventional hydrochemical data and stable water isotopes were analyzed. Radon (²²²Rn) was used as a natural occurring tracer to determine groundwater ages. Based on ²²²Rn measurement the residence times were estimated to be below seven days in the transect. Hydrochemical data indicates that groundwater is recharged exclusively

  17. A safety assessment of coumarin taking into account species-specificity of toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Felter, S P; Vassallo, J D; Carlton, B D; Daston, G P

    2006-04-01

    Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a naturally occurring fragrant compound found in a variety of plants and spices. Exposure to the general public is through the diet and from its use as a perfume raw material in personal care products. High doses of coumarin by the oral route are known to be associated with liver toxicity in rodents. Chronic oral bioassays conducted in the 1990s reported liver tumors in rats and mice and lung tumors in mice, raising concerns regarding the safety of coumarin. Since then, an extensive body of research has focused on understanding the etiology of these tumors. The data support a conclusion that coumarin is not DNA-reactive and that the induction of tumors at high doses in rodents is attributed to cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia. The species-specific target organ toxicity is shown to be related to the pharmacokinetics of coumarin metabolism, with data showing rats to be particularly susceptible to liver effects and mice to be particularly susceptible to lung effects. A quantitative human health risk assessment that integrates both cancer and non-cancer effects is presented, confirming the safety of coumarin exposure from natural dietary sources as well as from its use as a perfume in personal care products. PMID:16203076

  18. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  19. Molecular Signatures of Tissue-Specific Microvascular Endothelial Cell Heterogeneity in Organ Maintenance and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Daniel J.; Ginsberg, Michael; Israely, Edo; Palikuqi, Brisa; Poulos, Michael G.; James, Daylon; Ding, Bi-Sen; Schachterle, William; Liu, Ying; Rosenwaks, Zev; Butler, Jason M.; Xiang, Jenny; Rafii, Arash; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Elemento, Olivier; Rafii, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) within different tissues are endowed with distinct but as yet unrecognized structural, phenotypic, and functional attributes. We devised EC purification, cultivation, profiling, and transplantation models that establish tissue-specific molecular libraries of ECs devoid of lymphatic ECs or parenchymal cells. These libraries identify attributes that confer ECs with their organotypic features. We show that clusters of transcription factors, angiocrine growth factors, adhesion molecules, and chemokines are expressed in unique combinations by ECs of each organ. Furthermore, ECs respond distinctly in tissue regeneration models, hepatectomy, and myeloablation. To test the data set, we developed a transplantation model that employs generic ECs differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Transplanted generic ECs engraft into regenerating tissues and acquire features of organotypic ECs. Collectively, we demonstrate the utility of informational databases of ECs toward uncovering the extravascular and intrinsic signals that define EC heterogeneity. These factors could be exploited therapeutically to engineer tissue-specific ECs for regeneration. PMID:23871589

  20. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase1 Is an Organ-Specific Mediator of End Organ Damage in a Murine Model of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sydow, Karsten; Schmitz, Christine; von Leitner, Eike-Christin; von Leitner, Robin; Klinke, Anna; Atzler, Dorothee; Krebs, Christian; Wieboldt, Hartwig; Ehmke, Heimo; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Meinertz, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Böger, Rainer H.; Magnus, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and overall mortality. Moreover, elevated ADMA plasma concentrations are associated with the extent of hypertension. However, data from small-sized clinical trials and experimental approaches using murine transgenic models have revealed conflicting results regarding the impact of ADMA and its metabolizing enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Therefore, we investigated the role of ADMA and DDAH1 in hypertension-induced end organ damage using the uninephrectomized, deoxycorticosterone actetate salt, and angiotensin II-induced hypertension model in human DDAH1 (hDDAH1) overexpressing and wild-type (WT) mice. ADMA plasma concentrations differed significantly between hDDAH1 and WT mice at baseline, but did not significantly change during the induction of hypertension. hDDAH1 overexpression did not protect against hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. In addition, the hypertension-induced impairment of the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortic segments ex vivo was not significantly attenuated by hDDAH1 overexpression. However, hDDAH1 mice displayed an attenuated hypertensive inflammatory response in renal tissue, resulting in less hypertensive renal injury. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that hDDAH1 organ-specifically modulates the inflammatory response in this murine model of hypertension. The lack of protection in cardiac and aortic tissues may be due to DDAH1 tissue selectivity and/or the extent of hypertension by the used combined model. However, our study underlines the potency of hDDAH1 overexpression in modulating inflammatory processes as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of hypertension, which needs further experimental and clinical investigation. PMID:23110194

  1. Genic DNA methylation changes during in vitro organogenesis: organ specificity and conservation between parental lines of epialleles.

    PubMed

    Maury, Stéphane; Trap-Gentil, Marie-Véronique; Hébrard, Claire; Weyens, Guy; Delaunay, Alain; Barnes, Steve; Lefebvre, Marc; Joseph, Claude

    2012-11-01

    During differentiation, in vitro organogenesis calls for the adjustment of the gene expression program toward a new fate. The role of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation is suggested but little is known about the loci affected by DNA methylation changes, particularly in agronomic plants for witch in vitro technologies are useful such as sugar beet. Here, three pairs of organogenic and non-organogenic in vitro cell lines originating from different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima) cultivars were used to assess the dynamics of DNA methylation at the global or genic levels during shoot or root regeneration. The restriction landmark genome scanning for methylation approach was applied to provide a direct quantitative epigenetic assessment of several CG methylated genes without prior knowledge of gene sequence that is particularly adapted for studies on crop plants without a fully sequenced genome. The cloned sequences had putative roles in cell proliferation, differentiation or unknown functions and displayed organ-specific DNA polymorphism for methylation and changes in expression during in vitro organogenesis. Among them, a potential ubiquitin extension protein 6 (UBI6) was shown, in different cultivars, to exhibit repeatable variations of DNA methylation and gene expression during shoot regeneration. In addition, abnormal development and callogenesis were observed in a T-DNA insertion mutant (ubi6) for a homologous sequence in Arabidopsis. Our data showed that DNA methylation is changed in an organ-specific way for genes exhibiting variations of expression and playing potential role during organogenesis. These epialleles could be conserved between parental lines opening perspectives for molecular markers. PMID:22486767

  2. Passive Strain-Induced Matrix Synthesis and Organization in Shape-Specific, Cartilaginous Neotissues

    PubMed Central

    MacBarb, Regina F.; Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Abeug, Reedge; Makris, Eleftherios A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered musculoskeletal soft tissues typically lack the appropriate mechanical robustness of their native counterparts, hindering their clinical applicability. With structure and function being intimately linked, efforts to capture the anatomical shape and matrix organization of native tissues are imperative to engineer functionally robust and anisotropic tissues capable of withstanding the biomechanically complex in vivo joint environment. The present study sought to tailor the use of passive axial compressive loading to drive matrix synthesis and reorganization within self-assembled, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous constructs, with the goal of developing functionally anisotropic neotissues. Specifically, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous neotissues were subjected to 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 N axial loads early during tissue culture. Results found the 0.1-N load to significantly increase both collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by 27% and 67%, respectively, and to concurrently reorganize the matrix by promoting greater matrix alignment, compaction, and collagen crosslinking compared with all other loading levels. These structural enhancements translated into improved functional properties, with the 0.1-N load significantly increasing both the relaxation modulus and Young's modulus by 96% and 255%, respectively, over controls. Finite element analysis further revealed the 0.1-N uniaxial load to induce multiaxial tensile and compressive strain gradients within the shape-specific neotissues, with maxima of 10.1%, 18.3%, and −21.8% in the XX-, YY-, and ZZ-directions, respectively. This indicates that strains created in different directions in response to a single axis load drove the observed anisotropic functional properties. Together, results of this study suggest that strain thresholds exist within each axis to promote matrix synthesis, alignment, and compaction within the shape-specific neotissues. Tailoring of passive axial loading, thus, presents

  3. Human health and ecological risk assessment of soil-borne arsenic and lead: A site-specific risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, M.; Epp, G.A.; Beukema, P.; Nieboer, E.

    1997-12-31

    Screening level site specific human health and ecological risk assessments (ERA) were conducted at a historical (1908--1921) smelting and refining site in the Niagara Region, Ontario in accordance with the recently released provincial and federal risk assessment guidelines. The purpose of the assessment was to evaluate the risk associated with elevated levels of arsenic and lead in surface soils, and to assess alternative remediation options, prior to property transfer. Future intended land use will be parkland and for the site to remain forested. The identification of potential receptors, exposure pathways, and end-points was conducted at the biological community-level. The ERA involved a toxic cue inventory of the core smelting and refining site, adjacent lands and a reference site. Development of remediation options was based on hazard assessment and the prediction of risks associated with arsenic contamination. An evaluation of remediation options and the selection of a preferred option are discussed.

  4. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990 s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products. PMID:26239916

  5. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products. PMID:26239916

  6. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT ON A NORTHWEST MISSOURI ORGANIC FARMING ENTERPRISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production systems seek to produce foods of optimal nutritional quality while conserving and improving the soil resource and protecting environmental quality by using organic or natural resources without application of synthetic chemicals. Prairie Birthday Farm (PBF) is an organic farming en...

  7. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  8. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  9. Integrated Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses Reveal Organ-Specific Proteome Deterioration in Old Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ori, Alessandro; Toyama, Brandon H.; Harris, Michael S.; Bock, Thomas; Iskar, Murat; Bork, Peer; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hetzer, Martin W.; Beck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aging is associated with the decline of protein, cell, and organ function. Here, we use an integrated approach to characterize gene expression, bulk translation, and cell biology in the brains and livers of young and old rats. We identify 468 differences in protein abundance between young and old animals. The majority are a consequence of altered translation output, that is, the combined effect of changes in transcript abundance and translation efficiency. In addition, we identify 130 proteins whose overall abundance remains unchanged but whose sub-cellular localization, phosphorylation state, or splice-form varies. While some protein-level differences appear to be a generic property of the rats’ chronological age, the majority are specific to one organ. These may be a consequence of the organ’s physiology or the chronological age of the cells within the tissue. Taken together, our study provides an initial view of the proteome at the molecular, sub-cellular, and organ level in young and old rats. PMID:27135913

  10. Absence of organ specific toxicity in rats treated with Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic preparation.

    PubMed

    Martey, Orleans Nii-Korley; Armah, George; Okine, Laud K N-A

    2010-01-01

    The sub-chronic toxicity of Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic prepared from the stem barks of Khaya senegalensis, Mitragyna stipulosa and Kigelia africana, was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 28, 280 and 560 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing the normal human dose, 10x and 20x that dose, respectively for 6 weeks. The growth rate of animals over the period of treatment and certain serum biochemical and haematological indices as well as urinalysis and weight of selected organs at termination, were determined. Results show that the extract did not affect the weight gain of the animals with time or the mean wet weights of selected organs. Although there were slight but insignificant (p>0.05) elevations in WBC (16-27%) and PLT (8-11%) counts in Tonica-treated animals compared to controls at 10x and 20x the normal dose, most serum biochemical, haematological and urinalysis data indicated no significant differences (p>0.05) between tests and control rats. There were also no changes in the morphology of liver, kidney, lung and heart tissues as a result of Tonica treatment. These findings suggest that Tonica is safe at the dosage regimens administered to the animals in this study, and there appears to be no overt organ specific toxicity associated with it. PMID:21461151

  11. Organ, cellular, and subcellular localization of brain-specific anion transporter BSAT1.

    PubMed

    Baklaushev, V P; Kardashova, K Sh; Gurina, O I; Yusubaliyeva, G M; Zorkina, Ya A; Chekhonin, V P

    2013-08-01

    Organ, cellular, and subcellular localization of brain-specific anion transporter BSAT1 was studied in rats using antibodies to the extracellular fragment (451-557 a.a). The antibodies were shown to recognize the antigen predominantly localized in the nervous tissue, tumors of glial origin, and primordial ovarian follicles. The absence of BSAT1 immunofluorescence signal in kidney and liver sections and accumulation of (125)I labeled antibodies to BSAT1 in these organs indicate that these antibodies do not cross-react with the most common isoforms of OATP expressed in these organs. Analysis of the cellular localization suggests that in the brain, BSAT1 is localized predominantly in astrocytes, but not in endothelial cells, as was previously reported. Laser scanning confocal microscopy with a set of relevant trackers revealed membrane localization of BSAT1. Taking into account the data on the of localization, we can conclude that antibodies to BSAT1 451-557 can be used for basic research of the transport of thyroxin and prostaglandins across the blood brain barrier and for testing the systems for targeted transport of diagnostic preparations and drugs across the blood brain barrier, e.g. to astroglial tumors. PMID:24143376

  12. Specification of sense-organ identity by a Caenorhabditis elegans Pax-6 homologue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Emmons, S W

    1995-09-01

    The Pax-6 transcription-factor gene, containing a paired domain and a paired-type homeodomain, is conserved in structure and ubiquitously present among Metazoa. It is required for development of the central nervous system, and is mutated in human aniridia, mouse and rat small eye and Drosophila eyeless. We identified the Pax-6 gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in genetic studies of male tail morphology. C. elegans Pax-6 encodes at least two independent genetic functions. One, like other Pax-6 genes, contains paired and homeodomains; this constitutes the genetic locus vab-3. The other, described here, is expressed from an internal promoter and contains only the homeodomain portion; this constitutes the genetic locus mab-18. The mab-18 form of the gene is expressed in a peripheral sense organ and is necessary for specification of sense-organ identity. Its function in this context could be to regulate the expression of cell recognition and adhesion proteins required for sense-organ assembly. PMID:7659160

  13. Growth arrest specific protein 6 participates in DOCA-induced target-organ damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Keun; Theuer, Stefanie; Kirsch, Torsten; Lindschau, Carsten; Klinge, Uwe; Heuser, Arnd; Plehm, Ralph; Todiras, Mihai; Carmeliet, Peter; Haller, Hermann; Luft, Friedrich C; Muller, Dominik N; Fiebeler, Anette

    2009-08-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas 6) is involved in inflammatory kidney diseases, vascular remodeling, cell adhesion, and thrombus formation. We explored a role for Gas 6 in aldosterone-induced target organ damage. We observed that Gas 6 was upregulated in rats with high aldosterone levels. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevented target organ damage and decreased the elevated Gas 6 expression. Vascular smooth muscle cells given aldosterone increased their Gas 6 expression in vitro. To test the pathophysiological relevance, we investigated the effects of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) on Gas 6 gene-deleted ((-/-)) mice. After 6 weeks DOCA, Gas 6(-/-) mice developed similar telemetric blood pressure elevations compared to wild-type mice but were protected from cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac expression of interleukin 6 and collagen IV was blunted in Gas 6(-/-) mice, indicating reduced inflammation and fibrosis. Gas 6(-/-) mice also had an improved renal function with reduced albuminuria, compared to wild-type mice. Renal fibrosis and fibronectin deposition in the kidney were also reduced. Gas 6 deficiency reduces the detrimental effects of aldosterone on cardiac and renal remodeling independent of blood pressure reduction. Gas 6 appears to play a role in mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated target organ damage. Furthermore, because warfarin interferes with Gas 6 protein expression, the findings could be of clinical relevance for anticoagulant choices. PMID:19564549

  14. Early organ-specific endothelial activation during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, Matijs; Wulfert, Francis M; Knol, Ageeth J; De Haes, Ann; Houwertjes, Martin; Aarts, Leon P H J; Molema, Grietje

    2008-02-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a complication of hemorrhagic shock (HS) and related to high morbidity and mortality. Interaction of activated neutrophils and endothelial cells is considered to play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of MODS. Insight in the nature and molecular basis of endothelial cell activation during HS can assist in identifying new rational targets for early therapeutic intervention. In this study, we examined the kinetics and organ specificity of endothelial cell activation in a mouse model of HS. Anesthetized male mice were subjected to controlled hemorrhage to a MAP of 30 mmHg. Mice were killed after 15, 30, 60, or 90 min of HS. After 90 min of hemorrhagic shock, a group of mice was resuscitated with 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4. Untreated mice and sham shock mice that underwent instrumentation and 90 min of anesthesia without shock served as controls. Gene expression levels of inflammatory endothelial cell activation (P-selectin, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) and hypoxia-responsive genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha) were quantified in kidney, liver, lung, brain, and heart tissue by quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we examined a selection of these genes with regard to protein expression and localization using immunohistochemical analysis. Induction of inflammatory genes occurred early during HS and already before resuscitation. Expression of adhesion molecules was significantly induced in all organs, albeit to a different extent depending on the organ. Endothelial genes CD31 and VE-cadherin, which function in endothelial cell homeostasis and integrity, were not affected during the shock phase except for VE-cadherin in the liver, which showed increased mRNA levels. The rapid inflammatory activation was not paralleled by induction of hypoxia-responsive genes. This study demonstrated

  15. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jan T M; Shrimpton, Paul C

    2016-07-21

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990's. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10's of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners. PMID:27362736

  16. Development of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Jan T. M.; Shrimpton, Paul C.

    2016-07-01

    The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990’s. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of  ±6% and  ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10’s of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.

  17. Organism-Adapted Specificity of the Allosteric Regulation of Pyruvate Kinase in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Veith, Nadine; Feldman-Salit, Anna; Cojocaru, Vlad; Henrich, Stefan; Kummer, Ursula; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PYK) is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric activation may

  18. Plant specific volatile organic compound emission factors from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is the most important source of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) with significant influence on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. VOCs influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols affecting cloud development and precipitation. The aim of our study was to investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves for nine typical Mediterranean plant species. The Mediterranean area was chosen due to its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species. Foliar isoprenoid emissions as well as emissions of oxygenated VOC like methanol and acetone were measured under standard light and temperature conditions during spring and summer 2008 at the CEFE-CNRS institute in Montpellier, France. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online measurement of VOCs. While PTR-MS is an excellent technique for fast chemical measurements it lacks specificity and compounds with the same mass cannot be distinguished. For this reason, cartridge samples were collected and afterwards analyzed with GC-FID. In parallel offline VOC analyses were performed with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector, enabling assignment of the observed PTR-MS mass to charge ratios (m/z) to specific identification based on the GC-FID retention times. Thus, combining the PTR-MS and GC-FID analyses enabled accurate and online identification of the VOCs emitted. The results emphasise that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced not only the standard emission rate but also the VOC composition, with methanol being the major compound that contributes to the total VOC emissions in young leaves and maintaining or decreasing its contribution with maturity.

  19. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2–24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2–455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  20. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    PubMed

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient's irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient's age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient's treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small. PMID:27499236

  1. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for Nuclear Power Plant. Workbook for assessment of organization and management. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    Purpose of the Workbook is to guide the NRC reviewer through a systematic review and assessment of a proposed organization and administration. The Workbook outlines criteria for evaluating a written organization/administration plan and ensures consistent and comprehensive review of organization plans and site visit materials. The Workbook is designed to assist the NRC reviewer in assembling and analyzing objective information deemed necessary for judging acceptability of the plan, but it does not itself make the judgment.

  2. Wtip is required for proepicardial organ specification and cardiac left/right asymmetry in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Rebecca; Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Hsu, Chaonan; Lakiza, Olga; Nomura, Hiroki; Renfrew, Erin; Garrity, Deborah; Obara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Wilm's tumor 1 interacting protein (Wtip) was identified as an interacting partner of Wilm's tumor protein (WT1) in a yeast two-hybrid screen. WT1 is expressed in the proepicardial organ (PE) of the heart, and mouse and zebrafish wt1 knockout models appear to lack the PE. Wtip's role in the heart remains unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate that wtip expression is identical in wt1a-, tcf21-, and tbx18-positive PE cells, and that Wtip protein localizes to the basal body of PE cells. We present the first genetic evidence that Wtip signaling in conjunction with WT1 is essential for PE specification in the zebrafish heart. By overexpressing wtip mRNA, we observed ectopic expression of PE markers in the cardiac and pharyngeal arch regions. Furthermore, wtip knockdown embryos showed perturbed cardiac looping and lacked the atrioventricular (AV) boundary. However, the chamber-specific markers amhc and vmhc were unaffected. Interestingly, knockdown of wtip disrupts early left-right (LR) asymmetry. Our studies uncover new roles for Wtip regulating PE cell specification and early LR asymmetry, and suggest that the PE may exert non-autonomous effects on heart looping and AV morphogenesis. The presence of cilia in the PE, and localization of Wtip in the basal body of ciliated cells, raises the possibility of cilia-mediated PE signaling in the embryonic heart. PMID:27484451

  3. Volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of bladder cancer: Sensitivity and specificity using trained sniffer dogs.

    PubMed

    Willis, Carolyn M; Britton, Lezlie E; Harris, Rob; Wallace, Joshua; Guest, Claire M

    In a previous canine study, we demonstrated that volatile organic compounds specific to bladder cancer are present in urine headspace, subsequently showing that up to 70% of tumours can be correctly classified using an electronic nose. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity which can be achieved by a group of four trained dogs. In a series of 30 double-blind test runs, each consisting of one bladder cancer urine sample placed alongside six controls, the highest sensitivity achieved by the best performing dog was 73% (95% CI 55-86%), with the group as a whole correctly identifying the cancer samples 64% (95% CI 55-73%) of the time. Specificity of the dogs individually ranged from 92% (95% CI 82-97%) for urine samples obtained from healthy, young volunteers down to 56% (95% CI 42-68%) for those taken from older patients with non-cancerous urological disease. Odds ratio comparisons confirmed a significant decrease in performance as the extent of urine dipstick abnormality and/or pathology amongst the control population increased. Importantly, however, statistical analysis indicated that covariates such as smoking, gender and age, as well as blood, protein and /or leucocytes in the urine did not significantly alter the odds of response to the cancer samples. Our results provide further evidence that volatile biomarkers for bladder cancer exist in urine headspace, and that these have the potential to be exploited for diagnosis. PMID:22012770

  4. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment. PMID:25277708

  5. Wtip is required for proepicardial organ specification and cardiac left/right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Powell, Rebecca; Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Hsu, Chaonan; Lakiza, Olga; Nomura, Hiroki; Renfrew, Erin; Garrity, Deborah; Obara, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    Wilm's tumor 1 interacting protein (Wtip) was identified as an interacting partner of Wilm's tumor protein (WT1) in a yeast two-hybrid screen. WT1 is expressed in the proepicardial organ (PE) of the heart, and mouse and zebrafish wt1 knockout models appear to lack the PE. Wtip's role in the heart remains unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate that wtip expression is identical in wt1a‑, tcf21‑, and tbx18‑positive PE cells, and that Wtip protein localizes to the basal body of PE cells. We present the first genetic evidence that Wtip signaling in conjunction with WT1 is essential for PE specification in the zebrafish heart. By overexpressing wtip mRNA, we observed ectopic expression of PE markers in the cardiac and pharyngeal arch regions. Furthermore, wtip knockdown embryos showed perturbed cardiac looping and lacked the atrioventricular (AV) boundary. However, the chamber‑specific markers amhc and vmhc were unaffected. Interestingly, knockdown of wtip disrupts early left‑right (LR) asymmetry. Our studies uncover new roles for Wtip regulating PE cell specification and early LR asymmetry, and suggest that the PE may exert non‑autonomous effects on heart looping and AV morphogenesis. The presence of cilia in the PE, and localization of Wtip in the basal body of ciliated cells, raises the possibility of cilia-mediated PE signaling in the embryonic heart. PMID:27484451

  6. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  7. The formation of halogen-specific TOX from chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter isolates.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ina; Gallard, Hervé; Joll, Cynthia; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2009-09-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) is a public health concern. An important way to evaluate the presence of DBPs is in terms of the total organic halogen (TOX), which can be further specified into total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr), and iodine (TOI). The formation and distribution of halogen-specific TOX during chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates in the presence of bromide and iodide ions were studied. As expected, chloramination produced significantly less TOX than chlorination. TOCl was the dominant species formed in both chlorination and chloramination. TOI was always produced in chloramination, but not in chlorination when high chlorine dose was used, due to the limited presence of HOI in chlorination as a result of the oxidation of iodide to iodate in the presence of excess chlorine. The formation of TOI during chloramination increased as the initial iodide ion concentration increased, with a maximum of approximately 60% of the initial iodide ion becoming incorporated into NOM. Iodine incorporation in NOM was consistently higher than bromine incorporation, demonstrating that the competitive reactions between bromine and iodine species in chloramination favoured the formation of HOI and thus TOI, rather than TOBr. Correlations between the aromatic character of the NOM isolates (SUVA(254) and % aromatic C) and the concentrations of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination were observed. This indicates that the aromatic moieties in NOM, as indicated by SUVA(254) and % aromatic C, play an important role in the formation of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination. THMs comprised only a fraction of TOX, up to 7% in chloramination and up to 47% in chlorination. Although chloramine produces less TOX than chlorine, it formed proportionally more non-THM DBPs than chlorine. These non-THM DBPs are mostly unknown, corresponding to unknown health risks. Considering the higher

  8. A route-specific system for risk assessment of radioactive materials transportation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.E.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    A low-cost, powerful geographic information system (GIS) that operates on a personal computer was integrated into a software system to provide route specific assessment of the risks associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive and hazardous materials in transportation accidents. The highway transportation risk assessment (HITRA) software system described here combines a commercially available GIS (TransCAD) with appropriate models and data files for route- and accident-specific factors, such as meteorology, dispersion, demography, and health effects to permit detailed analysis of transportation risk assessment. The HITRA system allows a user to interactively select a highway or railroad route from a GIS database of major US transportation routes. A route-specific risk assessment is then performed to estimate downwind release concentrations and the resulting potential health effects imposed on the exposed population under local environmental and temporal conditions. The integration of GIS technology with current risk assessment methodology permits detailed analysis coupled with enhanced user interaction. Furthermore, HITRA provides flexibility and documentation for route planning, updating and improving the databases required for evaluating specific transportation routes, changing meteorological and environmental conditions, and local demographics.

  9. Assessing the Functioning of Schools as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.; Ware, William B.; Rose, Roderick A.; Powers, Joelle D.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of current efforts to increase student performance and to close the significant gaps in performance among student subgroups, school researchers and practitioners are paying increasing attention to schools as learning organizations. Unfortunately, the concept of the learning organization is generally vague, and school personnel have…

  10. Temporal characterisation of the organ-specific Rhipicephalusmicroplus transcriptional response to Anaplasma marginale infection

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Curiel, Ricardo F.; Palmer, Guy H.; Guerrero, Felix D.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Arthropods transmit important infectious diseases of humans and animals. Importantly, replication and the development of pathogen infectivity are tightly linked to vector feeding on the mammalian host; thus analysis of the transcriptomes of both vector and pathogen during feeding is fundamental to understanding transmission. Using Anaplasma marginale infection of Rhipicephalusmicroplus as the experimental model, we tested three hypotheses exploring the temporal and organ-specific nature of the tick midgut and salivary gland transcriptomes during feeding and in response to infection. Numerous R. microplus genes were regulated in response to feeding and were differentially regulated between the midgut and salivary gland; additionally, there was a progression in regulated gene expression in the salivary gland over time. In contrast, relatively few tick genes were specifically regulated in response to A. marginale infection and these genes were predominantly annotated as hypothetical or were of unknown function. Notable among the genes with informative annotation was that several ribosomal proteins were down-regulated, suggesting that there may be a corresponding decrease in translation. The hypotheses that R. microplus midgut and salivary gland genes are differentially regulated and that the salivary gland transcriptome is dynamic over time were accepted. This is consistent with, and important for understanding the roles of, the two organs, the midgut serving as an initial site of uptake and replication while the salivary gland serves as the final site of replication and secretion. The nominal effect of A. marginale on the tick transcriptome in terms of numbers of regulated genes and fold of regulation supports the view that the vector–pathogen relationship is well established with minimal deleterious effect on the tick. The small set of predominantly hypothetical genes regulated by infection suggests that A. marginale is affecting a novel set of tick genes and may

  11. Specificity and sensitivity of the olfactory organ of the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Michel, W C; Lubomudrov, L M

    1995-01-01

    1. The specificity and sensitivity of the olfactory organ of adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, to selected amino acid, bile acid, and steroid odorants were characterized using the electro-olfactogram recording technique. The olfactory organ was responsive to 28 of the 29 odorants tested. 2. All of the 100 microM amino acid and bile acid stimulants elicited a negative-going response that was significantly greater than the response to the artificial fresh-water control. The general pattern of relative stimulatory effectiveness established for the amino acid stimuli was neutral amino acids > basic amino acids > acidic amino acids > imino acids. The general pattern of relative stimulatory effectiveness of 100 microM bile acid stimuli was taurine-conjugated bile acids > glycine-conjugated bile acids approximately non-conjugated bile acids. The responses to the most stimulatory bile acid odorants were up to 40% larger than the responses to the most stimulatory amino acid odorants. 3. The response threshold for cysteine and taurocholic acid, the most stimulatory of the amino acid and bile acid stimuli tested, was approximately 10(-8) M. Females are significantly more sensitive to these odorants than males. PMID:7636767

  12. The organ-specificity of ferritin in human and horse liver and spleen

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, R. R.; Millar, J. A.; Cumming, R. L. C.; Bryce, C. F. A.

    1973-01-01

    1. Ferritin was isolated from human and horse spleen and liver, and apoferritin prepared therefrom. 2. The electrophoretic mobilities of the four apoferritins were determined on polyacrylamide gels and on cellulose acetate strips, and all found to be equal. 3. Homologous ferritins share reactions of identity in immunodiffusion experiments, whereas heterologous ferritins show only partial identity. 4. The subunit molecular weight of each of the apoferritins was determined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate and by chromatography on agarose columns in 6m-guanidine–HCl. A value of approx. 18500 was found in all cases. The proteins all had sedimentation coefficients of 17–18S. It thus seems that they have identical quaternary structures. 5. The amino acid compositions of the proteins revealed distinct differences both between organs and between species. This was confirmed by analysis of the tryptic peptide patterns, where it was found that about one-third of the peptides were common to the four proteins and the other two-thirds varied from protein to protein. 6. It is concluded that the apoferritins present in the liver and spleen of human and horse are both organ- and species-specific. 7. The apoferritin isolated from the liver of a patient with idiopathic haemochromatosis was identical with normal human liver apoferritin by the criteria described above. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1(a)PLATE 1(b) PMID:4198584

  13. Two New Loci, PLEIADE and HYADE, Implicate Organ-Specific Regulation of Cytokinesis in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sabine; Fuchs, Esther; Ovecka, Miroslav; Wysocka-Diller, Joanna; Benfey, Philip N.; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2002-01-01

    In screens for regulators of root morphogenesis in Arabidopsis we isolated six new recessive mutants with irregular cell expansion. Complementation analyses placed the mutations in two loci, PLEIADE (PLE) and HYADE (HYA). Phenotypic analyses revealed multinucleated cells, cell wall stubs, and synchronized cell divisions in incompletely separated cells that are all characteristics of defective cytokinesis. These defects were pronounced in roots and undetectable in aerial organs. In addition, fertility and germination were not affected by the mutations. Thus, the alleles that we have isolated of PLE and HYA suggest that the genes may encode organ-specific components needed primarily during root development. Analysis of microtubule arrays during cell cycle in ple and hya roots indicates that the presence of several synchronized nuclei influences the position of preprophase band, mitotic spindles, and phragmoplasts. The enhanced and synergistic phenotype of PLE/ple.hya/hya seedlings and double mutants point to a role of PLE and HYA in the same process. These mutants provide tools to elucidate the regulation of nuclear cytoskeletal interactions during cell division and cytokinesis. PMID:12226511

  14. World Health Organization fracture risk assessment tool in the assessment of fractures after falls in hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Falls are very common accidents in a hospital. Various risk factors and risk assessment tools are used to predict falls. However, outcomes of falls such as bone fractures have not been considered in these risk assessment tools, and the performance of risk assessment tools in a Japanese hospital setting is not clear. Methods This was a retrospective single-institution study of 20,320 inpatients aged from 40 to 90 years who were admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital during the period from April 2006 to March 2009. Possible risk factors for falls and fractures including STRATIFY score and FRAX™ score and information on falls and their outcome were obtained from the hospital information system. The datasets were divided randomly into a development dataset and a test dataset. The chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and survival analysis were used to identify risk factors for falls and fractures after falls. Results Fallers accounted for 3.1% of the patients in the development dataset and 3.5% of the patients in the test dataset, and 2.6% and 2.9% of the fallers in those datasets suffered peripheral fractures. Sensitivity and specificity of the STRATIFY score to predict falls were not optimal. Most of the known risk factors for falls had no power to predict fractures after falls. Multiple logistic analysis and multivariate Cox's regression analysis with time-dependent covariates revealed that FRAX™ score was significantly associated with fractures after falls. Conclusions Risk assessment tools for falls are not appropriate for predicting fractures after falls. FRAX™ might be a useful tool for that purpose. The performance of STRATIFY to predict falls in a Japanese hospital setting was similar to that in previous studies. PMID:20423520

  15. Specific Stimulated Uptake of Acetylcholine by Torpedo Electric Organ Synaptic Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Stanley M.; Koenigsberger, Robert

    1980-10-01

    The specificity of acetylcholine uptake by synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica was studied. In the absence of cofactors, [3H]acetylcholine was taken up identically to [14C]choline in the same solution (passive uptake), and the equilibrium concentration achieved inside the vesicles was equal to the concentration outside. In the presence of MgATP, [3H]acetylcholine and [14C]choline in the same solution were taken up identically, except only about half as much of each was taken up (suppressed uptake). [3H]Acetylcholine uptake was stimulated by MgATP and HCO3 about 4-fold relative to suppressed uptake, for a net concentrative uptake of about 2:1 (stimulated uptake). Uptake of [14C]choline in the same solution remained at the suppressed level. [3H]Acetylcholine taken up under stimulated conditions migrated with vesicles containing [14C]mannitol on analytical glycerol density gradients during centrifugation. Vesicles were treated with nine protein modification reagents under mild conditions. Two reagents had no effect on, dithiothreitol potentiated, and six reagents strongly inhibited subsequent stimulated uptake of [3H]acetylcholine. The results indicate that uptake of acetylcholine is conditionally specific for the transported substrate, is carried out by the synaptic vesicles rather than a contaminant of the preparation, and requires a functional protein system containing a critical sulfhydryl group.

  16. Allergy and cancer: organ site-specific results from the Adventist Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, P K; Beeson, W L; Fraser, G E; Phillips, R L

    1992-08-01

    The relation between allergy and risk of cancer was evaluated in a cohort study of 34,198 Seventh-day Adventists in California. Information on prevalence of asthma, hay fever, and reactions to chemicals, medications, bee stings, and poison oak (or ivy) was obtained by questionnaire in 1976. The reported allergies must have been serious enough to require treatment by a physician. The cohort was then followed for 6 years (1977-1982). Both stratified analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were utilized to evaluate the relation of allergy to cancer after taking into account several potentially confounding variables. For all cancer sites combined in males, there was a 33% increased risk associated with reaction to medications. In contrast, among females, reaction to medications was associated with a 21% decrease in risk. Both results were statistically significant. Prostate and breast cancer risk were elevated in persons who reported any type of allergic history, as was risk of lymphatic or hematopoietic cancers and sarcoma. For each of these types of cancer, risk increased with increasing numbers of allergies. However, ovarian cancer risk was decreased in persons with any allergic history and increasing numbers of allergies was associated with decreasing risk of this form of cancer. These results suggest that the association between allergy and cancer is complex and depends on the specific allergy and the specific organ site under consideration. PMID:1415150

  17. Organ-specific analysis of mahonia using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xin; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-06-01

    Mahonia is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of human diseases. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the different pharmacological functions of Mahonia, organ-specific proteomics was performed. Protein profiles of leaves, stems, and roots from 2-year-old Mahonia plants were determined using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique, and totals of 304, 314, and 182 proteins were identified, respectively, and included 36 common proteins. In leaves, the most abundant proteins related to photosynthesis. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol fractionation was used to identify low-abundance proteins in leaves. With this approach, oxidative pentose phosphate-related proteins were identified in leaves. In stems, the main functional categories of proteins were protein synthesis and redox ascorbate/glutathione metabolism. In roots, proteins were mainly related to protein synthesis, stress, and amino acid metabolism. Of the proteins identified, the abundance of calreticulin was markedly higher in roots than that detected in stems and leaves. Many roots-specific proteins, including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase, involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids, were identified. Consistent with this finding, levels of the alkaloids, which were columbamine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, tetrandrine, and berberine, were markedly higher in roots compared to those detected in stems and leaves. Taken together, these results suggest that alkaloid biosynthesis is an important function in Mahonia roots. PMID:25917158

  18. Trace organic contamination in biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary, China: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Lau, R K F; Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Lam, J C W; Connell, D W; Fang, Z; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S

    2006-12-01

    The marine ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta, located on the southern coast of China, has been heavily exploited following the rapid economic growth that has occurred since the 1980s. This investigation aimed to elucidate trace organic contamination in marine biota inhabiting the Pearl River Delta area. Biota samples, including green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) and shrimp (Penaeus orientalis) were sampled from 16 stations fringing the Estuary. Elevated concentrations (on a dry weight basis) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (27.8-1041.0 ng/g), petroleum hydrocarbons (1.7-2345.4 microg/g), polychlorinated biphenyls (2.1-108.8 ng/g), DDTs (1.9-79.0 ng/g), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (n.d.-38.4 ng/g) were recorded. A human health risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk to local residents associated with the consumption of biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The results indicated that PCBs were at levels that may cause deleterious health effects in populations that consume large amounts of seafood. However, it would be instructive to establish health criteria for trace organic contaminants that are specific to the local populations, in order to derive a more accurate and relevant health risk assessment. PMID:16908034

  19. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chihhao; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Yen-Chuan; Ko, Chun-Han

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risks from exposure to 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in selected groundwater sites in Taiwan. The study employs the multimedia environment pollutant assessment system (MEPAS) model to calculate the specific non-cancer and cancer risks at an exposure level of 1 microg/L of each VOC for a variety of exposure pathways. The results show that the highest specific non-cancer risk is associated with water ingestion of vinyl chloride (VC) and that the highest specific cancer risk is associated with indoor breathing of VC. The three most important exposure pathways for risk assessment for both non-cancer and cancer risks are identified as water ingestion, dermal absorption when showering, and indoor breathing. Excess tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and VC are detected in the groundwater aquifers of one dump site and one factory. However, the study suggests that the pollutants in the contaminated groundwater aquifers do not travel extensively with groundwater flow and that the resulting VOC concentrations are below detectable levels for most of the sampled drinking-water treatment plants. Nevertheless, the non-cancer and cancer risks resulting from use of the contaminated groundwater are found to be hundred times higher than the general risk guidance values. To ensure safe groundwater utilisation, remediation initiatives for soil and groundwater are required. Finally, the study suggests that the current criteria for VOCs in drinking water might not be capable of ensuring public safety when groundwater is used as the primary water supply; more stringent quality criteria for drinking water are proposed for selected VOCs. PMID:19167026

  20. 40 CFR 79.62 - Subchronic toxicity study with specific health effect assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subchronic toxicity study with specific health effect assessments. 79.62 Section 79.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.62 Subchronic...

  1. A Theory-Based Framework for Assessing Domain-Specific Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugrue, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    A more fragmented approach to assessment of global ability concepts than is generally advocated is suggested, based on the assumption that decomposing a complex ability into cognitive components and tracking performance across multiple measures will yield valid and instructionally useful information. Specifications are suggested for designing…

  2. Identification of Specific Language Impairment in Bilingual Children: I. Assessment in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Mendez-Perez, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to derive cut scores for English testing for use in identifying specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children who were learning English as a second language. Method: In a 1-gate design, 167 children received comprehensive language assessments in English and Spanish during their first-grade year. The…

  3. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  4. Screening and Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities in Higher Education Institutes in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Emma; Doyle, Alison; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Republic of Ireland are required to have a formal psycho-educational assessment from an educational psychologist to register with Disability Services in HEIs, to be eligible for support through the Fund for Students with Disabilities (FSD). Such…

  5. The Development of a Visual-Perceptual Chemistry Specific (VPCS) Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Sloan, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Visual-Perceptual Chemistry Specific (VPCS) assessment tool is based on items that align to eight visual-perceptual skills considered as needed by chemistry students. This tool includes a comprehensive range of visual operations and presents items within a chemistry context without requiring content knowledge to solve…

  6. LINKAGES BETWEEN AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION: INDIVIDUAL, POPULATION, AND COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three methods are currently used for ecological assessment of contaminant exposure and effects in surface waters or sediments: (1) chemical criteria for the protection of aquatic life, (2) direct toxicity assessments of specific environmental media, and (3) bioassessments of sele...

  7. ROLE OF BIOGENIC ORGANICS IN THE SOUTHEAST OZONE PROBLEM. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Literature review and modeling studies were performed to assess the role of biogenic VOC emissions in the uhotochemical ozone problem of urban areas. he assessment effort focussed specifically on recent research results reported by Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) scientists...

  8. Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, T. C.; Zarzycki, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Koch, D. M.

    2010-06-01

    We propose a measure to quantify climate warming or cooling by pollutants with atmospheric lifetimes of less than one year: the Specific Forcing Pulse (SFP). SFP is the amount of energy added to the Earth system per mass of pollutant emitted. Global average SFP for black carbon, including atmosphere and cryosphere, is 1.12 GJ g-1 and that for organic matter is -0.061 GJ g-1. We provide regional values for black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM) emitted from 23 source-region combinations, divided between atmosphere and cryosphere impacts and identifying forcing by latitude. Regional SFP varies by about 40% for black carbon. This variation is relatively small because of compensating effects; particles from regions that affect ice albedo typically have shorter atmospheric lifetimes because of lower convection. The ratio between BC and OM SFP implies that, for direct forcing, an OM:BC mass ratio of 15 has a neutral effect on top-of-atmosphere direct forcing for any region, and any lower ratio induces direct warming. However, important processes, particularly cloud changes that tend toward cooling, have not been included here. We demonstrate ensemble adjustment, in which we produce a "best estimate" by combining a suite of diverse but simple models and enhanced models of greater complexity. Adjustments for black carbon internal mixing and for regional variability are discussed; regions with convection are implicated in greater model diversity. SFP expresses scientific uncertainty and separates it from policy uncertainty; the latter is caused by disagreements about the relevant time horizon, impact, or spatial scale of interest. However, metrics used in policy discussions, such as global warming potentials, are easily derived from SFP. Global-average SFP for biofuel and fossil fuel emissions translates to a 100-year GWP of about 760 for black carbon and -40 for organic matter when snow forcing is included. Ensemble-adjusted estimates of atmospheric radiative impact by

  9. Tissue-specific distribution and whole-body burden estimates of persistent organic pollutants in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Yordy, Jennifer E; Pabst, D Ann; McLellan, William A; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teri K; Kucklick, John R

    2010-06-01

    Most exposure assessments for free-ranging cetaceans focus on contaminant concentrations measured in blubber, and few data are available for other tissues or the factors governing contaminant distribution among tissues. The goal of this study was to provide a detailed description of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) body and assess the role of lipid dynamics in mediating contaminant distribution. Thirteen tissues (brain, blubber, heart, liver, lung, kidney, mammary gland, melon, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid, thymus, and testis/uterus) were sampled during necropsy from bottlenose dolphins (n = 4) and analyzed for lipid and 85 POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Significant correlations between tissue POP concentrations and lipid suggest that distribution of POPs is generally related to tissue lipid content. However, blubber:tissue partition coefficients ranged widely from 0.753 to 6.25, suggesting that contaminant distribution is not entirely lipid-dependent. Tissue-specific and whole-body contaminant burdens confirmed that blubber, the primary site of metabolic lipid storage, is also the primary site for POP accumulation, contributing >90% to the whole-body burdens. Observations also suggest that as lipid mobilizes from blubber, contaminants may redistribute, leading to elevated tissue concentrations. These results suggest that individuals with reduced blubber lipid may be at increased risk for exposure-related health effects. However, this study also provides evidence that the melon, a metabolically inert lipid-rich structure, may serve as an alternate depot for POPs, thus preventing the bulk of blubber contaminants from being directly available to other tissues. This unique physiological adaptation should be taken into consideration when assessing contaminant-related health effects in wild cetacean populations

  10. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut. PMID:15508176

  11. Novel Organization and Divergent Dockerin Specificities in the Cellulosome System of Ruminococcus flavefaciens†

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, Marco T.; Ding, Shi-You; McCrae, Sheila I.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Flint, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    The DNA sequence coding for putative cellulosomal scaffolding protein ScaA from the rumen cellulolytic anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 was completed. The mature protein exhibits a calculated molecular mass of 90,198 Da and comprises three cohesin domains, a C-terminal dockerin, and a unique N-terminal X domain of unknown function. A novel feature of ScaA is the absence of an identifiable cellulose-binding module. Nevertheless, native ScaA was detected among proteins that attach to cellulose and appeared as a glycosylated band migrating at around 130 kDa. The ScaA dockerin was previously shown to interact with the cohesin-containing putative surface-anchoring protein ScaB. Here, six of the seven cohesins from ScaB were overexpressed as histidine-tagged products in E. coli; despite their considerable sequence differences, each ScaB cohesin specifically recognized the native 130-kDa ScaA protein. The binding specificities of dockerins found in R. flavefaciens plant cell wall-degrading enzymes were examined next. The dockerin sequences of the enzymes EndA, EndB, XynB, and XynD are all closely related but differ from those of XynE and CesA. A recombinant ScaA cohesin bound selectively to dockerin-containing fragments of EndB, but not to those of XynE or CesA. Furthermore, dockerin-containing EndB and XynB, but not XynE or CesA, constructs bound specifically to native ScaA. XynE- and CesA-derived probes did however bind a number of alternative R. flavefaciens bands, including an ∼110-kDa supernatant protein expressed selectively in cultures grown on xylan. Our findings indicate that in addition to the ScaA dockerin-ScaB cohesin interaction, at least two distinct dockerin-binding specificities are involved in the novel organization of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in this species and suggest that different scaffoldins and perhaps multiple enzyme complexes may exist in R. flavefaciens. PMID:12533446

  12. Phylogenetic and genetic linkage between novel atypical dual-specificity phosphatases from non-metazoan organisms.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Beresford, Nicola J; Caparrós-Martín, José Antonio; Culiáñez-Macià, Francisco A; Martín, Humberto; Molina, María; Tabernero, Lydia; Pulido, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) constitute a large protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, with examples in distant evolutive phyla. PFA-DSPs (Plant and Fungi Atypical DSPs) are a group of atypical DSPs present in plants, fungi, kinetoplastids, and slime molds, the members of which share structural similarity with atypical- and lipid phosphatase DSPs from mammals. The analysis of the PFA-DSPs from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPFA-DSPs) showed differential tissue mRNA expression, substrate specificity, and catalytic activity for these proteins, suggesting different functional roles among plant PFA-DSPs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of novel PFA-DSP-related proteins in fungi (Oca1, Oca2, Oca4 and Oca6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and protozoa, which were segregated from plant PFA-DSPs. The closest yeast homolog for these proteins was the PFA-DSP from S. cerevisiae ScPFA-DSP1/Siw14/Oca3. Oca1, Oca2, Siw14/Oca3, Oca4, and Oca6 were involved in the yeast response to caffeine and rapamycin stresses. Siw14/Oca3 was an active phosphatase in vitro, whereas no phosphatase activity could be detected for Oca1. Remarkably, overexpression of Siw14/Oca3 suppressed the caffeine sensitivity of oca1, oca2, oca4, and oca6 deleted strains, indicating a genetic linkage and suggesting a functional relationship for these proteins. Functional studies on mutations targeting putative catalytic residues from the A. thaliana AtPFA-DSP1/At1g05000 protein indicated the absence of canonical amino acids acting as the general acid/base in the phosphor-ester hydrolysis, which suggests a specific mechanism of reaction for PFA-DSPs and related enzymes. Our studies demonstrate the existence of novel phosphatase protein families in fungi and protozoa, with active and inactive enzymes linked in common signaling pathways. This illustrates the catalytic and functional complexity of the expanding family of atypical dual-specificity phosphatases in non-metazoans, including

  13. Site-specific immobilization of enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles and their use in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ching-Ching; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Liang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Wei-Ting; Wu, Huan-Ting; Chang, Tsung-Che; Jan, Fan-Dan; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2012-04-18

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field; this could facilitate the recycling of enzymes and broaden their applications in organic synthesis. Herein, we report the methods for the immobilization of water-soluble and membrane-bound enzymes, and the activity difference between free and immobilized enzymes is discussed. Sialyltransferase (PmST1, from Pasteurella multocida ) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-sialic acid synthetase (CSS, from Neisseria meningitides ) were chosen as water-soluble enzymes and expressed using an intein expression system. The enzymes were site-specifically and covalently immobilized on PEGylated-N-terminal cysteine MNPs through native chemical ligation (NCL). Increasing the length of the PEG linker between the enzyme and the MNP surface increased the activity of the immobilized enzymes relative to the free parent enzymes. In addition, the use of a fluorescent acceptor tag for PmST1 affected enzyme kinetics. In contrast, sialyltransferase from Neisseria gonorrheae (NgST, a membrane-bound enzyme) was modified with a biotin-labeled cysteine at the C-terminus using NCL, and the enzyme was then assembled on streptavidin-functionalized MNPs. Using a streptavidin-biotin interaction, it was possible to immobilize NgST on a solid support under mild ligation conditions, which prevented the enzyme from high-temperature decomposition and provided an approximately 2-fold increase in activity compared to other immobilization methods on MNPs. Finally, the ganglioside GM3-derivative (sialyl-lactose derivative) was synthesized in a one-pot system by combining the use of immobilized PmST1 and CSS. The enzymes retained 50% activity after being reused ten times. Furthermore, the results obtained using the one-pot two-immobilized-enzyme system demonstrated that it can be applied to large-scale reactions with acceptable yields and

  14. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  15. Species-Specific Diversity of a Fixed Motor Pattern: The Electric Organ Discharge of Gymnotus

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cattaneo, Alejo; Pereira, Ana Carolina; Aguilera, Pedro A.; Crampton, William G. R.; Caputi, Angel A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding fixed motor pattern diversity across related species provides a window for exploring the evolution of their underlying neural mechanisms. The electric organ discharges of weakly electric fishes offer several advantages as paradigmatic models for investigating how a neural decision is transformed into a spatiotemporal pattern of action. Here, we compared the far fields, the near fields and the electromotive force patterns generated by three species of the pulse generating New World gymnotiform genus Gymnotus. We found a common pattern in electromotive force, with the far field and near field diversity determined by variations in amplitude, duration, and the degree of synchronization of the different components of the electric organ discharges. While the rostral regions of the three species generate similar profiles of electromotive force and local fields, most of the species-specific differences are generated in the main body and tail regions of the fish. This causes that the waveform of the field is highly site dependant in all the studied species. These findings support a hypothesis of the relative separation of the electrolocation and communication carriers. The presence of early head negative waves in the rostral region, a species-dependent early positive wave at the caudal region, and the different relationship between the late negative peak and the main positive peak suggest three points of lability in the evolution of the electrogenic system: a) the variously timed neuronal inputs to different groups of electrocytes; b) the appearance of both rostrally and caudally innervated electrocytes, and c) changes in the responsiveness of the electrocyte membrane. PMID:18461122

  16. Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100 μm, 10 μm and 200 nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10 μm, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200 nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and

  17. Cancer risk estimates for gamma-rays with regard to organ-specific doses. Part I: All solid cancers combined.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Rühm, Werner; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2004-09-01

    A previous analysis of the solid cancer mortality data for 1950-1990 from the Japanese life-span study of the A-bomb survivors has assessed the solid cancer risk coefficients for gamma-rays in terms of the low dose risk coefficient ERR/Gy, i.e. the initial slope of the ERR vs. dose relation, and also in terms of the more precisely estimated intermediate dose risk coefficient, ERR(D1)/D1, for a reference dose, D1, which was chosen to be 1 Gy. The computations were performed for tentatively assumed values 20-50 of the neutron RBE against the reference dose and in terms of organ-averaged doses, rather than the traditionally applied colon doses. The resulting risk estimate for a dose of 1 Gy was about half as large as the most recent UNSCEAR estimate. The present assessment repeats the earlier analysis with two major extensions. It parallels computations based on organ-average doses with computations based on organ-specific doses and it updates the previous results by using the cancer mortality data for 1950-1997 which have recently been made available. With an assumed neutron RBE of 35, the resulting intermediate dose estimate of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for solid cancer mortality for a working population (ages 25-65 years) is 0.059/Gy with the attained-age model, and 0.044/Gy with the age-at-exposure model. For a population of all ages, 0.055/Gy is obtained with the attained-age model and 0.073/Gy with the age-at-exposure model. These values are up to about 20% higher than those obtained in the previous analysis with the 1950-1990 data. However, considerably more curvature in the dose-effect relation is now supported by the computations. A dose and dose-rate reduction factor DDREF=2 is now much more in line with the data than before. With this factor the LAR for a working population is--averaged over the age-at-exposure and the age-attained model--equal to 0.026/Gy. This is only half as large as the current ICRP estimate which is also based on the

  18. 77 FR 29391 - An Approach for Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Risk-Informed Decisions on Plant-Specific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... COMMISSION An Approach for Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Risk-Informed Decisions on Plant-Specific Changes... Assessment in Risk- Informed Decisions on Plant-Specific Changes to the Licensing Basis,'' (proposed Revision... Assessment Results for Risk-Informed Activities'' and the references were updated. It is the intent of...

  19. Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Drury, Daniel G.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. MEASUREMENTS: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. RESULTS: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 +/- 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 +/- 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 +/- 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R =.869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R =.573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. CONCLUSIONS: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process. PMID:14737213

  20. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Amei, Amei; Young, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003). However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization. PMID:26366190

  1. Fungicides for organic cantaloupe production in Oklahoma: An initial assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides that are potentially useful in organic production were evaluated for foliar disease control in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates ’Israeli’) during 2009 at Lane, Oklahoma. Milstop (85% potassium bicarbonate), Neem oil, Bonide liquid copper (10% copper octanoate), Serenade (QST ...

  2. Behavioral and fMRI evidence of the differing cognitive load of domain-specific assessments.

    PubMed

    Howard, S J; Burianová, H; Ehrich, J; Kervin, L; Calleia, A; Barkus, E; Carmody, J; Humphry, S

    2015-06-25

    Standards-referenced educational reform has increased the prevalence of standardized testing; however, whether these tests accurately measure students' competencies has been questioned. This may be due to domain-specific assessments placing a differing domain-general cognitive load on test-takers. To investigate this possibility, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and quantify the neural correlates of performance on current, international standardized methods of spelling assessment. Out-of-scanner testing was used to further examine differences in assessment results. Results provide converging evidence that: (a) the spelling assessments differed in the cognitive load placed on test-takers; (b) performance decreased with increasing cognitive load of the assessment; and (c) brain regions associated with working memory were more highly activated during performance of assessments that were higher in cognitive load. These findings suggest that assessment design should optimize the cognitive load placed on test-takers, to ensure students' results are an accurate reflection of their true levels of competency. PMID:25818553

  3. Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Peter; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody; Rubingh, Carina; Warren, Nicholas; Tielemans, Erik

    2010-04-01

    The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure. In a recent study it was shown that variability in exposure measurements given a certain Stoffenmanager score is still substantial. This article discusses an extension to the tool that uses a Bayesian methodology for quantitative workplace/scenario-specific exposure assessment. This methodology allows for real exposure data observed in the company of interest to be combined with the prior estimate (based on the Stoffenmanager model). The output of the tool is a company-specific assessment of exposure levels for a scenario for which data is available. The Bayesian approach provides a transparent way of synthesizing different types of information and is especially preferred in situations where available data is sparse, as is often the case in small- and medium sized-enterprises. Real-world examples as well as simulation studies were used to assess how different parameters such as sample size, difference between prior and data, uncertainty in prior, and variance in the data affect the eventual posterior distribution of a Bayesian exposure assessment. PMID:20146134

  4. Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 μg g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 μg g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

  5. Uncovering location-specific ultrafast exciton dynamics in organic semiconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Naomi

    2014-03-01

    In solid state semiconducting molecular materials used in electro-optical applications, relatively long exciton diffusion lengths hold the promise to boost device performance by relaxing proximity constraints on the locations for light absorption and interfacial charge separation. The architecture of such materials determines their optical and electronic properties as a result of spacing- and orientation-dependent Coulomb couplings between adjacent molecules. Exciton character and dynamics are generally inferred from bulk optical measurements, which can present a severe limitation on our understanding of these films because their constituent molecules are neither perfectly ordered nor perfectly disordered. Nevertheless, such microstructure can have profound impacts on transport properties. The ultrafast spectroscopy of single domains of polycrystalline films of TIPS-pentacene, a small-molecule organic semiconductor of interest in electronic and photovoltaic applications, is investigated using transient absorption microscopy. Individual domains are distinguished by their different polarization-dependent linear and nonlinear optical responses. As compared to bulk measurements, we show that the nonlinear response within a given domain can be tied more concretely to specific physical processes that transfer exciton populations between specified electronic states. By use of this approach and a simple kinetic model, the signatures of singlet fission as well as vibrational relaxation of the initially excited singlet state are identified. As such, observing exciton dynamics within and comparing exciton dynamics between different TIPS-pentacene domains reveal the relationship between photophysics and film morphology and the potential to resolve unique signatures at interfaces between different regions of the film.

  6. Site-specific probing of charge transfer dynamics in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Arion, Tiberiu; Roth, Friedrich; Hussain, Zahid; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-03-23

    We report the site-specific probing of charge-transfer dynamics in a prototype system for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) by picosecond time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A layered system consisting of approximately two monolayers of C{sub 60} deposited on top of a thin film of Copper-Phthalocyanine (CuPC) is excited by an optical pump pulse and the induced electronic dynamics are probed with 590 eV X-ray pulses. Charge transfer from the electron donor (CuPC) to the acceptor (C{sub 60}) and subsequent charge carrier dynamics are monitored by recording the time-dependent C 1s core level photoemission spectrum of the system. The arrival of electrons in the C{sub 60} layer is readily observed as a completely reversible, transient shift of the C{sub 60} associated C 1s core level, while the C 1s level of the CuPC remains unchanged. The capability to probe charge transfer and recombination dynamics in OPV assemblies directly in the time domain and from the perspective of well-defined domains is expected to open additional pathways to better understand and optimize the performance of this emerging technology.

  7. Site-specific probing of charge transfer dynamics in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Tiberiu; Neppl, Stefan; Roth, Friedrich; Shavorskiy, Andrey; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hussain, Zahid; Gessner, Oliver; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    We report the site-specific probing of charge-transfer dynamics in a prototype system for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) by picosecond time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A layered system consisting of approximately two monolayers of C60 deposited on top of a thin film of Copper-Phthalocyanine (CuPC) is excited by an optical pump pulse and the induced electronic dynamics are probed with 590 eV X-ray pulses. Charge transfer from the electron donor (CuPC) to the acceptor (C60) and subsequent charge carrier dynamics are monitored by recording the time-dependent C 1s core level photoemission spectrum of the system. The arrival of electrons in the C60 layer is readily observed as a completely reversible, transient shift of the C60 associated C 1s core level, while the C 1s level of the CuPC remains unchanged. The capability to probe charge transfer and recombination dynamics in OPV assemblies directly in the time domain and from the perspective of well-defined domains is expected to open additional pathways to better understand and optimize the performance of this emerging technology.

  8. Using Academy Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for organization self-assessment and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Price, Joyce A; Kent, Sue; Cox, Sharon A; McCauley, Sharon M; Parekh, Janki; Klein, Catherine J

    2014-08-01

    Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for an Organization is a self-assessment tool to measure and evaluate an organization's program, services, and initiatives that identify and distinguish the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) brand as the professional expert in food and nutrition. The Standards of Excellence will serve as a road map to recognize RDNs as leaders and collaborators. Standards of Excellence criteria apply to all practice segments of nutrition and dietetics: health care, education and research, business and industry, and community nutrition and public health. Given the membership's call to action to be recognized for their professional expertise, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee developed four Standards of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics for Organizations: Quality of Leadership, Quality of Organization, Quality of Practice, and Quality of Outcomes. Within each standard, specific indicators provide strategies for an organization to demonstrate excellence. The Academy will develop a self-evaluation scoring tool to assist the organization in applying and implementing one or more of the strategies in the Standards of Excellence indicators. The organization can use the self-assessment tool to establish itself as a Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics. The role examples illustrate initiatives RDNs and organizations can take to identify themselves as a Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Dietetics. Achieving the Excellence level is an important collaborative initiative between nutrition and dietetics organizations and the Academy to provide increased autonomy, supportive management, respect within peers and community, opportunities for professional development, support for further education, and compensation for the RDN. For purposes of the Standards, "organization" means workplace or practice setting. PMID:25060140

  9. Gene-Specific Assessment of Guanine Oxidation as an Epigenetic Modulator for Cardiac Specification of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonghoon; Park, Jong Woo; Oh, Hawmok; Maria, Fernanda S.; Kang, Jaeku; Tian, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics have essential roles in development and human diseases. Compared to the complex histone modifications, epigenetic changes on mammalian DNA are as simple as methylation on cytosine. Guanine, however, can be oxidized as an epigenetic change which can undergo base-pair transversion, causing a genetic difference. Accumulating evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules for embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation, possibly through transient changes on genomic DNA such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Technical limitations on detecting such DNA modifications, however, restrict the investigation of the role of 8-oxoG in ESC differentiation. Here, we developed a Hoogsteen base pairing-mediated PCR-sequencing assay to detect 8-oxoG lesions that can subsequently cause G to T transversions during PCR. We then used this assay to assess the epigenetic and transient 8-oxoG formation in the Tbx5 gene of R1 mouse ESCs subjected to oxidative stress by removing 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) from the culture media. To our surprise, significantly higher numbers of 8-oxoG-mediated G∙C to C∙G transversion, not G∙C to T∙A, were detected at 7th and 9th base position from the transcription start site of exon 1 of Tbx5 in ESCs in the (-)2ME than (+)2ME group (p < 0.05). This was consistent with the decrease in the amount of amplifiable of DNA harboring the 8-oxoG lesions at the Tbx5 promoter region in the oxidative stressed ESCs. The ESCs responded to oxidative stress, possibly through the epigenetic effects of guanine oxidation with decreased proliferation (p < 0.05) and increased formation of beating embryoid bodies (EBs; p < 0.001). Additionally, the epigenetic changes of guanine induced up-regulation of Ogg1 and PolB, two base excision repairing genes for 8-oxoG, in ESCs treated with (-)2ME (p < 0.01). Together, we developed a gene-specific and direct quantification assay for guanine oxidation. Using oxidative stressed

  10. Organ Dose Assessment and Evaluation of Cancer Risk on Mars Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated on the surface of Mars using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. To account for the radiation transmission through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor. To describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance on the Mars surface at each elevation, the directional cosine distribution is implemented. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is then coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Finally, cancer risks for astronauts exploring Mars can be assessed by applying the NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model with the resultant organ dose estimates. Variations of organ doses and cancer risk quantities on the surface of Mars, which are due to a 16-km elevation range between the Tharsis Montes and the Hellas impact basin, are visualized on the global topography of Mars measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. It is found that cancer incidence risks are about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for male and female astronauts and in breast cancer for female astronauts. The number of safe days, defined by the upper 95% percent confidence level to be below cancer limits, on Mars is analyzed for several Mars mission design scenarios.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF OIL PRODUCTION VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive description of oil and gas exploration and production drilling technology is presented. Emphasis has been placed on the makeup, use, and disposal of drilling fluids. A simple model for assessment of VOC emissions accompanying drilling is presented, along with an esti...

  12. Development of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism- Based Phylum-Specific PCR Amplification Technique: Application to the Community Analysis Using Ciliates as a Reference Organism

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sanghee; Ryu, Seongho; Kim, Min-Seok; Baek, Ye-Seul; Kim, Se-Joo; Choi, Joong- Ki; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advance in mass sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing, assessment of culture-independent microbial eukaryote community structures using universal primers remains very difficult due to the tremendous richness and complexity of organisms in these communities. Use of a specific PCR marker targeting a particular group would provide enhanced sensitivity and more in-depth evaluation of microbial eukaryote communities compared to what can be achieved with universal primers. We discovered that many phylum- or group-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes from diverse eukaryote groups. By applying this discovery to a known simple allele-discriminating (SAP) PCR method, we developed a technique that enables the identification of organisms belonging to a specific higher taxonomic group (or phylum) among diverse types of eukaryotes. We performed an assay using two complementary methods, pyrosequencing and clone library screening. In doing this, specificities for the group (ciliates) targeted in this study in bulked environmental samples were 94.6% for the clone library and 99.2% for pyrosequencing, respectively. In particular, our novel technique showed high selectivity for rare species, a feature that may be more important than the ability to identify quantitatively predominant species in community structure analyses. Additionally, our data revealed that a target-specific library (or ciliate-specific one for the present study) can better explain the ecological features of a sampling locality than a universal library. PMID:22965748

  13. Investigating organic multilayers by spectroscopic ellipsometry: specific and non-specific interactions of polyhistidine with NTA self-assembled monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Ilaria; Parisse, Pietro; Gramazio, Federico; Casalis, Loredana; Canepa, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: A versatile strategy for protein–surface coupling in biochips exploits the affinity for polyhistidine of the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) group loaded with Ni(II). Methods based on optical reflectivity measurements such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) allow for label-free, non-invasive monitoring of molecule adsorption/desorption at surfaces. Results: This paper describes a SE study about the interaction of hexahistidine (His6) on gold substrates functionalized with a thiolate self-assembled monolayer bearing the NTA end group. By systematically applying the difference spectra method, which emphasizes the small changes of the ellipsometry spectral response upon the nanoscale thickening/thinning of the molecular film, we characterized different steps of the process such as the NTA-functionalization of Au, the adsorption of the His6 layer and its eventual displacement after reaction with competitive ligands. The films were investigated in liquid, and ex situ in ambient air. The SE investigation has been complemented by AFM measurements based on nanolithography methods (nanografting mode). Conclusion: Our approach to the SE data, exploiting the full spectroscopic potential of the method and basic optical models, was able to provide a picture of the variation of the film thickness along the process. The combination of δΔi +1 ,i(λ), δΨi +1 ,i(λ) (layer-addition mode) and δΔ† i ', i +1(λ), δΨ† i ', i +1(λ) (layer-removal mode) difference spectra allowed us to clearly disentangle the adsorption of His6 on the Ni-free NTA layer, due to non specific interactions, from the formation of a neatly thicker His6 film induced by the Ni(II)-loading of the NTA SAM. PMID:27335745

  14. Patient-specific organ dose estimation during transcatheter arterial embolization using Monte Carlo method and adaptive organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hui-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ doses for individual patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using measurement-based Monte Carlo simulation and adaptive organ segmentation. Five patients were enrolled in this study after institutional ethical approval and informed consent. Gafchromic XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface dose to reconstruct the nonuniform fluence distribution field as the input data in the Monte Carlo simulation. XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface doses due to their lower energy dependence compared with that of XR-RV2 films. To calculate organ doses, each patient's three-dimensional dose distribution was incorporated into CT DICOM images with image segmentation using thresholding and k-means clustering. Organ doses for all patients were estimated. Our dose evaluation system not only evaluated entrance surface doses based on measurements, but also evaluated the 3D dose distribution within patients using simulations. When film measurements were unavailable, the peak skin dose (between 0.68 and 0.82 of a fraction of the cumulative dose) can be calculated from the cumulative dose obtained from TAE dose reports. Successful implementation of this dose evaluation system will aid radiologists and technologists in determining the actual dose distributions within patients undergoing TAE.

  15. Optimization of primer specific filter metrics for the assessment of mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    CURTIS, PAMELA C.; THOMAS, JENNIFER L.; PHILLIPS, NICOLE R.; ROBY, RHONDA K.

    2011-01-01

    Filter metrics are used as a quick assessment of sequence trace files in order to sort data into different categories, i.e. High Quality, Review, and Low Quality, without human intervention. The filter metrics consist of two numerical parameters for sequence quality assessment: trace score (TS) and contiguous read length (CRL). Primer specific settings for the TS and CRL were established using a calibration dataset of 2817 traces and validated using a concordance dataset of 5617 traces. Prior to optimization, 57% of the traces required manual review before import into a sequence analysis program, whereas after optimization only 28% of the traces required manual review. After optimization of primer specific filter metrics for mitochondrial DNA sequence data, an overall reduction of review of trace files translates into increased throughput of data analysis and decreased time required for manual review. PMID:21171863

  16. Organ-specific gene expression in maize: The P-wr allele. Final report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The ultimate aim of our work is to understand how a regulatory gene produces a specific pattern of gene expression during plant development. Our model is the P-wr gene of maize, which produces a distinctive pattern of pigmentation of maize floral organs. We are investigating this system using a combination of classical genetic and molecular approaches. Mechanisms of organ-specific gene expression are a subject of intense research interest, as it is the operation of these mechanisms during eukaryotic development which determine the characteristics of each organism Allele-specific expression has been characterized in only a few other plant genes. In maize, organ-specific pigmentation regulated by the R, B, and Pl genes is achieved by differential transcription of functionally conserved protein coding sequences. Our studies point to a strikingly different mechanism of organ-specific gene expression, involving post-transcriptional regulation of the regulatory P gene. The novel pigmentation pattern of the P-wr allele is associated with differences in the encoded protein. Furthermore, the P-wr gene itself is present as a unique tandemly amplified structure, which may affect its transcriptional regulation.

  17. Increasing access to care for cultural and linguistic minorities: ethnicity-specific health care organizations and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2007-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been attributed in part to cultural and linguistic dissonance between certain patient populations and the health care system. Yet in the long term, structural solutions for ameliorating health care disparities have not been forthcoming. One strategy for increasing access to care for cultural and linguistic minorities is ethnicity-specific subsystems of care. The historical experiences of the Chinese community in San Francisco are used to reconstruct the evolution of its ethnicity-specific health care infrastructure and to create an organizational development model for ethnicity-specific health care organizations and infrastructures. The four stages of the model include developing and recruiting a bicultural and bilingual health care workforce, structuring health care resources for maximum accessibility, expanding health care organizations, and integrating ethnicity-specific health care resources into the mainstream health care system. Policy recommendations to develop ethnicity-specific subsystems of care are presented. PMID:17675712

  18. Assessing clinical communication skills in physicians: are the skills context specific or generalizable

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Lubna A; Violato, Claudio; Crutcher, Rodney A

    2009-01-01

    Background Communication skills are essential for physicians to practice Medicine. Evidence for the validity and domain specificity of communication skills in physicians is equivocal and requires further research. This research was conducted to adduce evidence for content and context specificity of communication skills and to assess the usefulness of a generic instrument for assessing communication skills in International Medical Graduates (IMGs). Methods A psychometric design was used for identifying the reliability and validity of the communication skills instruments used for high-stakes exams for IMG's. Data were collected from 39 IMGs (19 men – 48.7%; 20 women – 51.3%; Mean age = 41 years) assessed at 14 station OSCE and subsequently in supervised clinical practice with several instruments (patient surveys; ITERs; Mini-CEX). Results All the instruments had adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha: .54 – .96). There were significant correlations (r range: 0.37 – 0.70, p < .05) of communication skills assessed by examiner with standardized patients, and of mini-CEX with patient surveys, and ITERs. The intra-item reliability across all cases for the 13 items was low (Cronbach's alpha: .20 – .56). The correlations of communication skills within method (e.g., OSCE or clinical practice) were significant but were non-significant between methods (e.g., OSCE and clinical practice). Conclusion The results provide evidence of context specificity of communication skills, as well as convergent and criterion-related validity of communication skills. Both in OSCEs and clinical practice, communication checklists need to be case specific, designed for content validity. PMID:19445685

  19. Consistency of visual assessments of mammographic breast density from vendor-specific "for presentation" images.

    PubMed

    Abdolell, Mohamed; Tsuruda, Kaitlyn; Lightfoot, Christopher B; Barkova, Eva; McQuaid, Melanie; Caines, Judy; Iles, Sian E

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of percent breast density (PD) and breast cancer risk implicitly assume that visual assessments of PD are comparable between vendors despite differences in technology and display algorithms. This study examines the extent to which visual assessments of PD differ between mammograms acquired from two vendors. Pairs of "for presentation" digital mammography images were obtained from two mammography units for 146 women who had a screening mammogram on one vendor unit followed by a diagnostic mammogram on a different vendor unit. Four radiologists independently visually assessed PD from single left mediolateral oblique view images from the two vendors. Analysis of variance, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), scatter plots, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate PD assessments between vendors. The mean radiologist PD for each image was used as a consensus PD measure. Overall agreement of the PD assessments was excellent between the two vendors with an ICC of 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 0.97). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated narrow upper and lower limits of agreement between the vendors with only a small bias (2.3 percentage points). The results of this study support the assumption that visual assessment of PD is consistent across mammography vendors despite vendor-specific appearances of "for presentation" images. PMID:26870747

  20. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    PubMed

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  1. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  2. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  3. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, S.D.; Mueller, D.K.; Spahr, N.E.; Munn, M.D.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    4. Although algal species tolerance to nutrient and organic enrichment is well documented, additional taxonomic and autecological research on sensitive, endemic algal species would further enhance water-quality assessments.

  4. Target Organ Specific Activity of Drosophila MRP (ABCC1) Moderates Developmental Toxicity of Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1–4 (ABCC1–4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations. PMID:24863968

  5. Target organ specific activity of drosophila MRP (ABCC1) moderates developmental toxicity of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Prince, Lisa; Korbas, Malgorzata; Davidson, Philip; Broberg, Karin; Rand, Matthew Dearborn

    2014-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous and persistent neurotoxin that poses a risk to human health. Although the mechanisms of MeHg toxicity are not fully understood, factors that contribute to susceptibility are even less well known. Studies of human gene polymorphisms have identified a potential role for the multidrug resistance-like protein (MRP/ABCC) family, ATP-dependent transporters, in MeHg susceptibility. MRP transporters have been shown to be important for MeHg excretion in adult mouse models, but their role in moderating MeHg toxicity during development has not been explored. We therefore investigated effects of manipulating expression levels of MRP using a Drosophila development assay. Drosophila MRP (dMRP) is homologous to human MRP1-4 (ABCC1-4), sharing 50% identity and 67% similarity with MRP1. A greater susceptibility to MeHg is seen in dMRP mutant flies, demonstrated by reduced rates of eclosion on MeHg-containing food. Furthermore, targeted knockdown of dMRP expression using GAL4>UAS RNAi methods demonstrates a tissue-specific function for dMRP in gut, Malpighian tubules, and the nervous system in moderating developmental susceptibility to MeHg. Using X-ray synchrotron fluorescence imaging, these same tissues were also identified as the highest Hg-accumulating tissues in fly larvae. Moreover, higher levels of Hg are seen in dMRP mutant larvae compared with a control strain fed an equivalent dose of MeHg. In sum, these data demonstrate that dMRP expression, both globally and within Hg-targeted organs, has a profound effect on susceptibility to MeHg in developing flies. Our findings point to a potentially novel and specific role for dMRP in neurons in the protection against MeHg. Finally, this experimental system provides a tractable model to evaluate human polymorphic variants of MRP and other gene variants relevant to genetic studies of mercury-exposed populations. PMID:24863968

  6. Campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis: a mechanism leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnt, A.; Iinuma, Y.; Mutzel, A.; Böge, O.; Claeys, M.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis was performed to investigate pathways leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) marker compounds. Campholenic aldehyde, a known α-pinene oxidation product, is suggested to be a key intermediate in the formation of terpenylic acid upon α-pinene ozonolysis. It was reacted with ozone in the presence and absence of an OH radical scavenger, leading to SOA formation with a yield of 0.75 and 0.8, respectively. The resulting oxidation products in the gas and particle phases were investigated employing a denuder/filter sampling combination. Gas-phase oxidation products bearing a carbonyl group, which were collected by the denuder, were derivatised by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) followed by liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and were compared to the gas-phase compounds detected by online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Particle-phase products were also analysed, directly or after DNPH derivatisation, to derive information about specific compounds leading to SOA formation. Among the detected compounds, the aldehydic precursor of terpenylic acid was identified and its presence was confirmed in ambient aerosol samples from the DNPH derivatisation, accurate mass data, and additional mass spectrometry (MS2 and MS3 fragmentation studies). Furthermore, the present investigation sheds light on a reaction pathway leading to the formation of terpenylic acid, involving α-pinene, α-pinene oxide, campholenic aldehyde, and terpenylic aldehyde. Additionally, the formation of diaterpenylic acid acetate could be connected to campholenic aldehyde oxidation. The present study also provides insights into the source of other highly functionalised oxidation products (e.g. m / z 201, C9H14O5 and m / z 215, C10H16O5), which have been observed in ambient aerosol samples and smog chamber-generated monoterpene SOA. The m / z 201 and 215

  7. Assessment of the Interstellar Processes Leading to Deuterium Enrichment in Meteoritic Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopic anomalies is the most unequivocal demonstration that meteoritic material contains circumstellar or interstellar components. In the case of organic compounds in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), the most useful isotopic tracer has been deuterium (D). We discuss four processes that are expected to lead to D enrichment in interstellar materials and describe how their unique characteristics can be used to assess their relative importance for the organics in meteorites. These enrichment processes are low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions, low temperature gas-grain reactions, gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes is expected to be associated with distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.), especially in the molecular population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We describe these differences and discuss how they may be used to delineate the various interstellar processes that may have contributed to meteoritic D enrichments. We also briefly discuss how these processes may affect the isotopic distributions in C, 0, and N in the same compounds.

  8. Development of the voxel computational phantoms of pediatric patients and their application to organ dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik

    crucial in understanding the radiation risks of the patients undergoing computed tomography. Finally, nuclear medicine simulations were performed by calculating specific absorbed fractions for multiple target-source organ pairs via Monte Carlo simulations. Specific absorbed fractions were calculated for both photon and electron so that they can be used to calculated radionuclide S-values. All of the results were tabulated for future uses and example dose assessment was performed for selected nuclides administered in nuclear medicine.

  9. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  10. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB–FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved, coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  11. Source assessment of hexachlorobenzene from the organic chemical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Jacoff, F S; Scarberry, R; Rosa, D

    1986-01-01

    The Office of Solid Waste of the US Environmental Protection Agency determines the hazards of wastes produced by the organic chemical manufacturing industry. Based on these determinations, regulations have been laid down for many wastes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Additional wastes from this industry will be considered for regulation following further study and evaluation. Among the wastes under study are hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-containing wastes. Although HCB is no longer manufactured in the USA, the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that approximately 4130 t are generated annually as a by-product in the production of chlorinated organics and pesticides. Of this total, about 77% (3178 t) is generated from the production of three chlorinated solvents: tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene. All wastewater containing HCB is treated biologically in surface impoundments, resulting in HCB accumulation in the biological sludge. Disposal methods for HCB-containing sludges and distillation bottoms are incineration and landfilling, with 81% (3345 t) being incinerated and 19% (785 t) going to landfills. PMID:3596719

  12. Prevalence of Sexual Trauma History Using Behaviorally Specific Methods of Assessment in First Year College Students.

    PubMed

    Craner, Julia R; Martinson, Amber A; Sigmon, Sandra T; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2015-01-01

    There are several challenges associated with evaluating the prevalence of sexual trauma, including child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. The aim of this study was to assess sexual trauma prevalence rates among first year college students (N = 954) using behaviorally specific questions and a more representative recruitment sample that did not rely on self-selection. Participants completed a list of sexual trauma questions, including general questions containing labels such as "rape" or "abuse" as well as behaviorally specific questions that describe specific behaviors that qualify as sexual trauma without labels. Results indicated that 6.7% of the sample reported at least one incident of child sexual abuse, with similar rates for men and women. Women were more likely to report a history of adult sexual assault, which was reported by 12.4% of the total sample. Participants were also more likely to endorse a history of sexual trauma when answering behaviorally specific rather than general "label" questions. Women survivors in particular were more likely than men to identify their experiences as abuse/assault (66.7% versus 21.1% for child sexual abuse), which may help explain prevalence differences between men and women in prior research. Men may be less likely than women to label their experiences as abuse and may be underidentified in sexual trauma research without the use of behaviorally specific questions. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the prevalence of sexual trauma is better assessed using behaviorally specific questions and that this is an important topic of study among both men and women. PMID:26090864

  13. Multi-element compound specific stable isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds at trace levels in groundwater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Martín, Sara; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Richnow, Hans. H.; Gehre, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater pollution remains one of the major environmental and health concerns. A thorough understanding of sources, sinks and transformation processes of groundwater contaminants is needed to improve risk management evaluation, and to design efficient remediation and water treatment strategies. Isotopic tools provide unique information for an in-depth understanding of the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. During the last decades compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of complex mixtures, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has gained popularity for the characterization and risk assessment of hazardous waste sites and for isotope forensics of organic contaminants. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of organic substances provides a more robust framework for interpretation than the isotope analysis of only one element. One major challenge for application of CSIA is the analysis of trace levels of organic compounds in environmental matrices. It is necessary to inject 1 nmol carbon or 8 nmol hydrogen on column, to obtain an accurate and precise measurement of the isotope ratios, which is between two and three orders of magnitude larger than the amount of compound needed for conventional analysis of compound concentrations. Therefore, efficient extraction and pre-concentration techniques have to be integrated with GC-IRMS. Further research is urgently needed in this field, to evaluate the potential of novel and environmental-friendly sample pre-treatment techniques for CSIA to lower the detection limits and extending environmental applications. In this study, the novel coupling of a headspace autosampler (HS) with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV), allowing large volume injection of headspace samples, is proposed to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. This automatic, fast and solvent free strategy provides a significant increase on the sensitivity of GC-based methods maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation

  14. Rapid, Organ-Specific Transcriptional Responses to Light Regulate Photomorphogenic Development in Dicot Seedlings1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Swaminathan, Kankshita; Hudson, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The dicotyledon seedling undergoes organ-specific photomorphogenic development when exposed to light. The cotyledons open and expand, the apical hook opens, and the hypocotyl ceases to elongate. Using the large and easily dissected seedlings of soybean (Glycine max ‘Williams 82’), we show that genes involved in photosynthesis and its regulation dominate transcripts specific to the cotyledon, even in etiolated seedlings. Genes for cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism are expressed at higher levels in the hypocotyl, while examination of genes expressed at higher levels in the hook region (including the shoot apical meristem) reveals genes involved in cell division and protein turnover. The early transcriptional events in these three organs in response to a 1-h treatment of far-red light are highly distinctive. Not only are different regulatory genes rapidly regulated by light in each organ, but the early-responsive genes in each organ contain a distinctive subset of known light-responsive cis-regulatory elements. We detected specific light-induced gene expression for the root phototropism gene RPT2 in the apical hook and also phenotypes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rpt2 mutants demonstrating that the gene is necessary for normal photomorphogenesis in the seedling apex. Significantly, expression of the RPT2 promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase reporter gene shows differential expression across the hook region. We conclude that organ-specific, light-responsive transcriptional networks are active early in photomorphogenesis in the aerial parts of dicotyledon seedlings. PMID:21653191

  15. Student Perceptions of Online Homework Use for Formative Assessment of Learning in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Penn, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Use of online homework as a formative assessment tool for organic chemistry coursework was examined. Student perceptions of online homework in terms of (i) its ranking relative to other course aspects, (ii) their learning of organic chemistry, and (iii) whether it improved their study habits and how students used it as a learning tool were…

  16. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  17. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  18. Assessing the financial characteristics of multi-institutional organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, J S

    1985-01-01

    The prospective pricing of health services is precipitating greater attention to financial characteristics and greater development of multi-institutional organizations (MIOs). This study compares the financial characteristics of 1,590 MIO hospitals with 2,819 freestanding hospitals by ownership type: church-operated, other not-for-profit, and investor-owned. Using 1981 data from the American Hospital Association, the hospitals' capital structure and profitability are measured using three financial ratios: total assets-to-equity, return on equity, and operating margin. The results indicate both greater leverage and greater profitability among MIO hospitals, particularly in the investor-owned sector. The implications of these findings are discussed relative to financial performance by hospital ownership type in the future. PMID:4038697

  19. Assessment of organic pollutants in coastal sediments, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Gawad, Esam A.; Al Azab, Mohamed; Lotfy, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-five stations were selected along the UAE coastal region to delineate the distribution and to determine the source of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of TPH ranged between 46 and 223 mg/kg and the level of TOC was in the range from 0.044 to 17.8 wt%, while TPAHs occupied the range of 5-102.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, TPCBs showed values between 60 and 205 μg/kg and TKN ranged from 104 to 1,073 mg/kg. The present study shows that the distribution of organic compounds in UAE sediments were within safe limits comparing with previous studies. The present study revealed that TOC can be used as an indicator of oil pollution in heavily oiled sediments. The highest values of TOC, TPH, TPAHs and TPCBs related to the stations covered in fine sand due to adsorption properties and the large surface areas of the grains. The evaporation of low-boiling point compounds from surface layers leads to the enrichment of sediments with a thick residual. Al Sharjah-1 exhibited the highest values of TPH and TOC at Ras Al-Khaima-5, Umm Al-Quwen-1 and Dubai-1, while the highest values of TPAHs were at KhorFakkan-9, the highest value of TPCBs was at Ajman-2, and the highest values of TKN were at KhorFakkan-1, KhorFakkan-6 and Dubai-1.

  20. Risk assessment related to veterinary biologicals: specific issues in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Ward, D E

    1995-12-01

    The author reviews both technical and socio-economic issues in developing nations, in relation to veterinary biologicals. Health risk assessment is a specific process to estimate the likelihood that animals, humans or ecological systems will be affected adversely by a chemical or physical agent, or biological product, under a specific set of conditions. Some technical issues (quality assurance, good manufacturing practice, education of end-users, field monitoring) apply equally well in developed, industrialised and in developing, pre-industrialised nations. Many regions have documented unique diseases (trypanosomosis, tick diseases, theileriosis) or high disease prevalence which may influence risk assessment results. This emphasises the need for scientifically-valid risk assessment methodologies in developing nations. Developing nations also have various socio-economic concerns, which may not be based on scientific fact but, nonetheless, affect trade in, and use of, veterinary biologicals. These non-scientific but perceived problems and issues are briefly discussed, and possible solutions are presented. The way in which countries deal with such perceived problems and issues in a context of internationally harmonised norms for risk assessment impinges on livestock farmers in developing nations. Finally, the author presents possible ways to correct the potentially widening cost gap between conventional, proven veterinary biologicals and newly-developed products. The results of risk assessment of veterinary biologicals influence risk management in both developed and less-developed nations. It is important to agree upon scientifically-based risk management guidelines which may be applied in all countries. The effect of the agreements of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on trade in veterinary biologicals in developing nations is reviewed. PMID:8639967

  1. Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation mechanisms from measured gas/particle partitioning of specific organic tracer compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Weber, Robin J; Liu, Shang; Day, Douglas A; Russell, Lynn M; Markovic, Milos Z; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G; Hering, Susanne V; Goldstein, Allen H

    2013-04-16

    In situ measurements of organic compounds in both gas and particle phases were made with a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG) instrument. The gas/particle partitioning of phthalic acid, pinonaldehyde, and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone is discussed in detail to explore secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanisms. Measured fractions in the particle phase (f(part)) of 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone were similar to those expected from the absorptive gas/particle partitioning theory, suggesting that its partitioning is dominated by absorption processes. However, f(part) of phthalic acid and pinonaldehyde were substantially higher than predicted. The formation of low-volatility products from reactions of phthalic acid with ammonia is proposed as one possible mechanism to explain the high f(part) of phthalic acid. The observations of particle-phase pinonaldehyde when inorganic acids were fully neutralized indicate that inorganic acids are not required for the occurrence of reactive uptake of pinonaldehyde on particles. The observed relationship between f(part) of pinonaldehyde and relative humidity suggests that the aerosol water plays a significant role in the formation of particle-phase pinonaldehyde. Our results clearly show it is necessary to include multiple gas/particle partitioning pathways in models to predict SOA and multiple SOA tracers in source apportionment models to reconstruct SOA. PMID:23448102

  2. Criterion-Referenced Assessment for Language Organization: An Example of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.; Colson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Reliable criterion-referenced assessments are critical as one of the first steps in evidence-based practice. These assessments must also be valid. One of the most important skills to measure in school-age children with language disabilities is the ability to organize language in the form of narratives. The purpose of this paper is to describe a…

  3. Size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) provides a simple method to calculate organ dose for pediatric CT examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Bria M.; Brady, Samuel L. Kaufman, Robert A.; Mirro, Amy E.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) with absorbed organ dose, and to develop a simple methodology for estimating patient organ dose in a pediatric population (5–55 kg). Methods: Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing a range of pediatric body habitus were scanned with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters placed at 23 organ locations to determine absolute organ dose. Phantom absolute organ dose was divided by phantom SSDE to determine correlation between organ dose and SSDE. Organ dose correlation factors (CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}) were then multiplied by patient-specific SSDE to estimate patient organ dose. The CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were used to retrospectively estimate individual organ doses from 352 chest and 241 abdominopelvic pediatric CT examinations, where mean patient weight was 22 kg ± 15 (range 5–55 kg), and mean patient age was 6 yrs ± 5 (range 4 months to 23 yrs). Patient organ dose estimates were compared to published pediatric Monte Carlo study results. Results: Phantom effective diameters were matched with patient population effective diameters to within 4 cm; thus, showing appropriate scalability of the phantoms across the entire pediatric population in this study. IndividualCF{sub SSDE}{sup organ} were determined for a total of 23 organs in the chest and abdominopelvic region across nine weight subcategories. For organs fully covered by the scan volume, correlation in the chest (average 1.1; range 0.7–1.4) and abdominopelvic region (average 0.9; range 0.7–1.3) was near unity. For organ/tissue that extended beyond the scan volume (i.e., skin, bone marrow, and bone surface), correlation was determined to be poor (average 0.3; range: 0.1–0.4) for both the chest and abdominopelvic regions, respectively. A means to estimate patient organ dose was demonstrated. Calculated patient organ dose, using patient SSDE and CF{sub SSDE}{sup organ}, was compared to

  4. TOX (TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN), IS IT THE NON-SPECIFIC PARAMETER OF THE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total organic halogen (TOX) analysis directly measures halogen (Cl, Br, I) covalently bound to organic molecules in a sample. Currently, the most popular method for TOX in water involves carbon adsorption, oxidative combustion, followed by measurement of the formed hydrogen hal...

  5. Experts workshop on the ecotoxicological risk assessment of ionizable organic chemicals: Towards a science-based framework for chemical assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need to develop analytical methods and tools that can be applied to assess the environmental risks associated with charged, polar, and ionisable organic chemicals, such as those used as active pharmaceutical ingredients, biocides, and surface active chemicals. ...

  6. Screening of endocrine organ-specific humoral autoimmunity in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome reveals a significant increase in diabetes-specific immunoreactivity in comparison with healthy control men.

    PubMed

    Panimolle, Francesca; Tiberti, Claudio; Granato, Simona; Semeraro, Antonella; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Anzuini, Antonella; Lenzi, Andrea; Radicioni, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of humoral endocrine organ-specific autoimmunity in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) by investigating the autoantibody profile specific to type 1 diabetes (T1DM), Addison's disease (AD), Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), and autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (AG). Sixty-one adult Caucasian 47,XXY KS patients were tested for autoantibodies specific to T1DM (Insulin Abs, GAD Abs, IA-2 Abs, Znt8 Abs), HT (TPO Abs), AD (21-OH Abs), and AG (APC Abs). Thirty-five of these patients were not undergoing testosterone replacement therapy TRT (Group 1) and the remaining 26 patients started TRT before the beginning of the study (Group 2). KS autoantibody frequencies were compared to those found in 122 control men. Six of 61 KS patients (9.8 %) were positive for at least one endocrine autoantibody, compared to 6.5 % of controls. Interestingly, KS endocrine immunoreactivity was directed primarily against diabetes-specific autoantigens (8.2 %), with a significantly higher frequency than in controls (p = 0.016). Two KS patients (3.3 %) were TPO Ab positive, whereas no patients were positive for AD- and AG-related autoantigens. The autoantibody endocrine profile of untreated and treated KS patients was not significantly different. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that endocrine humoral immunoreactivity is not rare in KS patients and that it is more frequently directed against type 1 diabetes-related autoantigens, thus suggesting the importance of screening for organ-specific autoimmunity in clinical practice. Follow-up studies are needed to establish if autoantibody-positive KS patients will develop clinical T1DM. PMID:25935328

  7. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  8. Patient-specific meta-analysis for risk assessment using multivariate proportional hazards regression

    PubMed Central

    Crager, Michael R.; Tang, Gong

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for assessing an individual patient’s risk of a future clinical event using clinical trial or cohort data and Cox proportional hazards regression, combining the information from several studies using meta-analysis techniques. The method combines patient-specific estimates of the log cumulative hazard across studies, weighting by the relative precision of the estimates, using either fixed- or random-effects meta-analysis calculations. Risk assessment can be done for any future patient using a few key summary statistics determined once and for all from each study. Generalizations of the method to logistic regression and linear models are immediate. We evaluate the methods using simulation studies and illustrate their application using real data. PMID:26664111

  9. The Fasted/Fed Mouse Metabolic Acetylome: N6-Acetylation Differences Suggest Acetylation Coordinates Organ-Specific Fuel Switching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Hartil, Kirsten; Robinson, Alan J.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Bruce, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the co-substrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MSMS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de-)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes. PMID:21728379

  10. Disorder-specific emotional imagery for differential and quantitative assessment of agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kirsten-Rita; Bandelow, Borwin; Neumann, Charlott; Obst, Katrin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Visual emotional stimulation is supposed to elicit psycho-vegetative reactions, which are similar to as the ones elicited by exposure to actual experience. Visual stimulation paradigms have been widely used in studies on agoraphobia with and without panic disorder. However, the applied imagery has hardly ever been disorder- and subject- specific. 51 patients with an ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnosis of agoraphobia with or without panic disorder (PDA) and matching healthy controls have been examined. Subjects were confronted with 146 picture showing characteristic agoraphobic situations (high places, narrow places, crowds, public transport facilities, or wide places) or pictures associated with acute physical emergency (panic) situations, which had been pre-selected by anxiety experts. Participants were asked to rate emotional arousal induced by the respective images on the Self- Assessment Manikin scale (SAM). Data on PDA severity (PAS) depressive symptoms (MADRS) and sociodemographic data were recorded. Saliva cortisol levels were measured before and after exposure in a second test applying the individually mostly feared stimuli combined with emotionally neutral pictures for every single patient. 117 of the PDA-specific images were rated significantly more fear-eliciting by patients than by healthy individuals. Sub-categorization into agoraphobia clusters showed differential effects of clusters with regard to gender distribution, severity of PDA and cortisol secretion during exposure. In this study disorder specific and individual characteristics of agoraphobia were assessed for use in future trials applying emotional imagery. It could be used for the differential assessment of PDA and associated neurobiological and psychological phenomena and in neuroimaging paradigms. PMID:22632470

  11. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene production wastes. 268.38 Section 268.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND...

  12. A facilely synthesized amino-functionalized metal-organic framework for highly specific and efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Li, Ze; Zhao, Qiang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Liu, Hu-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Xiang

    2014-10-01

    A facilely synthesized amino-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 was first applied for highly specific glycopeptide enrichment based on the hydrophilic interactions. With the special characteristics of the MOF, the material performed well in selectivity and sensitivity for both standard glycoprotein samples and complex biological samples. PMID:25131456

  13. The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unzueta, Caridad H.

    2009-01-01

    Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic…

  14. The Effects of Computer Graphic Organizers on the Persuasive Writing of Hispanic Middle School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…

  15. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  16. Drug-specific quality indicators assessing outpatient antibiotic use among French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Céline; Lions, Caroline; Ventelou, Bruno; Verger, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Quality indicators assessing the use of antibiotics among general practitioners (GPs) would be useful to target antibiotic stewardship interventions. We adapted to an individual GP level a set of 12 drug-specific quality indicators of outpatient antibiotic use in Europe developed by the European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption project. We performed a cross-sectional study analysing reimbursement data on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in adults in south-eastern France in 2009. Substantial heterogeneity in antibiotic prescribing among French GPs was observed, and opportunity to improve antibiotic prescribing can be identified. PMID:22843612

  17. The models for assessment of chemopreventive agents: single organ models.

    PubMed

    Das, Sukta; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Saha, Prosenjit

    2004-01-01

    Research in cancer chemoprevention involves a number of activities, the first and foremost of which is acquisition of detailed knowledge concerning the process of carcinogenesis and identification of points of intervention whereby the process can be reversed or stalled. Parallel to this is the search for ideal chemopreventive agents--natural or synthetic--and screening for their activity and efficacy in vitro and in vivo. For ethical reasons it is not possible to test new agents on humans, so preclinical studies are dependent on results first being obtained with suitable animal models. Since it is not possible for a single model to reflect the diversity and heterogeneity of human cancers, it is necessary to have as many different models as possible, depending on the requirement of the studies on different aspects of cancer biology. Advances in research on carcinogenesis and chemoprevention therefore have to be accompanied by development of appropriate laboratory animal models using a variety of carcinogens that produce tumours at different sites. Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of carcinogenesis and ways to intervene in the underlying processes. Many animal carcinogenesis and tumour models have been found to mirror corresponding human cancers with respect to cell of origin, morphogenesis, phenotype markers and genetic alteration. In spite of the fact that interpolation of data from animal studies to humans is difficult for various reasons, animal models are widely used for assessment of new compounds with cancer chemopreventive potential and for preclinical trials. So despite the movements of animal rights activists, animal models will continue to be used for biomedical research for saving human lives. In doing so, care should be taken to treat and handle the animals with minimal discomfort to them and ensuring that alternatives are used whenever possible. PMID:15074999

  18. Use of sinkhole and specific capacity distributions to assess vertical gradients in a karst aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, K.J.; Kozar, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer in the Great Valley, West Virginia, USA, was evaluated using a database of 687 sinkholes and 350 specific capacity tests to assess structural, lithologic, and topographic influences on the groundwater flow system. The enhanced permeability of the aquifer is characterized in part by the many sinkholes, springs, and solutionally enlarged fractures throughout the valley. Yet, vertical components of subsurface flow in this highly heterogeneous aquifer are currently not well understood. To address this problem, this study examines the apparent relation between geologic features of the aquifer and two spatial indices of enhanced permeability attributed to aquifer karstification: (1) the distribution of sinkholes and (2) the occurrence of wells with relatively high specific capacity. Statistical results indicate that sinkholes (funnel and collapse) occur primarily along cleavage and bedding planes parallel to subparallel to strike where lateral or downward vertical gradients are highest. Conversely, high specific capacity values are common along prominent joints perpendicular or oblique to strike. The similarity of the latter distribution to that of springs suggests these fractures are areas of upward-convergent flow. These differences between sinkhole and high specific capacity distributions suggest vertical flow components are primarily controlled by the orientation of geologic structure and associated subsurface fracturing. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Specific and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by using a bioluminescent catabolic reporter bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzer, A.; Thonnard, J.E.; Sayler, G.S.; Webb, O.F. )

    1992-06-01

    A bioassay was developed and standardized for the rapid, specific, and quantitative assessment of naphthalene and salicylate bioavailability by use of bioluminescence monitoring of catabolic gene expression. The bioluminescent reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, which carries a transcriptional nahG-luxCDABE fusion for naphthalene and salicylate catabolism, was used. The physiological state of the reporter cultures as well as the intrinsic regulatory properties of the naphthalene degradation operon must be taken into account to obtain a high specificity at low target substrate concentrations. Experiments have shown that the use of exponentially growing reporter cultures has advantages over the use of carbon-starved, resting cultures. In aqueous solutions for both substrates, naphthalene and salicylate, linear relationships between initial substrate concentration and bioluminescence response were found over concentration ranges of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Naphthalene could be detected at a concentration of 45 ppb. Studies conducted under defined conditions with extracts and slurries of experimentally contaminated sterile soils and identical uncontaminated soil controls demonstrated that this method can be used for specific and quantitative estimations of target pollutant presence and bioavailability in soil extracts and for specific and qualitative estimations of napthalene in soil slurries.

  20. Generic guidelines versus site-specific assessments: Does marriage make sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet, C.L.; Keenleyside, K.A.; Smith, S.L.; Kent, R.A.; Wong, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    The maintenance, protection and restoration of a high level of environmental quality requires the availability of practical scientific tools. Environmental quality guidelines (also called criteria) are one such scientific tool that help measure progress towards these goals. These guidelines provide scientific benchmarks that can offer consistency and clarity in defining scientific measures for environmental quality that are easily understood, communicated, and implemented as the basis for management decisions. At the same time, debate exists over the use of generic guidelines versus site-specific risk assessments. It is the contention that generic and site-specific approaches are not mutually exclusive, but complementary decision-support tools and that any apparent controversy stems from an incomplete understanding of the nature and intent of generic environmental quality guidelines or from the use of guidelines in the absence of a coherent framework. The authors advocate an approach that marries the strengths of the generic and site-specific approaches and promotes consistent, scientifically-defensible decisions that support broad societal goals for environmental protection. Using Canadian environmental quality guidelines as an example, they provide an overview of the role of environmental quality guidelines in decision-making, with concrete examples of their implementation in addressing specific environmental quality issues.

  1. [Branch-specific detection of phenols and assessment of ground water solubility].

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Kerndorff, H; Kühn, S

    2000-01-01

    There are about 500 technically relevant phenolic compounds such as cresols, chlorophenols or nitrophenols. It is most preferable to determine phenols as single compounds via gas chromatography. Further, phenols can also be assayed as photometrically as an overall parameter (Phenolindex): however, no conclusions about specific compounds can be drawn from this type of test. Also this method is not as reliable for an hazard assessment as gas chromatography. First, not all phenols, for instance resorcinol or 1-naphthol can be determined with this method. Second, phenolic groups in humic substances, which do not constitute a threat for groundwater, are determined alongside environmentally relevant phenols using this method. In most cases, it is possible to deduce which phenols can be expected in the groundwater of contaminated sites from the type of industrial usage, such as chlorophenols and pulp bleaching or nitrophenols and the production of explosives. Phenols are formed during coal combustion for instance at cokemanufactures or gasworks. They are important raw materials for the chemical industry from which resins, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, pigments, explosives, and stabilizers are produced. During the 80's phenol, cresols, nonylphenols, anisidines, aminophenols, dihydroxybenzenes, and naphthols were manufactured in amounts exceeding 10,000 t/a. Also, phenolic compounds are used as additives in many areas for example as solvents in the electric industry, in sawmills, papermanufacture, electroplating of metal sheets, as photographic developers, as textile dyes, or for the tanning of hydes. Due to the formation and use of phenols at industrial sites, groundwater contaminations are possible via infiltration through the unsaturated zone. Especially at gasworks and ammunition factories, groundwater contaminations with phenols have become known. In the vicinity of railway tracks and associated facillities contaminations due to the use of pesticides or mineral oils

  2. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. PMID:26897116

  3. Exploring General versus Task-Specific Assessments of Metacognition in University Chemistry Students: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple assessments to investigate the general versus task-specific characteristics of metacognition in dissimilar chemistry topics. This mixed-method approach investigated the nature of undergraduate general chemistry students' metacognition using four assessments: a self-report questionnaire, assessment of…

  4. Fast molecular beacon hybridization in organic solvents with improved target specificity.

    PubMed

    Dave, Neeshma; Liu, Juewen

    2010-12-01

    DNA hybridization is of tremendous importance in biology, bionanotechnology, and biophysics. Molecular beacons are engineered DNA hairpins with a fluorophore and a quencher labeled on each of the two ends. A target DNA can open the hairpin to give an increased fluorescence signal. To date, the majority of molecular beacon detections have been performed only in aqueous buffers. We describe herein DNA detection in nine different organic solvents, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, formamide, dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, and glycerol, varying each up to 75% (v/v). In comparison with detection in water, the detection in organic solvents showed several important features. First, the molecular beacon hybridizes to its target DNA in the presence of all nine solvents up to a certain percentage. Second, the rate of this hybridization was significantly faster in most organic solvents compared with water. For example, in 56% ethanol, the beacon showed a 70-fold rate enhancement. Third, the ability of the molecular beacon to discriminate single-base mismatch is still maintained. Lastly, the DNA melting temperature in the organic solvents showed a solvent concentration-dependent decrease. This study suggests that molecular beacons can be used for applications where organic solvents must be involved or organic solvents can be intentionally added to improve the molecular beacon performance. PMID:21062084

  5. Link between Organ-specific Antigen Processing by 20S Proteasomes and CD8+ T Cell–mediated Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Ruppert, Thomas; Strehl, Britta; Jungblut, Peter R.; Zimny-Arndt, Ursula; Lamer, Stephanie; Prinz, Immo; Drung, Ilse; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Steinhoff, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of cross-reactive HSP60-specific CD8+ T cells into immunodeficient mice causes autoimmune intestinal pathology restricted to the small intestine. We wondered whether local immunopathology induced by CD8+ T cells can be explained by tissue-specific differences in proteasome-mediated processing of major histocompatibility complex class I T cell epitopes. Our experiments demonstrate that 20S proteasomes of different organs display a characteristic composition of α and β chain subunits and produce distinct peptide fragments with respect to both quality and quantity. Digests of HSP60 polypeptides by 20S proteasomes show most efficient generation of the pathology related CD8+ T cell epitope in the small intestine. Further, we demonstrate that the organ-specific potential to produce defined T cell epitopes reflects quantities that are relevant for cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition. We propose tissue-specific antigen processing by 20S proteasomes as a potential mechanism to control organ-specific immune responses. PMID:11956289

  6. RELEVANCE OF VISUAL EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional measures of neurotoxicity have included assessment of sensory, cognitive, and motor function. Visual system function and the neurobiological substrates are well characterized across species. Dysfunction in the visual system may be specific or may be surrogate for mor...

  7. Assessment of terrigenous organic carbon input to the total organic carbon in sediments from Scottish transitional waters (sea lochs): methodology and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, P. S.; Reeves, A. D.; Overnell, J.; Harvey, S. M.; Miller, A. E. J.

    This paper addresses the assessment of terrestrially derived organic carbon in sediments from two Scottish sea lochs. The results illustrate a smooth decrease in area-specific sediment oxygen uptake rates along a transect of six stations from the head of Loch Creran to the sea, from 18.7 mmol O2m-2d-1 to 6.6 mmol O2m-2d-1. Measurement of the losses on ignition at two temperatures (250°C and 500°C) of the sediment fraction from 1-2 cm depth at the same stations enabled the proportion of weight loss that occurred over the high temperature range to be calculated. These show a smooth increase from 0.33 to 0.62. These observations indicate that (a) the amount of easily biodegradable organic material in the sediment decreases by two-thirds along the transect and (b) the proportion of refractory organic material in the sediment increases along the same transect. This suggests strongly that terrigenous organic material, brought down by the River Creran is a very important fuel for sediment diagenetic processes in this system. Preliminary analyses of the lignin composition of the same sediments indicate the predominance of non-woody gymnosperm tissue. Lignin is used as a proxy for terrigenous allochthonous material. Comparative data for Loch Etive are also presented.

  8. Assessing specific deterrence effects of increased speeding penalties using four measures of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Watson, B; Siskind, V; Fleiter, J J; Watson, A; Soole, D

    2015-11-01

    Traffic law enforcement sanctions can impact on road user behaviour through general and specific deterrence mechanisms. The manner in which specific deterrence can influence recidivist behaviour can be conceptualised in different ways. While any reduction in speeding will have road safety benefits, the ways in which a 'reduction' is determined deserves greater methodological attention and has implications for countermeasure evaluation more generally. The primary aim of this research was to assess the specific deterrent impact of penalty increases for speeding offences in Queensland, Australia, in 2003 on two cohorts of drivers detected for speeding prior to and after the penalty changes were investigated. Since the literature is relatively silent on how to assess recidivism in the speeding context, the secondary research aim was to contribute to the literature regarding ways to conceptualise and measure specific deterrence in the speeding context. We propose a novel way of operationalising four measures which reflect different ways in which a specific deterrence effect could be conceptualised: (1) the proportion of offenders who re-offended in the follow up period; (2) the overall frequency of re-offending in the follow up period; (3) the length of delay to re-offence among those who re-offended; and (4) the average number of re-offences during the follow up period among those who re-offended. Consistent with expectations, results suggested an absolute deterrent effect of penalty changes, as evidenced by significant reductions in the proportion of drivers who re-offended and the overall frequency of re-offending, although effect sizes were small. Contrary to expectations, however, there was no evidence of a marginal specific deterrent effect among those who re-offended, with a significant reduction in the length of time to re-offence and no significant change in the average number of offences committed. Additional exploratory analyses investigating potential

  9. Comparative assessment of thematic accuracy of GLC maps for specific applications using existing reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Schouten, L.; Herold, M.

    2016-02-01

    Inputs to various applications and models, current global land cover (GLC) maps are based on different data sources and methods. Therefore, comparing GLC maps is challenging. Statistical comparison of GLC maps is further complicated by the lack of a reference dataset that is suitable for validating multiple maps. This study utilizes the existing Globcover-2005 reference dataset to compare thematic accuracies of three GLC maps for the year 2005 (Globcover, LC-CCI and MODIS). We translated and reinterpreted the LCCS (land cover classification system) classifier information of the reference dataset into the different map legends. The three maps were evaluated for a variety of applications, i.e., general circulation models, dynamic global vegetation models, agriculture assessments, carbon estimation and biodiversity assessments, using weighted accuracy assessment. Based on the impact of land cover confusions on the overall weighted accuracy of the GLC maps, we identified map improvement priorities. Overall accuracies were 70.8 ± 1.4%, 71.4 ± 1.3%, and 61.3 ± 1.5% for LC-CCI, MODIS, and Globcover, respectively. Weighted accuracy assessments produced increased overall accuracies (80-93%) since not all class confusion errors are important for specific applications. As a common denominator for all applications, the classes mixed trees, shrubs, grasses, and cropland were identified as improvement priorities. The results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for dissimilarities in the importance of map classification errors for different user application. To determine the fitness of use of GLC maps, accuracy of GLC maps should be assessed per application; there is no single-figure accuracy estimate expressing map fitness for all purposes.

  10. Stochastic method for determination of the organ-specific averaged SAR in realistic environments at 950 MHz.

    PubMed

    Thielens, Arno; Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    The organ-specific averaged specific absorption rate (SARosa ) in a heterogeneous human body phantom, the Virtual Family Boy, is determined for the first time in five realistic electromagnetic environments at the Global System for Mobile Communications downlink frequency of 950 MHz. We propose two methods based upon a fixed set of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations for generating cumulative distribution functions for the SARosa in a certain environment: an accurate vectorial cell-wise spline interpolation with an average error lower than 1.8%, and a faster scalar linear interpolation with a maximal average error of 14.3%. These errors are dependent on the angular steps chosen for the FDTD simulations. However, it is demonstrated that both methods provide the same shape of the cumulative distribution function for the studied organs in the considered environments. The SARosa depends on the considered organ and the environment. Two factors influencing the SARosa are investigated for the first time: conductivity over the density ratio of an organ, and the distance of the organ's center of gravity to the body's surface and exterior of the phantom. A non-linear regression with our model provides a correlation of 0.80. The SARosa due to single plane-wave exposure is also investigated; a worst-case single plane-wave exposure is determined for all studied organs and has been compared with realistic SARosa values. There is no fixed worst-case polarization for all organs, and a single plane-wave exposure condition that exceeds 91% of the SARosa values in a certain environment can always be found for the studied organs. PMID:23754459

  11. Assessing Field-Specific Risk of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Using Satellite Imagery in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Li, X; Chen, C; Kyveryga, P; Yang, X B

    2016-08-01

    Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery from 2004 to 2013 were used to assess the field-specific risks of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme in Iowa. Fields with a high frequency of significant decrease (>10%) of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observed in late July to middle August on historical imagery were hypothetically considered as high SDS risk. These high-risk fields had higher slopes and shorter distances to flowlines, e.g., creeks and drainages, particularly in the Des Moines lobe. Field data in 2014 showed a significantly higher SDS level in the high-risk fields than fields selected without considering NDVI information. On average, low-risk fields had 10 times lower F. virguliforme soil density, determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, compared with other surveyed fields. Ordinal logistic regression identified positive correlations between SDS and slope, June NDVI, and May maximum temperature, but high June maximum temperature hindered SDS. A modeled SDS risk map showed a clear trend of potential disease occurrences across Iowa. Landsat imagery was analyzed similarly, to discuss the ability to utilize higher spatial resolution data. The results demonstrated the great potential of both MODIS and Landsat imagery for SDS field-specific risk assessment. PMID:27070424

  12. Biodistribution and Safety Assessment of Bladder Cancer Specific Recombinant Oncolytic Adenovirus in Subcutaneous Xenografts Tumor Model in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Zhiping; Tian, Hongwei; Qi, Meijiao; Zhai, Zhenxing; Li, Shuwen; Li, Renju; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Wenyun; Fu, Shenjun; Lu, Jianzhong; Rodriguez, Ronald; Guo, Yinglu; Zhou, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    Background The previous works about safety evaluation for constructed bladder tissue specific adenovirus are poorly documented. Thus, we investigated the biodistribution and body toxicity of bladder specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A (APU-E1A) and Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A-AR (APU-E1A-AR), providing meaningful information prior to embarking on human clinical trials. Materials and Method Conditionally replicate recombinant adenovirus (CRADs) APU-E1A, APU-EIA-AR were constructed with bladder tissue specific Uroplakin II (UP II) promoter to induce the expression of Ad5E1A gene and E1A-AR fusing gene, and PSCAE was inserted at upstream of promoter to enhance the function of promoter. Based on the cytopathic and anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer, these CRADs were intratumorally injected into subcutaneous xenografts tumor in nude mice. We then determined the toxicity through general health and behavioral assessment, hepatic and hematological toxicity evaluation, macroscopic and microscopic postmortem analyses. The spread of the transgene E1A of adenovirus was detected with RT-PCR and Western blot. Virus replication and distribution were examined with APU-LUC administration and Luciferase Assay. Results General assessment and body weight of the animals did not reveal any alteration in general behavior. The hematological alterations of groups which were injected with 5×108 pfu or higher dose (5×109 pfu) of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR showed no difference in comparison with PBS group, and only slight increased transaminases in contrast to PBS group at 5×109 pfu of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR were observed. E1A transgene did not disseminate to organs outside of xenograft tumor. Virus replication was not detected in other organs beside tumor according to Luciferase Assay. Conclusions Our study showed that recombinant adenovirus APU-E1A-AR and APU-E1A appear safe with 5×107 pfu and 5×108 pfu intratumorally injection in mice, without any discernable effects on general health

  13. Flow cytometric assessment of antigen-specific proliferation in peripheral chicken T cells by CFSE dilution.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, T S; Norup, L R; Rubbenstroth, D; Wattrang, E; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2010-11-15

    Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution is a well established method for analysis of dividing cells by flow cytometry. In other species the method has been extensively used in the study of antigen-specific T cells. The purpose of this study was to apply the method to chicken peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) and to evaluate and optimize its performance in relation to detection of vaccine-induced chicken T cells specific for Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The method was based on analysis of CFSE dilution upon ex vivo recall stimulation with whole vaccine antigen. Analysis of proliferation was combined with the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the lymphocyte surface markers CD4 and CD8 in order to phenotype the responding cells. Problems with nonspecific background proliferation especially in the CD8 compartment were significantly reduced by replacing medium containing fetal calf serum with serum-free medium. It was rendered probable that antigen-specific cellular immunity can be assessed by this method as NDV-vaccinated chickens showed a significantly higher proliferative capacity than age-matched naïve controls. Furthermore it was shown that the recall stimulation lead to a proliferative response in T cells expressing αβ-type TCRs but also those expressing the γδ-type. In summary, the method was found challenging but nevertheless useful to quantify the proliferative response of chicken antigen-specific T cells. Further investigations though, are needed in order to prove what cell subsets are true antigen-specific responders and what cells are bystander activated. Nevertheless, the method is expected to be a valuable tool to evaluate and quantify vaccine responses to current and new chicken vaccines in the future. PMID:20739071

  14. Oligosaccharide library-based assessment of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Jemth, Per; Smeds, Emanuel; Do, Anh-Tri; Habuchi, Hiroko; Kimata, Koji; Lindahl, Ulf; Kusche-Gullberg, Marion

    2003-07-01

    Heparan sulfate mediates numerous complex biological processes. Its action critically depends on the amount and the positions of O-sulfate groups (iduronyl 2-O-sulfates, glucosaminyl 6-O- and 3-O-sulfates) that form binding sites for proteins. The structures and distribution of these protein-binding domains are influenced by the expression and substrate specificity of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes. We describe a general approach to assess substrate specificities of enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan metabolism, here applied to 6-O-sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. To understand how 2-O-sulfation affects subsequent 6-O-sulfation reactions, the substrate specificity of 6-O-sulfotransferase 3 was probed using substrates from a heparin-based octasaccharide library. Purified 3H-labeled N-sulfated octasaccharides from a library designed to sample 2-O-sulfated motifs were used as sulfate acceptors, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as sulfate donor, and cell extract from 6-O-sulfotransferase 3-overexpressing 293 cells as enzyme source in the 6-O-sulfotransferase-catalyzed reactions. The first 6-O-sulfate group was preferentially incorporated at the internal glucosamine unit of the octasaccharide substrate. As the reaction proceeded, the octasaccharides acquired three 6-O-sulfate groups. The specificities toward competing octasaccharide substrates, for 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 and 6-O-sulfotransferase 3, were determined using overexpressing 293 cell extracts and purified octasaccharides. Both 6-O-sulfotransferases showed a preference for 2-O-sulfated substrates. The specificity toward substrates with two to three 2-O-sulfate groups was three to five times higher as compared with octasaccharides with no or one 2-O-sulfate group. PMID:12702732

  15. A pragmatic assessment of government support for organic agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Duram, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a pragmatic approach, this paper provides an analysis of government support for organic farming in Ireland. Varying levels of encouragement and programmes are provided to farmers in their conversion from conventional to organic production, and in their maintenance of organic production. As support policies vary across regions and are linked to European Union legislation, it is challenging to document the many types of support in place. This paper investigates relevant technical, financial, and policy support available to organic farmers in Ireland. As an exploratory study, it develops an assessment of Ireland within eight key categories of organic agricultural support: policy, leadership, technical support, financial support, research, education and information, marketing and promotion, and future outlook. Information and data from the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF), the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority (Teagasc), and other government and semi-governmental agencies were utilized to assess the level of support in each category. This assessment provides key findings which will allow policymakers, organizations and citizens to better understand the current situation and set a path for the future development of organic farming in Ireland. PMID:22066154

  16. Pharmacokinetic and Biodistribution Assessment of a Near Infrared-Labeled PSMA-Specific Small Molecule in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, Joy L.; Cheung, Lael L.; Simpson, Melanie A.; Olive, D. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and often requires surgery. Use of near infrared (NIR) technologies to perform image-guided surgery may improve accurate delineation of tumor margins. To facilitate preclinical testing of such outcomes, here we developed and characterized a PSMA-targeted small molecule, YC-27. IRDye 800CW was conjugated to YC-27 or an anti-PSMA antibody used for reference. Human 22Rv1, PC3M-LN4, and/or LNCaP prostate tumor cells were exposed to the labeled compounds. In vivo targeting and clearance properties were determined in tumor-bearing mice. Organs and tumors were excised and imaged to assess probe localization. YC-27 exhibited a dose dependent increase in signal upon binding. Binding specificity and internalization were visualized by microscopy. In vitro and in vivo blocking studies confirmed YC-27 specificity. In vivo, YC-27 showed good tumor delineation and tissue contrast at doses as low as 0.25 nmole. YC-27 was cleared via the kidneys but bound the proximal tubules of the renal cortex and epididymis. Since PSMA is also broadly expressed on the neovasculature of most tumors, we expect YC-27 will have clinical utility for image-guided surgery and tumor resections. PMID:24804103

  17. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes. PMID:26802804

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for building 878, manufacturing science and technology, organization 14100.

    SciTech Connect

    Klossner, Kristin Ann

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a preliminary assessment carried out for activities and operations at Sandia National Laboratories Building 878, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Organization 14100. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate processes being carried out within the building to determine ways to reduce waste generation and resource use. The ultimate purpose of this assessment is to analyze and prioritize processes within Building 878 for more in-depth assessments and to identify projects that can be implemented immediately.

  19. Guidelines for application of chemical-specific adjustment factors in dose/concentration-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Renwick, A; Ohanian, E; Dourson, M; Lake, B; Naumann, B D; Vu, V

    2002-12-27

    This manuscript addresses guidance in the use of kinetic and dynamic data to inform quantitatively extrapolations for interspecies differences and human variability in dose-response assessment developed in a project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) initiative on Harmonisation of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. The guidance has been developed and refined through a series of planning and technical meetings and larger workshops of a broad range of participants from academia, government agencies and the private sector. The guidance for adequacy of data for replacement of common defaults for interspecies differences and human variability is presented in the context of several generic categories including: determination of the active chemical species, choice of the appropriate metric (kinetic components) or endpoint (dynamic components) and nature of experimental data, the latter which includes reference to the relevance of population, route and dose and the adequacy of the number of subjects/samples. The principal objective of this guidance developed primarily as a resource for risk assessors, is to foster better understanding of the components of and criteria for adequacy of chemical-specific data to quantitate interspecies differences and human variability in kinetics and dynamics. It is anticipated that this guidance will also encourage the development of appropriate data and facilitate their incorporation in a consistent fashion in dose-response assessment for regulatory purposes (IPCS, 2001). PMID:12505295

  20. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Long, E.R.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  1. Volume estimation using food specific shape templates in mobile image-based dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Junghoon; Woo, Insoo; Kim, SungYe; Maciejewski, Ross; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Ebert, David S.

    2011-03-01

    As obesity concerns mount, dietary assessment methods for prevention and intervention are being developed. These methods include recording, cataloging and analyzing daily dietary records to monitor energy and nutrient intakes. Given the ubiquity of mobile devices with built-in cameras, one possible means of improving dietary assessment is through photographing foods and inputting these images into a system that can determine the nutrient content of foods in the images. One of the critical issues in such the image-based dietary assessment tool is the accurate and consistent estimation of food portion sizes. The objective of our study is to automatically estimate food volumes through the use of food specific shape templates. In our system, users capture food images using a mobile phone camera. Based on information (i.e., food name and code) determined through food segmentation and classification of the food images, our system choose a particular food template shape corresponding to each segmented food. Finally, our system reconstructs the three-dimensional properties of the food shape from a single image by extracting feature points in order to size the food shape template. By employing this template-based approach, our system automatically estimates food portion size, providing a consistent method for estimation food volume.

  2. Volume Estimation Using Food Specific Shape Templates in Mobile Image-Based Dietary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chae, Junghoon; Woo, Insoo; Kim, Sungye; Maciejewski, Ross; Zhu, Fengging; Delp, Edward J; Boushey, Carol J; Ebert, David S

    2011-02-01

    As obesity concerns mount, dietary assessment methods for prevention and intervention are being developed. These methods include recording, cataloging and analyzing daily dietary records to monitor energy and nutrient intakes. Given the ubiquity of mobile devices with built-in cameras, one possible means of improving dietary assessment is through photographing foods and inputting these images into a system that can determine the nutrient content of foods in the images. One of the critical issues in such the image-based dietary assessment tool is the accurate and consistent estimation of food portion sizes. The objective of our study is to automatically estimate food volumes through the use of food specific shape templates. In our system, users capture food images using a mobile phone camera. Based on information (i.e., food name and code) determined through food segmentation and classification of the food images, our system choose a particular food template shape corresponding to each segmented food. Finally, our system reconstructs the three-dimensional properties of the food shape from a single image by extracting feature points in order to size the food shape template. By employing this template-based approach, our system automatically estimates food portion size, providing a consistent method for estimation food volume. PMID:22025936

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a specific tool for the interaction study of two surfactants with natural and synthetic organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Aude-Valérie; Frochot, Céline; Bersillon, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    Four different techniques were used to study the binding of cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and non-ionic nonylphenylethoxyl (NPE) surfactants to three synthetic organic components that mimic humic-like aggregates and to two natural aggregated humic substances (HS) extracted from aquatic suspended matter. The composition of synthetic organic components were chosen to be similar to high molecular weight highly processed terrigenous HS and low and high molecular weight less processed terrigenous (or aquatic terrigenous) HS. The natural HS were extracted under two different meteorological conditions (rainy and dry periods). No significant interaction between the non-ionic surfactant and any of the studied compounds was found. Concerning CTAB; pH, conductivity and turbidity measurements, along with fluorescence spectroscopy were combined to provide a better understanding of interactions between organic aggregates and the surfactant. The spectroscopic data show that a "highly processed terrigenous HS" fluorophore interacts in a different way with the cationic surfactant than an "aquatic terrigenous (or less processed terrigenous) HS" fluorophore does. Under similar conditions, some spectral changes in the fluorescence signal are correlated to changes in non-specific physical-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductivity) for the organic compounds tested. The complexation mechanism is essentially governed by charge neutralization, which can be monitored specifically by the fluorescence of the organic moieties.

  4. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures. PMID:26251898

  5. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    PubMed Central

    Leloup, Maud; Pallier, Virginie; Nicolau, Rudy; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM) of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM) properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis) and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS) mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures. PMID:26251898

  6. Burn Injury-Specific Home Safety Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arshi, Shahnam; Bazargani, Homayoun Sadeghi; Mohammadi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of injury specific home safety investigation and to examine the home safety status focused on burn related safety in a rural population in the North-West of Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 rural households of rural Meshkinshahr, Iran. Cluster sampling method was used in 38 clusters with 7 households in each cluster. Clusters were selected on a probability proportional to size (PPS) basis using the available health census database called D-Tarh. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package STATA 8. Results Possible risks were explored in fields of house structure; cooking and eating attitudes and behaviors; cooking appliances, specific appliances such as picnic gas burners, valors (traditional heaters), samovars (traditional water boilers), and air-heating appliances. Many safety concerns were explored needing to draw the attention of researchers and public health policy makers. Conclusion Injury specific home safety surveys are useful and may provide useful information for safety promotion interventions. PMID:23209574

  7. Screening targeted testis‑specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis‑specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis‑specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia‑associated genes, resulting in 348 testis‑specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  8. Screening targeted testis-specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis-specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis-specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia-associated genes, resulting in 348 testis-specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  9. Regional Assessment of soil organic matter profile distribution in the boreal forest ecosystems of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Belousova, Nataliya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems play one of the key roles in the Global Change challenges responses. The soil carbon stocks are principal regulators of their environmental functions. Boreal forest soil cover is characterized by mutually increased spatial variability in soil organic matter content (SOMC) that one need to take into attention in its current and future environmental functions state assessment including the potential of regional soil organic matter stocks changes due to Global Change and inverse ones. Knowledge of the regional regularities in SOMC profile vertical distribution allows improving their soil environmental functions prediction land quality evaluation. More than 900 profiles of SOMC distribution were studied using the database Boreal that contains data on Russian boreal soils developed in drained conditions on loamy soil forming rocks. These soil profiles belong to seven main types of forest soils of Russian classification and six major regions of Russia. The predomination of accumulation profile type was observed for all cases. Thus the vertical distribution of OMC in the profiles of boreal soils can be described as follow: the layer of maximum OMC is replaced by the layer of dramatic OMC reduction; then the layer of minimal OMC extends up to 2.5 m. The layer of maximal OMC accumulation has the low depth of 5-15 cm. It carried out in different genetic horizons: A1, A1A2, A2, B, AB; sometimes it captures the A2B horizon or the upper part of the illuvial horizon. The OMC in this layer increases from the northern taiga to the southern taiga and from the European part of Russia to Siberia. The second layer is characterized by its depth and by the gradient of OMC decreasing. A great variety of the both parameters is observed. The layer of the sharp OMC fall most often fits with the eluvial horizons A2 or А2В or even the upper part of the Вt (textural) or Bm (metamorphic) horizons. The layer of permanently small OMC may begin in any genetic horizon

  10. The Prevalence of Specific Ecologies in Marine Organisms with Relation to Environmental Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, S.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The environment is constantly changing; in recent times, the issue of global warming in particular has raised concerns about ecosystems. Marine organisms are just one type of organism affected by environmental changes; by studying how changes in the environment in the past have affected evolution, we can make predictions for the future. Drastic environmental changes have occurred since the beginning of the Cambrian (541 Ma), as have changes in the ecologies of different phyla and marine organisms as a whole. Organisms must adapt to changing environments, and by analyzing the correlations between the two variables, we can find out which environmental factors play roles in the prevalences of characteristics in populations. Distinctive patterns in the originations and extinctions of ecologies in large fractions of a population and the changes in environmental conditions are visible through careful analysis. We have found, through correlation tests between factors, that statistically significant correlations (p-values < 5%) do exist between certain ecologies (including motility, feeding habits, and tiering) and environmental factors. In particular, these include changes in sea level and carbon dioxide levels, two of the biggest effects of global warming that is currently occurring. Research into these factors is important for our understanding of the changing world of today.

  11. Quantifying Natural Organic Matter with Calorimetry - assessing system complexity to build a central view C stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liles, G. C.; Bower, J.; Henneberry, Y.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the status and stability of natural organic matter (NOM) is central to understanding the flux, attenuation and function of C in the biosphere. A diversity of stabilizing factors (climate, mineralogy, chemical recalcitrance) have required a range of analytical approaches and methods that are site or discipline specific making unified assessments difficult. Aggregated, these efforts support our working models of NOM as a dynamic body but, overall, lack analytical simplicity and reproducibility. In particular, the robustness and resolution to assess NOM across systems of increasing complexity is lacking. Calorimetry has been central to chemistry and material science characterizing a broad range of organic and inorganic materials and their mixtures illustrating composition, purity and stability. Differential scanning calorimetry - thermogravimetry (DSC-TG) provides the flexibility and resolution to quantify the complexity found within NOM with precise quantification of material mass loss (TG) and energetic (DSC) under controlled atmospheric and heating conditions. DSC-TG is data rich providing a range of qualitative and quantitative metrics: peak shape, exothermic energy yield, mass loss, and determination of enthalpy, to characterize NOM stability from low (dissolved organic carbon - DOC) through high (compost and soils) molecular weights (MW) at increasing levels of organo-metallic complexity. Our research investigates the influence of biochemical recalcitrance and its alteration by oxides employing three natural systems of varying complexity as experimental models: aquatic - DOC and DOC with metal flocculants (low MW - low complexity), compost - processed with and without metal oxides (mixed MW - increasing complexity) and forest soils - under varying management and litter inputs (mixed MW - most complexity). Samples were analyzed by DSC-TG (zero-air - 20 C/min - ambient to > 800C) and assessed for three temperature/exothermic reaction regions (200

  12. Assessing the Fate of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Carbon in River-influenced Ocean Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, C. G.; Benner, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    The mineralization of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) discharged by rivers can impact nutrient and trace metal cycling, biological productivity, net ecosystem metabolism, and air-sea CO2 exchange in ocean margins. The extreme heterogeneity of river-influenced ocean margins represents a major challenge for quantitative assessments of tDOC transformations and thereby obscures the role of tDOC in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we demonstrate how a lignin-based optical proxy for tDOC and a shelf-wide mass balance approach can be used to quantitatively assess the fate of tDOC discharged on a river-influenced ocean margin. Such a mass balance was carried out in the northern Gulf of Mexico and revealed that ~40% of the tDOC discharged by Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System between March 2009 and March 2010 was mineralized to CO2 on the Louisiana shelf, with two thirds of the mineralization taking place in the mixed layer. A strong seasonality in tDOC mineralization was observed, with mineralization rates severalfold higher during summer than during winter. Independent assessments of specific mineralization processes indicated biomineralization accounted for ~94% of the tDOC mineralization on an annual basis, and suggested that photochemical transformations of tDOC enhanced biomineralization by ~50% in the mixed layer. Direct photomineralization accounted for a relatively small fraction (~6%) of the tDOC mineralization on an annual basis. This quantitative assessment provides direct evidence confirming ocean margins are major sinks of the tDOC discharged by rivers, and indicates that tDOC mineralization rates in the shelf mixed layer are sufficiently large to influence whether the Louisiana shelf is a net sink or source of atmospheric CO2. In this presentation, we also demonstrate how the remote sensing of ocean color can be used to trace tDOC and its cross-shelf export and further advance our understanding of the fate of tDOC in ocean margins.

  13. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation. PMID:26550706

  14. Life cycle toxicity assessment of pesticides used in integrated and organic production of oranges in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Sanjuán, Neus

    2011-02-01

    The relative impacts of 25 pesticides including acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and post-harvest fungicides, used in the production of oranges in Spain were assessed with current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) tools. Chemical specific concentrations were combined with pesticide emission data and information on chemical toxicity to assess human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. As a case study, the relative impacts of two orange production systems in the region of Valencia, integrated pest management (IP) and organic production (OP), were assessed. The evaluation of active ingredients showed that on average acaricides have the highest human toxicity impact scores, while for freshwater ecotoxicity insecticides show the highest impact. In both impact categories the lowest impact scores were calculated for herbicides. In the production of 1 kg of orange fruits, where several kinds of pesticides are combined, results show that post-harvest fungicides can contribute more than 95% to the aggregate human toxicity impacts. More than 85% of aquatic ecotoxicity is generated by fungicides applied before harvest. The potential to reduce impacts on freshwater ecosystems is seven orders of magnitude, while impacts on human health can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Hence, this stresses the importance of a careful pre-selection of active ingredients. In both impact categories, organic production represents the least toxic pest-control method. PMID:21075421

  15. Organ specific mapping of in vivo redox state in control and cigarette smoke-exposed mice using EPR/NMR co-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caia, George L.; Efimova, Olga V.; Velayutham, Murugesan; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Kesselring, Eric; Petryakov, Sergey; Sun, Ziqi; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2012-03-01

    In vivo mapping of alterations in redox status is important for understanding organ specific pathology and disease. While electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) enables spatial mapping of free radicals, it does not provide anatomic visualization of the body. Proton MRI is well suited to provide anatomical visualization. We applied EPR/NMR co-imaging instrumentation to map and monitor the redox state of living mice under normal or oxidative stress conditions induced by secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure. A hybrid co-imaging instrument, EPRI (1.2 GHz)/proton MRI (16.18 MHz), suitable for whole-body co-imaging of mice was utilized with common magnet and gradients along with dual EPR/NMR resonators that enable co-imaging without sample movement. The metabolism of the nitroxide probe, 3-carbamoyl-proxyl (3-CP), was used to map the redox state of control and SHS-exposed mice. Co-imaging allowed precise 3D mapping of radical distribution and reduction in major organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, bladder and kidneys. Reductive metabolism was markedly decreased in SHS-exposed mice and EPR/NMR co-imaging allowed quantitative assessment of this throughout the body. Thus, in vivo EPR/NMR co-imaging enables in vivo organ specific mapping of free radical metabolism and redox stress and the alterations that occur in the pathogenesis of disease.

  16. Heterozygous Mutation of Drosophila Opa1 Causes the Development of Multiple Organ Abnormalities in an Age-Dependent and Organ-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phung Khanh; Pak, William L.; Tse, Stephanie; Ocorr, Karen; Huang, Taosheng

    2009-01-01

    Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a ubiquitously expressed dynamin-like GTPase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It plays important roles in mitochondrial fusion, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. Mutations of OPA1 result in autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). The molecular mechanisms by which link OPA1 mutations and DOA are not fully understood. Recently, we created a Drosophila model to study the pathogenesis of optic atrophy. Heterozygous mutation of Drosophila OPA1 (dOpa1) by P-element insertion results in no obvious morphological abnormalities, whereas homozygous mutation is embryonic lethal. In eye-specific somatic clones, homozygous mutation of dOpa1 causes rough (mispatterning) and glossy (decreased lens deposition) eye phenotypes in adult Drosophila. In humans, heterozygous mutations in OPA1 have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, which is predicted to affect multiple organs. In this study, we demonstrated that heterozygous dOpa1 mutation perturbs the visual function and an ERG profile of the Drosophila compound eye. We independently showed that antioxidants delayed the onset of mutant phenotypes in ERG and improved larval vision function in phototaxis assay. Furthermore, heterozygous dOpa1 mutation also caused decreased heart rate, increased heart arrhythmia, and poor tolerance to stress induced by electrical pacing. However, antioxidants had no effects on the dysfunctional heart of heterozygous dOpa1 mutants. Under stress, heterozygous dOpa1 mutations caused reduced escape response, suggesting abnormal function of the skeletal muscles. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutation of dOpa1 shows organ-specific pathogenesis and is associated with multiple organ abnormalities in an age-dependent and organ-specific manner. PMID:19718456

  17. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K; McBain, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  18. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K.; McBain, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  19. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis). Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6) and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc) from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc) and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc) were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46) that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45). Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed. PMID:23276246

  20. Sustainability assessment through analogical models: The approach of aerobic living-organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassisti, Michele

    2014-10-01

    The most part of scientific discoveries of human being borrow ideas and inspiration from nature. This point gives the rationale of the sustainability assessment approach presented here and based on the aerobic living organism (ALO) already developed by the author, which funds on the basic assumption that it is reasonable and effective to refer to the analogy between an system organized by human (say, manufacturing system, enterprise, etc.) for several decision-making scopes. The critical review of the ALO conceptual model already developed is here discussed through an example of an Italian small enterprise manufacturing metal components for civil furniture to assess its feasibility for sustainability appraisal.

  1. Quantification and assessment of viability of Pneumocystis carinii organisms by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, S E; Glencross, D; Car, N G; Kallenbach, J M; Zwi, S

    1991-05-01

    Analysis of drug efficacy in animal models of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia requires an accurate method of quantification of organisms, as well as a means of assessing viability. Lung homogenates were prepared from a colony of athymic nude F344 rats experiencing a spontaneous outbreak of P. carinii pneumonia. With the fluorescent nucleic acid stain propidium iodide, flow cytometric analysis was able to quantify P. carinii cysts and trophozoites reproducibly. As this stain is excluded by living cells, this method was also used to assess the viability of organisms. Application of this technique to analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was demonstrated. PMID:2056058

  2. Explicit Processing Demands Reveal Language Modality-Specific Organization of Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    The working memory model for Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) predicts that processing differences between language modalities emerge when cognitive demands are explicit. This prediction was tested in three working memory experiments with participants who were Deaf Signers (DS), Hearing Signers (HS), or Hearing Nonsigners (HN). Easily nameable pictures were used as stimuli to avoid confounds relating to sensory modality. Performance was largely similar for DS, HS, and HN, suggesting that previously identified intermodal differences may be due to differences in retention of sensory information. When explicit processing demands were high, differences emerged between DS and HN, suggesting that although working memory storage in both groups is sensitive to temporal organization, retrieval is not sensitive to temporal organization in DS. A general effect of semantic similarity was also found. These findings are discussed in relation to the ELU model. PMID:18353759

  3. Partitioning and matrix-specific toxicity of bifenthrin among sediments and leaf-sourced organic matter.

    PubMed

    Maul, Jonathan D; Trimble, Andrew J; Lydy, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids readily partition from the aqueous to the solid phase in aquatic systems. Previous work has focused on pyrethroid partitioning to sediment matrices. Within many aquatic systems, however, other carbon-containing materials are present and can be critically important to certain invertebrate species and ecosystem functioning. For example, some invertebrates readily process leaf material, and these processes may represent an additional route of contaminant exposure. To our knowledge, estimates for partitioning of pyrethroids to these nondissolved organic matter matrices and associated toxicity have not been examined. The objectives of the present study were to examine variation in organic carbon (OC)-based partition coefficient (K(OC)) among three size fractions of particulate organic matter from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) leaf litter and sediments for the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin and to examine variation in toxicity to Hyalella azteca among bifenthrin-bound organic matter matrices and sediment. Log K(OC) of [(14)C]bifenthrin was greatest within sediment (6.63+/-0.23; mean +/- standard deviation throughout) and lowest in coarse particulate leaf material (4.86+/-0.03). The H. azteca median lethal concentration was 0.07, 0.11, and 0.15 microg/g OC for leaf material, sediment, and a 50% mix of leaf and sediment, respectively. Nonoverlapping 95% confidence intervals occurred between the leaf treatment and the leaf-sediment treatment. This pattern was supported in an additional experiment, and at 0.22 microg/g OC, H. azteca survival was greater in the leaf-sediment mixture than in sediment or in leaf material alone (F=29.5, p<0.0001). In systems that contain sediment and leaf material, both greater partitioning of bifenthrin to the sediment fraction and preferential use of leaf substrates may drive H. azteca survival. PMID:18333691

  4. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J. -K; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J.

    2011-06-21

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  5. Y-12 site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.B.; Hunt, R.J.; Manrod, W.E. III

    1995-09-29

    A site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment were performed for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The main purpose of these studies was to use the results of the analyses for evaluating the safety of the performance category -1, -2, and -3 facilities against the natural phenomena seismic hazards. Earthquake response was determined for seven (7), one dimensional soil columns (Fig. 12) using two horizontal components of the PC-3 design basis 2000-year seismic event. The computer program SHAKE 91 (Ref. 7) was used to calculate the absolute response accelerations on top of ground (soil/weathered shale) and rock outcrop. The SHAKE program has been validated for horizontal response calculations at periods less than 2.0 second at several sites and consequently is widely accepted in the geotechnical earthquake engineering area for site response analysis.

  6. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  7. VARIATIONS IN THE EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM THE TONER FROM A SPECIFIC PHOTOCOPIER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory thermal desorption apparatus was used to measure emissions from a number of nominally identical photocopier toners - manufactured for use in a specific model copier - when these toners were heated to fuser temperature (180 - 200 degrees C). The objective was to deter...

  8. The "ABC" of Virus-Specific T Cell Immunity in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sester, M; Leboeuf, C; Schmidt, T; Hirsch, H H

    2016-06-01

    Transplant patients are at increased risk of viral complications due to impaired control of viral replication, resulting from HLA mismatching between graft and host and the immunosuppression needed to avert alloimmune reactions. In the past decade, quantitative viral load measurements have become widely available to identify patients at risk and to inform treatment decisions with respect to immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral therapies. Because viral loads are viewed as the result of viral replication and virus-specific immune control, virus-specific T cell monitoring has been explored to optimize management of adenovirus, BK polyomavirus and cytomegalovirus ("ABC") in transplant patients. Although most studies are descriptive using different technologies, the overall results show that the quantity and quality of virus-specific T cells inversely correlate with viral replication, whereby strong cellular immune responses are associated with containment of viral replication. The key obstacles to the introduction of assays for virus-specific T cells into clinical practice is the definition of reliable cutoffs for clinical decision making, the poor negative predictive value of some assays, and the absence of interventional trials justifying changes of antiviral treatment or immunosuppression. More clinical research is needed using optimized assays and targets before standardization and commutability can be envisaged as achieved for viral load testing. PMID:26699950

  9. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  10. Improving efficiencies of locus-specific DNA methylation assessment for bovine in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Wroclawska, Ewa; Brant, Jason O; Yang, Thomas P; Moore, Karen

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of DNA methylation is one assessment of chromatin remodeling in early embryos. Unfortunately, evaluation at specific loci is hindered by their small cell numbers. Our objective was to determine if bisulfite sequencing could be optimized for preimplantation embryos, comparing conversion times, primer design, and DNA amplification methods. Methylation at three loci, SATI, OCT4, and IGF2, was investigated in bovine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos, somatic cells, and no template controls. Bisulfite treatment for 15-16 h gave higher quality DNA than treatment for 18 h. Three step primer design improved bisulfite primer specificity, yielding more PCR product than primers previously reported. Following optimization, methylation data were obtained from as few as 4 cell equivalents. Finally, DNA amplification efficiencies were evaluated using miniprep, TempliPhi, or 96-well glycerol stocks with automated TempliPhi. While TempliPhi was better than standard minipreps, the 96-well format proved most efficient. Preliminary methylation profiles of bovine IVP 2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst stage embryos and somatic cells were 25, 10, 22, and 74% for SATI and 88, 88, 79, and 88% for OCT4, respectively, suggesting that SATI is demethylated during early embryonic reprogramming, while OCT4 remains hypermethylated. IGF2 methylation was 84, 28, and 84% for bovine IVP 8-cell, blastocyst stage embryos and somatic cells; blastocyst stage embryos exhibited more variability, ranging from 0 to 80%. This new assay will enhance assessment of chromatin remodeling in embryos, and be especially useful for evaluating those produced by assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:20170282

  11. Quality of life assessment in cosmetics: specificity and interest of the international BeautyQol instrument.

    PubMed

    Beresniak, Ariel; Auray, Jean-Paul; Duru, Gérard; Aractingi, Selim; Krueger, Gerald G; Talarico, Sergio; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Dupont, Danielle; de Linares, Yolaine

    2015-09-01

    The wide use of cosmetics and their perceived benefits upon well-being imply objective descriptions of their effects upon the different dimensions contributing to the quality of life (QoL). Such a goal pleas for using relevant and validated scientific instruments with robust measurement methods. This paper discusses the interest of the new validated questionnaire BeautyQoL specifically designed to assess the effect of cosmetic products on physical appearance and QoL. After conducting a review of skin appearance and QoL, three phases of the international codevelopment have been carried out in the following sequence: semi-directed interviews (Phase 1), acceptability study (Phase 2), and validation study (Phase 3). Data collection and validation process have been carried out in 16 languages. This review confirms that QoL instruments developed in dermatology are not suitable to assess cosmetic products, mainly because of their lack of sensitivity. General acceptability of BeautyQol was very good. Forty-two questions have been structured in five dimensions that explained 76.7% of the total variance: Social Life, Self-confidence, Mood, Vitality, and Attractiveness. Cronbach's alpha coefficients are between 0.932 and 0.978, confirming the good internal consistency of the results. The BeautyQol questionnaire is the first international instrument specific to cosmetic products and physical appearance that has been validated in 16 languages and could be used in a number of clinical trials and descriptive studies to demonstrate the added value of these products on the QoL. PMID:26133392

  12. Assessing the origin of unusual organic formations in lava caves from Canary Islands (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ana Z.; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Jurado, Valme; Fernández, Octavio; Knicker, Heike; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-04-01

    Lava tubes, like other caves, contain a variety of speleothems formed in the initial stage of a lava tube formation or due to leaching and subsequent precipitation of secondary minerals. Primary and secondary mineral formations in lava caves are mainly composed of silicate minerals, although secondary minerals common in limestone caves have been also reported in this type of caves. In addition, unusual colored deposits have been found on the walls and ceilings of lava tubes, some of them of unknown origin and composition. A brown to black-colored mud-like deposits was observed in "Llano de los Caños" Cave, La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain. These black deposits coat the wall and ceiling of the lava tube where sub-horizontal fractures occur. FESEM-EDS, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mineralogical analyses were conducted for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization of these unusual speleothem samples. These techniques revealed that they are mainly composed of amorphous materials, suggesting an organic carbon composition. Hence, analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS), solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and stable isotope analysis were applied to assess the nature and origin of the black deposits. The combination of these analytical tools permits the identification of specific biomarkers (di- and triterpenoids) for tracing the potential sources of the organic compounds in the speleothems. For comparison purposes, samples from the topsoil and overlaying vegetation were also analyzed. Chromatograms resulting from the Py-GC/MS showed an abundance of polysaccharides, lipids and terpenoids typically derived from the vegetation of the area (Erica arborea). In addition, levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-containing heterocyclic compounds were detected. They probably derived from the leaching of charred vegetation resulting from a wildfire occurred in the area in 2012. The lack of the typical pattern of odd

  13. Assessment of Organic Matter Content in Highland Forest Soils in Central Anatolia of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göl, C.; Erşahin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Forest soils are important pool for organic carbon worldwide. Global warming is expected to influence forest soils due to that it may alter the balance between addition and decomposition of litter. Orographic effect of climate on organic matter in forest soils may be a good indicator of likely impact of climate change on these forest soils. This study was conducted to assess the relations between organic matter content of forest soils and elevation. Data of organic matter content from previous studies conducted on different elevations in semi-arid regions of Central Anatolia region of Turkey were used. A significant positive correlation occurred between elevation and organic matter content. The relation could be modeled with a fist degree linear regression equation. We concluded that topographic attributes may be used to forecast adequately likely impact of climate change on carbon emissions from forest soils in mountainous regions.

  14. Mesenchymal condensation-dependent accumulation of collagen VI stabilizes organ-specific cell fates during embryonic tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Mammoto, Akiko; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Hashmi, Basma; Ingber, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mechanical compression of cells during mesenchymal condensation triggers cells to undergo odontogenic differentiation during tooth organ formation in the embryo. However, the mechanism by which cell compaction is stabilized over time to ensure correct organ specific cell fate switching remains unknown. Results Here, we show that mesenchymal cell compaction induces accumulation of collagen VI in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which physically stabilizes compressed mesenchymal cell shapes and ensures efficient organ-specific cell fate switching during tooth organ development. Mechanical induction of collagen VI deposition is mediated by signaling through the actin-p38MAPK-SP1 pathway, and the ECM scaffold is stabilized by lysyl oxidase (LOX) in the condensing mesenchyme. Moreover, perturbation of synthesis or cross-linking of collagen VI alters the size of the condensation in vivo. Conclusions These findings suggest that the odontogenic differentiation process that is induced by cell compaction during mesenchymal condensation is stabilized and sustained through mechanically-regulated production of collagen VI within the mesenchymal ECM. PMID:25715693

  15. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  16. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  17. Organ-specific effects of brassinosteroids on stomatal production coordinate with the action of Too Many Mouths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Yang, Kezhen; Le, Jie

    2015-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, stomatal development initiates after protodermal cells acquire stomatal lineage cell fate. Stomata or their precursors communicate with their neighbor epidermal cells to ensure the "one cell spacing" rule. The signals from EPF/EPFL peptide ligands received by Too Many Mouths (TMM) and ERECTA-family receptors are supposed to be transduced by YODA MAPK cascade. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) is another key regulator of stomatal cell fate determination and asymmetric entry divisions, and SPCH activity is regulated by YODA MAPK cascade. Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, one of the most well characterized signal transduction pathways in plants, contributes to the control of stomatal production. But opposite organ-specific effects of BR on stomatal production were reported. Here we confirm that stomatal production in hypocotyls is controlled by BR levels. YODA and CYCD4 are not essential for BR stomata-promoting function. Furthermore, we found that BR could confer tmm hypocotyls clustered stomatal phenotype, indicating that the BR organ-specific effects on stomatal production might coordinate with the TMM organ-specific actions. PMID:25234048

  18. Organ specificity in the plant circadian system is explained by different light inputs to the shoot and root clocks.

    PubMed

    Bordage, Simon; Sullivan, Stuart; Laird, Janet; Millar, Andrew J; Nimmo, Hugh G

    2016-10-01

    Circadian clocks allow the temporal compartmentalization of biological processes. In Arabidopsis, circadian rhythms display organ specificity but the underlying molecular causes have not been identified. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the similarities and differences between the clocks of mature shoots and roots in constant conditions and in light : dark cycles. We developed an imaging system to monitor clock gene expression in shoots and light- or dark-grown roots, modified a recent mathematical model of the Arabidopsis clock and used this to simulate our new data. We showed that the shoot and root circadian clocks have different rhythmic properties (period and amplitude) and respond differently to light quality. The root clock was entrained by direct exposure to low-intensity light, even in antiphase to the illumination of shoots. Differences between the clocks were more pronounced in conditions where light was present than in constant darkness, and persisted in the presence of sucrose. We simulated the data successfully by modifying those parameters of a clock model that are related to light inputs. We conclude that differences and similarities between the shoot and root clocks can largely be explained by organ-specific light inputs. This provides mechanistic insight into the developing field of organ-specific clocks. PMID:27240972

  19. [Assessment of financial performance improves the quality of healthcare provided by medical organizations].

    PubMed

    Afek, Arnon; Meilik, Ahuva; Rotstein, Zeev

    2009-01-01

    Today, medical organizations have to contend with a highly competitive environment, an atmosphere saturated with a multitude of innovative new technologies and ever-increasing costs. The ability of these organizations to survive and to develop and expand their services mandates adoption of management guidelines based on the world of finance/commerce, adapted to make them relevant to the world of medical service. In this article the authors chose to present a management administration assessment which is a process that ensures that the management will effectively administer the organization's resources, and meet the goals set by the organization. The system demands that hospital "centers of responsibility" be defined, a management information system be set up, activities be priced, budget be defined and the expenses assessed. These processes make it possible to formulate a budget and assess any possible deviation between the budget and the actual running costs. An assessment of deviations will reveal any possible deviation of the most significant factor--efficiency. Medical organization managers, with the cooperation of the directors of the "centers of responsibility", can assess subunit activities and gain an understanding of the significance of management decisions and thus improve the quality of management, and the medical organization. The goal of this management system is not only to Lower costs and to meet the financial goals that were set; it is a tool that ensures quality. Decreasing expenditure is important in this case, but is only secondary in importance and will be a result of reducing the costs incurred by services lacking in quality. PMID:19320392

  20. Temporal Assessment of the Impact of Exposure to Cow Feces in Two Watersheds by Multiple Host-Specific PCR Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to feces in two watersheds with different management histories was assessed by tracking cattle feces bacterial populations using multiple host-specific PCR assays. In addition, environmental factors affecting the occurrence of these markers were identified. Each assay wa...

  1. Assessment of the effect of stress-tolerance acquisition on some basic characteristics of specific probiotics.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Elloise; Vesterlund, Satu; Gueimonde, Miguel; Salminen, Seppo

    2013-07-01

    The production of viable functional probiotics presupposes stability of strain features in the final product. We evaluated the impact of acquisition of heat-tolerance and subsequent freeze-drying on the adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Bifidobacterium animalis IF20/1 and on their ability to inhibit the adhesion of pathogens in a mucus model. Both fresh and freeze-dried cultures were evaluated. Significant differences were observed between fresh, freeze dried, fresh heat-tolerant and freeze dried heat-tolerant strains, especially in the ability of the freeze dried probiotics to exclude, displace or outcompete pathogens. Based on our study characterizing probiotic properties such as adhesion and competitive exclusion, it seems possible to adapt probiotics to processing stresses, such as heat, without significantly changing the probiotic properties of the strains assessed. This may provide new options for future probiotic production technology. However, our results also emphasize that the properties of the stress-adapted strains, as well as the effect of the production processes should always be assessed as these are strain-specific. PMID:23688551

  2. Pre-Existing Carbon Structure and Its Effect on Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Small Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to measure site-specific isotopes in organic molecules allows for better understanding of the mechanisms of their biosynthetic and/or catagenic formation and destruction. Here we examine for site-specific isotopic composition of propane from natural and synthetic sources using novel instruments and techniques gas source mass spectrometry 1, and discuss the possible relationship of our findings to recent independent evidence from NMR measurements for the isotopic structures of long-chain alkanes2. A recent NMR study2 demonstrates that n-alkanes can be divided into three groups according to their site-specific carbon isotope structure: long (C16+) even carbon number, long (C17+) odd carbon number , and short (C11-C15). We modeled the isotopic site-specific composition of propane derived from these three distinct groups. If propane is cleaved from such long-chain hydrocarbons without fractionation, the long odd-numbered and the shorter alkanes would produce propane with an average terminal position 6-7‰ lighter than the center position, while the long even-numbered chain compounds would produce propane with a terminal position averaging around 7‰ heavier than the center. If, instead the fractionation associated with cleaving propane from such parent molecules is ~10‰ (as seems likely), then these average terminal — center differences should be decreased by ~5 ‰ (i.e., to -11-12 and +1-2 ‰, respectively). We will compare these predictions with our previous demonstrations of the changes in bulk and site specific compositions in propane due to isotope exchange equilibria, diffusion and conventional models of kerogen 'cracking', and will use these models as a framework for interpreting the observed site-specific isotopic compositions of propane from diverse natural gas deposits. 1. Piasecki, A. et al. Site-Specific Carbon Isotope Measurement of Organics by Gas Source Mass Spectrometry. Mineralogical Magazine 77, (2013). 2. Gilbert, A., Yamada, K

  3. A Self-Organizing Maps approach to assess the wave climate of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Scotton, Carlotta; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of wave conditions at sea is fruitful for many research fields in marine and atmospheric sciences and for the human activities in the marine environment. To this end, in the last decades the observational network, that mostly relies on buoys, satellites and other probes from fixed platforms, has been integrated with numerical models outputs, which allow to compute the parameters of sea states (e.g. the significant wave height, the mean and peak wave periods, the mean and peak wave directions) over wider regions. Apart from the collection of wave parameters observed at specific sites or modeled on arbitrary domains, the data processing performed to infer the wave climate at those sites is a crucial step in order to provide high quality data and information to the community. In this context, several statistical techniques has been used to model the randomness of wave parameters. While univariate and bivariate probability distribution functions (pdf) are routinely used, multivariate pdfs that model the probability structure of more than two wave parameters are hardly managed. Recently, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) technique has been successfully applied to represent the multivariate random wave climate at sites around the Iberian peninsula and the South America continent. Indeed, the visualization properties offered by this technique allow to get the dependencies between the different parameters by visual inspection. In this study, carried out in the frame of the Italian National Flagship Project "RITMARE", we take advantage of the SOM technique to assess the multivariate wave climate over the Adriatic Sea, a semi-enclosed basin in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, where winds from North-East (called "Bora") and South-East (called "Sirocco") mainly blow causing sea storms. By means of the SOM techniques we can observe the multivariate character of the typical Bora and Sirocco wave features in the Adriatic Sea. To this end, we used both observed and

  4. The normal-equivalent: a patient-specific assessment of facial harmony.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Gillett, D; Vandermeulen, D; Clement, J G; Suetens, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based practice in oral and maxillofacial surgery would greatly benefit from an objective assessment of facial harmony or gestalt. Normal reference faces have previously been introduced, but they describe harmony in facial form as an average only and fail to report on harmonic variations found between non-dysmorphic faces. In this work, facial harmony, in all its complexity, is defined using a face-space, which describes all possible variations within a non-dysmorphic population; this was sampled here, based on 400 healthy subjects. Subsequently, dysmorphometrics, which involves the measurement of morphological abnormalities, is employed to construct the normal-equivalent within the given face-space of a presented dysmorphic face. The normal-equivalent can be seen as a synthetic identical but unaffected twin that is a patient-specific and population-based normal. It is used to extract objective scores of facial discordancy. This technique, along with a comparing approach, was used on healthy subjects to establish ranges of discordancy that are accepted to be normal, as well as on two patient examples before and after surgical intervention. The specificity of the presented normal-equivalent approach was confirmed by correctly attributing abnormality and providing regional depictions of the known dysmorphologies. Furthermore, it proved to be superior to the comparing approach. PMID:23582569

  5. Assessment of vibration of effects due to model specification can demonstrate the instability of observational associations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag J.; Burford, Belinda; Ioannidis, John P.A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Model specification -- what adjusting variables are analytically modeled –may influence results of observational associations. We present a standardized approach to quantify the variability of results obtained with choices of adjustments called the “vibration of effects” (VoE). Study Design and Setting We estimated the VoE for 417 clinical, environmental, and physiological variables in association with all-cause mortality using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We selected 13 variables as adjustment co-variates and computed 8,192 Cox models for each of 417 variables’ associations with all-cause mortality. Results We present the VoE by assessing the variance of the effect size and in the −log10(p-value) obtained by different combinations of adjustments. We present whether there are multimodality patterns in effect sizes and p-values and the trajectory of results with increasing adjustments. For 31% of the 417 variables we observed a Janus effect, with the effect being in opposite direction in the 99th versus the 1st percentile of analyses. For example, the vitamin E variant α-tocopherol had a VoE that indicated higher and lower risk for mortality. Conclusions Estimating VoE offers empirical estimates of associations are under different model specifications. When VoE is large, claims for observational associations should be very cautious. PMID:26279400

  6. Development and organization of polarity-specific segregation of primary vestibular afferent fibers in mice.

    PubMed

    Maklad, Adel; Kamel, Suzan; Wong, Elaine; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    A striking feature of vestibular hair cells is the polarized arrangement of their stereocilia as the basis for their directional sensitivity. In mammals, each of the vestibular end organs is characterized by a distinct distribution of these polarized cells. We utilized the technique of post-fixation transganglionic neuronal tracing with fluorescent lipid soluble dyes in embryonic and postnatal mice to investigate whether these polarity characteristics correlate with the pattern of connections between the endorgans and their central targets; the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum. We found that the cerebellar and brainstem projections develop independently from each other and have a non-overlapping distribution of neurons and afferents from E11.5 on. In addition, we show that the vestibular fibers projecting to the cerebellum originate preferentially from the lateral half of the utricular macula and the medial half of the saccular macula. In contrast, the brainstem vestibular afferents originate primarily from the medial half of the utricular macula and the lateral half of the saccular macula. This indicates that the line of hair cell polarity reversal within the striola region segregates almost mutually exclusive central projections. A possible interpretation of this feature is that this macular organization provides an inhibitory side-loop through the cerebellum to produce synergistic tuning effects in the vestibular nuclei. The canal cristae project to the brainstem vestibular nuclei and cerebellum, but the projection to the vestibulocerebellum originates preferentially from the superior half of each of the cristae. The reason for this pattern is not clear, but it may compensate for unequal activation of crista hair cells or may be an evolutionary atavism reflecting a different polarity organization in ancestral vertebrate ears. PMID:20424840

  7. Assessment of radiobiological metrics applied to patient-specific QA process of VMAT prostate treatments.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Gutiérrez, Francisco; Pérez-Vara, Consuelo; Clavo-Herranz, María H; López-Carrizosa, Concepción; Pérez-Regadera, José; Ibáñez-Villoslada, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    VMAT is a powerful technique to deliver hypofractionated prostate treatments. The lack of correlations between usual 2D pretreatment QA results and the clini-cal impact of possible mistakes has allowed the development of 3D verification systems. Dose determination on patient anatomy has provided clinical predictive capability to patient-specific QA process. Dose-volume metrics, as evaluation crite-ria, should be replaced or complemented by radiobiological indices. These metrics can be incorporated into individualized QA extracting the information for response parameters (gEUD, TCP, NTCP) from DVHs. The aim of this study is to assess the role of two 3D verification systems dealing with radiobiological metrics applied to a prostate VMAT QA program. Radiobiological calculations were performed for AAPM TG-166 test cases. Maximum differences were 9.3% for gEUD, -1.3% for TCP, and 5.3% for NTCP calculations. Gamma tests and DVH-based comparisons were carried out for both systems in order to assess their performance in 3D dose determination for prostate treatments (high-, intermediate-, and low-risk, as well as prostate bed patients). Mean gamma passing rates for all structures were bet-ter than 92.0% and 99.1% for both 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria. Maximum discrepancies were (2.4% ± 0.8%) and (6.2% ± 1.3%) for targets and normal tis-sues, respectively. Values for gEUD, TCP, and NTCP were extracted from TPS and compared to the results obtained with the two systems. Three models were used for TCP calculations (Poisson, sigmoidal, and Niemierko) and two models for NTCP determinations (LKB and Niemierko). The maximum mean difference for gEUD calculations was (4.7% ± 1.3%); for TCP, the maximum discrepancy was (-2.4% ± 1.1%); and NTCP comparisons led to a maximum deviation of (1.5% ± 0.5%). The potential usefulness of biological metrics in patient-specific QA has been explored. Both systems have been successfully assessed as potential tools for evaluating the clinical

  8. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  9. Cell-specific STORM superresolution imaging reveals nanoscale organization of cannabinoid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Szilárd I.; Szabadits, Eszter; Pintér, Balázs; Woodhams, Stephen G.; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Balla, Gyula Y.; Nyilas, Rita; Varga, Csaba; Lee, Sang-Hun; Matolcsi, Máté; Cervenak, Judit; Kacskovics, Imre; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sagheddu, Claudia; Melis, Miriam; Pistis, Marco; Soltesz, Ivan; Katona, István

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in neuroscience is to determine the nanoscale position and quantity of signaling molecules in a cell-type-, and subcellular compartment-specific manner. We therefore developed a novel approach combining cell-specific physiological and anatomical characterization with superresolution imaging, and studied the molecular and structural parameters shaping the physiological properties of synaptic endocannabinoid signaling in the mouse hippocampus. We found that axon terminals of perisomatically-projecting GABAergic interneurons possess increased CB1 receptor number, active-zone complexity, and receptor/effector ratio compared to dendritically-projecting interneurons, in agreement with higher efficiency of cannabinoid signaling at somatic versus dendritic synapses. Furthermore, chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration, which reduces cannabinoid efficacy on GABA release, evoked dramatic CB1-downregulation in a dose-dependent manner. Full receptor recovery required several weeks after cessation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment. These findings demonstrate that cell-type-specific nanoscale analysis of endogenous protein distribution is possible in brain circuits, and identify novel molecular properties controlling endocannabinoid signaling and cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25485758

  10. Microelectrode mapping of tonotopic, laminar, and field-specific organization of thalamo-cortical pathway in rat.

    PubMed

    Shiramatsu, Tomoyo Isoguchi; Takahashi, Kazusa; Noda, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Nakahara, Haruka; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    2016-09-22

    The rat has long been considered an important model system for studying neural mechanisms of auditory perception and learning, and particularly mechanisms involving auditory thalamo-cortical processing. However, the functional topography of the auditory thalamus, or medial geniculate body (MGB) has not yet been fully characterized in the rat, and the anatomically-defined features of field-specific, layer-specific and tonotopic thalamo-cortical projections have never been confirmed electrophysiologically. In the present study, we have established a novel technique for recording simultaneously from a surface microelectrode array on the auditory cortex, and a depth electrode array across auditory cortical layers and within the MGB, and characterized the rat MGB and thalamo-cortical projections under isoflurane anesthesia. We revealed that the ventral division of the MGB (MGv) exhibited a low-high-low CF gradient and long-short-long latency gradient along the dorsolateral-to-ventromedial axis, suggesting that the rat MGv is divided into two subdivisions. We also demonstrated that microstimulation in the MGv elicited cortical activation in layer-specific, region-specific and tonotopically organized manners. To our knowledge, the present study has provided the first and most compelling electrophysiological confirmation of the anatomical organization of the primary thalamo-cortical pathway in the rat, setting the groundwork for further investigation. PMID:27329334

  11. A water-specific aquaporin is expressed in the olfactory organs of the blowfly, Phormia regina.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Nagae, Tomone; Azuma, Masaaki

    2012-08-01

    The high sensitivity and selectivity of perireceptor events in insect olfactory organs requires the concerted action of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), odorant receptors (ORs), and odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs). Sensillum lymph in the sensillum cavity is a physiological saline that not only mediates the olfactory signaling pathway described above, but also protects the olfactory neurons against desiccation. The molecular mechanism of how water balance is maintained in the sensillum cavity still remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterize an aquaporin from the blowfly, Phormia regina (PregAQP1). PregAQP1 possesses six predicted transmembrane domains and two asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs, and belongs to the Drosophila melanogaster integral protein (DRIP) subfamily. Transcript levels were high in the maxillary palp and moderate in the antenna. PregAQP1 accumulated in accessory cells located underneath a long-grooved hair in the maxillary palp and also in a receptor neuron in a thick-walled sensillum in the antenna. Expression of PregAQP1 in Xenopus oocytes showed water permeability in a mercury-sensitive manner. These results suggest that PregAQP1 plays a role in the maintenance of the aqueous environment of olfactory organs. PMID:22767214

  12. Dominant and context-specific control of endodermal organ allocation by Ptf1a

    PubMed Central

    Willet, Spencer G.; Hale, Michael A.; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Magnuson, Mark A.; MacDonald, Raymond J.; Wright, Christopher V. E.

    2014-01-01

    The timing and gene regulatory logic of organ-fate commitment from within the posterior foregut of the mammalian endoderm is largely unexplored. Transient misexpression of a presumed pancreatic-commitment transcription factor, Ptf1a, in embryonic mouse endoderm (Ptf1aEDD) dramatically expanded the pancreatic gene regulatory network within the foregut. Ptf1aEDD temporarily suppressed Sox2 broadly over the anterior endoderm. Pancreas-proximal organ territories underwent full tissue conversion. Early-stage Ptf1aEDD rapidly expanded the endogenous endodermal Pdx1-positive domain and recruited other pancreas-fate-instructive genes, thereby spatially enlarging the potential for pancreatic multipotency. Early Ptf1aEDD converted essentially the entire glandular stomach, rostral duodenum and extrahepatic biliary system to pancreas, with formation of many endocrine cell clusters of the type found in normal islets of Langerhans. Sliding the Ptf1aEDD expression window through embryogenesis revealed differential temporal competencies for stomach-pancreas respecification. The response to later-stage Ptf1aEDD changed radically towards unipotent, acinar-restricted conversion. We provide strong evidence, beyond previous Ptf1a inactivation or misexpression experiments in frog embryos, for spatiotemporally context-dependent activity of Ptf1a as a potent gain-of-function trigger of pro-pancreatic commitment. PMID:25371369

  13. Glycosylation Might Provide Endothelial Zip Codes for Organ-Specific Leukocyte Traffic into Inflammatory Sites

    PubMed Central

    Renkonen, Jutta; Tynninen, Olli; Häyry, Pekka; Paavonen, Timo; Renkonen, Risto

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are characterized by the leukocyte infiltration into tissues. L-selectin on lymphocytes and its endothelial glycosylated ligands are instrumental in the initiation of lymphocyte extravasation. Immunohistochemical stainings with monoclonal antibodies against functionally active glycan-decorated L-selectin ligands, ie, sialyl-Lewis x (sLex, 2F3, and HECA-452) or sulfated extended core 1 lactosamine (MECA-79), were performed on more than 400 specimen representatives for thyroiditis, myocarditis, psoriasis, vasculitis, ulcerative colitis, and their corresponding noninflamed tissues. The endothelial expression of sLex or sulfo sLex glycans in postcapillary venules was either absent or low in control tissues. The de novo induction of endothelial expression of sLex or sulfo sLex glycans was detected in all inflamed tissues. Furthermore, each organ carried its own modification of sLex or sulfo sLex glycans, ie, zip code. Our results suggest that these zip code glycans may provide means for organ selective leukocyte traffic that could be used in selective leukocyte traffic inhibition. PMID:12163379

  14. Regional Accreditation Organizations' Treatment of Information Literacy: Definitions, Collaboration, and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Content analysis of regional accrediting organizations Web-based resources reveals support for information literacy as an important student learning outcome and encouragement of partnerships between librarians and faculty in instruction and assessment. This study offers librarians, faculty, and administrators insight into how the library can…

  15. A Model of Institutional Creative Change for Assessing Universities as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Universities, like students, differ in their ability to learn and to recreate themselves. In this article, I present a 3-part model of institutional creative change for assessing universities as learning organizations that can move creatively into the future. The first part, prerequisites, deals with actual ability to change creatively and belief…

  16. Historic Assessment of Agricultural Impacts on Soil and Soil Organic Carbon Erosion in an Ohio Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yueli; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Ritchie, Jerry; Owens, Lloyd; Hothem, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    Agricultural management affects soil and soil organic carbon (SOC) erosion. The effect was assessed for a watershed (o.79 ha, 10% slope steepness, 132 m slope length) at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed research station near Coshocton, Ohio, from 1951 to 1998

  17. SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS FOR INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. new method was developed to perform an environmental assessment for the
    Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR). This was a combination of the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and principal component analysis (PCA). The method is capable of clustering ecosystems in terms of envi...

  18. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... management. On May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30864- 30868, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal...

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes spread on land: Towards a proposal of a suitable test battery.

    PubMed

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Chabot, Laure; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    The land spreading of organic wastes in agriculture is a common practice in Europe, under the regulation of the Directive 86/278/EEC. One of the objectives of this Directive is to prevent harmful effects of organic wastes on soil, plants and animals. Despite this regulatory framework, there is still a lack of harmonized ecotoxicological test strategy to assess the environmental hazard of such wastes. The aim of this study was to provide a first step towards the a priori ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes before their land use. For that purpose, nine different organic wastes were assessed using direct (i.e. terrestrial tests) and indirect (i.e. tests on water eluates) approaches, for a total of thirteen endpoints. Then, multivariate analyzes were used to discriminate the most relevant test strategy, among the application rates and bioassays used. From our results, a draft of test strategy was proposed, using terrestrial bioassays (i.e. earthworms and plants) and a concentration range between one and ten times the recommended application rates of organic wastes. PMID:25485958

  20. Exposure to inhaled THM: comparison of continuous and event-specific exposure assessment for epidemiologic purposes.

    PubMed

    Thiriat, N; Paulus, H; Le Bot, B; Glorennec, P

    2009-10-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) (chloroform, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and bromodichloromethane) are the most abundant by-products of chlorination. People are exposed to THMs through ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation. The objective of this study was to compare two methods for assessing THM inhalation: a direct method with personal monitors assessing continuous exposure and an indirect one with microenvironmental sampling and collection of time-activity data during the main event exposures: bathing, showering and swimming. This comparison was conducted to help plan a future epidemiologic study of the effects of THMs on the upper airways of children. 30 children aged from 4 to 10 years were included. They wore a 3M 3520 organic vapor monitor for 7 days. We sampled air in their bathrooms (during baths or showers) and in the indoor swimming pools they visited and recorded their time-activity patterns. We used stainless steel tubes full of Tenax to collect air samples. All analyses were performed with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloroform was the THM with the highest concentrations in the air of both bathrooms and indoor swimming pools. Its continuous and event exposure measurements were significantly correlated (r(s)=0.69 p<0.001). Continuous exposures were higher than event exposures, suggesting that the event exposure method does not take into account some influential microenvironments. In an epidemiologic study, this might lead to random exposure misclassification, thus underestimation of the risk, and reduced statistical power. The continuous exposure method was difficult to implement because of its poor acceptability and the fragility of the personal monitors. These two points may also reduce the statistical power of an epidemiologic study. It would be useful to test the advantages and disadvantages of a second sample in the home or of modeling the baseline concentration of THM in the home to improve the event exposure method. PMID

  1. Caseworker Assessments of Risk for Recurrent Maltreatment: Association with Case-Specific Risk Factors and Re-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Shannon; Mustillo, Sarah A.; Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Elbogen, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article focuses on caseworkers' assessments of risk of maltreatment recurrence among families in contact with social services. Specifically, the article has two primary goals: (1) to examine the association between caseworkers' risk assessments and demographic, child, parent and family-level risk factors; and (2) to examine…

  2. Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics for Undergraduates with Specific Learning Difficulties--Issues of Inclusion in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkin, Glynis; Beacham, Nigel; Croft, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens up a debate about policy and practice in computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of mathematics for undergraduates with specific learning difficulties e.g. dyslexia. Guidelines for designing assessments for such students are emerging and some may be transferable to CAA. Whether mathematics brings with it particular issues is unclear.…

  3. Evolution of organic matter during composting of different organic wastes assessed by CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Caricasole, P.; Provenzano, M.R.; Senesi, N.

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, the evolution of organic matter (OM) during composting of different mixtures of various organic wastes was assessed by means of chemical analyses and CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy measured during composting. The trends of temperatures and C/N ratios supported the correct evolution of the processes. The CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectra of all composting substrates indicated a reduction in carbohydrates and an increase in aromatic, phenolic, carboxylic and carbonylic C which suggested a preference by microorganisms for easily degradable C molecules. The presence of hardly degradable pine needles in one of the substrates accounted for the lowest increase in alkyl C and the lowest reduction in carbohydrates and carboxyl C as opposite to another substrate characterized by the presence of a highly degradable material such as spent yeast from beer production, which showed the highest increase of the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio. The highest increase of COOH deriving by the oxidative degradation of cellulose was shown by a substrate composed by about 50% of plant residues. The smallest increases in alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and in polysaccharides were associated to the degradation of proteins and lipids which are major components of sewage sludge. Results obtained were related to the different composition of fresh organic substrates and provided evidence of different OM evolution patterns as a function of the initial substrate composition.

  4. Preliminary assessment of contaminants in the sediment and organisms of the Swartkops Estuary, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, L; Strydom, N A; Bouwman, H

    2015-12-30

    Urban estuaries are susceptible to metal and organic pollution, yet most remain understudied in South Africa with respect to the presence, concentrations and distribution of contaminants. Metal and organic chemical concentrations were assessed in sediment and organisms from different trophic levels in the lower reaches of the Swartkops Estuary. Species sampled included Upogebia africana (Malacostraca: Upogebiidae), Gilchristella aestuaria (Clupeidae), Psammogobius knysnaensis (Gobiidae), Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), Lichia amia (Carangidae), Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae), Pomadasys commersonnii (Haemulidae) and Larus dominicanus (Avis: Laridae). This study is one of the most comprehensive studies to date assessing pollution levels in a food web in estuaries in South Africa. Due to biomagnification, higher concentrations of Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and Cadmium were found in the juveniles stages of popular angling fishes. High concentrations of Cadmium and Arsenic were recorded in the liver of L. amia, A. japonicus and P. commersonnii which exceed international quality food guidelines. Eggs from the gull, L. dominicanus, showed detectable concentrations of PCBs. PMID:26593278

  5. Specific features of organic matter in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.

    2014-08-01

    Data on the fractional and group composition of humus in urban soils of Rostov-on-Don are discussed. We have compared the humus profiles of chernozems under tree plantations and those buried under anthropogenic deposits (including sealed chernozems under asphalt). It is shown that the type of humus in these soils remains stable despite a decrease in its total content after the long-term burial under asphalt. Under the impact of the trees, the organic matter of the chernozems acquired some features typical of gray forest soils, i.e., the humate-fulvate type of humus in the humus horizon and the sharp drop in the humus content down the soil profile.

  6. Fingerprinting Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Sources with Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) and Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Verseveld, W. J.; Lajtha, K.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    DOC is an important water quality constituent because it is an important food source for stream biota, it plays a significant role in metal toxicity and transport, and protects aquatic organisms by absorbing visible and UV light. However, sources of stream DOC and changes in DOC quality at storm and seasonal scales remain poorly understood. We characterized DOC concentrations and SUVA (as an indicator of aromaticity) at the plot, hillslope and catchment scale during and between five storm events over the period Fall 2004 until Spring 2005, in WS10, H.J. Andrews, Oregon, USA. This study site has hillslopes that issue directly into the stream. This enabled us to compare a trenched hillslope response to the stream response without the influence of a riparian zone. The main result of this study was that SUVA in addition to DOC was needed to fingerprint sources of DOC. Stream water and lateral subsurface flow showed a clockwise DOC and SUVA hysteresis pattern. Both organic horizon water and transient groundwater were characterized by high DOC concentrations and SUVA values, while DOC concentrations and SUVA values in soil water decreased with depth in the soil profile. This indicates transient groundwater was an important contributor to high DOC concentrations and SUVA values during storm events. During the falling limb of the hydrograph deep soil water and seepage groundwater based on SUVA values contributed significantly to lateral subsurface flow and stream water. Preliminary results showed that fluorescence of stream water and lateral subsurface flow continuously measured with a fluorometer was significantly related to UV-absorbance during a December storm event. Finally, SUVA of lateral subsurface flow was lower than SUVA of stream water at the seasonal scale, indicating a difference in mixing of water sources at the hillslope and catchment scale. Overall, our results show that SUVA and fluorescence are useful tracers for fingerprinting DOC sources.

  7. Contribution of species-specific chemical signatures to soil organic matter in Kohala, HI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. E.; Amatangelo, K.; Neff, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) inherits much of its chemical structure from the dominant vegetation, including phenolic (lignin-derived), aromatic, and aliphatic (cutin and wax-derived) compounds. The Hawaiian fern species Dicranopteris decomposes more slowly than the angiosperm, Cheirodendron due to high concentrations of recalcitrant C compounds. These aliphatic fern leaf waxes are well-preserved and may comprise a large portion of the recalcitrant organic matter in these soils. Our objective was to determine the chemical signature of fern and angiosperm vegetation types and trace the preservation or loss of those compounds into the soil. We collected live tissue, litter, roots, and soil (<53 μm) from five dominant vegetation types including two angiosperms Cheirodendron and Metrosideros, two basal ferns Dicranopteris and Cibotium and a polypod fern Diplazium in Kohala, HI. We characterized them via TMAH-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found distinct chemical differences between angiosperm and fern vegetation; angiosperm contained more G- and S-derived lignin structures and the fern species contained greater relative abundances of P-derived lignin and tannin-derivatives. There was a general decrease of lignin-derived phenolic compounds from live to litter to soils and an increase in more recalcitrant, aromatic and aliphatic C. Recalcitrant fern-derived cutin and leaf waxes (alkene and alkanes structures) were evident in the soils, but clear species differences were not observed. Although ferns contain distinct lipid and wax-derived compounds, soils developed under fern do not appear to accumulate these compounds in SOM.

  8. Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64-slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Bakar, K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Chin, A. W.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude of radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) depends on the scan acquisition parameters, investigated herein using an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO®) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Specific interest was in the organ doses resulting from CT thorax examination, the specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation for particular protocols also being determined. For measurement of doses representing five main organs (thyroid, lung, liver, esophagus and skin), TLD-100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) were inserted into selected holes in a phantom slab. Five CT thorax protocols were investigated, one routine (R1) and four that were modified protocols (R2 to R5). Organ doses were ranked from greatest to least, found to lie in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. The greatest dose, for thyroid at 25 mGy, was that in use of R1 while the lowest, at 8.8 mGy, was in breast tissue using R3. Effective dose (E) was estimated using three standard methods: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-103 recommendation (E103), the computational phantom CT-EXPO (E(CTEXPO)) method, and the dose-length product (DLP) based approach. E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, ~8% less than that of the universal k factor. Due to inconsistency in tube potential and pitch factor the k factors from CTEXPO were found to vary between 0.015 and 0.010 for protocols R3 and R5. With considerable variation between scan acquisition parameters and organ doses, optimization of practice is necessary in order to reduce patient organ dose.

  9. Applying Community Organizing Principles to Assess Health Needs in New Haven, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Alycia; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act added requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments. Guidelines are minimal; however, they require input and representation from the broader community. This call echoes 2 decades of literature on the importance of including community members in all aspects of research design, a tenet of community organizing. We describe a community-engaged research approach to a community health needs assessment in New Haven, Connecticut. We demonstrate that a robust community organizing approach provided unique research benefits: access to residents for data collection, reliable data, leverage for community-driven interventions, and modest improvements in behavioral risk. We make recommendations for future community-engaged efforts and workforce development, which are important for responding to increasing calls for community health needs assessments. PMID:26985599

  10. Spectroscopic characteristics of soil organic matter as a tool to assess soil physical quality in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Knicker, Heike; López-Martín, María; Carral, Pilar; Álvarez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean areas, the loss of soil physical quality is of particular concern due to the vulnerability of these ecosystems in relation to unfavourable climatic conditions, which usually lead to soil degradation processes and severe decline of its functionality. As a result, increasing scientific attention is being paid on the exploration of soil properties which could be readily used as quality indicators, including organic matter which, in fact, represents a key factor in the maintenance of soil physical status. In this line, the present research tackles the assessment of the quality of several soils from central Spain with the purpose of identifying the physical properties most closely correlated with the organic matter, considering not only the quantity but also the quality of the different C-forms. The studied attributes consist of a series of physical properties determined in field and laboratory conditions-total porosity, aggregate stability, available water capacity, air provision, water infiltration rate and soil hydric saturation-.The bulk organic matter was characterised by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and the major organic fractions (lipids, free particulate organic matter, fulvic acids, humic acids and humin) were quantified using standard procedures. The humic acids were also analysed by visible and infrared spectroscopies. The use of multidimensional scaling to classify physical properties in conjunction with molecular descriptors of soil organic matter, suggested significant correlations between the two set of variables, which were confirmed with simple and canonical regression models. The results pointed to two well-defined groups of physical attributes in the studied soils: (i) those associated with organic matter of predominantly aromatic character (water infiltration descriptors), and (ii) soil physical variables related to organic matter with marked aliphatic character, high preservation of the lignin signature and comparatively low

  11. Sequence organization and evolutionary dynamics of Brachypodium-specific centromere retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Wu, J J; Friebe, B; Qian, C; Gu, Y Q; Fu, D L; Gill, B S

    2013-08-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a wild annual grass belonging to the Pooideae, more closely related to wheat, barley, and forage grasses than rice and maize. As an experimental model, the completed genome sequence of B. distachyon provides a unique opportunity to study centromere evolution during the speciation of grasses. Centromeric satellite sequences have been identified in B. distachyon, but little is known about centromeric retrotransposons in this species. In the present study, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-fluorescence in situ hybridization was conducted in maize, rice, barley, wheat, and rye using B. distachyon (Bd) centromere-specific BAC clones. Eight Bd centromeric BAC clones gave no detectable fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals on the chromosomes of rice and maize, and three of them also did not yield any FISH signals in barley, wheat, and rye. In addition, four of five Triticeae centromeric BAC clones did not hybridize to the B. distachyon centromeres, implying certain unique features of Brachypodium centromeres. Analysis of Brachypodium centromeric BAC sequences identified a long terminal repeat (LTR)-centromere retrotransposon of B. distachyon (CRBd1). This element was found in high copy number accounting for 1.6 % of the B. distachyon genome, and is enriched in Brachypodium centromeric regions. CRBd1 accumulated in active centromeres, but was lost from inactive ones. The LTR of CRBd1 appears to be specific to B. distachyon centromeres. These results reveal different evolutionary events of this retrotransposon family across grass species. PMID:23955173

  12. Assembly, molecular organization, and membrane-binding properties of development-specific septins.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Galo; Finnigan, Gregory C; Heasley, Lydia R; Sterling, Sarah M; Aggarwal, Adeeti; Pearson, Chad G; Nogales, Eva; McMurray, Michael A; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-02-29

    Septin complexes display remarkable plasticity in subunit composition, yet how a new subunit assembled into higher-order structures confers different functions is not fully understood. Here, this question is addressed in budding yeast, where during meiosis Spr3 and Spr28 replace the mitotic septin subunits Cdc12 and Cdc11 (and Shs1), respectively. In vitro, the sole stable complex that contains both meiosis-specific septins is a linear Spr28-Spr3-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Spr3-Spr28 hetero-octamer. Only coexpressed Spr3 and Spr28 colocalize with Cdc3 and Cdc10 in mitotic cells, indicating that incorporation requires a Spr28-Spr3 protomer. Unlike their mitotic counterparts, Spr28-Spr3-capped rods are unable to form higher-order structures in solution but assemble to form long paired filaments on lipid monolayers containing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, mimicking presence of this phosphoinositide in the prospore membrane. Spr28 and Spr3 fail to rescue the lethality of a cdc11Δ cdc12Δ mutant, and Cdc11 and Cdc12 fail to restore sporulation proficiency to spr3Δ/spr3Δ spr28Δ/spr28Δ diploids. Thus, specific meiotic and mitotic subunits endow septin complexes with functionally distinct properties. PMID:26929450

  13. Organ-specific systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy. PMID:27166627

  14. Assembly, molecular organization, and membrane-binding properties of development-specific septins

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Galo; Finnigan, Gregory C.; Heasley, Lydia R.; Sterling, Sarah M.; Aggarwal, Adeeti; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    Septin complexes display remarkable plasticity in subunit composition, yet how a new subunit assembled into higher-order structures confers different functions is not fully understood. Here, this question is addressed in budding yeast, where during meiosis Spr3 and Spr28 replace the mitotic septin subunits Cdc12 and Cdc11 (and Shs1), respectively. In vitro, the sole stable complex that contains both meiosis-specific septins is a linear Spr28–Spr3–Cdc3–Cdc10–Cdc10–Cdc3–Spr3–Spr28 hetero-octamer. Only coexpressed Spr3 and Spr28 colocalize with Cdc3 and Cdc10 in mitotic cells, indicating that incorporation requires a Spr28-Spr3 protomer. Unlike their mitotic counterparts, Spr28-Spr3–capped rods are unable to form higher-order structures in solution but assemble to form long paired filaments on lipid monolayers containing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, mimicking presence of this phosphoinositide in the prospore membrane. Spr28 and Spr3 fail to rescue the lethality of a cdc11Δ cdc12Δ mutant, and Cdc11 and Cdc12 fail to restore sporulation proficiency to spr3Δ/spr3Δ spr28Δ/spr28Δ diploids. Thus, specific meiotic and mitotic subunits endow septin complexes with functionally distinct properties. PMID:26929450

  15. Nanoparticle distribution during systemic inflammation is size-dependent and organ-specific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.-H.; Lundy, D. J.; Toh, E. K.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Shih, C.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.-C.; Lai, J. J.; Stayton, P. S.; Hoffman, A. S.; Hsieh, P. C.-H.

    2015-09-01

    This study comprehensively investigates the changing biodistribution of fluorescent-labelled polystyrene latex bead nanoparticles in a mouse model of inflammation. Since inflammation alters systemic circulatory properties, increases vessel permeability and modulates the immune system, we theorised that systemic inflammation would alter nanoparticle distribution within the body. This has implications for prospective nanocarrier-based therapies targeting inflammatory diseases. Low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, was used to induce an inflammatory response, and 20 nm, 100 nm or 500 nm polystyrene nanoparticles were administered after 16 hours. HPLC analysis was used to accurately quantify nanoparticle retention by each vital organ, and tissue sections revealed the precise locations of nanoparticle deposition within key tissues. During inflammation, nanoparticles of all sizes redistributed, particularly to the marginal zones of the spleen. We found that LPS-induced inflammation induces splenic macrophage polarisation and alters leukocyte uptake of nanoparticles, with size-dependent effects. In addition, spleen vasculature becomes significantly more permeable following LPS treatment. We conclude that systemic inflammation affects nanoparticle distribution by multiple mechanisms, in a size dependent manner.This study comprehensively investigates the changing biodistribution of fluorescent-labelled polystyrene latex bead nanoparticles in a mouse model of inflammation. Since inflammation alters systemic circulatory properties, increases vessel permeability and modulates the immune system, we theorised that systemic inflammation would alter nanoparticle distribution within the body. This has implications for prospective nanocarrier-based therapies targeting inflammatory diseases. Low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, was used to induce an inflammatory response, and 20 nm, 100 nm or 500 nm polystyrene nanoparticles were administered

  16. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-09-24

    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling. PMID:25184955

  17. Specific Myosins Control Actin Organization, Cell Morphology, and Migration in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Katarzyna A; Hughes, Ruth E; White, Kathryn J; Wells, Claire M; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the myosin expression profile in prostate cancer cell lines and found that Myo1b, Myo9b, Myo10, and Myo18a were expressed at higher levels in cells with high metastatic potential. Moreover, Myo1b and Myo10 were expressed at higher levels in metastatic tumors. Using an siRNA-based approach, we found that knockdown of each myosin resulted in distinct phenotypes. Myo10 knockdown ablated filopodia and decreased 2D migration speed. Myo18a knockdown increased circumferential non-muscle myosin 2A-associated actin filament arrays in the lamella and reduced directional persistence of 2D migration. Myo9b knockdown increased stress fiber formation, decreased 2D migration speed, and increased directional persistence. Conversely, Myo1b knockdown increased numbers of stress fibers but did not affect 2D migration. In all cases, the cell spread area was increased and 3D migration potential was decreased. Therefore, myosins not only act as molecular motors but also directly influence actin organization and cell morphology, which can contribute to the metastatic phenotype. PMID:26670045

  18. B cell-specific S1PR1 deficiency blocks prion dissemination between secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Mok, Simon W F; Proia, Richard L; Brinkmann, Volker; Mabbott, Neil A

    2012-05-15

    Many prion diseases are peripherally acquired (e.g., orally or via lesions to skin or mucous membranes). After peripheral exposure, prions replicate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the draining lymphoid tissue before infecting the brain. However, after replication upon FDC within the draining lymphoid tissue, prions are subsequently propagated to most nondraining secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), including the spleen, by a previously underdetermined mechanism. The germinal centers in which FDC are situated produce a population of B cells that can recirculate between SLO. Therefore, we reasoned that B cells were ideal candidates by which prion dissemination between SLO may occur. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)1 stimulation controls the egress of T and B cells from SLO. S1PR1 signaling blockade sequesters lymphocytes within SLO, resulting in lymphopenia in the blood and lymph. We show that, in mice treated with the S1PR modulator FTY720 or with S1PR1 deficiency restricted to B cells, the dissemination of prions from the draining lymph node to nondraining SLO is blocked. These data suggest that B cells interacting with and acquiring surface proteins from FDC and recirculating between SLO via the blood and lymph mediate the initial propagation of prions from the draining lymphoid tissue to peripheral tissues. PMID:22504650

  19. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs.

    PubMed

    Keane, Fiona M; Yao, Tsun-Wen; Seelk, Stefanie; Gall, Margaret G; Chowdhury, Sumaiya; Poplawski, Sarah E; Lai, Jack H; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Farrell, Penny; Vieira de Ribeiro, Ana Julia; Osborne, Brenna; Yu, Denise M T; Seth, Devanshi; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Haber, Paul; Topaloglu, A Kemal; Wang, Chuanmin; Thomson, Sally; Hennessy, Annemarie; Prins, John; Twigg, Stephen M; McLennan, Susan V; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bachovchin, William W; Gorrell, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis. PMID:24371721

  20. Dcas is required for importin-alpha3 nuclear export and mechano-sensory organ cell fate specification in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tekotte, Hildegard; Berdnik, Daniela; Török, Tibor; Buszczak, Michael; Jones, Lynn M; Cooley, Lynn; Knoblich, Jürgen A; Davis, Ilan

    2002-04-15

    We have studied the in vivo function and tissue specificity of Dcas, the Drosophila ortholog of CAS, the importin beta-like export receptor for importin alpha. While dcas mRNA is specifically expressed in the embryonic central nervous system, Dcas protein is maternally supplied to all embryonic cells and its nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution varies in different tissues and times in development. Unexpectedly, hypomorphic alleles of dcas show specific transformations in mechano-sensory organ cell identity, characteristic of mutations that increase Notch signaling. Dcas is essential for efficient importin-alpha3 nuclear export in mechano-sensory cells and the surrounding epidermal cells and is indirectly required for the import of one component of the Notch pathway, but not others tested. We interpret the specificity of the dcas phenotype as indicating that one or more Notch signaling components are particularly sensitive to a disruption in nuclear protein import. We propose that mutations in house keeping genes often cause specific developmental phenotypes, such as those observed in many human genetic disorders. PMID:11944946

  1. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs.

  2. Assessment of hydrothermal processes associated with Proterozoic mineral systems in Finland using self-organizing maps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerssi, J.; Sorjonen-Ward, P.; Fraser, S. J.; Ruotsalainen, A.

    2009-04-01

    An increasingly urgent challenge in mineral system analysis is to extract relevant information from diverse datasets, and to effectively discriminate between "hydrothermal noise" and alteration and structures that may relate to significant mineralization potential. The interpretation of geophysical data is notorious for the problem of ambiguity in defining source dimensions and geometry. An additional issue, which also applies to geochemical and hyperspectral datasets, in terrain that has been overprinted by several tectonic, metamorphic and hydrothermal events, is that while anomalies represent the sum of geological processes affecting an area, we are usually interesting in extracting the signals diagnostic of a mineralizing event. Spatial analysis using weights of evidence, fuzzy logic and neural networks have been widely applied to mineral prospectivity assessment in recent years. Here however, we present an alternative, albeit complementary approach, based on the concept of self-organizing maps [1], in which natural patterns in large, unstructured datasets are derived, correlated and readily visualized, provides an alternative approach to analysis of geophysical and geochemical anomalies and integration with other geological data. We have applied SiroSOM software to airborne and ground magnetic, EM and radiometric data for two mutually adjacent areas in eastern Finland that have superficially similar structural architecture and geophysical expression, yet differ significantly in terms of mineral system character: (1) the Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni system, hosted by metamorphosed serpentinites and their hydrothermal derivatives, which are usually highly magnetic due to both magnetite and pyrrhotite; (2) the Hammaslahti Cu-Zn system, hosted by coarse-clastic turbidites intercalated with mafic volcanics and graphitic pelites having characteristically intense magnetic and EM responses. Although the initial stage of the analysis is unsupervised, ongoing iteration and

  3. Occurrence and attenuation of specific organic compounds in the groundwater plume at a former gasworks site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfirescu, Daniela; Grathwohl, Peter

    2001-12-01

    The changing contaminant pattern with travelled distance was investigated in the anaerobic groundwater plume downstream from an extended zone containing residual NAPL at a former gas manufacturing plant. With increasing distance, O- and N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds are enriched in the plume relative to the usually assessed coal tar constituents (poly- and monocyclic aromatic compounds). In a first approximation, the overall concentration decrease of the investigated compounds follows a first order overall decay. The half life distance in the plume downgradient from the source varied between 20 m for benzene and up to 167-303 m for alkyl-naphthalenes. Acenaphthene is degraded only within about 50 m downstream from the source area, then its concentration remains constant (ca. 180 μg/l) and far above the legal limit. Dimethyl-benzofurans were the most recalcitrant among all compounds which could be quantified with the analytical method available. The overall groundwater contamination in the plume is seriously underestimated if only BTEX and 16-EPA-PAHs are monitored.

  4. Occurrence and attenuation of specific organic compounds in the groundwater plume at a former gasworks site.

    PubMed

    Zamfirescu, D; Grathwohl, P

    2001-12-15

    The changing contaminant pattern with travelled distance was investigated in the anaerobic groundwater plume downstream from an extended zone containing residual NAPL at a former gas manufacturing plant. With increasing distance, O- and N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds are enriched in the plume relative to the usually assessed coal tar constituents (poly- and monocyclic aromatic compounds). In a first approximation, the overall concentration decrease of the investigated compounds follows a first order overall decay. The half life distance in the plume downgradient from the source varied between 20 m for benzene and up to 167-303 m for alkyl-naphthalenes. Acenaphthene is degraded only within about 50 m downstream from the source area, then its concentration remains constant (ca. 180 microg/l) and far above the legal limit. Dimethyl-benzofurans were the most recalcitrant among all compounds which could be quantified with the analytical method available. The overall groundwater contamination in the plume is seriously underestimated if only BTEX and 16-EPA-PAHs are monitored. PMID:11820480

  5. Electrophysiological evidence for the broad distribution of specific odorant receptor molecules across the olfactory organ of the channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Chang, Q; Caprio, J

    1996-10-01

    To determine if there is a spatial segregation of responsiveness to odorants within the olfactory epithelium, microelectrode recordings were obtained from small populations of olfactory receptor neurons located across different lamellar sensory regions of the olfactory organ of the channel catfish, lctalurus punctatus. Stimuli included L-alanine, L-methionine, L-arginine hydrochloride, L-glutamic acid, ATP and a mixture of bile salts-odorants previously reported to stimulate independent receptor sites in aquatic species. The peak integrated olfactory receptor responses at each recording site were standardized to the response to L-alanine. The relative stimulatory effectiveness of the stimuli was preserved across the 10 olfactory lamellae recording sites. These data support previous molecular biological results of a broad distribution of receptor neurons that express specific receptor genes across the olfactory organ of the channel catfish. PMID:8902281

  6. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weishaar, J.L.; Aiken, G.R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Mopper, K.

    2003-01-01

    Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) is defined as the UV absorbance of a water sample at a given wavelength normalized for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. Our data indicate that SUVA, determined at 254 nm, is strongly correlated with percent aromaticity as determined by 13C NMR for 13 organic matter isolates obtained from a variety of aquatic environments. SUVA, therefore, is shown to be a useful parameter for estimating the dissolved aromatic carbon content in aquatic systems. Experiments involving the reactivity of DOC with chlorine and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), however, show a wide range of reactivity for samples with similar SUVA values. These results indicate that, while SUVA measurements are good predictors of general chemical characteristics of DOC, they do not provide information about reactivity of DOC derived from different types of source materials. Sample pH, nitrate, and iron were found to influence SUVA measurements.

  7. [Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype selectivity and organ specificity of silodosin (KMD-3213)].

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kumi; Maezawa, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Nobuo

    2006-03-01

    The selectivity of silodosin (KMD-3213), an antagonist of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (AR), to the subtypes (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)- and alpha(1D)-ARs) was examined by a receptor-binding study and a functional pharmacological study, and we compared its subtype-selectivity with those of other alpha(1)-AR antagonists. In the receptor-binding study, a replacement experiment using [(3)H]-prazosin was conducted using the membrane fraction of mouse-derived LM (tk-) cells in which each of three human alpha(1)-AR subtypes was expressed. In the functional pharmacological study, the following isolated tissues were used as representative organs with high distribution densities of alpha(1)-AR subtypes (alpha(1A)-AR: rabbit prostate, urethra and bladder trigone; alpha(1B)-AR: rat spleen; alpha(1D)-AR: rat thoracic aorta). Using the Magnus method, we studied the inhibitory effect of silodosin on noradrenaline-induced contraction, and compared it with those of tamsulosin hydrochloride, naftopidil and prazosin hydrochloride. Silodosin showed higher selectivity for the alpha(1A)-AR subtype than tamsulosin hydrochloride, naftopidil or prazosin hydrochloride (affinity was highest for tamsulosin hydrochloride, followed by silodosin, prazosin hydrochloride and naftopidil in that order). Silodosin strongly antagonized noradrenaline-induced contractions in rabbit lower urinary tract tissues (including prostate, urethra and bladder trigone, with pA(2) or pKb values of 9.60, 8.71 and 9.35, respectively). On the other hand, the pA(2) values for antagonism of noradrenaline-induced contractions in rat isolated spleen and rat isolated thoracic aorta were 7.15 and 7.88, respectively. Selectivity for lower urinary tract was higher for silodosin than for the other alpha(1)-AR antagonists. Our data suggest that silodosin has a high selectivity for the alpha(1A)-AR subtype and for the lower urinary tract. PMID:16518085

  8. Structural-Functional Analysis Reveals a Specific Domain Organization in Family GH20 Hexosaminidases

    PubMed Central

    Val-Cid, Cristina; Biarnés, Xevi; Faijes, Magda; Planas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Hexosaminidases are involved in important biological processes catalyzing the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-hexosaminyl residues in glycosaminoglycans and glycoconjugates. The GH20 enzymes present diverse domain organizations for which we propose two minimal model architectures: Model A containing at least a non-catalytic GH20b domain and the catalytic one (GH20) always accompanied with an extra α-helix (GH20b-GH20-α), and Model B with only the catalytic GH20 domain. The large Bifidobacterium bifidum lacto-N-biosidase was used as a model protein to evaluate the minimal functional unit due to its interest and structural complexity. By expressing different truncated forms of this enzyme, we show that Model A architectures cannot be reduced to Model B. In particular, there are two structural requirements general to GH20 enzymes with Model A architecture. First, the non-catalytic domain GH20b at the N-terminus of the catalytic GH20 domain is required for expression and seems to stabilize it. Second, the substrate-binding cavity at the GH20 domain always involves a remote element provided by a long loop from the catalytic domain itself or, when this loop is short, by an element from another domain of the multidomain structure or from the dimeric partner. Particularly, the lacto-N-biosidase requires GH20b and the lectin-like domain at the N- and C-termini of the catalytic GH20 domain to be fully soluble and functional. The lectin domain provides this remote element to the active site. We demonstrate restoration of activity of the inactive GH20b-GH20-α construct (model A architecture) by a complementation assay with the lectin-like domain. The engineering of minimal functional units of multidomain GH20 enzymes must consider these structural requirements. PMID:26024355

  9. Integrating ecological risk assessments across levels of organization using the Franklin-Noss model of biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, K.E.; Tiebout, H.M. III |

    1994-12-31

    Wildlife toxicologists pioneered methodologies for assessing ecological risk to nontarget species. Historically, ecological risk assessments (ERAS) focused on a limited array of species and were based on a relatively few population-level endpoints (mortality, reproduction). Currently, risk assessment models are becoming increasingly complex that factor in multi-species interactions (across trophic levels) and utilize an increasingly diverse number of ecologically significant endpoints. This trend suggests the increasing importance of safeguarding not only populations of individual species, but also the overall integrity of the larger biotic systems that support them. In this sense, ERAs are in alignment with Conservation Biology, an applied science of ecological knowledge used to conserve biodiversity. A theoretical conservation biology model could be incorporated in ERAs to quantify impacts to biodiversity (structure, function or composition across levels of biological organization). The authors suggest that the Franklin-Noss model for evaluating biodiversity, with its nested, hierarchical approach, may provide a suitable paradigm for assessing and integrating the ecological risk that chemical contaminants pose to biological systems from the simplest levels (genotypes, individual organisms) to the most complex levels of organization (communities and ecosystems). The Franklin-Noss model can accommodate the existing ecotoxicological database and, perhaps more importantly, indicate new areas in which critical endpoints should be identified and investigated.

  10. Assessment of shear stress related parameters in the carotid bifurcation using mouse-specific FSI simulations.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, David; Trachet, Bram; Debusschere, Nic; Iannaccone, Francesco; Swillens, Abigail; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Segers, Patrick

    2016-07-26

    The ApoE(-)(/)(-) mouse is a common small animal model to study atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the large and medium sized arteries such as the carotid artery. It is generally accepted that the wall shear stress, induced by the blood flow, plays a key role in the onset of this disease. Wall shear stress, however, is difficult to derive from direct in vivo measurements, particularly in mice. In this study, we integrated in vivo imaging (micro-Computed Tomography-µCT and ultrasound) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling for the mouse-specific assessment of carotid hemodynamics and wall shear stress. Results were provided for 8 carotid bifurcations of 4 ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice. We demonstrated that accounting for the carotid elasticity leads to more realistic flow waveforms over the complete domain of the model due to volume buffering capacity in systole. The 8 simulated cases showed fairly consistent spatial distribution maps of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and relative residence time (RRT). Zones with reduced TAWSS and elevated RRT, potential indicators of atherosclerosis-prone regions, were located mainly at the outer sinus of the external carotid artery. In contrast to human carotid hemodynamics, no flow recirculation could be observed in the carotid bifurcation region. PMID:26655592

  11. 2016 Focused Update: Clinical Recommendations for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Data Assessment in Specific Patient Populations.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross; Halle, Martin; Piepoli, Massimo F; Myers, Jonathan; Lavie, Carl J

    2016-06-14

    In the past several decades, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) has seen an exponential increase in its evidence base. The growing volume of evidence in support of CPX has precipitated the release of numerous scientific statements by societies and associations. In 2012, the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation and the American Heart Association developed a joint document with the primary intent of redefining CPX analysis and reporting in a way that would streamline test interpretation and increase clinical application. Specifically, the 2012 joint scientific statement on CPX conceptualized an easy-to-use, clinically meaningful analysis based on evidence-vetted variables in color-coded algorithms; single-page algorithms were successfully developed for each proposed test indication. Because of an abundance of new CPX research in recent years and a reassessment of the current algorithms in light of the body of evidence, a focused update to the 2012 scientific statement is now warranted. The purposes of this update are to confirm algorithms included in the initial scientific statement not requiring revision, to propose revisions to algorithms included in the initial scientific statement, to propose new algorithms based on emerging scientific evidence, to further clarify the application of oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold, to describe CPX variables with an emerging scientific evidence base, to describe the synergistic value of combining CPX with other assessments, to discuss personnel considerations for CPX laboratories, and to provide recommendations for future CPX research. PMID:27143685

  12. Thrombotic risk assessment in antiphospholipid syndrome: the role of new antibody specificities and thrombin generation assay.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Baldovino, Simone; Schreiber, Karen; Solfietti, Laura; Radin, Massimo; Cuadrado, Maria J; Menegatti, Elisa; Erkan, Doruk; Roccatello, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in subjects presenting with thrombosis and/or pregnancy loss. The currently used classification criteria were updated in the international consensus held in Sidney in 2005. Vascular events seem to result of local procoagulative alterations upon triggers influence (the so called "second-hit theory"), while placental thrombosis and complement activation seem to lead to pregnancy morbidity. The laboratory tests suggested by the current classification criteria include lupus anticoagulant, a functional coagulation assay, and anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies, generally detected by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The real challenge for treating physicians is understanding what is the actual weight of aPL in provoking clinical manifestations in each case. As thrombosis has a multi-factorial cause, each patient needs a risk-stratified approach. In this review we discuss the role of thrombotic risk assessment in primary and secondary prevention of venous and arterial thromboembolic disease in patients with APS, focusing on new antibody specificities, available risk scoring models and new coagulation assays. PMID:27429595

  13. Organ-specific dosimetry in spinal radiography: an analysis of genetic and somatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fickel, T.E.

    1988-02-01

    Radiation doses absorbed by the uterus, ovary, testicle and active bone marrow are computed for cervical, thoracic, lumbar, full spine and chest series performed under typical office conditions. Assuming a nonthreshold, linear relationship between dose and radiogenic effect, the computed tissue-specific doses are used to estimate the probability that each X-ray series might enhance the statistical probability of occurrence of an adult leukemia fatality of the irradiated patient; a childhood leukemia, mental retardation or cancer fatality as a result of fetal irradiation; or a variety of sex cell chromosomal aberrations in irradiated patients. It is concluded that the greatest hazard to active bone marrow, the uterus and the gonads is posed by lumbar and full spine radiography and that the need to adequately justify such exposure is mandatory; furthermore, in these series, irradiation of the ovary is 10 times as great as that of the testicle. Lumbar radiographic examinations can be made significantly safer by the elimination of the lumbosacral spot view.

  14. Lexical organization of language-ambiguous and language-specific words in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown the importance of sublexical orthographic cues in determining the language of a given word when the two languages of a bilingual reader share the same script. In this study, we explored the extent to which cross-language sublexical characteristics of words-measured in terms of bigram frequencies-constrain selective language activation during reading. In Experiment 1, we investigated the impact of language-nonspecific and language-specific orthography in letter detection using the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm in a seemingly monolingual experimental context. In Experiment 2, we used the masked translation priming paradigm in order to better characterize the role of sublexical language cues during lexical access in bilinguals. Results show that bilinguals are highly sensitive to statistical orthographic regularities of their languages and that the absence of such cues promotes language-nonspecific lexical access, whereas their presence partially reduces parallel language activation. We conclude that language coactivation in bilinguals is highly modulated by sublexical processing and that orthographic regularities of the two languages of a bilingual are a determining factor in lexical access. PMID:26123205

  15. Methods for assessing phosphorus overfeeding on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Nordqvist, M; Holtenius, K; Spörndly, R

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from dairy farms can severely damage aquatic ecosystems, so it is important to have tools to assess overfeeding of P. This study screened P intake and faecal excretion of different P fractions in dairy cows on conventional and organic farms, compared the P feeding level of the herds against the recommendations and analysed different sampling and analysis methods for assessing the general status of P feeding on the farms. The organic (n=14) and conventional farms (n=15) were of comparable size and were located in southern Sweden. On each farm, feed intake was registered for 10 cows representing four different lactation stages and their P intake was calculated and related to current recommendations. Faecal samples taken from the same cows were analysed for total P (TP) and soluble P. Milk production data for the cows were obtained from the Swedish official milk recording scheme. TP was determined in one slurry sample per farm. More than 70% of the cows studied, representing both conventional and organic herds, consumed P in excess of the recommendations. Conventional herds had higher P content in the ration than organic herds, and lactating cows in conventional herds had higher faecal concentrations of total and soluble P than those in organic herds. However in dry cows, the P content of the ration and soluble P and TP in faeces did not differ between the two management systems. Soluble P was well correlated to TP in faeces, and both were good indicators of P overfeeding. PMID:24280040

  16. Risk assessment based prioritization of 200 organic micropollutants in 4 Iberian rivers.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanović, Maja; Ginebreda, Antoni; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damia

    2015-01-15

    The use of chemicals is continuously growing both in total amount as well as in a number of different substances, among which organic chemicals play a major role. Owing to the growing public awareness on the need of protecting both ecosystems and human health from the risks related to chemical pollution, an increasing attention has been drowned to risk assessment and prioritization of organic pollutants. In this context, the aims of this study were (a) to perform an environmental risk assessment for 200 organic micropollutants including both regulated and emerging contaminants (pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal care products, perflourinated compounds and various industrial organic chemicals) monitored in four rivers located in the Mediterranean side of the Iberian Peninsula, namely, the Ebro, Llobregat, Júcar and Guadalquivir rivers; and (b) to prioritize them for each of the four river basins studied, taking into account their observed concentration levels together with their ecotoxicological potential. For this purpose, a prioritization approach has been developed and a resulting ranking index (RI) associated with each compound. Ranking index is based on the measured concentrations of the chemical in each river and its ecotoxicological potential (EC50 values for algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). Ten compounds were identified as most important for the studied rivers: pesticides chlorpyriphos, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, dichlofenthion, prochloraz, ethion carbofuran and diuron and the industrial organic chemicals nonylphenol and octylphenol that result from the biodegration of polyethoxylated alkyphenol surfactants. Also, further research into chronic toxicity of emerging contaminants is advocated. PMID:25017637

  17. Different low-molecular-mass organic acids specifically control leaching of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOA) are of key importance for mobilisation and fate of metals in soil, by functioning as ligands that increase the amount of dissolved metal in solution or by dissociation of metal binding minerals. Column leaching experiments were performed on soil polluted with As and Pb, in order to determine the specificity of LMMOA related release for individual elements, at varying organic acid concentrations. Acetic, citric and oxalic acids were applied in 12h leaching experiments over a concentration range (0.5-25 mM) to soil samples that represent organic and mineral horizons. The leaching of As followed the order: oxalic>citric>acetic acid in both soils. Arsenic leaching was attributed primarily to ligand-enhanced dissolution of mineral oxides followed by As released into solution, as shown by significant correlation between oxalic and citric acids and content of Al and Fe in leaching solutions. Results suggest that subsurface mineral soil layers are more vulnerable to As toxicity. Leaching of Pb from both soils followed the order: citric>oxalic>acetic acid. Mineral soil samples were shown to be more susceptible to leaching of Pb than samples characterised by a high content of organic matter. The leaching efficiency of citric acid was attributed to formation of stable complexes with Pb ions, which other acids are not capable of. Results obtained in the study are evidence that the extent of As and Pb leaching in contaminated surface and subsurface soil depends significantly on the types of carboxylic acid involved. The implications of the type of acid and the specific element that can be mobilised become increasingly significant where LMMOA concentrations are highest, such as in rhizosphere soil. PMID:26849837

  18. Different low-molecular-mass organic acids specifically control leaching of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, Christopher; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOA) are of key importance for mobilisation and fate of metals in soil, by functioning as ligands that increase the amount of dissolved metal in solution or by dissociation of metal binding minerals. Column leaching experiments were performed on soil polluted with As and Pb, in order to determine the specificity of LMMOA related release for individual elements, at varying organic acid concentrations. Acetic, citric and oxalic acids were applied in 12 h leaching experiments over a concentration range (0.5-25 mM) to soil samples that represent organic and mineral horizons. The leaching of As followed the order: oxalic > citric > acetic acid in both soils. Arsenic leaching was attributed primarily to ligand-enhanced dissolution of mineral oxides followed by As released into solution, as shown by significant correlation between oxalic and citric acids and content of Al and Fe in leaching solutions. Results suggest that subsurface mineral soil layers are more vulnerable to As toxicity. Leaching of Pb from both soils followed the order: citric > oxalic > acetic acid. Mineral soil samples were shown to be more susceptible to leaching of Pb than samples characterised by a high content of organic matter. The leaching efficiency of citric acid was attributed to formation of stable complexes with Pb ions, which other acids are not capable of. Results obtained in the study are evidence that the extent of As and Pb leaching in contaminated surface and subsurface soil depends significantly on the types of carboxylic acid involved. The implications of the type of acid and the specific element that can be mobilised become increasingly significant where LMMOA concentrations are highest, such as in rhizosphere soil.

  19. Genome-scale analysis of metazoan replication origins reveals their organization in specific but flexible sites defined by conserved features

    PubMed Central

    Cayrou, Christelle; Coulombe, Philippe; Vigneron, Alice; Stanojcic, Slavica; Ganier, Olivier; Peiffer, Isabelle; Rivals, Eric; Puy, Aurore; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Desprat, Romain; Méchali, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although methylation is nearly absent in Drosophila, indicating that this epigenetic mark is not crucial for defining the activated origin. Initiation of DNA synthesis starts at the borders of CGI, resulting in a striking bimodal distribution of NS, suggestive of a dual initiation event. Oris contain a unique nucleotide skew around NS peaks, characterized by G/T and C/A overrepresentation at the 5′ and 3′ of Ori sites, respectively. Repeated GC-rich elements were detected, which are good predictors of Oris, suggesting that common sequence features are part of metazoan Oris. In the heterochromatic chromosome 4 of Drosophila, Oris correlated with HP1 binding sites. At the chromosome level, regions rich in Oris are early replicating, whereas Ori-poor regions are late replicating. The genome-wide analysis was coupled with a DNA combing analysis to unravel the organization of Oris. The results indicate that Oris are in a large excess, but their activation does not occur at random. They are organized in groups of site-specific but flexible origins that define replicons, where a single origin is activated in each replicon. This organization provides both site specificity and Ori firing flexibility in each replicon, allowing possible adaptation to environmental cues and cell fates. PMID:21750104

  20. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. PMID:25981938

  1. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  2. Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benardini, James N.; Koukol, Robert C.; Kazarians, Gayane A.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Morales, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    There are specific NASA requirements for source-specific encapsulated microbial density for encapsulated organisms in non-metallic materials. Projects such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that use large volumes of non-metallic materials of planetary protection concern pose a challenge to their bioburden budget. An optimized and adapted destructive hardware technology employing a commercial blender was developed to assess the embedded bioburden of thermal paint for the MSL project. The main objective of this optimization was to blend the painted foil pieces in the smallest sizes possible without excessive heating. The small size increased the surface area of the paint and enabled the release of the maximum number of encapsulated microbes. During a trial run, a piece of foil was placed into a blender for 10 minutes. The outside of the blender was very hot to the touch. Thus, the grinding was reduced to five 2-minute periods with 2-minute cooling periods between cycles. However, almost 20% of the foil fraction was larger (>2 mm). Thus, the largest fractions were then put into the blender and reground, resulting in a 71% increase in particles less than 1 mm in size, and a 76% decrease in particles greater than 2 mm in size. Because a repeatable process had been developed, a painted sample was processed with over 80% of the particles being <2 mm. It was not perceived that the properties (i.e. weight and rubber-like nature) of the painted/foil pieces would allow for a finer size distribution. With these constraints, each section would be ground for a total of 10 minutes with five cycles of a 2-minute pulse followed by a 2-minute pause. It was observed on several occasions that a larger blade affected the recovery of seeded spores by approximately half an order of magnitude. In the standard approach, each piece of painted foil was aseptically removed from the bag and placed onto a sterile tray where they were sized, cut, and cleaned. Each section was then weighed and

  3. Assessment and improvement of biotransfer models to cow's milk and beef used in exposure assessment tools for organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and improve the accuracy of biotransfer models for the organic pollutants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs, PFCAs, and pesticides) into cow's milk and beef used in human exposure assessment. Metabolic rate in cattle is known as a key parameter for this biotransfer, however few experimental data and no simulation methods are currently available. In this research, metabolic rate was estimated using existing QSAR biodegradation models of microorganisms (BioWIN) and fish (EPI-HL and IFS-HL). This simulated metabolic rate was then incorporated into the mechanistic cattle biotransfer models (RAIDAR, ACC-HUMAN, OMEGA, and CKow). The goodness of fit tests showed that RAIDAR, ACC-HUMAN, OMEGA model performances were significantly improved using either of the QSARs when comparing the new model outputs to observed data. The CKow model is the only one that separates the processes in the gut and liver. This model showed the lowest residual error of all the models tested when the BioWIN model was used to represent the ruminant metabolic process in the gut and the two fish QSARs were used to represent the metabolic process in the liver. Our testing included EUSES and CalTOX which are KOW-regression models that are widely used in regulatory assessment. New regressions based on the simulated rate of the two metabolic processes are also proposed as an alternative to KOW-regression models for a screening risk assessment. The modified CKow model is more physiologically realistic, but has equivalent usability to existing KOW-regression models for estimating cattle biotransfer of organic pollutants. PMID:26143401

  4. Image quality and age-specific dose estimation in head and chest CT examinations with organ-based tube-current modulation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Yamauchi, M; Imai, K; Ikeda, M; Aoyama, T

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an organ-based tube-current modulation (OBTCM) system on image quality and age-specific dose in head and chest CT examinations. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image entropy were assessed using statistical and entropy analyses. Radiation doses for newborn, 6-y-old child and adult phantoms were measured with in-phantom dosimetry systems. The quality of CT images obtained with OBTCM was not different from that obtained without OBTCM. In head CT scans, the eye lens dose decreased by 20-33 % using OBTCM. In chest CT scans, breast dose decreased by 5-32 % using OBTCM. Posterior skin dose, however, increased by 11-20 % using OBTCM in head and chest CT scans. The reduction of effective dose using OBTCM was negligibly small. Detailed image quality and dose information provided in this study can be effectively used for OBTCM application. PMID:23734058

  5. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Xie, Yunhe; Schuemann, Jan; Yock, Torunn; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation-induced second cancer risks for in-field and out-of-field organs and tissues for pencil beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattering proton therapy (PPT) and assess the impact of adding patient-specific apertures to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam scanning for pediatric brain tumor patients. Five proton therapy plans were created for each of three pediatric patients using PPT as well as PBS with two spot sizes (average sigma of ~17 mm and ~8 mm at isocenter) and choice of patient-specific apertures. The lifetime attributable second malignancy risks for both in-field and out-of-field tissues and organs were compared among five delivery techniques. The risk for in-field tissues was calculated using the organ equivalent dose, which is determined by the dose volume histogram. For out-of-field organs, the organ-specific dose equivalent from secondary neutrons was calculated using Monte Carlo and anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. We find that either for small spot size PBS or for large spot size PBS, a patient-specific aperture reduces the in-field cancer risk to values lower than that for PPT. The reduction for large spot sizes (on average 43%) is larger than for small spot sizes (on average 21%). For out-of-field organs, the risk varies only marginally by employing a patient-specific aperture (on average from  -2% to 16% with increasing distance from the tumor), but is still one to two orders of magnitude lower than that for PPT. In conclusion, when pencil beam spot sizes are large, the addition of apertures to sharpen the penumbra decreases the in-field radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. There is a slight increase in out-of-field cancer risk as a result of neutron scatter from the aperture, but this risk is by far outweighed by the in-field risk benefit from using an aperture with a large PBS spot size. In general, the risk for developing a second malignancy in out-of-field organs for PBS remains

  6. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Xie, Yunhe; Schuemann, Jan; Yock, Torunn; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation-induced second cancer risks for in-field and out-of-field organs and tissues for pencil beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattering proton therapy (PPT) and assess the impact of adding patient-specific apertures to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam scanning for pediatric brain tumor patients. Five proton therapy plans were created for each of three pediatric patients using PPT as well as PBS with two spot sizes (average sigma of ~17 mm and ~8 mm at isocenter) and choice of patient-specific apertures. The lifetime attributable second malignancy risks for both in-field and out-of-field tissues and organs were compared among five delivery techniques. The risk for in-field tissues was calculated using the organ equivalent dose, which is determined by the dose volume histogram. For out-of-field organs, the organ-specific dose equivalent from secondary neutrons was calculated using Monte Carlo and anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. We find that either for small spot size PBS or for large spot size PBS, a patient-specific aperture reduces the in-field cancer risk to values lower than that for PPT. The reduction for large spot sizes (on average 43%) is larger than for small spot sizes (on average 21%). For out-of-field organs, the risk varies only marginally by employing a patient-specific aperture (on average from  -2% to 16% with increasing distance from the tumor), but is still one to two orders of magnitude lower than that for PPT. In conclusion, when pencil beam spot sizes are large, the addition of apertures to sharpen the penumbra decreases the in-field radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. There is a slight increase in out-of-field cancer risk as a result of neutron scatter from the aperture, but this risk is by far outweighed by the in-field risk benefit from using an aperture with a large PBS spot size. In general, the risk for developing a second malignancy in out-of-field organs for PBS remains

  7. Use of MHC II structural features in the design of vaccines for organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, Antonis K; Papadopoulos, George K

    2009-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II locus is the primary genetic linkage to autoimmune diseases. Susceptibility to each such disease is linked to different alleles, with a few alleles showing also dominant protection. The design of vaccines for autoimmune diseases is a long sought-after goal. As knowledge about the pathogenesis of these diseases has increased, the tools for such an approach have of necessity been refined. We review below the structural essence of MHC II-linked autoimmune diseases which centers on the binding of antigenic peptides to the disease-linked MHC II proteins, and the consequent activation of cognate TCRs from pathogenic CD4+ T cells. The state of affairs in two organ-specific autoimmune diseases, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease are covered, including attempts to treat these via antigen-specific MHC II-guided measures. We offer a couple of testable suggestions as to how this approach could be improved. PMID:19860675

  8. Single and joint ecotoxicity data estimation of organic UV filters and nanomaterials toward selected aquatic organisms. Urban groundwater risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2016-02-01

    The hazardous potential of organic UV filters (UV-Fs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to the widespread application of these compounds in most daily-use goods, such as hygiene and beauty products. Nanomaterials (NMs) have also been used in personal care products (PCPs) for many years. Nowadays, both classes of chemicals are considered environmental emerging contaminants. Despite some studies performed in vitro and in vivo reported adverse effects of many UV-Fs on the normal development of organisms, there is scarce data regarding acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the EC50 values of selected UV-Fs using standardised toxicity assays on three aquatic species i.e. Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Vibrio fischeri. EC50 values obtained were in the mgl(-1) range for all the species. The estimated toxicity data allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by selected UV-Fs in urban groundwater from Barcelona (Spain). The calculated ecological risk indicated a negligible impact on the aquifer. Giving the increasing importance of studying mixtures of pollutants and due to the widespread presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment, other objective of this work was to explore the response on D. magna after exposure to both binary combinations of UV-Fs among them and UV-F with NMs. In all cases but the nano-silver mixtures, joint toxicity was mitigated or even eradicated. PMID:26674115

  9. Functional characterization of the oxidative capacity of mitochondria and glycolytic assessment in benthic aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Atlante, A; Basset, A; Bobba, A; Lassandro, R; Mastrototaro, F; Vignes, F

    2016-06-01

    The metabolism of benthic aquatic invertebrates, populating transitional water ecosystems, is influenced by both physiological and environmental factors, thus involving an adjustment of physiological processes which has a metabolic cost. In order to discover changes in metabolic pathways in response to specific factors, it's firstly necessary characterizing the principal cellular metabolic activities of the small benthic aquatic organisms. We approach here the bioenergetic state issue of two benthic organisms, i.e. Lekanesphaera monodi and Gammarus insensibilis, evidencing that no apparent and statistically significative differences between them in aerobic as well in glycolytic capacities are detected, except for COX activity. PMID:26847717

  10. Exploring General Versus Task-Specific Assessments of Metacognition in University Chemistry Students: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple assessments to investigate the general versus task-specific characteristics of metacognition in dissimilar chemistry topics. This mixed-method approach investigated the nature of undergraduate general chemistry students' metacognition using four assessments: a self-report questionnaire, assessment of concurrent metacognitive skills, confidence judgment, and calibration accuracy. Data were analyzed using a multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix, supplemented with regression analyses, and qualitative interpretation. Significant correlations among task performance, calibration accuracy, and concurrent metacognition within a task suggest a converging relationship. Confidence judgment, however, was not associated with task performance or the other metacognitive measurements. The results partially support hypotheses of both general and task-specific metacognition. However, general and task-specific properties of metacognition were detected using different assessments. Case studies were constructed for two participants to illustrate how concurrent metacognition varied within different task demands. Considerations of how each assessment may appropriate different metacognitive constructs and the importance of the alignment of analytical constructs when using multiple assessments are discussed. These results may help lead to improvements in metacognition assessment and may provide insights into designs of effective metacognitive instruction.

  11. Assessment of an organ-based tube current modulation in thoracic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Sugai, Mai; Toyoda, Asami; Koshida, Haruka; Sakuta, Keita; Takata, Tadanori; Koshida, Kichiro; Iida, Hiroji; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, specific computed tomography (CT) scanners have been equipped with organ-based tube current modulation (TCM) technology. It is possible that organ-based TCM will replace the conventional dose-reduction technique of reducing the effective milliampere-second. The aim of this study was to determine if organ-based TCM could reduce radiation exposure to the breasts without compromising the image uniformity and beam hardening effect in thoracic CT examinations. Breast and skin radiation doses and the absorbed radiation dose distribution within a single section were measured with an anthropomorphic phantom and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters using four approaches to thoracic CT (reference, organ-based TCM, copper shielding, and the combination of the above two techniques, hereafter referred to as the combination technique). The CT value and noise level were measured using the same calibration phantom. Organ-based TCM and copper shielding reduced radiation doses to the breast by 23.7% and 21.8%, respectively. However, the CT value increased, especially in the anterior region, using copper shielding. In contrast, the CT value and noise level barely increased using organ-based TCM. The combination technique reduced the radiation dose to the breast by 38.2%, but greatly increased the absorbed radiation dose from the central to the posterior regions. Moreover, the CT value increased in the anterior region and the noise level increased by more than 10% in the entire region. Therefore, organ-based TCM can reduce radiation doses to breasts with only small increases in noise levels, making it preferable for specific groups of patients, such as children and young women. PMID:22402390

  12. Current complexity: a tool for assessing the complexity of organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Eastgate, Martin D

    2015-07-14

    Molecular complexity for a synthetic organic chemist is difficult to define, though intuitively known. Despite the importance of this concept, the quantitative assessment of complexity within organic chemistry has remained a challenge. We report here on the development of an approach for generating a unique complexity index, which is reflective of both intrinsic molecular complexity and extrinsic synthetic complexity. This index is based on a community's perception of complexity, within the context of current technology, calculating a molecule's current complexity. Our approach allows for a direct comparison between molecules, the analysis of trends within research programs, it enables an assessment (and comparison) of new synthetic approaches to known molecules and is capable of following a molecule's apparent complexity as it changes over time. PMID:25962620

  13. Assessment of chronic toxicity of petroleum and produced water components to marine organisms. Final technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cherr, G.N.; Higashi, R.M.; Shenker, J.M.

    1993-05-31

    The objectives of the report were: (1) to determine the effects of produced water exposure in early life stages of marine plants and animals, at the cellular, subcellular, and physiological levels; (2) to determine the effects of produced water exposure on reproduction in marine organisms; and (3) to develop non-invasive approaches for assessing reproductive impairment. The effects of produced water (PW) was assessed on development in three ecologically and economically important species, the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), the giant kelp (macrocystis pyrifera), and tsahe California mussel (Mytilus califonrnianus). To determine the basis for effects of PW on these developing organisms, some fundamental studies were prerequisite. Furthermore, eggs and embryos from adults which were outplanted near the discharge were also studied. Finally, the biochemical response of embryos to PW was also defined.

  14. Assessment of soil organic carbon distribution in Europe scale by spatio-temporal data and geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Ece; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Accuracy in assessing the distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important issue because SOC is an important soil component that plays key roles in the functions of both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems. The SOC content varies from place to place and it is strongly related with climate variables (temperature and rainfall), terrain features, soil texture, parent material, vegetation, land-use types, and human management (management and degradation) at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques allow for the prediction of soil properties using soil information and environmental covariates. In this study, assessment of SOC distribution has been predicted using combination of LUCAS soil samples with local soil data and ten spatio-temporal predictors (slope, aspect, elevation, CTI, CORINE land-cover classification, parent material, texture, WRB soil classification, average temperature and precipitation) with Regression-Kriging method in Europe scale. Significant correlation between the covariates and the organic carbon dependent variable was found.

  15. Assessing dietary exposure to caffeine from beverages in the U.S. population using brand-specific versus category-specific caffeine values.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports on caffeine intakes in the United States have highlighted the importance of obtaining accurate and valid measures of caffeine exposure. The objective of this study is to compare two methods of assigning caffeine values to beverages: brand-specific values versus an aggregate single value representing a broader range of products within a beverage category (i.e., category-specific). The two methods yielded some small, but statistically significant differences in the estimation of caffeine intake from coffee, tea, and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) for all ages combined and within several of the adult age groups (i.e., 35-49, 50-64, and ≥65 years). These differences, while small, suggest that detailed brand-specific data, particularly for CSDs, commercially pre-packaged or bottled teas, coffee, and specialty coffee drinks, provide more accurate estimates of caffeine exposure for some age groups. Despite these differences, these data provide some assurance that studies using a single aggregate caffeine value provide reasonable measures of caffeine exposure, particularly for studies conducted over a decade ago when there were fewer caffeinated products and brand-specific data available. As the caffeinated beverage marketplace continues to evolve, the use of more detailed, brand-specific data will likely strengthen the assessment of caffeine exposure in the United States. PMID:25818465

  16. Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates

  17. Formative Assessment as a Vehicle for Changing Classroom Practice in a Specific Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then…

  18. Bio-luminescent imaging and characterization of organ-specific metastasis of human cancer in NOD/SCID mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Nicole A. L.; Murakami, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Many clinical evidences demonstrate that the sites of distant metastasis are not random and certain malignant tumors show a tendency to develop metastases in specific organs (e.g., brain, liver, and lungs). However, an appropriate animal model to characterize the metastatic nature of transplantable human cancer cell lines has not been reported well. Recent advances in bio-luminescent imaging (BLI) technologies have facilitated the quantitative analysis of various cellular processes in vivo. To visualize the fate of tumor progression in the living mice, we are constructing a luciferaseexpressing human cancer cell library (including melanoma, colon, breast, and prostate cancer). Herein we demonstrate that the BLI technology in couple with a fine ultrasonic guidance realizes cancer cell-type dependent metastasis to the specific organs. For example, some melanoma cell lines showed frequent metastasis to brain, lungs, and lymph nodes in the mouse model. Notably, reflecting the clinical features of melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer, some of the cell lines showed preferential metastasis to the brain. Moreover, these cellular resources for BLI allow a high throughput screening for potential anti-cancer drugs. Thus, this BLI-mediated additional strategy with the luciferase-expressing cancer cell resources should promote many translational studies for human cancer therapy.

  19. Beyond Columnar Organization: Cell Type- and Target Layer-Specific Principles of Horizontal Axon Projection Patterns in Rat Vibrissal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Egger, Robert; Johnson, Andrew S.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Sakmann, Bert; de Kock, Christiaan P.J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Vertical thalamocortical afferents give rise to the elementary functional units of sensory cortex, cortical columns. Principles that underlie communication between columns remain however unknown. Here we unravel these by reconstructing in vivo-labeled neurons from all excitatory cell types in the vibrissal part of rat primary somatosensory cortex (vS1). Integrating the morphologies into an exact 3D model of vS1 revealed that the majority of intracortical (IC) axons project far beyond the borders of the principal column. We defined the corresponding innervation volume as the IC-unit. Deconstructing this structural cortical unit into its cell type-specific components, we found asymmetric projections that innervate columns of either the same whisker row or arc, and which subdivide vS1 into 2 orthogonal [supra-]granular and infragranular strata. We show that such organization could be most effective for encoding multi whisker inputs. Communication between columns is thus organized by multiple highly specific horizontal projection patterns, rendering IC-units as the primary structural entities for processing complex sensory stimuli. PMID:25838038

  20. Beyond Columnar Organization: Cell Type- and Target Layer-Specific Principles of Horizontal Axon Projection Patterns in Rat Vibrissal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Rajeevan T; Egger, Robert; Johnson, Andrew S; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Sakmann, Bert; de Kock, Christiaan P J; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Vertical thalamocortical afferents give rise to the elementary functional units of sensory cortex, cortical columns. Principles that underlie communication between columns remain however unknown. Here we unravel these by reconstructing in vivo-labeled neurons from all excitatory cell types in the vibrissal part of rat primary somatosensory cortex (vS1). Integrating the morphologies into an exact 3D model of vS1 revealed that the majority of intracortical (IC) axons project far beyond the borders of the principal column. We defined the corresponding innervation volume as the IC-unit. Deconstructing this structural cortical unit into its cell type-specific components, we found asymmetric projections that innervate columns of either the same whisker row or arc, and which subdivide vS1 into 2 orthogonal [supra-]granular and infragranular strata. We show that such organization could be most effective for encoding multi whisker inputs. Communication between columns is thus organized by multiple highly specific horizontal projection patterns, rendering IC-units as the primary structural entities for processing complex sensory stimuli. PMID:25838038

  1. Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  2. A site-specific ecological risk assessment for corn-associated insecticides.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    A site-specific ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to examine the simultaneous use of genetically modified corn (Bt corn) with a neonicotinoid seed coating, clothianidin, and use of a granular insecticide, tefluthrin, to protect crops from pest damage. A field study was conducted on site, and exposure data from the literature were summarized to determine the matrices and exposure concentrations that nontarget species could typically experience within an agricultural ecosystem. To determine ecological effects on nontarget species, acute toxicity bioassays were conducted on earthworms (Eisenia fetida), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and Elmid riffle beetle larvae (Ancyronyx spp.) in which the test species were exposed to single insecticides as well as the mixture of the 3 insecticides. In the risk characterization section of the ERA, stressor-response profiles for each species tested were compared with field distributions of the insecticides, and a margin of safety at the 10th percentile (MOS10) was calculated to estimate risk. No acute toxicity was observed in any of the 3 nontarget species after exposure to senescent Bt corn leaf tissue. Large MOS10 values were calculated for clothianidin to the nontarget species. When bioassays were compared with tefluthrin field distributions, very low MOS10 values were calculated for earthworms (0.06) and H. azteca (0.08) because the environmental concentrations often exceeded the stressor-response profile. No increased toxicity was observed when nontarget species were exposed to a mixture of the 3 insecticides. In summary, the genetically modified corn insecticidal proteins and clothianidin were not found at environmental concentrations exceeding benchmark values for ecological effects, but tefluthrin was consistently detected in the environment at levels that could be causing toxicity to nontarget species, especially if this pyrethroid is able to travel off site. PMID:25557061

  3. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L.; Zollars, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  4. Liquid organic foams for formulation optimization : an assessment of foam linear viscoelasticity and its temporal dependence.

    SciTech Connect

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2010-03-01

    Liquid foams are viscoelastic liquids, exhibiting a fast relaxation attributed to local bubble motions and a slow response due to structural evolution of the intrinsically unstable system. In this work, these processes are examined in unique organic foams that differ from the typically investigated aqueous systems in two major ways: the organic foams (1) posses a much higher continuous phase viscosity and (2) exhibit a coarsening response that involves coalescence of cells. The transient and dynamic relaxation responses of the organic foams are evaluated and discussed in relation to the response of aqueous foams. The change in the foam response with increasing gas fraction, from that of a Newtonian liquid to one that is strongly viscoelastic, is also presented. In addition, the temporal dependencies of the linear viscoelastic response are assessed in the context of the foam structural evolution. These foams and characterization techniques provide a basis for testing stabilization mechanisms in epoxy-based foams for encapsulation applications.

  5. Organ-specific phosphorus-allocation patterns and transcript profiles linked to phosphorus efficiency in two contrasting wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Tariq; Finnegan, Patrick M; Lambers, Hans; Jost, Ricarda

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have identified genotypic variation in phosphorus (P) efficiency, but rarely have the underlying mechanisms been described at the molecular level. We demonstrate that the highly P-efficient wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Chinese 80-55 maintains higher inorganic phosphate (Pi ) concentrations in all organs upon Pi withdrawal in combination with higher Pi acquisition in the presence of Pi when compared with the less-efficient cultivar Machete. These findings correlated with differential organ-specific expression of Pi transporters TaPHT1;2, TaPHT1;5, TaPHT1;8, TaPHT2;1 and H(+) -ATPase TaHa1. Observed transcript level differences between the cultivars suggest that higher de novo phospholipid biosynthetic activities in Pi -limited elongating basal leaf sections are another crucial adaptation in Chinese 80-55 for sustaining growth upon Pi withdrawal. These activities may be supported through enhanced breakdown of starch in Chinese 80-55 stems as suggested by higher TaGPho1 transcript levels. Chinese 80-55 fine roots on the other hand show strong suppression of transcripts involved in glycolysis, transcriptional regulation and ribosomal activities. Our work reveals major differences in the way the two contrasting cultivars allocate Pi and organic P compounds between source and sink tissues and in the acclimation of their metabolism to changes in Pi availability. PMID:24191900

  6. Compound Specific Concentration and Stable Isotope Ratio Measurements of Atmospheric Particulate Organic Matter and Gas Phase Nitrophenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, R.; Saccon, M.; Moukhtar, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) adversely affects health and climate. One of the still poorly understood sources of secondary organic matter (SOM) is the formation of secondary POM from the photo- oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC). Nitrophenols, which are toxic semi-volatile compounds, are formed in the atmosphere by OH-radical initiated photo-oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene. A method was developed to determine concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of particulate methyl nitrophenols in the atmosphere. This method has been used to quantify methyl nitrophenols, specifically 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol and 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol, found in atmospheric PM samples in trace quantities. Using this method, we conducted measurements of methyl nitrophenols in atmospheric PM in rural and suburban areas in Southern Ontario. The results of these measurements showed that the concentration of methyl nitrophenols in atmospheric PM is much lower than expected from the extrapolation of laboratory experiments and measured atmospheric toluene concentrations. In order to better understand the reasons for these findings, an analytical method for the analysis of nitrophenols in the gas phase is currently being developed. Similarly, the measurement technique is modified to allow analysis of other phenolic products of the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons in PM as well as in the gas phase. In this poster, sampling techniques for collection and GC-MS analysis of nitrophenols in gas phase and PM will be presented along with preliminary results from summer 2008 and spring 2009 studies.

  7. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula; Paniego, Norma; Lew, Sergio; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A

    2003-01-01

    Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4). The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60%) did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences putatively related to responses

  8. Tissue-specific populations of leukocytes in semen-producing organs of the normal, hemicastrated, and vasectomized mouse.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Thomas E; Kiessling, Rachel L; Kiessling, Ann A

    2003-03-01

    Semen HIV is separate and distinct from blood HIV and work has revealed that seminal plasma HIV particles do not arise from infected cells in semen. These findings indicate that semen-producing organs contain multiple, separate populations of HIV host cells. To test this hypothesis, we have examined leukocytes in semen-producing organs of male mice. Cells expressing F4/80 (tissue-specific macrophage marker) were abundant in testicular interstitium and as dendritic-like cells in the lumenal epithelium of the epididymis, especially the initial segment. Cells expressing CD45 (panleukocyte marker) were found rarely in the testicular interstitium, commonly in epididymal epithelium, were most abundant in the interstitium of the epididymis, and were more readily released from minced tissues than were F4/80(+) cells. Unlike the testis and epididymis, F4/80(+) cells in seminal vesicles also appeared to be CD45(+). Seminal vesicle leukocytes were restricted to the epithelium surrounding the lumen and were not released by mincing. CD11b (monocyte/B cell marker) was detected in testicular and seminal vesicle interstitium, but not in the epididymis. Hemicastration and vasectomy caused a limited redistribution of the leukocytes. These findings confirm the existence of tissue-specific populations of leukocytes in semen-producing organs and indicate that some populations are highly tissue adherent. The regionalized, tissue-adherent macrophages in the testicular interstitium, the initial segment of the caput epididymis, and the seminal vesicle epithelium suggest the existence of reservoirs of HIV-infected cells in humans that could contribute virus particles, but not infected cells, to semen and possibly blood. PMID:12689416

  9. Tumor response assessment by the single-lesion measurement per organ in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soong Goo; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Yang, Ik

    2016-01-01

    Background: The criterion of two target lesions per organ in the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 is an arbitrary one, being supported by no objective evidence. The optimal number of target lesions per organ still needs to be investigated. We compared tumor responses using the RECIST 1.1 (measuring two target lesions per organ) and modified RECIST 1.1 (measuring the single largest lesion in each organ) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: We reviewed medical records of patients with SCLC who received first-line treatment between January 2004 and December 2014 and compared tumor responses according to the two criteria using computed tomography. Results: There were a total of 34 patients who had at least two target lesions in any organ according to the RECIST 1.1 during the study period. The differences in the percentage changes of the sum of tumor measurements between RECIST 1.1 and modified RECIST 1.1 were all within 13%. Seven patients showed complete response and fourteen showed partial response according to the RECIST 1.1. The overall response rate was 61.8%. When assessing with the modified RECIST 1.1 instead of the RECIST 1.1, tumor responses showed perfect concordance between the two criteria (k=1.0). Conclusions: The modified RECIST 1.1 showed perfect agreement with the original RECIST 1.1 in the assessment of tumor response of SCLC. Our result suggests that it may be enough to measure the single largest target lesion per organ for evaluating tumor response. PMID:27199513

  10. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous-waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae, daphnia, earthworms, microbes, mixed sewage and plants; wheat Stephens, lettuce, butter crunch, radish, Cherry Belle, red clover, Kenland, and cucumber, Spartan Valor are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC50 values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox, DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphnia tests.

  11. Assessing Impacts of 20 yr Old Miscanthus on Soil Organic Carbon Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaxian; Schäfer, Gerhard; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomass as a renewable energy source has become increasingly popular in Upper Rhine Region to meet the demand for renewable energy. Miscanthus is one of the most favorite biofuel crops, due to its long life and large yields, as well as low energy and fertilizer inputs. However, current research on Miscanthus is mostly focused on the techniques and economics to produce biofuel or the impacts of side products such as ash and sulfur emissions to human health. Research on the potential impacts of Miscanthus onto soil quality, especially carbon quality after long-term adoption, is very limited. Some positive benefits, such as sequestrating organic carbon, have been repeatedly reported in previous research. Yet the quality of newly sequestrated organic carbon and its potential impacts onto global carbon cycling remain unclear. To fully account for the risks and benefits of Miscanthus, it is required to investigate the quality as well as the potential CO2 emissions of soil organic carbon on Miscanthus fields. As a part of the Interreg Project to assess the environmental impacts of biomass production in the Upper Rhine Region, this study aims to evaluate the carbon quality and the potential CO2 emissions after long-term Miscanthus adoption. Soils were sampled at 0-10, 10-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm depths on three Miscanthus fields with up to 20 years of cultivation in Ammerzwiller France, Münchenstein Switzerland, and Farnsburg Switzerland. Soil texture, pH, organic carbon and nitrogen content were measured for each sampled layer. Topsoils of 0-10 cm and subsoils of 10-40 cm were also incubated for 40 days to determine the mineralization potential of the soil organic matter. Our results show that: 1) only in top soils of 0-10 cm, the 20 year old Miscanthus field has significantly higher soil organic carbon concentrations, than the control site. No significant differences were observed in deeper soil layers. Similar tendencies were also observed for organic

  12. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Jeffrey P.; Cassell, Martin D.; Davis, Deborah R.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC. PMID:24965793

  13. Risk management & organizational uncertainty implications for the assessment of high consequence organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-02-23

    Post hoc analyses have demonstrated clearly that macro-system, organizational processes have played important roles in such major catastrophes as Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Exxon Valdez, Chernobyl, and Piper Alpha. How can managers of such high-consequence organizations as nuclear power plants and nuclear explosives handling facilities be sure that similar macro-system processes are not operating in their plants? To date, macro-system effects have not been integrated into risk assessments. Part of the reason for not using macro-system analyses to assess risk may be the impression that standard organizational measurement tools do not provide hard data that can be managed effectively. In this paper, I argue that organizational dimensions, like those in ISO 9000, can be quantified and integrated into standard risk assessments.

  14. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the ecological assessment task, Kingfisher Study

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation Ecological Assessment Task, Kingfisher Study, including information that will contribute to safe completion of the project. The report includes historical background; a site map; project organization; task descriptions and hazard evaluations; controls; and monitoring, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and medical surveillance program requirements. The report also includes descriptions of site personnel and their certifications as well as suspected WAG 2 contaminants and their characteristics. The primary objective of the WAG 2 Kingfisher Study is to assess the feasibility of using kingfishers as biological monitors of contaminants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Kingfisher sample collection will be used to determine the levels of contaminants and degree of bioaccumulation within a common piscivorous bird feeding on contaminated fish from streams on the ORR.

  15. Bioanalytical and chemical assessment of the disinfection by-product formation potential: role of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Farré, Maria José; Day, Sophie; Neale, Peta A; Stalter, Daniel; Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

    2013-09-15

    Disinfection by-products (DBP) formed from natural organic matter and disinfectants like chlorine and chloramine may cause adverse health effects. Here, we evaluate how the quantity and quality of natural organic matter and other precursors influence the formation of DBPs during chlorination and chloramination using a comprehensive approach including chemical analysis of regulated and emerging DBPs, total organic halogen quantification, organic matter characterisation and bioanalytical tools. In vitro bioassays allow us to assess the hazard potential of DBPs early in the chain of cellular events, when the DBPs react with their molecular target(s) and activate stress response and defence mechanisms. Given the reactive properties of known DBPs, a suite of bioassays targeting reactive modes of toxic action including genotoxicity and sensitive early warning endpoints such as protein damage and oxidative stress were evaluated in addition to cytotoxicity. Coagulated surface water was collected from three different drinking water treatment plants, along with reverse osmosis permeate from a desalination plant, and DBP formation potential was assessed after chlorination and chloramination. While effects were low or below the limit of detection before disinfection, the observed effects and DBP levels increased after disinfection and were generally higher after chlorination than after chloramination, indicating that chlorination forms higher concentrations of DBPs or more potent DBPs in the studied waters. Bacterial cytotoxicity, assessed using the bioluminescence inhibition assay, and induction of the oxidative stress response were the most sensitive endpoints, followed by genotoxicity. Source waters with higher dissolved organic carbon levels induced increased DBP formation and caused greater effects in the endpoints related to DNA damage repair, glutathione conjugation/protein damage and the Nrf2 oxidative stress response pathway after disinfection. Fractionation studies

  16. [Organizational well-being and work-related stress in health care organizations: validation of the Work-related Stress Assessment Scale].

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Anna; Lorini, Francesca; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Gaetani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the assessment of work-related stress has stimulated in recent years, the production of several theoretical paradigms and assessment tools. In this paper we present a new scale for the assessment of organizational well-being and work-related stress specific for healthcare organizations (Work-related Stress Assessment Scale - WSAS). The goal of the authors is to examine the psychometric properties of the scale, so that it can be used in the healthcare setting as a work-related stress assessment tool. The answers of 230 healthcare professionals belonging to different roles have been analyzed. The study was realized in 16 Units of the University Hospital "S. Maria alle Scotte "of Siena. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed the presence of five factors with good internal consistency and reliability, "relationship to the structure of proximity" (α = 0.93) "change" (α = 0.92), "organization of work "(α = 0.81)," relationship with the company / Governance "(α = 0.87)" working environment "(α = 0.83). The analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Models) has confirmed the goodness of the factor solution (NNFI = 0.835, CFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.060). The good psychometric qualities, the shortness and simplicity of the scale WSAS makes it a useful aid in the assessment of work-related stress in health care organizations. PMID:26934806

  17. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. Physiological basis in the assessment of ecotoxicity of pesticides to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R

    1997-07-01

    Earthworms are universally accepted as one of the most suitable and representative soil animals to be used for assessing chemical pollution in soils. Therefore, in this work earthworm species diverse in habitat and life-pattern are used and the effects of sublethal concentrations of terbuthylazine and carbofuran on the reproductive processes, respiration and excretion are investigated. The results show that even low and moderate concentrations of the pesticides can induce measurable physiological effects. Species-specific and substance-specific effects are noticeable in the worms. PMID:9232002

  19. Apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments: an integrated molecular and compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Hiscock, Kevin M; Disdle, Paul; Krueger, Tobias; Rawlins, Barry G

    2015-07-01

    We present a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments via a coupled molecular and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of long-chain leaf wax n-alkane biomarkers using a Bayesian mixing model. Leaf wax extracts of 13 plant species were collected from across two environments (aquatic and terrestrial) and four plant functional types (trees, herbaceous perennials, and C3 and C4 graminoids) from the agricultural River Wensum catchment, UK. Seven isotopic (δ13C27, δ13C29, δ13C31, δ13C27-31, δ2H27, δ2H29, and δ2H27-29) and two n-alkane ratio (average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI)) fingerprints were derived, which successfully differentiated 93% of individual plant specimens by plant functional type. The δ2H values were the strongest discriminators of plants originating from different functional groups, with trees (δ2H27-29=-208‰ to -164‰) and C3 graminoids (δ2H27-29=-259‰ to -221‰) providing the largest contrasts. The δ13C values provided strong discrimination between C3 (δ13C27-31=-37.5‰ to -33.8‰) and C4 (δ13C27-31=-23.5‰ to -23.1‰) plants, but neither δ13C nor δ2H values could uniquely differentiate aquatic and terrestrial species, emphasizing a stronger plant physiological/biochemical rather than environmental control over isotopic differences. ACL and CPI complemented isotopic discrimination, with significantly longer chain lengths recorded for trees and terrestrial plants compared with herbaceous perennials and aquatic species, respectively. Application of a comprehensive Bayesian mixing model for 18 streambed sediments collected between September 2013 and March 2014 revealed considerable temporal variability in the apportionment of organic matter sources. Median organic matter contributions ranged from 22% to 52% for trees, 29% to 50% for herbaceous perennials, 17% to 34% for C3 graminoids and 3% to 7% for C4 graminoids. The results presented here

  20. Assessment of soil organic carbon stocks under future climate and land cover changes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yigini, Yusuf; Panagos, Panos

    2016-07-01

    Soil organic carbon plays an important role in the carbon cycling of terrestrial ecosystems, variations in soil organic carbon stocks are very important for the ecosystem. In this study, a geostatistical model was used for predicting current and future soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Europe. The first phase of the study predicts current soil organic carbon content by using stepwise multiple linear regression and ordinary kriging and the second phase of the study projects the soil organic carbon to the near future (2050) by using a set of environmental predictors. We demonstrate here an approach to predict present and future soil organic carbon stocks by using climate, land cover, terrain and soil data and their projections. The covariates were selected for their role in the carbon cycle and their availability for the future model. The regression-kriging as a base model is predicting current SOC stocks in Europe by using a set of covariates and dense SOC measurements coming from LUCAS Soil Database. The base model delivers coefficients for each of the covariates to the future model. The overall model produced soil organic carbon maps which reflect the present and the future predictions (2050) based on climate and land cover projections. The data of the present climate conditions (long-term average (1950-2000)) and the future projections for 2050 were obtained from WorldClim data portal. The future climate projections are the recent climate projections mentioned in the Fifth Assessment IPCC report. These projections were extracted from the global climate models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The results suggest an overall increase in SOC stocks by 2050 in Europe (EU26) under all climate and land cover scenarios, but the extent of the increase varies between the climate model and emissions scenarios. PMID:27082446

  1. Prevalence of selected organ-specific autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Maria; Dryglewska, Magdalena; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of selected organ-specific autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients, and discuss their clinical significance. Material and methods The study included 121 RA and 30 pSS patients. Sera were tested for the presence of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), thyroglobulin (anti-TG), TSH receptor (TRAbs), mitochondrial antigen M2 (AMA-M2-3E) and gliadin-analogous fusion peptides (anti-GAF(3X)) using the ELISA method. Non-organ-specific antibodies were determined: rheumatoid factor in IgM class, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and antinuclear antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies was also examined with regards to RA activity. Results The following autoantibodies were detected in RA patients: anti-TPO – 13 (10.7%), anti-TG – 6 (5%), AMA-M2-3E – 3 (2.5%), anti-GAF(3X) – 5 (4.1%). The respective levels of these autoantibodies in pSS patients were 3 (10%), 2 (6.7%), 4 (13.3%) and 2 (6.7%). Polyautoimmunity was confirmed in 34 RA patients (including 20 cases of autoimmune thyroid disease [AITD]) and in 6 pSS patients (6 cases of AITD). When RA patients were divided into anti-TPO positive and anti-TPO negative groups, we found a statistically significant relationship between groups regarding age and hemoglobin concentration. In pSS patients the anti-TPO positive group was less likely to use immunosuppressive drugs as compared with the anti-TPO negative group. Anti-TPO was significantly more frequently detected in RA + AITD vs. RA, RA + SS + AITD vs. RA and in pSS + AITD vs. pSS patients. Conclusions Organ-specific autoantibodies are relatively frequently observed in patients with RA and pSS. Their presence is connected with the clinical picture of the diseases.

  2. Low Temperature Development Induces a Specific Decrease in trans-Δ3-Hexadecenoic Acid Content which Influences LHCII Organization 1

    PubMed Central

    Huner, Norman P. A.; Krol, Marianna; Williams, John P.; Maissan, Ellen; Low, Phillip S.; Roberts, Dane; Thompson, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on whole leaf extracts and isolated thylakoids from winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) grown at 5°C cold-hardened rye (RH) and 20°C nonhardened rye (RNH). Although no significant change in total lipid content was observed, growth at low, cold-hardening temperature resulted in a specific 67% (thylakoids) to 74% (whole leaves) decrease in the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid (trans-16:1) level associated with phosphatidyldiacylglycerol (PG). Electron spin resonance and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated no significant difference in the fluidity of RH and RNH thylakoids. Separation of chlorophyll-protein complexes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the ratio of oligomeric light harvesting complex:monomeric light harvesting complex (LHCII1:LHCII3) was 2-fold higher in RNH than RH thylakoids. The ratio of CP1a:CP1 was also 1.5-fold higher in RNH than RH thylakoids. Analyses of winter rye grown at 20, 15, 10, and 5°C indicated that both, the trans-16:1 acid levels in PG and the LHCII1:LHCII3 decreased concomitantly with a decrease in growth temperature. Above 40°C, differential scanning calorimetry of RNH thylakoids indicated the presence of five major endotherms (47, 60, 67, 73, and 86°C). Although the general features of the temperature transitions observed above 40°C in RH thylakoids were similar to those observed for RNH thylakoids, the transitions at 60 and 73°C were resolved as inflections only and RH thylakoids exhibited transitions at 45 and 84°C which were 2°C lower than those observed in RNH thylakoids. Since polypeptide and lipid compositions of RH and RNH thylakoids were very similar, we suggest that these differences reflect alterations in thylakoid membrane organization. Specifically, it is suggested that low developmental temperature modulates LHCII organization such that oligomeric LHCII predominates in RNH thylakoids whereas a monomeric or an

  3. Validation of the “World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule for Children, WHODAS-Child” in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Pamela; Stevenson, Anne; Canino, Glorisa; Mushashi, Christine; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Munyanah, Morris; Betancourt, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Overview The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule for children (WHODAS-Child) is a disability assessment instrument based on the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for children and youth. It is modified from the original adult version specifically for use with children. The aim of this study was to assess the WHODAS-Child structure and metric properties in a community sample of children with and without reported psychosocial problems in rural Rwanda. Methods The WHODAS-Child was first translated into Kinyarwanda through a detailed committee translation process and back-translation. Cognitive interviewing was used to assess the comprehension of the translated items. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a group of 64 children. The translated WHODAS-Child was then administered to a final sample of 367 children in southern Kayonza district in rural southeastern Rwanda within a larger psychosocial assessment battery. The latent structure was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was evaluated in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (Pearson's correlation coefficient). Construct validity was explored by examining convergence between WHODAS-Child scores and mental disorder status, and divergence of WHODAS-Child scores with protective factors and prosocial behaviors. Concordance between parent and child scores was also assessed. Results The six-factor structure of the WHODAS-Child was confirmed in a population sample of Rwandan children. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability were high (r = .83 and ICC = .88). WHODAS-Child scores were moderately positively correlated with presence of depression (r = .42, p<.001) and post-traumatic stress disorder (r = .31, p<.001) and moderately negatively correlated with prosocial behaviors (r = .47, p<.001). The Kinyarwanda version of the WHODAS-Child was found to be a reliable and acceptable self

  4. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting

    2016-02-01

    Low impact development (LID) practices have become more important in urban stormwater management worldwide. However, most research on design optimization focuses on relatively large scale, and there is very limited information or guideline regarding individual LID practice designs (i.e., optimal depth, width and length). The objective of this study is to identify the optimal design by assessing the hydrological performance and the cost-effectiveness of different designs of LID practices at a household or business scale, and to analyze the sensitivity of the hydrological performance and the cost of the optimal design to different model and design parameters. First, EPA SWMM, automatically controlled by MATLAB, is used to obtain the peak runoff of different designs of three specific LID practices (i.e., green roof, bioretention and porous pavement) under different design storms (i.e., 2 yr and 50 yr design storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, U.S.). Then, life cycle cost is estimated for the different designs, and the optimal design, defined as the design with the lowest cost and at least 20% peak runoff reduction, is identified. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal design to the different design parameters is examined. The optimal design of green roof tends to be larger in area but thinner, while the optimal designs of bioretention and porous pavement tend to be smaller in area. To handle larger storms, however, it is more effective to increase the green roof depth, and to increase the area of the bioretention and porous pavement. Porous pavement is the most cost-effective for peak flow reduction, followed by bioretention and then green roof. The cost-effectiveness, measured as the peak runoff reduction/thousand Dollars of LID practices in Hong Kong (e.g., 0.02 L/103 US s, 0.15 L/103 US s and 0.93 L/103 US s for green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm) is lower than that in Seattle (e.g., 0.03 L/103 US s, 0.29 L/103 US s and 1.58 L/103 US s for

  5. Risk assessment of d-limonene: an example of male rat-specific renal tumorigens.

    PubMed

    Hard, G C; Whysner, J

    1994-01-01

    The naturally occurring food constituent d-limonene has been found to cause tumors at high doses only in the kidney of the male rat in association with the development of hyaline droplet nephropathy. In contrast, neither kidney tumors nor the associated nephropathy have been found in female rats or mice at much higher doses. Adult male rats produce large quantities of a specific low-molecular-weight protein in the liver, which is known as alpha 2U-globulin (alpha 2U-g). With administration of sufficient doses of d-limonene to male rats, this protein has been found to accumulate excessively in the P2 segment cells of renal proximal tubules, resulting in hyaline droplet formation as a manifestation of protein overload. Hyaline droplet accumulation is the first stage in a unique sequence of nephropathic lesions (also known as alpha 2U-g nephropathy), including granular casts in the outer medulla and linear mineralization in the papilla. The mechanism underlying protein accumulation appears to be the reversible binding of chemical to alpha 2U-g with subsequent prolongation of its half-life in the tubule cell. In the case of d-limonene, the minor metabolite d-limonene-1,2-oxide has been shown to be the primary chemical species that binds reversibly to alpha 2U-g, impeding the normal process of lysosomal proteinase degradation of alpha 2U-g. The ensuing nephropathy is associated with a sustained increase in compensatory renal tubule cell proliferation, which provides the putative mechanistic link with renal tumor formation possibly through tumor promotion of spontaneously initiated cells or enhanced spontaneous mutagenesis. This proposed mechanism has been supported by additional information, including negative genotoxicity tests for d-limonene and its oxide metabolites, experimentally verified tumor promotion, and enhanced cell proliferation primarily in P2 segment tubule cells in male F344 rats, but no such effects in the alpha 2U-g-deficient NBR rat. The mechanism of

  6. Registered nurses' and student nurses' assessment of pain and distress related to specific patient and nurse characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Larsson, Bodil Wilde

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies examining the influence of patient and nurse characteristics on assessments of pain and distress are not consistent in their results. Few studies have focused on the influence of nurses' personality factors on the assessment of pain and distress. The aims of this study were to compare registered nurses' and student nurses' assessments of patients' pain and distress and to identify if the assessment relate to specific patient and nurse characteristics. Seventy-one registered nurses and 184 student nurses assessed pain and distress in three hypothetical cases and responded to personality factors scales. The assessments of pain and distress regarding the patients showed significant differences. The respondents were divided into two groups, respectively, for each patient according to whether the patient's experiences of pain and distress were assessed as more or less intense. Both the groups of registered nurses and student nurses showed significantly differences on personality factors. The groups of student nurses also differed on nursing experience. Patients' age, and type and stage of illness, personality factors, and nursing experience influenced the respondents' assessments. These findings can be used to help educators in nursing to develop strategies to improve skills and knowledge in the assessment at pain and distress. PMID:16412537

  7. A new family of zinc finger proteins in petunia: structure, DNA sequence recognition, and floral organ-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Takatsuji, H; Nakamura, N; Katsumoto, Y

    1994-07-01

    We have previously cloned a gene for a zinc finger protein (EPF1) that is expressed specifically in petals and interacts with the promoter region of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in petunia. In an attempt to isolate genes encoding additional factors that interact with this promoter, we cloned four novel genes encoding zinc finger proteins (EPF2-5a, EPF2-5b, EPF2-4, and EPF2-7). Sequence analyses revealed that overall similarity between the EPF1 and the EPF2 protein family, except in the zinc finger motifs and the basic amino acid cluster, was very low, suggesting that the two groups belong to different subfamilies. DNA binding specificities of EPF1, EPF2-5, and EPF2-4 were very similar, as expected from the conserved zinc finger motifs. However, EPF2-7 showed no binding to the probes tested in spite of having the conserved motifs. DNA binding studies using a series of spacing mutant probes suggested a binding mechanism in which the EPF proteins recognize spacings in target DNA. RNA gel blot analyses and histochemical analyses with a promoter and beta-glucuronidase fusion revealed that expression of the EPF2-5 gene (EPF2-5) was petal and stamen specific. Expression of the EPF2-7 gene (EPF2-7) was sepal and petal specific and localized in vascular tissues. The preferential expression in two adjacent floral organs raises the possibility that these genes are downstream transcription factors of floral homeotic genes. PMID:8069106

  8. Isolation of a citrus promoter specific for reproductive organs and its functional analysis in isolated juice sacs and tomato.

    PubMed

    Sorkina, Alina; Bardosh, Gabriel; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Fridman, Ifat; Schlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Or, Etti; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2011-09-01

    While searching for genes expressed in acid lemon but not in acidless lime pulp, we isolated clone Cl111 which showed the following expression phenotypes: (1) while it was expressed in the ovaries in both varieties, its mRNA was detected only in the pulp of the acid fruit, (2) no or very low expression of the gene was detected in vegetative organs. These expression patterns suggested that Cl111 is an ovary- and pulp-specific gene. The ability of ~2-kb fragments upstream of the transcription start site of the lemon and lime genes to confer reporter-gene activity was investigated by transient expression in isolated juice vesicles of both varieties. Whereas Cl111 promoter from lemon showed faint activity in lemon and lime juice vesicles, no activity was evident with the lime promoter. The activities of the 2-kb fragments and their delimited fragments were further investigated in tomato. The results indicated that the promoters were active in a manner similar to that in acid lemon and acidless lime: the lemon promoter generated activity in the fruit endocarp, analogous to citrus fruit pulp. The delimitation analyses identified an expression-conferring region which, in the lemon promoter, contained a sequence homologous to a fruit-specific element of the melon cucumisin gene. Another region, which reduced promoter activity, contained an I-Box-like sequence, identified as a fruit-specific negative element. Taken together, Cl111 promoter was confirmed to be pulp- and flower-specific. Differences in the expression of Cl111 between the two varieties could be attributable to changes in the gene promoter region. PMID:21538100

  9. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

  10. Evaluating the Use of Criteria for Assessing Profession-Specific Communication Skills in Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvarinen, Marja-Leena; Tanskanen, Paavo; Katajavuori, Nina; Isotalus, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    One central task in higher education is to provide students with interpersonal communication competence in their profession. To achieve this, specialised training, based on an understanding of disciplinary communication practices and appropriate assessment methods, is needed. However, there is a lack of reliable assessment instruments which are…

  11. 75 FR 52555 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Site-Specific Environmental Assessment and Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ...The National Science Foundation (NSF) published a document in the Federal Register of August 16, 2010, concerning requests for public comment on a Draft Site-Specific Environmental Assessment for the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). The document did not include the dates and times for the open house...

  12. Psycho-Educational Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities: Views and Practices of Australian Psychologists and Guidance Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, John D.; Gilmore, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of the views and practices of 203 Australian psychologists and guidance counsellors with respect to psycho-educational assessment of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Results from an online survey indicated that practitioners draw upon a wide range of theoretical perspectives when…

  13. Assessment of Relationship-Specific Incentive and Threat Sensitivities: Predicting Satisfaction and Affect in Adult Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Kleinman, Brighid M.; Kaczynski, Karen J.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. Initial tests of factor structure and associations with relationship quality were conducted in a sample of persons in intimate relationships (Study 1). Associations with conceptually related measures were examined to determine convergent and…

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SITE-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING NEW BEDFORD HARBOR PILOT DREDGING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical site-specific chemical and biological criteria were established to assess the impact of a pilot dredging project on water quality at the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Superfund site. ecause most existing chemical concentrations in the water column and indigeno...

  15. Health Professionals' Views of Communication: Implications for Assessing Performance on a Health-Specific English Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Cathie; Pill, John; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; McNamara, Tim; Manias, Elizabeth; Webb, Gillian; McColl, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The gap between linguistic and professional criteria is a widely acknowledged but unresolved issue in the teaching and assessment of languages for specific purposes (LSP). In the teaching of professional writing, language experts and workplace professionals have been characterized as living worlds apart with respect to their views of…

  16. Specific antioxidant reactions to oxidative stress promoted by natural organic matter in two amphipod species from Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, Maxim A; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Kolesnichenko, Aleksey V; Kolesnichenko, Viktoria V; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2006-04-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to a variety of natural chemical stressors such as humic substances. The aim of this study was to investigate the mode of action of natural organic matter (NOM, roughly 80% of which is humic substances) on two freshwater amphipods from Lake Baikal, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf.) and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus (Dyb.), in order to assess the potential oxidative stress of NOM impact. Chosen as oxidative stress markers were lipid peroxidation and cell internal hydrogen peroxide level as well as peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities. Exposure of amphipods to NOM caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation but a concomitant decrease in hydrogen peroxide concentration, and peroxidase and (to a lesser degree) glutathione S-transferase activities. An interim increase of catalase activity was observed. A possible reason for the decrease in major antioxidant enzyme activity is exhaustion of the reservoir of reduced substrates in the first stage of the antioxidant defense reaction. Despite the inhibition of major antioxidant enzymes, the studied amphipods were able to successfully resist the NOM oxidative impact and, at low NOM concentrations, to combat lipid peroxidation processes. PMID:16528684

  17. Specific interaction between negative atmospheric ions and organic compounds in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Sakai, Mami; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between negative atmospheric ions and various types of organic compounds were investigated using atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. Atmospheric negative ions such as O(2)(-), HCO(3)(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and NO(3)(-)(HNO(3)) having different proton affinities served as the reactant ions for analyte ionization in APCDI in negative-ion mode. The individual atmospheric ions specifically ionized aliphatic and aromatic compounds with various functional groups as atmospheric ion adducts and deprotonated analytes. The formation of the atmospheric ion adducts under certain discharge conditions is most likely attributable to the affinity between the analyte and atmospheric ion and the concentration of the atmospheric ion produced under these conditions. The deprotonated analytes, in contrast, were generated from the adducts of the atmospheric ions with higher proton affinity attributable to efficient proton abstraction from the analyte by the atmospheric ion. PMID:22528201

  18. The left-right Pitx2 pathway drives organ-specific arterial and lymphatic development in the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Aparna; Welsh, Ian C.; Sivakumar, Aravind; Gludish, David W.; Shilvock, Abigail R.; Noden, Drew M.; Kurpios, Natasza A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The dorsal mesentery (DM) is the major conduit for blood and lymphatic vessels in the gut. The mechanisms underlying their morphogenesis are challenging to study and remain unknown. Here we show that arteriogenesis in the DM begins during gut rotation and proceeds strictly on the left side, dependent on the Pitx2 target gene Cxcl12. Although competent Cxcr4-positive angioblasts are present on the right, they fail to form vessels and progressively emigrate. Surprisingly, gut lymphatics also initiate in the left DM and arise only after – and dependent on – arteriogenesis, implicating arteries as drivers of gut lymphangiogenesis. Our data begin to unravel the origin of two distinct vascular systems and demonstrate how early L-R molecular asymmetries are translated into organ-specific vascular patterns. We propose a dual origin of gut lymphangiogenesis, where prior arterial growth is required to initiate local lymphatics that only subsequently connect to the vascular system. PMID:25482882

  19. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  1. From Caenorhabditis elegans to the human connectome: a specific modular organization increases metabolic, functional and developmental efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseop S.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The connectome, or the entire connectivity of a neural system represented by a network, ranges across various scales from synaptic connections between individual neurons to fibre tract connections between brain regions. Although the modularity they commonly show has been extensively studied, it is unclear whether the connection specificity of such networks can already be fully explained by the modularity alone. To answer this question, we study two networks, the neuronal network of Caenorhabditis elegans and the fibre tract network of human brains obtained through diffusion spectrum imaging. We compare them to their respective benchmark networks with varying modularities, which are generated by link swapping to have desired modularity values. We find several network properties that are specific to the neural networks and cannot be fully explained by the modularity alone. First, the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length of both C. elegans and human connectomes are higher than those of the benchmark networks with similar modularity. High clustering coefficient indicates efficient local information distribution, and high characteristic path length suggests reduced global integration. Second, the total wiring length is smaller than for the alternative configurations with similar modularity. This is due to lower dispersion of connections, which means each neuron in the C. elegans connectome or each region of interest in the human connectome reaches fewer ganglia or cortical areas, respectively. Third, both neural networks show lower algorithmic entropy compared with the alternative arrangements. This implies that fewer genes are needed to encode for the organization of neural systems. While the first two findings show that the neural topologies are efficient in information processing, this suggests that they are also efficient from a developmental point of view. Together, these results show that neural systems are organized in such a way as to yield

  2. All the adult stem cells, where do they all come from? An external source for organ-specific stem cell pools.

    PubMed

    Nardi, N B

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and maintain the ability to differentiate into mature lineages. Whereas the "stemness" of embryonic stem cells is not discussed, the primitiveness of a stem cell type within adult organisms is not well determined. Data presently available are either inconclusive or controversial regarding two main topics: maintenance or senescente of the adult stem cell pool; and pluripotentiality of the cells. While programmed senescence or apoptosis following uncorrected mutations represent no problem for mature cells, the maintenance of the stem cell pool itself must be assured. Two different mechanisms can be envisaged for that. In the first mechanism, which is generally accepted, stem cells originate during ontogeny along with the organ which they are responsible for, and remain there during all the lifespan of the organism. Several observations derived from recent reports allow the suggestion of a second mechanism. These observations include: organ-specific stem cells are senescent; adult stem cells circulate in the organism; stem cell niches are essential for the existence and function of stem cells; adult stem cells can present lineage markers; embryo-like, pluripotent stem cells are present in adult organisms, as shown by the development of teratomas, tumors composed of derivatives of the three germ layers; and the fact that the gonads may be a reservoir of embryo-like, pluripotent stem cells in adult organisms. The second mechanism for the maintenance of adult stem cells compartments implies a source external to the organ they belong, consisting of pluripotent, embryo-like cells of unrestricted life span, presenting efficient mechanisms for avoiding or correcting mutations and capable to circulate in the organism. According to this model, primitive stem cells exist in a specific organ in adult organisms. They undergo asymmetrical divisions, which originate one "true" stem cell and another one which enters the pool of adult stem cells, circulating

  3. A Preliminary Examination of Specific Risk Assessment for Sexual Offenders against Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proeve, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Specific risk questions concerning sexual offending, such as risk of offending against male victims given identified female victims, have seldom been discussed in the child sexual abuse literature. Two approaches to specific risk questions are described: (a) conditional probability calculations, and (b) the development of risk assessment…

  4. Oral Infection with Signature-Tagged Listeria monocytogenes Reveals Organ-Specific Growth and Dissemination Routes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melton-Witt, Jody A.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes a serious food-borne disease due to its ability to spread from the intestine to other organs, a process that is poorly understood. In this study we used 20 signature-tagged wild-type clones of L. monocytogenes in guinea pigs in combination with extensive quantitative data analysis to gain insight into extraintestinal dissemination. We show that L. monocytogenes colonized the liver in all asymptomatic animals. Spread to the liver occurred as early as 4 h after ingestion via a direct pathway from the intestine to the liver. This direct pathway contributed significantly to the bacterial load in the liver and was followed by a second wave of dissemination via the mesenteric lymph nodes (indirect pathway). Furthermore, bacteria were eliminated in the liver, whereas small intestinal villi provided a niche for bacterial replication, indicating organ-specific differences in net bacterial growth. Bacteria were shed back from intestinal villi into the small intestinal lumen and reinfected the Peyer's patches. Together, these results support a novel dissemination model where L. monocytogenes replicates in intestinal villi, is shed into the lumen, and reinfects intestinal immune cells that traffic to liver and mesenteric lymph nodes, a process that occurs even during asymptomatic colonization. PMID:22083714

  5. Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, Sneer

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

  6. Evaluation of the separation characteristics of application-specific (volatile organic compounds) open-tubular columns for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F; Qian, Jing; Kiridena, Waruna; Dekay, Colleen; Koziol, Wladyslaw W

    2006-11-17

    The solvation parameter model is used to characterize the separation characteristics of two application-specific open-tubular columns (Rtx-Volatiles and Rtx-VGC) and a general purpose column for the separation of volatile organic compounds (DB-WAXetr) at five equally spaced temperatures over the range 60-140 degrees C. System constant differences and retention factor correlation plots are then used to determine selectivity differences between the above columns and their closest neighbors in a large database of system constants and retention factors for forty-four open-tubular columns. The Rtx-Volatiles column is shown to have separation characteristics predicted for a poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) stationary phase containing about 16% diphenylsiloxane monomer. The Rtx-VGC column has separation properties similar to the poly(cyanopropylphenyldimethylsiloxane) stationary phase containing 14% cyanopropylphenylsiloxane monomer DB-1701 for non-polar and dipolar/polarizable compounds but significantly different characteristics for the separation of hydrogen-bond acids. For all practical purposes the DB-WAXetr column is shown to be selectivity equivalent to poly(ethylene glycol) columns prepared using different chemistries for bonding and immobilizing the stationary phase. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis are then used to classify the system constants for the above columns and a sub-database of eleven open-tubular columns (DB-1, HP-5, DB-VRX, Rtx-20, DB-35, Rtx-50, Rtx-65, DB-1301, DB-1701, DB-200, and DB-624) commonly used for the separation of volatile organic compounds. A rationale basis for column selection based on differences in intermolecular interactions is presented as an aid to method development for the separation of volatile organic compounds. PMID:16996069

  7. Organ-Specific Stability of Two Lemna rbcS mRNAs Is Determined Primarily in the Nuclear Compartment.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J. L.; Silverthorne, J.

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the organ-specific expression of two members of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (rbcS) gene family is post-transcriptionally regulated in Lemna gibba. While both small subunit genes encoding SSU1 and SSU5B were transcribed at comparable levels in root and frond nuclei, SSU1 mRNA accumulated to high levels in both roots and fronds in contrast to SSU5B mRNA, which was of very low abundance in the roots compared with the fronds. In this study, we have used two approaches to pinpoint the step(s) at which SSU1 and SSU5B mRNAs are differentially accumulated in these organs. In the first approach, total nuclear steady state mRNA was isolated from roots and fronds, and the amount of each transcript was measured by RNase protection assays and compared with the transcription rates in isolated nuclei. In the second approach, cordycepin was used to inhibit mRNA synthesis in Lemna fronds or roots, and the rate of decay of each mRNA was measured by RNA gel blot analysis or RNase protection assays. Our findings indicate that the differential accumulation of SSU1 and SSU5B mRNAs in the fronds versus the roots is determined primarily in the nuclear compartment. In addition, SSU1 was found to have a longer half-life in total steady state mRNA than SSU5B had in both organs. This feature probably accounts for SSU1 being the predominantly expressed family member. PMID:12242353

  8. Organic UV Filters in the Surface Water of Nanjing, China: Occurrence, Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Fuli; Nie, Yang; Zhang, Zhenghua; Li, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) are increasingly used for protection against UV irradiation. The widespread occurrence of OUV-Fs residues in aquatic systems has been reported, but little is known regarding their distribution and potential impact to the surface water in China. This study reports the occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of eight widely used OUV-Fs in the surface water of Nanjing. The results indicated butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, octyl-dimethyl-PABA and benzophenone-types (BP3, BP4 and BP1) were the most frequently detected compounds at concentrations of 3.63-104 ng/L. In general, the concentrations of OUV-Fs were decreased along the rivers; however, due to a substantial pollution load from the tributaries, higher concentrations of OUV-Fs were observed near the tributary inlet, compared to the other study areas. The risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that all OUV-Fs posed at least low risks to certain sensitive aquatic organisms, and BP3 posed high risk with RQ values of 1.64. It should be noted that the exclusion of adsorbed OUV-Fs might have contributed to an underestimation of the risk, therefore, it's necessary to assess both adsorbed and dissolved OUV-Fs in further studies. PMID:26747437

  9. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

  10. Transforming petals into sepaloid organs in Arabidopsis and oilseed rape: implementation of the hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing technology in an organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Byzova, Marina; Verduyn, Christoph; De Brouwer, Dirk; De Block, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) genotypes with no or small petals are thought to have advantages in photosynthetic activity. The flowers of field-grown oilseed rape form a bright-yellow canopy that reflects and absorbs nearly 60% of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), causing a severe yield penalty. Reducing the size of the petals and/or removing the reflecting colour will improve the transmission of PAR to the leaves and is expected to increase the crop productivity. In this study the 'hairpin' RNA-mediated (hpRNA) gene silencing technology was implemented in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and B. napus to silence B-type MADS-box floral organ identity genes in a second-whorl-specific manner. In Arabidopsis, silencing of B-type MADS-box genes was obtained by expressing B. napus APETALA3( BAP3) or PISTILLATA ( BPI) homologous self-complementary hpRNA constructs under control of the Arabidopsis A-type MADS-box gene APETALA1 ( AP1) promoter. In B. napus, silencing of the BPI gene family was achieved by expressing a similar hpRNA construct as used in Arabidopsis under the control of a chimeric promoter consisting of a modified petal-specific Arabidopsis AP3 promoter fragment fused to the AP1 promoter. In this way, transgenic plants were generated producing male fertile flowers in which the petals were converted into sepals ( Arabidopsis) or into sepaloid petals ( B. napus). These novel flower phenotypes were stable and heritable in both species. PMID:14534787

  11. Formative assessment as a vehicle for changing classroom practice in a specific cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then analyze the role of formative assessment in the change of local learning culture. Based on the practice of Yin and Buck I emphasize the significance of their "bottom up" strategy to the teachers' epistemological change. I believe that this strategy may provide practicable solutions to current Chinese educational problems as well as a means for science educators to shift toward systematic professional development.

  12. Integration of site-specific health information: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry health assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.

    1990-12-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry is required to conduct a health assessment of any site that is listed on or proposed for the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Sixteen US Department of Energy (DOE) sites currently fall into this category. Health assessments contain a qualitative description of impacts to public health and the environment from hazardous waste sites, as well as recommendations for actions to mitigate or eliminate risk. Because these recommendations may have major impacts on compliance activities at DOE facilities, the health assessments are an important source of information for the monitoring activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Compliance (OEC). This report provides an overview of the activities involved in preparing the health assessment, its role in environmental management, and its key elements.

  13. Assessment of aquatic organisms as bioindicators of historical radionuclide release to the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Poston, T.M.; Newell, R.L.

    1988-12-01

    This study examined the potential for using several aquatic organisms as biological indicators of historic levels of radionuclides released to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The purpose of the study was to determine the types of environmental samples that could be collected to further our understanding of previous releases of radionuclides at Hanford. Information was initially collected to determine the relative abundance and persistence of radionuclides historically released at Hanford. The potential for long-lived radionuclides to bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms was then assessed. The life history of several common aquatic organisms was examined to evaluate their use as potential bioindicators of radionuclides released to the Columbia River. Considerations for analyzing strontium (ZSr) in biological samples were determined. Based on our review of radionuclides released to the environment and their potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, strontium appears to be the only radionuclide suitable for further study. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and the common mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) are suitable candidates for developing dose reconstruction scenarios. Considerations for tissue analysis of radionuclide concentration in these species include potential for biological turnover and tissue mass. 48 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. [Quantification assessment of the relationship between chemical and olfactory concentrations for malodorous volatile organic compounds].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Le; Wang, Bo-Guang; He, Jie; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, De-Jun; Guo, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Using self-made cold-traps and gas bags, the odor samples were collected from 6 sewage treatment workshops of a typical municipal sewage treatment plant in Guangzhou City. The chemical composition and olfactory concentrations of these samples were respectively analyzed by thermal-desorption/GC-MS and triangle odor bag method. Finally, a mathematical equation was built for assessing the relationship between principal organic odorants and the olfactory concentrations. The result showing that: (1) More than 70 volatile organic compounds were detected in municipal sewage treatment plant, among which were 30 malodorous volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), ranging from 0.37 to 1 872.24 microg x m(-3) and appearing in sludge dewatering, thickening and aeration tank with the highest concentrations. (2) Principle component analysis was used to group the target MVOCs into 5 categories: benzenes, halohydrocarbons, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and S, N-containing organic compounds. (3) Multiple lineal regression analysis was used to build a quantified relationship between chemical and olfactory concentrations of MVOCs. The result indicated that 25% of the odor problem of sewage treatment unit was due to MVOCs. The predicted values were fitting well with measured values. The sensitivity of mathematical equation for measuring odor concentration was higher than that of human olfactory system. PMID:22468522

  15. Electrochemiluminescent immunosensing of prostate-specific antigen based on silver nanoparticles-doped Pb (II) metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongmin; Li, Xiaojian; Yan, Tao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2016-05-15

    In this work, silver nanoparticles-doped Pb (II) metal-organic framework (Ag-MOF) was prepared and exploited as a luminescence probe for the development of label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensing scheme for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The β-cyclodextrin based M