Science.gov

Sample records for assessment findings condition

  1. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  2. Condition Assessment Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  3. Findings from ATSDR's Health Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susten, Allan S.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes findings from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concerning the evaluation of data about hazardous substance release into the environment. Identifies the hazardous substances, exposure, health effects, and public health impact from 951 facilities identified on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the Environmental…

  4. National Assessment Findings and Educational Policy Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This paper addresses 11 commonly asked educational policy questions by referring to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) findings in five learning areas. The paper is organized for quick reference to the 63 findings, which are, in turn, indexed to the NAEP reports in which they originally appeared. Findings in reading, literature,…

  5. Could a Continuous Measure of Individual Transmissible Risk be Useful in Clinical Assessment of Substance Use Disorder? Findings from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Toward meeting the need for a measure of individual differences in substance use disorder (SUD) liability that is grounded in the multifactorial model of SUD transmission, this investigation tested to what degree transmissible SUD risk is better measured using the continuous Transmissible Liability Index (TLI) (young adult version) compared to alternative contemporary clinical methods. Method Data from 9,535 18- to 30-year-olds in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a U.S. representative sample, were used to compute TLI scores and test hypotheses. Other variables were SUDs of each DSM-IV drug class, clinical predictors of SUD treatment outcomes, treatment seeking and usage, age of onset of SUDs and substance use (SU), and eligibility for SUD clinical trials. Results TLI scores account for variation in SUD risk over and above parental lifetime SUD, conduct and antisocial personality disorder criteria and frequency of SU. SUD risk increases two- to four-fold per standard deviation increment in TLI scores. The TLI is associated with SUD treatment seeking and usage, younger age of onset of SU and SUD, and exclusion from traditional clinical trials of SUD treatment. Conclusions The TLI can identify persons with high versus low transmissible SUD risk, worse prognosis of SUD recovery and to whom extant SUD clinical trials results may not generalize. Recreating TLI scores in extant datasets facilitates etiology and applied research on the full range of transmissible SUD risk in development, treatment and recovery without obtaining new samples. PMID:21715106

  6. Assessing the planet's condition.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1990-01-01

    The destruction of the environment has accelerated since the Earth Day of 1970, the world's population has increased by another 1.6 billion, and over 500 million acres of forest have been lost. Carbon dioxide levels, greenhouse gases, and chlorofluorocarbons have increased in the atmosphere with evidence that global warming has started. The ozone hole has appeared, acid rain has destroyed forests, air pollution in major northern hemisphere cities has worsened, and species are disappearing, while toxic chemicals have been dumped indiscriminately. World grain production has fallen while population has increased. In Europe 14 countries have stabilized their population, and Japan, France, and Finland are on the way to zero growth. Reduction of high fertility in 1/2 could halt the deterioration of living conditions. Japan and China achieved this within a decade. Energy efficiency has to be attained; US cars still consume too much gas. Solar energy with photovoltaic cells to provide power, fuel alcohol from plants, and solar thermal power plants have potential. Semiarid regions, such as northern Africa, could become major producers of solar energy. Various measures are mandatory to cut down on waste: to recycle paper bags, to use standardized glasses for beverages, and to utilize scrap metal in electric arc steel furnaces. Reforestation is also on the agenda, as major deforestation has occurred in the Brazilian Amazon region, in India, and in Europe because of acid rain. Australia's national plan envisions planting 1 billion trees, and the US project is of similar magnitude during the 1990s. Only the US has succeeded in erosion control and topsoil stabilization when it converted erodible cropland into grassland or woodland during 1986-90. PMID:12285798

  7. The National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was ass...

  8. Assessing Cloud-Phase Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cober, Stewart G.; Isaac, George A.; Korolev, Alexei V.; Strapp, J. Walter

    2001-11-01

    In situ microphysics measurements made during the First and Third Canadian Freezing Drizzle Experiments (CFDE I and III, respectively) have been used to assess the relative responses to ice and liquid hydrometeors for several common instruments. These included the Rosemount icing detector, 2D-C monoscale and 2D-C grayscale probes, forward-scattering spectrometer probes (FSSP) on three measurement ranges, Nevzorov liquid water content (LWC) and total water content probes, and King LWC probes. The Nevzorov LWC and King LWC probes responded to between 5% and 30% of the ice water content, with an average response of approximately 20%. The average FSSP measurements of droplet spectra were dominated by ice particles for sizes greater than 35 m, independent of the measurement range used, when the ice-crystal concentrations exceeded approximately 1 L1. In contrast, the FSSP measurements of the droplet spectra less than 30 m appeared free of ice-crystal contamination, independent of the ice-crystal concentrations observed. Glaciated cloud conditions always had FSSP-measured median volume diameters greater than 30 m and particle concentrations less than 15 cm3, whereas similar measurements in entirely liquid-phase clouds were observed less than 4% of the time. Images of drops greater than or equal to 125 m in diameter, which were collected in warm clouds greater than 0°C, were used to calibrate geometric criteria, which were, in turn, used to segregate 2D images into circular and noncircular categories. It is shown that, on average, between 5% and 40% of ice crystals greater than or equal to 125 m in diameter will be classified as circular, depending on the particle size, with the percentage decreasing with increasing particle size. In liquid-phase clouds, between 85% and 95% of the 2D images will be correctly classified as circular for all particle sizes. At temperatures less than 4°C, a Rosemount icing-detector threshold of 2 mV s1, corresponding to a maximum LWC of 0

  9. Facility Condition Assessment from A to Z

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaleba, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This article will provide an overview of the options for performing facility condition assessments. Quite often, the facility manager will choose a condition assessment method without deliberate examination of what type of assessment is best suited to the needs of the organization. In addition, the needs of diverse audiences usually differ--for…

  10. Condition assessment of nonlinear processes

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.

  11. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT APPROACH AND FINDINGS IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has three major goals: 1) assess ecological condition of the nation's estuarine resources based on comparable data of known quality, 2) determine reference conditions for more detailed studies of ecological stressors and responses, and 3) he...

  12. Bioclimatic conditions in Mexico City - an assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, E.; Cervantes, Juan; Tejeda, Adalberto

    Bioclimatic conditions have been assessed for a large urban area located in the tropical highlands of central Mexico using the indices (in °C) of resultant temperature (RT) and effective temperature (ET). The well-developed heat island effect the city generates, reduces the number of nights categorized as cold (ET between 5 and 15° C) to cool (ET from 15 to 18.5° C). Most days fall in the cold to cool range and during the warm season (April to June) the bioclimate of Mexico City is mostly within the neutral (comfort) range. The effect of the nocturnal (to the west) and daytime (to the east of the town) heat island is noticeable in the central and northern sectors. The daytime heat island located in these regions, albeit small (urban air temperature 2-3° C greater than rural), compared with the nocturnal heat island intensity (9-10° C) still adds energy to the already heated afternoon urban air. ET values in the north and central sectors approach the threshold for comfort (ET of 25° C) during the warm months around noon. It is not surprising to find that as the nocturnal heat island has increased over the years (1921-1985) as the city grew, so has the ET for the central district and indicating the dominating role of temperature in the ET index. Assessment of the diurnal cycle of bioclimatic conditions in downtown Mexico City by means of two empirical indices (effective temperature and thermopreferendum) throughout the years gave similar results to those obtained from the application of Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) model. An attempt has been made to characterize four bioclimatic zones in the capital city.

  13. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  14. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

  15. Nontraditional Undergraduates: Findings from "The Condition of Education, 2002."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan

    "The Condition of Education" summarizes important developments and trends in education using the latest data available. The 2002 edition included a special analysis that describes nontraditional undergraduates in terms of their demographic characteristics, enrollment patterns, ways of combining school and work, participation in distance education,…

  16. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  17. Analysis of findings from the first sixteen Tiger Team assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a Ten-Point Initiative to strengthen environmental protection and waste management activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE). The third initiative calls for the establishment of independent Tiger Teams to assess DOE's major operating facilities and laboratories. As of October 1990, sixteen Tiger Team assessments were completed and formally reported to the Secretary. The following comprehensive analysis of the findings from those sixteen assessments is offered to help DOE managers in their day-to-day identification of ES H problems.

  18. The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Devaney, Barbara

    This publication, which is based on the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study, describes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP), presents findings on the nutrients and foods provided in school meals, and describes the dietary intakes of the nation's students on a typical school day. Data were derived…

  19. 23 CFR 668.211 - Notification, damage assessment, and finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification, damage assessment, and finding. 668.211 Section 668.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  20. 23 CFR 668.211 - Notification, damage assessment, and finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification, damage assessment, and finding. 668.211 Section 668.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  1. 23 CFR 668.211 - Notification, damage assessment, and finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification, damage assessment, and finding. 668.211 Section 668.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  2. 23 CFR 668.211 - Notification, damage assessment, and finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification, damage assessment, and finding. 668.211 Section 668.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  3. 23 CFR 668.211 - Notification, damage assessment, and finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification, damage assessment, and finding. 668.211 Section 668.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads §...

  4. Condition assessment inspection of concrete chimneys

    SciTech Connect

    Brannen, W.F.; Kasperski, E.; Topor, T.

    1995-10-01

    Until recently, chimneys have been treated as a permanent structure requiring virtually no maintenance. Only after several catastrophic failures, has it been recognized that chimneys require routine repairs and maintenance. In order to identify the repairs needed, periodic condition assessment inspections must be performed; however, a standard condition assessment inspection procedure does not exist for the power industry. Florida Power and Light Company (FPL), has developed an inspection program for their chimneys, which includes a standard specification for chimney condition assessment inspections. This was developed with International Chimney, for a chimney consisting of a reinforced concrete shell with a brick liner, and has been successfully implemented since 1991. This paper discusses the details of this standard specification, including what should be inspected, how the inspection shall be performed, methods of examination, and the reporting format.

  5. Bridge condition assessment using D numbers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinyang; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639

  6. Bridge Condition Assessment Using D Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639

  7. Colposcopic genital findings in prepubertal girls assessed for sexual abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Wynne, J M; Thomas, A J

    1995-01-01

    After the introduction of the colposcope for the examination of children suspected of being sexually abused in Leeds, a study was undertaken to describe the findings in detail. A total of 109 consecutive prepubertal girls, mean age 70.4 months were assessed including colposcopic genital and anal examination, and peer group review of reports and photographs. Fifty nine children had signs consistent with blunt force penetrating trauma (hymenal transection/major notch, scar, or hymenal attenuation). Transections were encountered most commonly at 6 o'clock (directly posterior). In 46 the hymenal orifice was gaping with thigh abduction only and in 47 the hymenal orifice transverse diameter was greater than 4 mm on labial separation. Overall, physical findings were commonly present and in only two cases were no signs recorded. Non-specific and frequent findings included patterns of labial and introital reddening. Supportive hymenal signs including swelling, rounding of edge, thickening, distortion, and loss of symmetry were common. Labial fusion was present in 20. Urethral dilatation with labial separation was noted in 14. Physical findings including normality are consistent with abuse and even minor anogenital signs as well as negative findings should be documented. Colposcopy and photography are valuable tools in peer review, teaching, and case management. PMID:8554370

  8. Colposcopic genital findings in prepubertal girls assessed for sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J; Wynne, J M; Thomas, A J

    1995-11-01

    After the introduction of the colposcope for the examination of children suspected of being sexually abused in Leeds, a study was undertaken to describe the findings in detail. A total of 109 consecutive prepubertal girls, mean age 70.4 months were assessed including colposcopic genital and anal examination, and peer group review of reports and photographs. Fifty nine children had signs consistent with blunt force penetrating trauma (hymenal transection/major notch, scar, or hymenal attenuation). Transections were encountered most commonly at 6 o'clock (directly posterior). In 46 the hymenal orifice was gaping with thigh abduction only and in 47 the hymenal orifice transverse diameter was greater than 4 mm on labial separation. Overall, physical findings were commonly present and in only two cases were no signs recorded. Non-specific and frequent findings included patterns of labial and introital reddening. Supportive hymenal signs including swelling, rounding of edge, thickening, distortion, and loss of symmetry were common. Labial fusion was present in 20. Urethral dilatation with labial separation was noted in 14. Physical findings including normality are consistent with abuse and even minor anogenital signs as well as negative findings should be documented. Colposcopy and photography are valuable tools in peer review, teaching, and case management. PMID:8554370

  9. Material condition assessment with eddy current sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfine, Neil J. (Inventor); Washabaugh, Andrew P. (Inventor); Sheiretov, Yanko K. (Inventor); Schlicker, Darrell E. (Inventor); Lyons, Robert J. (Inventor); Windoloski, Mark D. (Inventor); Craven, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tsukernik, Vladimir B. (Inventor); Grundy, David C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Eddy current sensors and sensor arrays are used for process quality and material condition assessment of conducting materials. In an embodiment, changes in spatially registered high resolution images taken before and after cold work processing reflect the quality of the process, such as intensity and coverage. These images also permit the suppression or removal of local outlier variations. Anisotropy in a material property, such as magnetic permeability or electrical conductivity, can be intentionally introduced and used to assess material condition resulting from an operation, such as a cold work or heat treatment. The anisotropy is determined by sensors that provide directional property measurements. The sensor directionality arises from constructs that use a linear conducting drive segment to impose the magnetic field in a test material. Maintaining the orientation of this drive segment, and associated sense elements, relative to a material edge provides enhanced sensitivity for crack detection at edges.

  10. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  11. Assessment of School-Based Management. [Volume I: Findings and Conclusions.] Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Mohrman, Susan Albers

    This document presents findings of the Assessment of School-Based Management Study, which identified the conditions in schools that promote high performance through school-based management (SBM). The study's conceptual framework was based on Edward E. Lawler's (1986) model. The high-involvement framework posits that four resources must spread…

  12. 75 FR 61225 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering changes to the Emergency Plan, pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54, ``Conditions...

  13. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such as... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A...

  14. [Social living conditions and health among mothers in Germany : findings from a population sample].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, S; Arnhold-Kerri, S; Geyer, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports findings from a population sample of mothers with underage children living in Germany (n=3,129). The objective of the study was to analyze whether social and familiar living conditions are associated with enhanced health risks for mothers. The sample is representative with respect to German federal states, school education, marital status, age of mothers, and number of children. Health problems were assessed in terms of physical disabilities and discomforts, anxiety and depression, and self-rated health. About 27% of mothers perceived physical disabilities and discomfort, 21% reported high levels of anxiety, and 22% high levels of depression. About 6% assessed their health as poor or very poor. Particularly single motherhood, unemployment, sole responsibility for household and family as well as low income and low school education increased the risk of poor health. The findings suggest that for specific subgroups of mothers parenting may be a vulnerable phase of life reflecting the need for a life stage orientation in health inequality research. PMID:21626379

  15. The US motor systems market assessment: Overview and preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper summarizes the current status of the US Motor Systems Market Assessment. This component of the US Department of Energy's Motor Challenge program will provide a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities and a baseline characterization current practice in regard to motor system component selection, system design, maintenance, and management. This equipment and behavioral baseline will be used to target Motor Challenge program activities and to evaluate the program's impact on the motor systems markets. This paper presents an overview and selected findings from the project's principal research activities: a review of secondary sources on motor systems markets and inventory; compilation and reanalysis of existing primary information on the motor systems inventory; and an on-site survey of 300 industrial facilities.

  16. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  17. Review of Boston Edison`s feedwater heater condition assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B.J.; Palter, L.; Doody, S.

    1995-12-01

    Boston Edison Co. has proactively conducted numerous heat exchanger condition assessments at Mystic and New Boston Stations. This paper focuses upon low and high pressure feedwater heater assessments, performed in accordance with EPRI GS-6724, Condition Assessment Guidelines for Fossil Fuel Power Plants. The elements of this EPRI guideline are reviewed. Thereafter, Boston Edison`s condition assessment approach, techniques employed, typical findings obtained and benefits derived are described on a multiple case history basis.

  18. Transgender health: findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, Gretchen P

    2005-02-01

    HIV/AIDS, suicide, violence, and barriers to health care access among transgender people were explored using two needs assessment surveys conducted in Philadelphia in 1997. A total of 182 people responded to a face-to-face interview or self-administered mail survey: 113 male-to-female individuals and 69 female-to-male individuals. About three-fifths of respondents had engaged in unprotected sexual activity during the past 12 months. The risk for HIV infection from unprotected sex was significantly higher among respondents of color than among white respondents. About one-third (30.1 percent) of respondents had attempted suicide. More than half of respondents had been forced to have sex, 56.3 percent had experienced violence in their homes, and 51.3 percent had been physically abused. Twenty-six percent of respondents had been denied medical care because they were transgender. These findings suggest that prevention services that specifically address HIV/AIDS, suicide, and violence among transgender people are urgently needed. PMID:15847234

  19. 24 CFR 902.20 - Physical condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 5.703. (b) Method of assessment. The physical condition assessment is based on an... conducted using HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards (UPCS) under 24 CFR part 5, subpart G. (c) Method... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical condition assessment....

  20. Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment provides critical information for assessment of an asset’s physical condition, remaining useful service life, and long-term performance. This paper will describe data management issues integral to a successful condition assessment program. Key points will b...

  1. 24 CFR 902.20 - Physical condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 5.703. (b) Method of assessment. The physical condition assessment is based on an... conducted using HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards (UPCS) under 24 CFR part 5, subpart G. (c) Method... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical condition assessment....

  2. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF SOUTH CAROLINA'S ESTUARIES: A NEW APPROACH INVOLVING INTEGRATED MEASURES OF CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South Carolina Estuarine and Coastal Assessment Program (SCECAP) was initiated in 1999 to assess the condition of the state's coastal habitats using multiple measures of water quality, sediment quality, and biological condition. Sampling has subsequently been expanded to incl...

  3. Assessing Mathematics 5. Attitudes and Sex Differences: Some APU Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Lynn; Foxman, Derek

    1984-01-01

    From the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in Britain, illustrative comments of 11- and 15-year-olds concerning mathematics are presented. Sex differences in attitudes and in test performance are also given. (MNS)

  4. Development of a National-Scale Indicator of Benthic Condition for the National Coastal Condition Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA has evaluated the application of a national-scale indicator of estuarine benthic condition for the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). Historically, in the National Coastal Condition Reports (NCCR I-IV), estuarine benthic condition was assessed by applying m...

  5. A "Conditional" Sense of Fairness in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Haertel, Geneva; Cheng, Britte H.; Ructtinger, Liliana; DeBarger, Angela; Murray, Elizabeth; Rose, David; Gravel, Jenna; Colker, Alexis M.; Rutstein, Daisy; Vendlinski, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Standardizing aspects of assessments has long been recognized as a tactic to help make evaluations of examinees fair. It reduces variation in irrelevant aspects of testing procedures that could advantage some examinees and disadvantage others. However, recent attention to making assessment accessible to a more diverse population of students…

  6. Assessment finds more natural gas resources but less oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    The latest report on undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources outside the United States estimates that there are more undiscovered and technically recoverable natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs) but less oil than had previously been thought. The 18 April report, issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of its World Petroleum Resource Project, estimates that there are 5606 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, compared with 4669 trillion cubic feet in the previous assessment, in 2000, and 167 billion barrels of NGLs compared with an earlier 207 billion barrels. The assessment also estimates that there are 565 billion barrels of oil compared with an earlier 649 billion. About 75% of those resources outside the United States are located in four regions: South America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and the Arctic provinces portion of North America, according to the new assessment.

  7. The Policy Implications of College and Career Assessment Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenning, Oscar T.

    This paper considers social policy and institutional practice policy implications of findings reported by Ernest Pascarella and Patrick Terenzini concerning student career choice and economic benefits of college. Sixteen social policy implications are identified. These include: beating the Japanese; overcoming the "pipeline mentality"; revising…

  8. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  9. Effective Peer Assessment Processes: Research Findings and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zundert, Marjo; Sluijsmans, Dominique; van Merrienboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Despite the popularity of peer assessment (PA), gaps in the literature make it difficult to describe exactly what constitutes effective PA. In a literature review, we divided PA into variables and then investigated their interrelatedness. We found that (a) PA's psychometric qualities are improved by the training and experience of peer assessors;…

  10. The Findings of an Assessment Audit: An NTFS Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Ian

    2006-01-01

    An Assessment Audit is described consisting of 47 questions, each being scored 0 to 4, by the module team depending on the extent to which the audit point was satisfied. Scores of 2 or less indicated unsatisfactory provision. Audits were carried out on 14 bioscience- or medicine-based modules in 13 universities. There was great variability between…

  11. Finding the Discipline: Assessing Student Activity in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Scott; Clerehan, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    For the second-language learner, the affordances of a virtual world have the potential to confer benefits conventionally aligned with real world experiences. However, little is known about the pedagogical benefits linked to the specific characteristics of the virtual world, let alone the issues arising for staff hoping to assess students'…

  12. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  13. 24 CFR 902.20 - Physical condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #1: Physical Condition § 902.20 Physical condition assessment. (a) Objective. The objective of the Physical Condition Indicator is to determine whether a PHA is... PHAS Indicator #1. (1) To achieve the objective of paragraph (a) of this section, REAC will provide...

  14. A Classical Conditioning Procedure for the Hearing Assessment of Multiply Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Hearing assessments of multiply handicapped children/adolescents were conducted using classical conditioning (with an air puff as unconditioned stimulus) and operant conditioning (with a modified visual reinforcement audiometry procedure or edible reinforcement). Findings indicate that classical conditioning was successful with 21 of the 23…

  15. THE WESTERN EMAP APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL ECOLOGICAL CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Western Coastal Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (WEMAP) is the assessment of ecological condition of the coastal systems of Washington, Oregon, and California. WEMAP also includes two associated pilot projects to demonstrate feasibili...

  16. The 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecological condition of wetland resources across the conterminous United States is poorly understood. To address this issue, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in collaboration with states, tribes, and other federal partners, is conducting the first-ever Natio...

  17. Evaluating Vegetation in the National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation is a key biotic indicator of wetland ecological condition and forms a critical element of the USEPA 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment. Data describing plant species composition and abundance, vegetation structure, and ground surface characteristics were colle...

  18. Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  19. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  20. USING ABIOTIC INDICATORS OF REFERENCE CONDITION AND BIOTIC INDICATORS OF CONDITION TO ASSESS GREAT RIVER ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation outlines the approach and preliminary assessment results for EMAP-GRE. The use of biological indicators and reference conditions for river assessments has implications for scientists, river managers, and state and tribal natural resource regulators.

  1. 24 CFR 902.30 - Financial condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair. (b) Financial reporting standards. A PHA's financial... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial condition assessment. 902... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #2: Financial Condition § 902.30...

  2. 24 CFR 902.20 - Physical condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meeting the standard of decent, safe, sanitary housing in good repair (DSS/GR), as this standard is defined in 24 CFR 5.703. (b) Method of assessment. The physical condition assessment is based on an... conducted using HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards (UPCS) under 24 CFR part 5, subpart G. (c)...

  3. 24 CFR 902.20 - Physical condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 5.703. (b) Method of assessment. The physical condition assessment is based on an... conducted using HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards (UPCS) under 24 CFR part 5, subpart G. (c) Method... and free access to all facilities in its projects. All PHAs are required to provide HUD or...

  4. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF WETLANDS AT THE CATCHMENT SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe an approach to assessing the ecological condition of two classes of wetlands in the Nanticoke River watershed, a subwatershed in the Chesapeake Bay drainage of North America. We used the hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach to assess the ecological condition of wetlands al...

  5. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  6. Assessing the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin using a probabilistic monitoring design.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Valencia, Juliana; Kaufmann, Philip R; Sattamini, Ana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodiversity and habitat. We assessed the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin. We quantified the percentage of stream length in good, fair, and poor ecological condition according to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. We assessed the risk of finding degraded ecological condition associated with degraded aquatic riparian physical habitat condition, watershed condition, and water quality. We describe field sampling and implementation issues encountered in our survey and discuss design options to remedy them. Survey sample sites were selected using a spatially balanced, stratified random design, which enabled us to put confidence bounds on the ecological condition estimates derived from the stream survey. The benthic condition index indicated that 62 % of stream length in the basin was in poor ecological condition, and 13 % of stream length was in fair condition. The risk of finding degraded biological condition when the riparian vegetation and forests in upstream catchments were degraded was 2.5 and 4 times higher, compared to streams rated as good for the same stressors. We demonstrated that the GRTS statistical sampling method can be used routinely in Brazilian rain forests and other South American regions with similar conditions. This survey establishes an initial baseline for monitoring the condition and trends of streams in the region. PMID:24829159

  7. 78 FR 43183 - Notice of Availability for Sharpe Permit Relinquishment Project Environmental Assessment Finding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Availability (NOA) for Sharpe Permit Relinquishment Project Environmental Assessment (EA) Finding of No... Federal Register (78 FR 25258-25259) announcing the publication of the Sharpe Permit Relinquishment... environmental assessment, David Rodriquez, Director, DLA Installation Support, concludes the proposed action...

  8. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  9. 75 FR 61219 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; River Bend Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; River Bend Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering changes to the Emergency Plan, pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54, ``Conditions...

  10. 76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... issues and reasonable alternatives to be addressed in the EA. 76 FR 22882. The environmental review... AGENCY Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Environmental Assessment (EA)/Finding of...

  11. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible entity must re-evaluate its environmental findings to determine if the original findings are still...

  12. Influencing and Facilitating Conditions for Developing Reflective Assessment Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rønsen, Anne Kristin; Smith, Kari

    2014-01-01

    By following a professional development project focusing on enhancing assessment competence amongst teachers, the current study examines how teachers use reflective writing and systematic discussions as tools for developing competence in assessment. More specifically, the article aims at identifying conditions that influence and facilitate…

  13. A NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL SEDIMENT CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One element of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment is to estimate the current status, extent, changes and trends in the condition of the Nation's coastal sediments on a national basis. Based on NCA monitoring activities from 1999-2001...

  14. Assessing the Practical Equivalence of Conversions when Measurement Conditions Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    At times, the same set of test questions is administered under different measurement conditions that might affect the psychometric properties of the test scores enough to warrant different score conversions for the different conditions. We propose a procedure for assessing the practical equivalence of conversions developed for the same set of test…

  15. Report on Condition Assessment Technology of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wastewater collection system infrastructure in the United States is recognized as being in poor condition and in urgent need of condition assessment and rehabilitation. As part of an effort to address aging infrastructure needs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEP...

  16. Sweeteners and health: findings from recent research and their impact on obesity and related metabolic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rippe, J M; Tappy, L

    2016-03-01

    Few topics in nutrition engender more controversy than added sugars in general, and fructose-containing sugars in particular. Some investigators have argued that added sugars are associated with increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and even sugar 'addiction'. Other investigators have questioned the scientific basis for all of these assertions. This debate has extended far beyond the scientific community into various media outlets including the internet and other non-refereed venues often with heated rhetoric and little science. Against this backdrop, a group of experts and researchers in the metabolism and health effects of added sugars presented a symposium 'Sweeteners and Health: Findings from Recent Research and their Impact on Obesity and Related Metabolic Conditions' at the European Congress on Obesity on 7 May 2015. The papers in this supplement are based on the presentations made at this meeting. The current article is intended to serve as an Introduction to this supplement. PMID:27001641

  17. Rapid condition assessment of structural condition after a blast using state-space identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae

    2015-04-01

    After a blast event, it is important to quickly quantify the structural damage for emergency operations. In order improve the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of condition assessments after a blast, the authors have previously performed work to develop a methodology for rapid assessment of the structural condition of a building after a blast. The method involved determining a post-event equivalent stiffness matrix using vibration measurements and a finite element (FE) model. A structural model was built for the damaged structure based on the equivalent stiffness, and inter-story drifts from the blast are determined using numerical simulations, with forces determined from the blast parameters. The inter-story drifts are then compared to blast design conditions to assess the structures damage. This method still involved engineering judgment in terms of determining significant frequencies, which can lead to error, especially with noisy measurements. In an effort to improve accuracy and automate the process, this paper will look into a similar method of rapid condition assessment using subspace state-space identification. The accuracy of the method will be tested using a benchmark structural model, as well as experimental testing. The blast damage assessments will be validated using pressure-impulse (P-I) diagrams, which present the condition limits across blast parameters. Comparisons between P-I diagrams generated using the true system parameters and equivalent parameters will show the accuracy of the rapid condition based blast assessments.

  18. Application of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation method to finding the optimal precursors of Kuroshio large meander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Mu, M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2012-04-01

    We use the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) approach to find optimal precursor of the formation of Kuroshio large meander (LM) path. Three non-large meander (NLM) states are utilized as reference states to calculate the CNOPs. The results demonstrate that the CNOPs can result in the formation of the significant LM path. Simultaneously, we calculate the first singular vector (FSV), which is the linear counterpart of CNOP, and investigate its effects on the Kuroshio path. We found that the FSV with the same amplitude as the CNOP does not trigger a typical Kuroshio LM path. Hence, the CNOP is regarded as an optimal precursor of the formation of the LM path. Furthermore, we analyze the formation processes of the LM path and find that potential vorticity (PV) advection plays an important role in the formation process. The PV advection caused by the FSV perturbation is smaller than that caused by the CNOP perturbation and hence explains why the CNOP is favorable as a precursor over the FSV.

  19. 77 FR 37432 - Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (77 FR 1717). The public comment... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), acting through the...

  20. 76 FR 56731 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...We are advising the public that an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact have been prepared by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in West Virginia. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has determined that an environmental impact statement need not be......

  1. Condition Assessment Model for Underground Water Mains Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popawala, Reena; Shah, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing by municipal engineers all over the world is condition assessment of underground water mains performance. As water mains are buried infrastructure, operated under pressure and most important it is inaccessible. In this situation, condition assessment of water mains is challenging as well as become mandatory to employ management strategies for these assets. This work presents the result of condition assessment of water mains performance by analytical hierarchy process modeling. The model was developed for data collected (2006-2011) from south-west zone of Surat city, India. The physical, operational and environmental main factors and 10 sub factors were selected to assess performance of water mains. The pair wise comparison matrices have been generated to make relative weights of each factor and their sub-factors. It represents relative importance of these factors among other factors. The pipe age is found highest relative contributing factor and pipe thickness is least relative contributing factor. The developed model generate results in terms of pipes condition on numeric scale, which is compared with linguistic scale and pipe condition is found like very risky, risky, adequate, good or excellent. The developed model is validated, which shows robust results of 86.4 %, the average validity percentage. Hence, the model is expected to benefit practitioners to prioritize rehabilitation or replacement planning for water mains.

  2. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES OF BROADCASTING CENTER].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, A V; Brusentsova, A V; Sokhoshko, I A; Rostikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions of employees of the Omsk Regional Broadcasting Centre was performed on data of the analysis of materials of certification of workplaces. There were examined materials concerning 65 core profile workplaces, where 130 persons, including 35 women work. There was determined health risk for personnel in dependence on working conditions. The staff was noted to be exposed to the adverse impact of the following factors: chemical, physical (noise, general and local vibration, non-ionizing radiation, microclimate, lighting), severity and intensity ofwork. Class working conditions for 13,5% of workplaces on noise, 35.4% on non-ionizing radiation was assessed as a harmful of the first degree. Lightness indices at 78.5% of the workplaces did not meet the requirements of sanitary norms. At 7.7% of the workplaces levels of hardness of labor were assessed as harmful. The impact of such factors as biological, infrasound, ultrasound, ionizing radiation, aerosols with mainly fibrogenic action, was absent, their assessment was not carried out. Working conditions at 83.1% of workplaces were characterized as hazardous, including at 52.3% of the workplaces where there was established hazard class 3.1, at 30.7% of workplaces--Class 3.2. Among all the factors of occupational environment the largest contribution into the overall assessment of working conditions was made by the lightness factor (50.9%) and non-ionizing radiation (20.6%). The most harmful working conditions have been identified for workplaces of the operator of masthead antenna, engineer of radiocommunications, broadcasting and television, electromechanician of television (radiocommunication), (broadcasting), car driver. PMID:26856168

  3. Assessment of rewarding and reinforcing properties of biperiden in conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Nurten, Asiye; Enginar, Nurhan

    2011-12-01

    Biperiden is one of the most commonly abused anticholinergic drugs. This study assessed its motivational effects in the acquisition of conditioned place preference in rats. Biperiden neither produced place conditioning itself nor enhanced the rewarding effect of morphine. Furthermore, biperiden in combination with haloperidol also did not affect place preference. These findings suggest that biperiden seems devoid of abuse potential properties at least at the doses used. PMID:21855580

  4. 24 CFR 902.30 - Financial condition assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial condition assessment. 902.30 Section 902.30 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  5. Analysis and Reporting for the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and its partners are in the process of producing the report to the public and publishing the data for the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). As with all National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), the NWCA report includes a quantitative description of the ...

  6. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  7. Condition assessment of tidal wetlands of Washington, Oregon and California

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and State partners conducted an assessment of the condition of estuarine tidal wetlands of Washington, Oregon and California at 217 sites during the summer of 2002. Dominant habitat types varied, although unvegetated sand or mud flats were the dominant habitat types for all...

  8. Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment of water transmission and distribution mains is the collection of data and information through direct and/or indirect methods, followed by analysis of the data and information, to make a determination of the current and/or future structural, water quality, an...

  9. Condition Assessment Modeling for Distribution Systems Using Shared Frailty Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition Assessment (CA) modeling is drawing increasing interest as a methodology for managing drinking water infrastructure. This paper develops a Cox Proportional Hazard (PH)/shared frailty model and applies it to the problem of investment in the repair and replacement of dri...

  10. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF SOUTHEAST U. S. ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a means to assess ecological condition, 151 stations located in southeastern estuaries from Cape Henry, Virginia to Biscayne Bay, Florida were sampled by state agencies during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. The design used 8 size classes of estuaries ranging ...

  11. Probability Surveys, Conditional Probability, and Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and conditional probability analysis can serve as a basis for estimating ecological risk over ...

  12. POLLUTION AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH - ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summers, Kevin. 2004. Pollution and Ecosystem Health - Assessing Ecological Condition of Coastal Ecosystems. Presented at the White Water to Blue Water (WW2BW) Miami Conference, 21-26 March 2004, Miami, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R973).

    Throughout the coastal regions and Large Mari...

  13. Cigarette Smoking among Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators and Victims: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cigarette smoking and intimate partner violence (IPV) are preventable, major public health issues that result in severe physical and psychological consequences. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the consistency and strength of the association between these highly variable behaviors using a nationally representative sample. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and smoking data were collected from 25,515 adults (54% female) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationships among smoking status (current daily, intermittent, former, and never smoker) and IPV (minor and sever victimization as well as perpetration). Results Results indicated a robust relationship between IPV and smoking among both victims and perpetrators. The odds for current daily and intermittent smoking were significantly elevated among those who reported both minor and severe IPV relative to their non-violent counterparts. Mood and anxiety disorders were significant comorbid conditions in the interpretation of the relationship between severe IPV and smoking. Conclusions The current study provides strong evidence for a robust relationship between IPV and smoking across current smoking patterns, IPV severity levels, and IPV experience patterns. Scientific Significance Findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms by which smoking and IPV are associated and how this interdependence may impact approaches to treatment. Specifically, research is required to assess the efficacy of integrated smoking cessation and IPV treatment or recovery programs over more traditional, exclusive approaches. PMID:25066781

  14. Findings from the Condition Surveys Conducted by the University of Kansas Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Brian J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes results of two collection condition surveys conducted at the University of Kansas libraries, one of which examined materials returning from circulation and the other which examined the general collection. Paper condition, text block condition, binding, and mutilation are discussed, and the impact on long-term preservation planning is…

  15. Reporting on ecological condition and ecosystem services for the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first-ever National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 2011. Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry, and hydrologic data were collected at ~900 wetland points across the contiguous United States. The NW...

  16. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Smith, Brennan T; Cones, Marvin; March, Patrick; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  17. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations. PMID:23444789

  18. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor... modifying or adding EP requirements in Section 50.47, Section 50.54, and Appendix E of 10 CFR part 50 (76...

  19. 77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and the Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Implementation of the Net Zero program at Army Installations. This PEA evaluates potential direct, indirect, and... private sector to strive toward the Net Zero program's energy, water, and waste reduction goals. The...

  20. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment for the University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. FOR...

  1. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70; Commencement of Construction Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility,...

  2. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  3. Assessing the Usability of WorldCat Local: Findings and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo; Berube, Katy; Devereaux, Peter; Dhakal, Kerry; Powers, Stephen; Ray, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    A number of academic, public, regional, and state libraries use WorldCat Local (WCL) as a resource location tool that enables users to search, find, and gain access to a range of print and electronic resources. This article describes a study undertaken to assess a Research I university's implementation of WCL. The study sought to understand the…

  4. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ; Docket No. 50-010 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain Requirements for the Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 License DPR-002, Grundy County, IL AGENCY: Nuclear...

  5. 76 FR 31379 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment for ABB, Inc., Windsor, CT AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  6. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company... CFR) 50.46, ``Acceptance Criteria for Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Light-Water Nuclear Power... Light Company (the licensee), doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas Inc., for operation of...

  7. 75 FR 10834 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926 (March 27, 2009)]. The NRC staff's... COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

  8. 75 FR 10835 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no... FR 13926 (March 27, 2009)]. The NRC staff's safety evaluation will be provided in the exemption that... COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, Environmental Assessment and Finding...

  9. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  10. 75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment for Revised Groundwater Protection Standards, Western Nuclear, Inc., Jeffrey City, WY AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  11. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...This notice announces the availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) which examines the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of the proposed modification of the historic Bayonne Bridge across the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne, New Jersey and Staten Island, New York. This notice also announces the availability of the Finding of No Significant......

  12. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira da Silva; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Oliveira, Stanley R. M.; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C. M.; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This research aimed to analyze the possibility of assessing piglets’ welfare using the records of their vocalization. The trial was done in a pig commercial farm, and we recorded the vocal signals from piglets in several stressful exposure situations. Data mining techniques were applied to the processed signals in order to obtain a stress classification using the recorded data. We found that, using the piglets’ vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. Abstract Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. PMID:26479541

  13. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  14. A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.

    1993-01-01

    The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.

  15. Use of ecological regions in aquatic assessments of ecological condition.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, John L

    2004-01-01

    Ecological regions are areas of similar climate, landform, soil, potential natural vegetation, hydrology, or other ecologically relevant variables. The makeup of aquatic biological assemblages (e.g., fish, macroinvertebrates, algae, riparian birds, etc.) varies dramatically over the landscape, as do the environmental stresses that affect the condition of those assemblages. Ecoregions delineate areas where similar assemblages are likely to occur and, therefore, where similar expectations can be established. For this reason, ecological regions have proven to be an important tool for use in the process of ecological assessment. This article describes four examples of the use of ecological regions in important aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment: (1) design of monitoring networks; (2) estimating expected conditions (criteria development); (3) reporting of results; (4) setting priorities for future monitoring and restoration. By delineating geographic areas with similar characteristics, ecological regions provide a framework for developing relevant indicators, setting expectations through the use of regional reference sites, establishing ecoregion-specific criteria and/or standards, presenting results, focusing models based on relationships between landscape and surface water metrics, and setting regional priorities for management and restoration. The Environmental Protection Agency and many state environmental departments currently use ecoregions to aid the development of environmental criteria, to illustrate current environmental condition, and to guide efforts to maintain and restore physical, chemical and biological integrity in lakes, streams, and rivers. PMID:15696302

  16. Condition and residual life assessment of seamless steam pipe bends

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, L.B.

    1995-12-01

    The majority of steam pipe bends in Dutch power plants are seamless. Reliable assessment of the condition of seamless bends after {approximately}100,000 hours of operation and beyond is a very complex and sometime frustrating procedure. Complex because external pipe forces can influence the damage and/or strain distribution in the bend. Besides, metallurgical, wall thickness and ovality variations are present anyhow, making the damage distribution in fact unknown. In accordance with a Dutch authority rule, a seamless bend is tested using a magnetic particles and investigated metallurgically with the aid of five surface replicas. Sometime more replicas are investigated and wall thickness and diameter measurements are performed as well. Occasionally, strain measurements are executed by applying capacitive strain gauges and the speckle correlation technique. In rare cases samples are taken from the first bend near the boiler outlet in order to perform isostress creep tests, allowing the determination of the condition and the residual life of other bends in the pipe systems. Based on years of experience the authors have learned that there is no single method or technique capable of assessing the condition and residual life of seamless steam pipe bends. Some experiences will be highlighted, together with recent developments in the field of quantified creep (void) damage--in order to determine inspection intervals--and the field of the speckle correlation technique.

  17. New Findings on New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Fast Focus. No. 18-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) are long-standing policies that link cash assistance to low-income families to work effort. A new policy being tested in New York City adopts this "conditional cash transfer" principle and extends it to a broader set of family efforts to build their…

  18. Nontraditional Undergraduates: Findings from the Condition of Education 2002. NCES 2002-012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan

    2002-01-01

    "The Condition of Education" summarizes important developments and trends in education using the latest available data. The report, which is required by law, is an indicator report intended for a general audience of readers who are interested in education. The indicators represent a consensus of professional judgment on the most…

  19. A novel attention training paradigm based on operant conditioning of eye gaze: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Price, Rebecca B; Greven, Inez M; Siegle, Greg J; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Inability to engage with positive stimuli is a widespread problem associated with negative mood states across many conditions, from low self-esteem to anhedonic depression. Though attention retraining procedures have shown promise as interventions in some clinical populations, novel procedures may be necessary to reliably attenuate chronic negative mood in refractory clinical populations (e.g., clinical depression) through, for example, more active, adaptive learning processes. In addition, a focus on individual difference variables predicting intervention outcome may improve the ability to provide such targeted interventions efficiently. To provide preliminary proof-of-principle, we tested a novel paradigm using operant conditioning to train eye gaze patterns toward happy faces. Thirty-two healthy undergraduates were randomized to receive operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces (train-happy) or neutral faces (train-neutral). At the group level, the train-happy condition attenuated sad mood increases following a stressful task, in comparison to train-neutral. In individual differences analysis, greater physiological reactivity (pupil dilation) in response to happy faces (during an emotional face-search task at baseline) predicted decreased mood reactivity after stress. These Preliminary results suggest that operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces buffers against stress-induced effects on mood, particularly in individuals who show sufficient baseline neural engagement with happy faces. Eye gaze patterns to emotional face arrays may have a causal relationship with mood reactivity. Personalized medicine research in depression may benefit from novel cognitive training paradigms that shape eye gaze patterns through feedback. Baseline neural function (pupil dilation) may be a key mechanism, aiding in iterative refinement of this approach. PMID:26389646

  20. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  1. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  2. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gareth; Reynolds, John H.; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  3. Challenges in the Assessment and Presentation of California Drought Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L. M.; Redmond, K. T.

    2008-12-01

    The water year 2007-08 exhibited a pattern similar to that projected by climate models, with a contracted wet season followed by a warm spring. These conditions exacerbated antecedent dry conditions to set in place moderate to severe drought conditions over most of the state by September 2008. This sequence of events has brought to light the challenges in depicting and communicating drought to California's public, and also relating California to drought elsewhere in the U.S. Through ties with the NIDIS effort, the Western Regional Climate Center has an array of climatological resources that can be utilized in the assessment of drought, with a new WestWide Drought Tracker that is in development. There are some web resources available to access these products, including a California-specific climate data access interface. The most significant challenge is how to accurately present a drought in California using these and other data products in a manner the user can understand, with its unique water storage and supply system, in combination with natural environmental conditions. Suggestions to ameliorate this difficulty will be discussed, with the possible development of new products for drought monitoring that are specific to the state of California that can be incorporated into a NIDIS or similar infrastructure.

  4. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B., III; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have

  5. Assessing the Probability that a Finding Is Genuine for Large-Scale Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Ling; Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies routinely involve massive numbers of statistical tests accompanied by P-values. Whole genome sequencing technologies increased the potential number of tested variants to tens of millions. The more tests are performed, the smaller P-value is required to be deemed significant. However, a small P-value is not equivalent to small chances of a spurious finding and significance thresholds may fail to serve as efficient filters against false results. While the Bayesian approach can provide a direct assessment of the probability that a finding is spurious, its adoption in association studies has been slow, due in part to the ubiquity of P-values and the automated way they are, as a rule, produced by software packages. Attempts to design simple ways to convert an association P-value into the probability that a finding is spurious have been met with difficulties. The False Positive Report Probability (FPRP) method has gained increasing popularity. However, FPRP is not designed to estimate the probability for a particular finding, because it is defined for an entire region of hypothetical findings with P-values at least as small as the one observed for that finding. Here we propose a method that lets researchers extract probability that a finding is spurious directly from a P-value. Considering the counterpart of that probability, we term this method POFIG: the Probability that a Finding is Genuine. Our approach shares FPRP's simplicity, but gives a valid probability that a finding is spurious given a P-value. In addition to straightforward interpretation, POFIG has desirable statistical properties. The POFIG average across a set of tentative associations provides an estimated proportion of false discoveries in that set. POFIGs are easily combined across studies and are immune to multiple testing and selection bias. We illustrate an application of POFIG method via analysis of GWAS associations with Crohn's disease. PMID:25955023

  6. Using Facility Condition Assessments to Identify Actions Related to Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubert, Kennedy F.

    2010-01-01

    To support cost effective, quality research it is essential that laboratory and testing facilities are maintained in a continuous and reliable state of availability at all times. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and its maintenance contractor, Jacobs Technology, Inc. Research Operations, Maintenance, and Engineering (ROME) group, are in the process of implementing a combined Facility Condition Assessment (FCA) and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program to improve asset management and overall reliability of testing equipment in facilities such as wind tunnels. Specific areas are being identified for improvement, the deferred maintenance cost is being estimated, and priority is being assigned against facilities where conditions have been allowed to deteriorate. This assessment serves to assist in determining where to commit available funds on the Center. RCM methodologies are being reviewed and enhanced to assure that appropriate preventive, predictive, and facilities/equipment acceptance techniques are incorporated to prolong lifecycle availability and assure reliability at minimum cost. The results from the program have been favorable, better enabling LaRC to manage assets prudently.

  7. International Global Crop Condition Assessments in the framework of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Claverie, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (partnership of governments and international organizations) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative in response to the growing calls for improved agricultural information. The goal of GEOGLAM is to strengthen the international community's capacity to produce and disseminate relevant, timely and accurate forecasts of agricultural production at national, regional and global scales through the use of Earth observations. This initiative is designed to build on existing agricultural monitoring initiatives at national, regional and global levels and to enhance and strengthen them through international networking, operationally focused research, and data/method sharing. GEOGLAM was adopted by the G20 as part of the action plan on food price volatility and agriculture and is being implemented through building on the extensive GEO Agricultural Community of Practice (CoP) that was initiated in 2007 and includes key national and international agencies, organizations, and universities involved in agricultural monitoring. One of the early GEOGLAM activities is to provide harmonized global crop outlooks that offer timely qualitative consensus information on crop status and prospects. This activity is being developed in response to a request from the G-20 Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and is implemented within the global monitoring systems component of GEOGLAM. The goal is to develop a transparent, international, multi-source, consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions, likely to impact global production. These assessments are focused on the four primary crop types (corn, wheat, soy and rice) within the main agricultural producing regions of the world. The GEOGLAM approach is to bring together international experts from global, regional and national monitoring systems that can share and discuss information from a variety of independent complementary sources in

  8. Quantitative statistical assessment of conditional models for synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Michael D; O'Sullivan, Joseph A

    2004-02-01

    Many applications of object recognition in the presence of pose uncertainty rely on statistical models-conditioned on pose-for observations. The image statistics of three-dimensional (3-D) objects are often assumed to belong to a family of distributions with unknown model parameters that vary with one or more continuous-valued pose parameters. Many methods for statistical model assessment, for example the tests of Kolmogorov-Smirnov and K. Pearson, require that all model parameters be fully specified or that sample sizes be large. Assessing pose-dependent models from a finite number of observations over a variety of poses can violate these requirements. However, a large number of small samples, corresponding to unique combinations of object, pose, and pixel location, are often available. We develop methods for model testing which assume a large number of small samples and apply them to the comparison of three models for synthetic aperture radar images of 3-D objects with varying pose. Each model is directly related to the Gaussian distribution and is assessed both in terms of goodness-of-fit and underlying model assumptions, such as independence, known mean, and homoscedasticity. Test results are presented in terms of the functional relationship between a given significance level and the percentage of samples that wold fail a test at that level. PMID:15376934

  9. Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Anal Canal and Perianal Region: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, Venkateswar R; Menias, Christine O; Amer, Ahmed M; Elshikh, Mohamed; Katabathina, Venkata S; Hara, Amy K; Baughman, William C; Kielar, Ania; Elsayes, Khaled M; Siegel, Cary L

    2016-01-01

    Tumors and tumorlike conditions of the anus and perianal region originate from the anal canal and anal margin or result from direct extension of tumors from adjacent organs. The anatomy of the anal canal is complex, and its different histologic characteristics can lead to diverse pathologic conditions. The anal canal extends from the anorectal junction to the anal verge. The World Health Organization classification of anal canal tumors includes (a) anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and (b) invasive tumors. Invasive tumors are further classified on the basis of cell type as epithelial tumors (SCC, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma), nonepithelial tumors, carcinoid tumors, melanoma, and secondary tumors (direct spread from rectal, cervical, or prostate carcinoma). The anal margin, or perianal skin, lies outside the anal verge and encompasses a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge. Tumors in the anal margin are classified according to the World Health Organization classification of skin tumors. Anal margin tumors include SCC, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also known as Bowen disease, adenocarcinoma and its precursor Paget disease, basal cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor), which is a rare variant of SCC. Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation, staging, and follow-up of patients with anal and perianal tumors. However, because of the overlap in imaging features among these diverse entities, a definitive diagnosis is best established at histopathologic examination. Nevertheless, familiarity with the pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment of these tumors can aid radiologic diagnosis and guide appropriate patient treatment. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27618320

  10. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  11. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  12. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164360

  13. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents’ electronic cigarette perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T.; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents’ cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes and analogously for combustible cigarettes. Results E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conclusion Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents’ perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in larger future studies. PMID:25741686

  14. Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process.

  15. Barcoding Human Physical Activity to Assess Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Perruchoud, Christophe; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern theories define chronic pain as a multidimensional experience – the result of complex interplay between physiological and psychological factors with significant impact on patients' physical, emotional and social functioning. The development of reliable assessment tools capable of capturing the multidimensional impact of chronic pain has challenged the medical community for decades. A number of validated tools are currently used in clinical practice however they all rely on self-reporting and are therefore inherently subjective. In this study we show that a comprehensive analysis of physical activity (PA) under real life conditions may capture behavioral aspects that may reflect physical and emotional functioning. Methodology PA was monitored during five consecutive days in 60 chronic pain patients and 15 pain-free healthy subjects. To analyze the various aspects of pain-related activity behaviors we defined the concept of PA ‘barcoding’. The main idea was to combine different features of PA (type, intensity, duration) to define various PA states. The temporal sequence of different states was visualized as a ‘barcode’ which indicated that significant information about daily activity can be contained in the amount and variety of PA states, and in the temporal structure of sequence. This information was quantified using complementary measures such as structural complexity metrics (information and sample entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity), time spent in PA states, and two composite scores, which integrate all measures. The reliability of these measures to characterize chronic pain conditions was assessed by comparing groups of subjects with clinically different pain intensity. Conclusion The defined measures of PA showed good discriminative features. The results suggest that significant information about pain-related functional limitations is captured by the structural complexity of PA barcodes, which decreases when the intensity of pain

  16. Preliminary assessment of aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Corte-Real, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Aridity is one of the key elements characterizing the climate of a region, having a severe impact on human activities. Aiming at assessing aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula, the spatial distribution of the UNEP aridity index is analyzed during the period 1901-2012. Gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets are used on a monthly basis. Results show that the southern half of Iberia is particularly vulnerable to water stress and hence to desertification processes. In particular, the UNEP aridity index reveals an increase and northward extension of the semi-arid regime in the Iberian Peninsula between 1901 and 2012. More than 50% of the north and western territory have experienced humid/sub-humid conditions, while the other regions underwent semi-arid settings. Results also reveal that climate was subjected to spatial and temporal variabilities with an overall statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level) trend to aridification in the south-easternmost and central regions. The remaining territory of the Iberian Peninsula does not reveal statistically significant trends.

  17. Assessment of internal condition of waste in a roofed landfill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Recently, roofed landfills have been gaining popularity in Japan. Roofed landfills have several advantages over non-roofed landfills such as eliminating the visibility of waste and reducing the spread of offensive odours. This study examined the moisture balance and aeration conditions, which promote waste stabilisation, in a roofed landfill that included organic waste such as food waste. Moisture balance was estimated using waste characterization and the total amount of landfilled waste. Internal conditions were estimated based on the composition, flux, and temperature of the landfill gas. Finally, in situ aeration was performed to determine the integrity of the semi-aerobic structure of the landfill. With the effects of rainfall excluded, only 15% of the moisture held by the waste was discharged as leachate. The majority of the moisture remained in the waste layer, but was less than the optimal moisture level for biodegradation, indicating that an appropriate water spray should be administered. To assess waste degradation in this semi-aerobic landfill, the concentration and flow rate of landfill gas were measured and an in situ aeration test was performed. The results revealed that aerobic biodegradation had not occurred because of the unsatisfactory design and operation of the landfill. PMID:22989405

  18. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Assessing childhood maltreatment on the population level in Germany: findings and methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is both prevalent and consequential. Unfortunately little is known about the true prevalence of CM in the general population in Germany. The differences between findings from top down vs. bottom up approaches and the problem of the dark field of CM is discussed. Different assessment methods like trauma lists, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Childhood Trauma Screener (CTS) are described and the respective findings about the prevalence of CM in the adult German general population are discussed. With the example of childhood sexual abuse (SA) the challenges of quantification of CM is shown up. For instance, even if all the prevalence findings were based on methodologically sound large-scale studies, it could only be assumed that the retrospectively investigated prevalence of SA in the German general population ranges between 1.0 and 12.6 % in different studies. These findings provide an insight into the complexity of the quantification of the true prevalence of CM on the population level. Hopefully it reminds the readers of handling prevalence rates of CM carefully and to dip into the methodology of the studies before citing the respective prevalence of CM. PMID:27303440

  20. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    PubMed

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  1. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  2. Executive Functioning in Alcohol Use Studies: A Brief Review of Findings and Challenges in Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ahern, David C.; Clark, Uraina S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, and (2) the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on EF task performance. An additional goal was to identify and describe commonly used EF measures with the intention of providing alcohol researchers information on the assessment of different EF domains. Our findings indicate that there is strong evidence supporting a relation between EF difficulties (particularly response inhibition and information updating) and alcohol use, with additional evidence of a significant interaction between EF and implicit associations on alcohol use. In contrast, research supporting a link between set shifting abilities and later alcohol use is scarce. Additionally, this review found evidence of alcohol acutely affecting many EF processes (particularly response inhibition). Overall, there is a need to replicate these findings with commonly used EF tasks (versus developing numerous tasks within individual laboratories) to better advance our understanding of the relation between EF and alcohol use. PMID:25877524

  3. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    , were separated by SDS-PAGE and subjected for mass spectrometry-based analysis.With the described workflow, we identified more than 200 proteins including of 26S proteasome subunits, members of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) family and ubiquitylated substrates. On the whole, our results provide an unbiased view of ubiquitylation state under microgravity conditions and thereby demonstrate the utility of proposed combination of analytical methods for functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes. Acknowledgment - We thank teams of Institute of Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences and TsSKB “Progress” Samara for organization and preparation for spaceflight. This work is partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant12-04-01836).

  4. Patient puzzle. Use systematic assessment to detect & correct patient conditions.

    PubMed

    Stoy, W A

    2001-01-01

    Medic 27 responds to a report of a fall victim at 27 West Pinnacle Lane. En route, the crew learns from dispatch that the patient fell approximately 25 feet from the roof of a three-story structure onto the roof of an adjacent garage. The caller reports the patient "going in and out of consciousness." The EMS crew requests the dispatch of a rescue unit and ladder company to assist on scene and the placement of a medical helicopter on standby. On scene, the patient's wife reports her husband accidentally disturbed a hornets' nest as he secured a weather vane to the top of the family home. She says the hornets stung her husband repeatedly. In his attempt to avoid the stings, his movements jarred the ladder, causing him to fall to the roof below. As you walk to the side of the patient's home, his wife adds that her husband has a cardiac condition and now complains of chest pain and trouble breathing. You wonder what you'll find when you reach the victim. Is he a medical patient with traumatic injuries or a trauma patient with medical complications? PMID:11213605

  5. Structural condition assessment and upgrades of FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alsamsam, I.M.; Ridge, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) has mandated emissions control of fossil-fired power plants. Upgrading an existing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has proven to be an effective means of reducing emissions to meet the CAAA requirements. It can also be a cost-effective means to reduce emissions beyond the established SO{sub 2} limits. Utilities will be able to capitalize on these situations and possibly generate revenue by trading SO{sub 2} credits. In addition to regulatory requirements, structural upgrades of an FGD system can lower operation and maintenance costs and reduce the risk of unit derates and unplanned outages. In today`s competitive power market, keeping a unit`s FGD system available and online is crucial as the earliest FGD installations approach their twentieth year of service. A structural condition assessment and upgrades program for an FGD island plays a leading role in meeting and exceeding regulatory requirements while achieving other utility goals. This paper draws from the authors` recent experiences to explore such a program and reveals the challenges it presents.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: A new tool for assessing fish condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Kyle J.; Margraf, F. Joseph; Hafs, Andrew W.; Cox, M. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used in human health and nutrition fields but has only recently been considered as a potential tool for assessing fish condition. Once BIA is calibrated, it estimates fat/moisture levels and energy content without the need to kill fish. Despite the promise held by BIA, published studies have been divided on whether BIA can provide accurate estimates of body composition in fish. In cases where BIA was not successful, the models lacked the range of fat levels or sample sizes we determined were needed for model success (range of dry fat levels of 29%, n = 60, yielding an R2 of 0.8). Reduced range of fat levels requires an increased sample size to achieve that benchmark; therefore, standardization of methods is needed. Here we discuss standardized methods based on a decade of research, identify sources of error, discuss where BIA is headed, and suggest areas for future research.

  7. 76 FR 54525 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... EA) and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) for a Proposed Airport... Assessment (Final EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) for a Proposed... FAA has prepared, and approved on August 8, 2011, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)/Record...

  8. Assessing Engineering Competencies: The Conditions for Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musekamp, Frank; Pearce, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Low-stakes assessment is supposed to improve educational practice by providing feedback to different actors in educational systems. However, the process of assessment from design to the point of a final impact on student learning outcomes is complex and diverse. It is hard to identify reasons for substandard achievement on assessments, let alone…

  9. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND ECOLOGICAL CONDITION -- ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most work on wetland assessment has focused on the development of methods, however, effective assessment involves more than having a method. In a 2004 review of rapid assessment methods, Fennessey et al. recommended key considerations when adopting existing methods or developing...

  10. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  11. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. In search of future earths: assessing the possibility of finding Earth analogues in the later stages of their habitable lifetimes.

    PubMed

    O'Malley-James, Jack T; Greaves, Jane S; Raven, John A; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-05-01

    Earth will become uninhabitable within 2-3 Gyr as a result of the increasing luminosity of the Sun changing the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ). Predictions about the future of habitable conditions on Earth include declining species diversity and habitat extent, ocean loss, and changes to geochemical cycles. Testing these predictions is difficult, but the discovery of a planet that is an analogue to future Earth could provide the means to test them. This planet would need to have an Earth-like biosphere history and to be approaching the inner edge of the HZ at present. Here, we assess the possibility of finding such a planet and discuss the benefits of analyzing older Earths. Finding an old-Earth analogue in nearby star systems would be ideal, because this would allow for atmospheric characterization. Hence, as an illustrative example, G stars within 10 pc of the Sun are assessed as potential old-Earth-analog hosts. Six of these represent good potential hosts. For each system, a hypothetical Earth analogue is placed at locations within the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) that would allow enough time for Earth-like biosphere development. Surface temperature evolution over the host star's main sequence lifetime (assessed by using a simple climate model) is used to determine whether the planet would be in the right stage of its late-habitable lifetime to exhibit detectable biosignatures. The best candidate, in terms of the chances of planet formation in the CHZ and of biosignature detection, is 61 Virginis. However, planet formation studies suggest that only a small fraction (0.36%) of G stars in the solar neighborhood could host an old-Earth analogue. If the development of Earth-like biospheres is rare, requiring a sequence of low-probability events to occur, biosphere evolution models suggest they are rarer still, with only thousands being present in the Galaxy as a whole. PMID:25984921

  13. Co-Occurrence of Health Conditions during Childhood: Longitudinal Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Catherine; Bedford, Helen; Hope, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify patterns of stability and change in co-occurrence in children between 5–11 years, and to assess if they vary by socio-demographic factors. Methods Data from 9548 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) were assessed for co-occurrence of five common adverse conditions: wheeze; longstanding illness; unfavorable weight; injury; and socio-emotional difficulties. We summed adverse conditions (0–5) for each child at ages 5, 7, and 11 and identified co-occurrence (≥2 conditions). Using multinomial regression, we explored associations between co-occurrence trajectories and child’s sex and ethnicity, maternal education, and income quintile. Results 45.6% of children experienced co-occurrence between 5–11 years (7% experienced constant co-occurrence). More children moved into co-occurrence than moved out (16.9 vs. 11.9%). Mutually-adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRR) showed a gradient by maternal education: compared to children with no co-occurrence whose mothers had a higher/degree, children whose mothers had no qualifications were more likely to move into (aRRR = 1.32(95%CI:1.02,1.70)), out of (1.74(1.34,2.26)), have fluctuating (1.52(1.09,2.10)) or constant co-occurrence (2.58(1.76,3.80)). The same gradient (high vs. low) was evident for income quintiles. Girls were less likely to experience co-occurrence. Conclusions Co-occurrence of adverse conditions is common during childhood, and trajectories are socially patterned. Child-focused care for lower-income children and boys early in life may prevent and reduce co-occurrence in later childhood. PMID:27281228

  14. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Sunrise II Water Supply Line

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-09

    Sunrise Power Company, LLC (Sunrise), has planned the modification of an existing power plant project to increase its generation capacity by 265 megawatts by 2003. The initial Sunrise facility was constructed in accordance with a license issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) on December 6, 2000 and brought 320 MW of much needed power to commercial operation in June 2001. The Governor of the State of California issued recent Executive Orders to provide for emergency permit streamlining of projects that can help alleviate the current California energy crisis. Specifically, Executive Order D-25-01 directed the CEC to expedite processing amendments such as the Sunrise II modification that would increase generating capacity from 320 MW to 585 MW by summer 2003. As part of the modification, an approximately 15.3 mile water line will be installed. Additionally, improvements to West Kern Water District's (WKWD) Pumping Station ''B'', located on DOE land, will occur. Sunrise has requested a right-of-way grant for the construction of the water supply line on U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and DOE lands. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in an Environmental Assessment (EA-1434) with the BLM acting as lead agency. Based on the analysis of the potential environmental impacts contained in the Environmental Assessment (EA), BLM has determined that significant impacts are not expected and an environmental impact statement is not required. The DOE, acting as a cooperating agency, has adopted the BLM's EA and is consequently issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  15. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in ... Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for accurately determining vitamin ...

  16. Evaluating Harms in the Assessment of Net Benefit: A Framework for Newborn Screening Condition Review.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Aaron J; Comeau, Anne Marie; Grosse, Scott D; Tanksley, Susan; Prosser, Lisa A; Ojodu, Jelili; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Kemper, Alex R; Green, Nancy S

    2016-03-01

    Background The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children ("Advisory Committee") makes recommendations to the HHS Secretary regarding addition of new conditions to the national Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns. The Advisory Committee's decision-making process includes assessing the net benefit of screening for nominated conditions, informed by systematic evidence reviews generated by an independent Condition Review Workgroup. The evidence base regarding harms associated with screening for specific conditions is often more limited than that for benefits. Procedures The process for defining potential harms from newborn screening reviewed the frameworks from other public health evidence-based review processes, adapted to newborn screening by experts in systematic review, newborn screening programs and bioethics, with input from and approval by the Advisory Committee. Main findings To support the Advisory Committee's review of nominated conditions, the Workgroup has developed a standardized approach to evaluation of harms and relevant gaps in the evidence. Types of harms include the physical burden to infants; psychosocial and logistic burdens to families from screening or diagnostic evaluation; increased risk of medical treatment for infants diagnosed earlier than children with clinical presentation; delayed diagnosis from false negative results; psychosocial harm from false positive results; uncertainty of clinical diagnosis, age of onset or clinical spectrum; and disparities in access to diagnosis or therapy. Conclusions Estimating the numbers of children at risk, the magnitude, timing and likelihood of harms will be integrated into Workgroup reports to the Advisory Committee. PMID:26833040

  17. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  18. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  19. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  20. CCTV Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment provides critical information for determining an asset’s physical condition, remaining useful service life, and long-term performance. Data management issues integral to a successful condition assessment program are described in this paper. Key points are i...

  1. The Effect of Raters and Rating Conditions on the Reliability of the Missionary Teaching Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ure, Abigail C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how 2 different rating conditions, the controlled rating condition (CRC) and the uncontrolled rating condition (URC), effected rater behavior and the reliability of a performance assessment (PA) known as the Missionary Teaching Assessment (MTA). The CRC gives raters the capability to manipulate (pause, rewind, fast-forward)…

  2. 42 CFR 403.732 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and... Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.732 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The RNHCI must develop, implement, and maintain...

  3. 42 CFR 403.732 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and... Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.732 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The RNHCI must develop, implement, and maintain...

  4. 42 CFR 403.732 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and... Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.732 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The RNHCI must develop, implement, and maintain...

  5. 42 CFR 403.732 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and... Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.732 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The RNHCI must develop, implement, and maintain...

  6. 42 CFR 403.732 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and... Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.732 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The RNHCI must develop, implement, and maintain...

  7. Evaluating physical habitat condition in the National Lakes Assessment (NLA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NLA and other lake survey and monitoring efforts increasingly rely upon biological assemblage data to define lake condition. Information concerning the multiple dimensions of physical and chemical habitat is necessary to interpret this biological information and meaningfully...

  8. Developing an ICT-Literacy Task-Based Assessment Instrument: The Findings on the Final Testing Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mat-jizat, Jessnor Elmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which seeks to identify the information and communications technology (ICT) literacy levels of trainee teachers, by investigating their ICT proficiency using a task-bask assessment instrument. The Delphi technique was used as a primary validation method for the new assessment tool and the ICT literacy…

  9. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP’s) National Assessment of ...

  10. Technology Demonstration: Acoustic Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative sewer line assessment technologies that are designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of technologies that are suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less ...

  11. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... responsible for providing each patient with an individualized and comprehensive assessment of his or her needs... other support systems. (12) Evaluation of current patient physical activity level. (13) Evaluation for...) Evaluation of the patient's abilities, interests, preferences, and goals, including the desired level...

  12. USING REMORE SENSING AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO ASSESS THE CONDITION OF GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geospatial modeling approaches are being used to locate and assess the condition of natural resources (particularly wetland ecosystems) in the Great Lakes Basin. These assessments involve measuring landscape characteristics at multiple scales, primarily focusing

    on surface...

  13. Findings from an assessment of state Title V workforce development needs.

    PubMed

    Grason, Holly; Kavanagh, Laura; Dooley, Suzanna; Partelow, Jenelle; Sharkey, Alyssa; Bradley, Katherine J; Handler, Arden

    2012-01-01

    To describe results of a 2008 assessment of Title V workforce competencies and training needs at the state level, and examine preferences and barriers related to available education and training opportunities. A web-based survey was administered May through August, 2008 to Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs (CYSHCN) program leaders in all 50 states, and U.S. jurisdictions. Forty-nine MCH (96%) and 44 CYSHCN (86%) programs and four territories completed surveys. A major focus of the survey related to competencies in six core domains: Public Health/Title V Knowledge Base, Communication, Critical Thinking, Management Skills, Family Centered Care and Medical Home, and Leadership Development. The top training needs identified by state Title V programs fall into the global category of critical thinking, including skills in MCH data synthesis and translation, in program evaluation, and in systems thinking. The need to enhance personal rather than organizational leadership skills was emphasized. Blended learning approaches (graduate education), and national conferences with skills building workshops (continuing education) were identified as preferred training modalities. Barriers to training included lack of career opportunities, insufficient agency support, and inability to take leave (graduate education), and travel restrictions, release time limitations, costs, and limited geographic access (continuing education). Both the focus of training and preferred training modalities differed from previous MCH workforce survey findings. Given the changing needs expressed by state Title V leaders as well as their training preferences, it is important that current and future graduate education and continuing education approaches be better aligned to meet these needs and preferences. PMID:21052804

  14. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10μg RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  15. NAEP 1996 Mathematics State Report for Hawaii. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Clyde M.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various academic subjects. The 1996 NAEP in mathematics assessed the current level of mathematical achievement as a mechanism for informing education reform. In 1996, 44…

  16. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for Hawaii. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  17. Finding the Connections: Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Curriculum in Elementary Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, C. Jean; Schulman, Linda

    This book provides practitioners with an introduction to alternative assessment that is comprehensive, practical, and to the degree allowed by the printed page, interactive. Theoretical and practical aspects of assessment are discussed in a way that suggests the process-oriented nature of alternative assessment rather than a fixed end point.…

  18. NAEP 1996 Science State Report for West Virginia. Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…

  19. State Higher Education Assessment Policy: Research Findings from Second and Third Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Michael T.; Cole, John J. K.

    This review of state higher education assessment policies sought to test assumptions and conclusions reached during an initial phase of the study, to explore the dynamics of the process by which assessment becomes a state-level issue or concern, and to better understand the multifaceted relationship between state assessment policy and the…

  20. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  1. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., including co-morbid conditions. (2) Evaluation of the appropriateness of the dialysis prescription, blood.... (7) Evaluation of psychosocial needs by a social worker. (8) Evaluation of dialysis access type and... participation in the dialysis care process; the preferred modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis),...

  2. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE FACILITIES...) Evaluation of factors associated with renal bone disease. (6) Evaluation of nutritional status by a dietitian. (7) Evaluation of psychosocial needs by a social worker. (8) Evaluation of dialysis access type...

  3. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE FACILITIES...) Evaluation of factors associated with renal bone disease. (6) Evaluation of nutritional status by a dietitian. (7) Evaluation of psychosocial needs by a social worker. (8) Evaluation of dialysis access type...

  4. PROBABILITY SURVEYS, CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Asscssment Program EMAP) can be analyzed with a conditional probability analysis (CPA) to conduct quantitative probabi...

  5. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., including co-morbid conditions. (2) Evaluation of the appropriateness of the dialysis prescription, blood.... (7) Evaluation of psychosocial needs by a social worker. (8) Evaluation of dialysis access type and... participation in the dialysis care process; the preferred modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis),...

  6. Field Demonstration of Multi-Sensor Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, focused electrode leak location (FELL), ...

  7. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  8. The Expanded FindCore Method for Identification of a Core Atom Set for Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, David A.; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (D.A. Snyder and G.T. Montelione PROTEINS 2005;59:673–686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set, and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an “Expanded FindCore” atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines “expanded core atom sets” that match an expert’s intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well-defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  9. The expanded FindCore method for identification of a core atom set for assessment of protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David A; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2014-02-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (Snyder and Montelione, Proteins 2005;59:673-686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an "Expanded FindCore" atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines "expanded core atom sets" that match an expert's intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  10. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. PMID:26674408

  11. Spectrocolorimetric assessment of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting: correlations between color indices and histological findings in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Koji; Uematsu, Kota; Tanikake, Yohei; Habata, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Yajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshinori

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the use of a commercial spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution) to describe and quantify cartilage plugs in a rabbit model of osteochondral autografting. Osteochondral plugs were removed and then replaced in their original positions in Japanese white rabbits. The rabbits were sacrificed at 4 or 12 weeks after the operation and cartilage samples were assessed using a spectrocolorimeter. The samples were retrospectively divided into two groups on the basis of the histological findings (group H: hyaline cartilage, successful; group F: fibrous tissue or fibrocartilage, failure) and investigated for possible significant differences in the spectrocolorimetric analyses between the two groups. Moreover, the relationships between the spectrocolorimetric indices and the Mankin histological score were examined. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* values were significantly lower in group H than in group F (P = 0.02), whereas the a* values were significantly higher in group H than in group F (P = 0.006). Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution, the spectral reflectance percentage 470 (SRP470) values, as a coincidence index for the spectral reflectance distribution (400 to 470 nm in wavelength) of the cartilage plugs with respect to intact cartilage, were 99.8 ± 6.7% in group H and 119.8 ± 10.6% in group F, and the difference between these values was significant (P = 0.005). Furthermore, the a* values were significantly correlated with the histological score (P = 0.004, r = -0.76). The SRP470 values were also significantly correlated with the histological score (P = 0.01, r = 0.67). Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurements to predict the histological findings of cartilage plugs after autologous osteochondral grafting. In particular, the a* values and SRP470 values can be used to judge the surface condition of an osteochondral

  12. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Condition in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustini, John M.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2009-09-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, later amended by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977, it tasked the newly created U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the states, with periodically assessing the quality of U.S. waters and reporting on progress toward meeting the goals of the CWA. In subsequent decades, reviews by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations consistently have found available water quality data and reporting to be inadequate to evaluate the nation's progress [Shapiro et al., 2008]. In response to these concerns, in 1989 EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to develop and demonstrate scientific tools to monitor the status of, and trends in, U.S. aquatic resources and environmental stressors affecting them. Recent EPA-led efforts involve monitoring wadeable perennial streams (streams or rivers shallow enough to be wadeable during seasonal low flows), which make up an estimated 90% of the total length of all perennial flowing waters in the United States [EPA, 2006]. Selected results from the first national survey of these streams, the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) [EPA, 2006; Paulsen et al., 2008], illustrate how such surveys can provide critical information to guide management of this important resource. Nonmonitoring applications of data from the WSA and earlier regional surveys show the wide-ranging applicability of these rich data sets.

  13. Assessment of land use impact on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari Samani, Aliakbar; Chen, Qiuwen; Khalighi, Shahram; Wasson, Robert James; Rahdari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-07-01

    A gully as an accelerated erosion process is responsible for land degradation under various environmental conditions and has been known as a threshold phenomenon. Although the effects of gullying processes have been well documented, few soil erosion models have taken into account the threshold condition necessary for gully development. This research was devoted to determining the effects of land use change on hydraulic threshold condition and stream power of water flow through an in situ experimental flume (15 m × 0.4 m). Results indicated that head cut initiation and detachment rates showed a better correlation to stream power indices than shear stress (τcr). The threshold unit stream power value (ωu) for head cut initiation in rangeland, abandoned land, and dry farming land was 0.0276, 0.0149, and 4.5 × 10-5 m s-1, respectively. Moreover, the micro-relief condition of soil surface and surface vegetation affected the flow regime of discharge and velocity. It is seen that the composite hydraulic criteria of Froude number (Fr) and discharge (Q) can clearly discriminate the land uses' threshold. In fact, the remarkable decrease of τcr in dry farming was related to the effect of tillage practice on soil susceptibility and aggregate strength. The findings indicated that using the unit steam power index instead of critical shear stress could increase the models' precision for prediction of head cut development. Compared to the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Model (EGEM) equation for critical shear stress, it is important to point out that for modelling of gully erosion, using single soil attributes can lead to an inaccurate estimation for τcr. In addition, based on the findings of this research, the use of threshold values of τcr = 35 dyne cm-2 and ωu = 0.4 cm s-1 in physically based soil erosion models is susceptible to high uncertainty when assessing gully erosion.

  14. Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C.F.; Levine, M.B.

    1990-03-02

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed Policymaking in health 11: Finding and using evidence about local conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Evidence about local conditions is evidence that is available from the specific setting(s) in which a decision or action on a policy or programme option will be taken. Such evidence is always needed, together with other forms of evidence, in order to inform decisions about options. Global evidence is the best starting point for judgements about effects, factors that modify those effects, and insights into ways to approach and address problems. But local evidence is needed for most other judgements about what decisions and actions should be taken. In this article, we suggest five questions that can help to identify and appraise the local evidence that is needed to inform a decision about policy or programme options. These are: 1. What local evidence is needed to inform a decision about options? 2. How can the necessary local evidence be found? 3. How should the quality of the available local evidence be assessed? 4. Are there important variations in the availability, quality or results of local evidence? 5. How should local evidence be incorporated with other information? PMID:20018101

  16. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 9: Assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Differences between health systems may often result in a policy or programme option that is used in one setting not being feasible or acceptable in another. Or these differences may result in an option not working in the same way in another setting, or even achieving different impacts in another setting. A key challenge that policymakers and those supporting them must face is therefore the need to understand whether research evidence about an option can be applied to their setting. Systematic reviews make this task easier by summarising the evidence from studies conducted in a variety of different settings. Many systematic reviews, however, do not provide adequate descriptions of the features of the actual settings in which the original studies were conducted. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review to a specific setting. These are: 1. Were the studies included in a systematic review conducted in the same setting or were the findings consistent across settings or time periods? 2. Are there important differences in on-the-ground realities and constraints that might substantially alter the feasibility and acceptability of an option? 3. Are there important differences in health system arrangements that may mean an option could not work in the same way? 4. Are there important differences in the baseline conditions that might yield different absolute effects even if the relative effectiveness was the same? 5. What insights can be drawn about options, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation? Even if there are reasonable grounds for concluding that the impacts of an option might differ in a specific setting, insights can almost always be drawn from a systematic review about possible options, as well as approaches to the

  17. Atmospheric stability assessment for the characterization of offshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Cantero, E.; García, B.; Borbón, F.; Irigoyen, U.; Lozano, S.; Fernande, P. M.; Chávez, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the Fino-1 offshore met mast database, different instrument set-ups and methodologies for stability characterization have been tested using non-dimensional numbers like the gradient and bulk Richardson number, and their equivalences with the Obukhov parameter ζ = z/L, which can be measured locally with the use of a sonic anemometer. These equivalences depend to a large extent on the suitability of empirical stability functions obtained in horizontally-homogeneous conditions. The bulk Richardson number method, based on Grachev and Fairall (1997) empirical function, is the least demanding measurement method for stability characterization offering a more practical approach to wind farm designers than using the sonic method. Alternatively, the AMOK method, used by FUGA wake model and also based on the bulk Richardson number, assumes surface-layer theory and avoids using stability functions, which results in a more robust formulation. A 9-class stability classification based on Sorbjan and Grachev (2010) is used to generalize the categorization of wind conditions. Based on flux-profile analysis it was concluded that unfortunately the local ζ is not sufficient to describe the scaling behaviour of the stable boundary layer. Indeed, larger wind shear than predicted by classical onshore stability functions is found, probably as a result of lower boundary layer depths.

  18. NDT-based bridge condition assessment supported by expert tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bień, J.; KuŻawa, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on the progress in the application of Expert Tools supporting integration of inspection and NDT testing findings in order to effectuate effective decision making by bridge owners. Possibilities of knowledge representation in the intelligent computer Expert Tools by means of the multi-level hybrid network technology are described. These multi-level hybrid networks can be built of neural, fuzzy and functional components depending on the problem that needs to be solved and on the type of available information. Application of the technology is illustrated by an example of the Bridge Evaluation Expert Function (BEEF) implemented in the Railway Bridge Management System "SMOK" operated by the Polish State Railways.

  19. Nondestructive vision-based approaches for condition assessment of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Mohammad R.; Masri, Sami F.

    2011-04-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques, including the use of optical instrumentation (e.g., digital cameras), image processing and computer vision are promising approaches for structural health monitoring to complement sensorbased approaches. This study applies and evaluates the underlying technical elements for the development of an integrated inspection tool that is based on the use of commercially available digital cameras. The proposed system can help an inspector to visually assess a target structure remotely, without the need of having to travel to the bridge site, and by bypassing needed traffic detouring. Also, a contact-less vision-based crack detection methodology is introduced and evaluated. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the capabilities as well as the limitations of the proposed vision-based approaches.

  20. CEAP - WATERSHED ASSESSMENT STUDY ON CROPLANDS - FINDINGS TO DATE AND PLANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS-led Watershed Assessment Study for the Croplands CEAP project was charged with providing scientific support for the National Assessment. The study leveraged the long-term ARS research watershed infrastructure to accomplish five main objectives. 1) Develop and implement a data system to store...

  1. Evaluation of Calipers II: Using Simulations to Assess Complex Learning Site Visit Findings. CRESST Report 821

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matrundola, Deborah La Torre; Chang, Sandy; Herman, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these case studies was to examine the ways technology and professional development supported the use of the SimScientists assessment systems. Qualitative research methodology was used to provide narrative descriptions of six classes implementing simulation-based assessments for either the topic of Ecosystems or Atoms and Molecules.…

  2. An Assessment of the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Situation in the United States. Volume II: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    An immediate assessment of the migrant and seasonal farmworker situation was conducted between August 1975 and January 1976. The assessment described the elements affecting these farmworkers; discussed current and projected changes in migration patterns; analyzed the effects of inflation and of changes in agricultural demand and production on…

  3. Frameworks Proposed for Reporting on the First National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) is the first-ever national assessment of wetland condition and the fifth in a series of National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), after streams, rivers, lakes, and coastal systems. The NWCA was implemented by the U.S. Environ...

  4. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  5. An assessment of campsite conditions in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y-L

    1997-01-01

    This research effort designed and implemented a backcountry campsite monitoring program for Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). This report reviews the need for visitor impact monitoring programs, describes monitoring procedures developed and applied at GSMNP, presents results from the first monitoring cycle, evaluates current park camping management policies, and provides recommendations for reducing campingrelated visitor impacts. Field staff assessed 377 campsites at 82 designated backcountry campgrounds, and all 18 shelters. Campgrounds are frequently bisected by park trails and more than half (188, 58%) of legal campsites are within 100 feet of a park trail. High campsite intervisibility diminishes the potential for solitude; 79% of the campsites have at least one other site visible, 26% have three or more other sites visible. Campsite conditions are quite variable, with some campgrounds exhibiting generally good conditions while others are exceptionally large, with substantial vegetation loss, soil exposure, and damage to trees. Evaluations of campsite condition data reveal a number of potential problems, most notably: 1) campsite proliferation, 2) campsite expansion and excessive size, 3) excessive vegetation loss and soil exposure, 4) excessive campfire-related degradation, and 5) low visitor solitude at campsites. Data are used to characterize these problems and evaluate influential relationships and contributing causes. Recreation ecology findings from other studies are considered in evaluating alternative management responses. Park backcountry management policies are also reviewed and recommendations are offered for management consideration.

  6. Photogrammetric analysis of concrete specimens and structures for condition assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nicolas; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-04-01

    Deterioration of civil infrastructure in America demands routine inspection and maintenance to avoid catastrophic failures from occurring. Among many other non-destructive evaluations (NDE), photogrammetry is an accessible and realistic approach used for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of a civil infrastructure systems. The objective of this paper is to explore the capabilities of photogrammetry for locating, sizing, and analyzing the remaining capacity of a specimen or system using point cloud data. Geometric interpretations, composed from up to 70 photographs are analyzed as a mesh or point cloud models. In this case study, concrete, which exhibits a large amount of surface texture features, was thoroughly examined. These evaluative techniques discussed were applied to concrete cylinder models as well as portions of civil infrastructure including buildings, retaining walls, and bridge abutments. In this paper, the aim is to demonstrate the basic analytical functionality of photogrammetry, as well as its applicability to in-situ civil infrastructure systems. In concrete specimens defect length and location can be evaluated in a fully defined model (one with the maximum amount of correctly acquired photographs) with less than 2% error. Error was found to be inversely proportional to the number of acceptable photographs acquired, remaining significantly under 10% error for any model with enough data to render. Furthermore, volumetric stress evaluations were applied using a cross sectional evaluation technique to locate the critical area, and determine the severity of damages. Finally, findings and the accuracy of the results are discussed.

  7. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  8. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Wang, M.; Svoma, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ˜53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ˜35% during early morning to ˜65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent.

  9. Assessing mesquite-grass vegetation condition from Landsat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band values, band ratios, and vegetation index models were compared with selected rangeland vegetation parameters collected at six test sites within the honey mesquitellotebushlmixed grass association in north-central Texas. The comparisons at four dates showed that two vegetation index models, TV16 and GVI, are highly correlated (P = 0.01) with green yield, green cover, and plant moisture content. The green vegetation index (GVZ) developed by Kauth and Thomas (1976), was highly correlated and superior to other models in relationship to wet green yield, dry green yield, and cured vegetation cover. TV16, developed by Rouse et al. (1974), was more highly correlated with green vegetation cover and vegetation moisture content. Both TV16 and GVI are superior to other models in their relationship with green cover. None of the Landsat MSS parameters tested was significantly correlated with dry total yield, percent bare ground, or moisture of the soil measured at the surface or at a 20 cm depth. I t is concluded that Landsat MSS data are sensitive to seasonal changes in vegetation growth conditions and inherent ecological differences within a relatively unqorm vegetationlsoil system.

  10. The "gastric fluid" sign: an unrecognized false-positive finding during focused assessment for trauma examinations.

    PubMed

    Nagdev, Arun; Racht, Justin

    2008-06-01

    The FAST exam has become the current standard for free intraperitoneal fluid determination in most emergency departments. Knowledge of false negative and false positive findings is imperative to improve accuracy. We detail a case in which an important false positive findings previously not discussed in the medical literature was noted. The ability of the physician to recognize the "gastric fluid" sign and make the adjustments accordingly could improve the specificity of the FAST exam, preventing non-therapeutic laparotomies. PMID:18534304

  11. 78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting studies, and... Impact Statement; therefore, one will not be prepared. An electronic version of the FNSI and PEA...

  12. Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Chris; Taylor, Stuart; Wren, James; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-30

    The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) observatory network consists of several robotic astronomical telescopes primarily designed to search for astrophysical transients called a gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although intrinsically bright, GRBs are difficult to detect because of their short duration. Typically, they are first observed by satellites that then relay the coordinates of the GRB to a ground station which, in turn, distributes the coordinates over the internet so that ground based observers can perform follow-up observations. Typically the ground based observations begin after the GRB has ended and only residual emiSSion (the 'afterglow') is left. However, if the satellite relays the GRB coordinates quickly enough, a 'fast' robotic telescope on the ground may be able to catch the GRB in progress. The RAPTOR telescope system is one of only a few in the world to have accomplished this feat. In order to achieve these results, the RAPTOR telescopes must operate autonomously at a high duty-cycle and in peak operating condition. Currently the telescopes are maintained in an ad hoc manner, often in a run-to-failure mode. The RAPTOR project could benefit greatly from a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, especially as more complex units are added to the suite of telescopes. This paper will summarize preliminary results from an SHM study performed on one of the RAPTOR telescopes. Damage scenarios that are of concern and that have been previously observed are first summarized. Then a specific study of damage to the telescope drive mechanism is presented where the data acquisition system is first described. Next, damage detection algorithms are developed with LANL's new publically available software SHMTools and the results of this process are discussed in detail. The paper will conclude with a summary of future planned refinemenls of the RAPTOR SHM system.

  13. Condition Assessment of Kevlar Composite Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following main concepts. Goal: To evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential NDE tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar. Objective: Test a series of strand samples that have been aged under various conditions and evaluate differences and trends in the Raman response. Hypothesis: Reduction in strength associated with stress rupture may manifest from changes in the polymer at a molecular level. If so, than these changes may effect the vibrational characteristics of the material, and consequently the Raman spectra produced from the material. Problem Statement: Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) on the space shuttles are greater than 25 years old. Stress rupture phenomena is not well understood for COPVs. Other COPVs are planned for hydrogen-fueled vehicles using Carbon composite material. Raman spectroscopy is being explored as an non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique to predict the onset of stress rupture in Kevlar composite materials. Test aged Kevlar strands to discover trends in the Raman response. Strength reduction in Kevlar polymer will manifest itself on the Raman spectra. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy has shown relative changes in the intensity and FWHM of the 1613 cm(exp -1) peak. Reduction in relative intensity for creep, fleet leader, and SIM specimens compared to the virgin strands. Increase in FWHM has been observed for the creep and fleet leader specimens compared to the virgin strands. Changes in the Raman spectra may result from redistributing loads within the material due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between crystallites or defects in the crystallites from aging the Kevlar strands. Peak shifting has not been observed to date. Analysis is ongoing. Stress measurements may provide a tool in the short term.

  14. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  15. 76 FR 10055 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the physical condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice amends the current Physical Condition Scoring Process notice that was published on June 29, 2000, as corrected and updated by the Physical Condition......

  16. 42 CFR 416.52 - Conditions for coverage-Patient admission, assessment and discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Patient admission, assessment and discharge. 416.52 Section 416.52 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Specific Conditions for Coverage § 416.52 Conditions...

  17. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Palomäki, Jaana E.; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S.; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T.; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles. PMID:24840353

  18. 78 FR 146 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Assessment (FEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Longhorn Pipeline Reversal Project (Project). PHMSA has posted the FEA and FONSI online at http://www.regulations.gov in docket number PHMSA... Longhorn Pipeline than it would have under normal circumstances. Accordingly, PHMSA has issued an FEA...

  19. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 64984-64985, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0078) a notice \\1... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal... subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...

  20. 78 FR 5185 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment (FINAL EA) and a Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... Greater Cincinnati Easement on HHS/CDC/NIOSH Taft North Campus, Cincinnati, OH AGENCY: Centers for Disease... Availability of Final Environmental Assessment (FINAL EA) and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)...

  1. 75 FR 62133 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment (FINAL EA) and a Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this notice to advise the public that the CDC has prepared, and signed on September 7, 2010, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) based on the Final Environmental Assessment (FINAL EA) for Land Purchase, Access Road Construction and Access Tunnel Construction,......

  2. 77 FR 67862 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact/Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for the Aberdeen Regional Airport in... of a Final EA and FONSI/ROD. SUMMARY: The FAA has issued the final EA final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Aberdeen Regional Airport Updates and FONSI/ROD for the proposed decoupling of runways...

  3. 78 FR 14508 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... On August 3, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 46373, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0061) a... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... in the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ]...

  4. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69396, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0108) a notice \\1\\ announcing the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  5. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... related to operation of James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant Power Authority of the State of New...

  6. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Issuing an Experimental Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the... Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas. The Final EA... Technologies Corporation (SpaceX). Under the Proposed Action, the FAA would issue an experimental permit...

  7. An assessment of the direction-finding accuracy of bat biosonar beampatterns.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Uzair S; Müller, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    In the biosonar systems of bats, emitted acoustic energy and receiver sensitivity are distributed over direction and frequency through beampattern functions that have diverse and often complicated geometries. This complexity could be used by the animals to determine the direction of incoming sounds based on spectral signatures. The present study has investigated how well bat biosonar beampatterns are suited for direction finding using a measure of the smallest estimator variance that is possible for a given direction [Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB)]. CRLB values were estimated for numerical beampattern estimates derived from 330 individual shape samples, 157 noseleaves (used for emission), and 173 outer ears (pinnae). At an assumed 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio, the average value of the CRLB was 3.9°, which is similar to previous behavioral findings. Distribution for the CRLBs in individual beampatterns had a positive skew indicating the existence of regions where a given beampattern does not support a high accuracy. The highest supported accuracies were for direction finding in elevation (with the exception of phyllostomid emission patterns). No large, obvious differences in the CRLB (greater 2° in the mean) were found between the investigated major taxonomic groups, suggesting that different bat species have access to similar direction-finding information. PMID:26936541

  8. Worth It? Findings from a Study of How Academics Assess Students' Web 2.0 Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kathleen; Waycott, Jenny; Clerehan, Rosemary; Hamilton, Margaret; Richardson, Joan; Sheard, Judithe; Thompson, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Educational commentators have offered many pedagogical rationales for using Web 2.0 to support learning in higher education, and academics are being encouraged to find ways for their students to use social web technologies. Questions arise as to the value of these activities compared to more conventional assignments, and whether implementing such…

  9. Assessment of Indoor Route-Finding Technology for People Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Roy, Rudrava; Ogale, Advait

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated navigation with route instructions generated by digital-map software and synthetic speech. The participants, either visually impaired or sighted wearing blindfolds, successfully located rooms in an unfamiliar building. Users with visual impairments demonstrated better route-finding performance when the technology provided…

  10. Assessing Implementation of a Performance Pay Plan for Teachers: Strategies, Findings and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.; Caffarella, Edward; Bartlett, Ellen

    This paper reports how one school district has successfully implemented a major innovation, the Performance Pay Plan (PPP) for Teachers, and how they have collaborated with change process researchers to assess implementation. The paper emphasizes: the community-wide process of involvement and trust building used by the district to launch and…

  11. The Experience of Sexual Assault. Findings From a Statewide Victim Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Laura M.; Kinney, Linda M.; Weist, Mark D.; Dafeamekpor, Denise Spriggs; Dantzler, Joyce; Reynolds, Matthew W.

    2005-01-01

    A statewide assessment was conducted of assaults, experiences, needs, and recommendations of 125 adult victims receiving care at 19 sexual assault centers (SACs) in the State of Maryland. More than one half of the victims (55.6%) waited years before disclosing, with delays in reporting especially likely if the assault was perpetrated by a family…

  12. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., 2009, we published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register (74 FR 61319-61321, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0087... the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. The environmental assessment provides a basis for our... Arizona, which is necessary to effectively combat the gray fox variant of the rabies virus. In that...

  13. 77 FR 21594 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Oconee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    .... Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action Part 50, Appendix G requires that fracture... fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events. The proposed action would grant an exemption from certain requirements of 10 CFR 50.61, ``Fracture...

  14. Report of Survey Findings: Assessment of Needs of Bilingual Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortia for Bilingual Education, Fort Worth, TX.

    Information from all Title VII Bilingual Education Projects in existence comprises this report by the National Consortia for Bilingual Education, which was set up (1) to assess major needs of bilingual education programs across the nation in terms of curriculum-related materials and (2) to identify, test, and/or design materials for broad…

  15. 75 FR 8152 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no... FR 13926 (March 27, 2009)]. With its request to extend the implementation deadline, the licensee... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

  16. 76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... 29, 2011 (76 FR 60557), that noticed the availability of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and..., 2011 (76 FR 60557), in the second column, fifteenth line, ``ML111020620'' is corrected to read... Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) accession number for the EA contained in Section II,...

  17. Assessing Quality Experience and Learning Outcomes: Part II--Findings and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is the second part of a comprehensive report about a research study that aims to assess the relationship between the university experience and student outcomes as a means of determining a university's success in meeting its educational goals. Design/methodology/approach: While Part I has described the process of how data were…

  18. Comparison of patients' assessments of the quality of stroke care with audit findings

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Esther; Graham, Chris; Hoffman, A; Lowe, D; McKevitt, Christopher; Reeves, Rachel; Rudd, A G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of correlation between stroke patients' experiences of hospital care with the quality of services assessed in a national audit. Methods Patients' assessments of their care derived from survey data were linked to data obtained in the National Sentinel Stroke Audit 2004 for 670 patients in 51 English NHS trusts. A measure of patients' experience of hospital stroke care was derived by summing responses to 31 survey items and grouping these into three broad concept domains: quality of care; information; and relationships with staff. Audit data were extracted from hospital admissions data and management information to assess the organisation of services, and obtained retrospectively from patient records to evaluate the delivery of care. Patient survey responses were compared with audit measures of organisation of care and compliance with clinical process standards. Results Patient experience scores were positively correlated with clinicians' assessment of the organisational quality of stroke care, but were largely unrelated to clinical process standards. Responses to individual questions regarding communication about diagnosis revealed a discrepancy between clinicians' and patients' reports. Conclusions Better organised stroke care is associated with more positive patient experiences. Examining areas of disparity between patients' and clinicians' reports is important for understanding the complex nature of healthcare and for identifying areas for quality improvement. Future evaluations of the quality of stroke services should include a validated patient experience survey in addition to audit of clinical records. PMID:18055890

  19. Comprehensive assessment of meteorological conditions and airflow connectivity during HCCT-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilgner, A.; Schöne, L.; Bräuer, P.; van Pinxteren, D.; Hoffmann, E.; Spindler, G.; Styler, S. A.; Mertes, S.; Birmili, W.; Otto, R.; Merkel, M.; Weinhold, K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Deneke, H.; Schrödner, R.; Wolke, R.; Schneider, J.; Haunold, W.; Engel, A.; Wéber, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a comprehensive assessment of the meteorological conditions and atmospheric flow during the Lagrangian-type "Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010" experiment (HCCT-2010), which was performed in September and October 2010 at Mt. Schmücke in the Thuringian Forest, Germany and which used observations at three measurement sites (upwind, in-cloud, and downwind) to study physical and chemical aerosol-cloud interactions. A Lagrangian-type hill cap cloud experiment requires not only suitable cloud conditions but also connected airflow conditions (i.e. representative air masses at the different measurement sites). The primary goal of the present study was to identify time periods during the 6-week duration of the experiment in which these conditions were fulfilled and therefore which are suitable for use in further data examinations. The following topics were studied in detail: (i) the general synoptic weather situations, including the mesoscale flow conditions, (ii) local meteorological conditions and (iii) local flow conditions. The latter were investigated by means of statistical analyses using best-available quasi-inert tracers, SF6 tracer experiments in the experiment area, and regional modelling. This study represents the first application of comprehensive analyses using statistical measures such as the coefficient of divergence (COD) and the cross-correlation in the context of a Lagrangian-type hill cap cloud experiment. This comprehensive examination of local flow connectivity yielded a total of 14 full-cloud events (FCEs), which are defined as periods during which all connected flow and cloud criteria for a suitable Lagrangian-type experiment were fulfilled, and 15 non-cloud events (NCEs), which are defined as periods with connected flow but no cloud at the summit site, and which can be used as reference cases. The overall evaluation of the identified FCEs provides the basis for subsequent investigations of the measured chemical and physical data

  20. Ground-penetrating radar for highway and bridge deck condition assessment and inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiler, Michael; McNeil, Sue; Garrett, James H., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been developed and used successfully for bridge deck and roadway condition assessment. In the past, GPR interpretation has been done manually by trained engineers and technicians with the aid of standard signal processing techniques. This method of collection produced vast quantities of data, and the interpretation required a great amount of time. Recently, parallel processing in the form of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been applied to the interpretation of GPR condition assessment data from highways. This paper introduces general strategy for using ANNs for the interpretation of GPR data. Results of applying this strategy to bridge deck condition assessment data are also given.

  1. UPPER MISSOURI RIVER ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP-UMR): 2000 PILOT STUDY FINDINGS AND FURTHER DIRECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development's Mid-Continent Ecology Division has undertaken an EMAP study to assess the condition of selected resources of the Upper Missouri River mainstem (riverine) aquatic habitats, riparian habitats, and reservoirs. In 2000, we completed pilot ...

  2. Rapid Assessment of Stony Coral Richness and Condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Sheila A.; Etnoyer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17°25′N, 63°30′W) are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring). To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05). There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05) near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis. PMID:20505771

  3. Diagnostic and assessment findings: a bridge to academic planning for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kanne, Stephen M; Randolph, Jena K; Farmer, Janet E

    2008-12-01

    Increasing numbers of children diagnosed and treated for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has impacted both neuropsychologists and educators. Though both play key evaluative and treatment roles, there is no available method or process in place enabling the translation of the neuropsychological report recommendations into a format educational teams can easily use, leading to a gap between neuropsychological recommendations and educational planning. In the following, we review the areas evaluated by a neuropsychologist when assessing a child with an ASD, discuss the domains targeted by educational teams when designing an educational plan, and then present a process that has met with some success creating a "bridge" between the diagnostic/assessment process and the subsequent academic planning. Though presented in the context of ASD, the process described can be used by neuropsychologists for various populations to facilitate partnerships with educators that result in improved care for the child. PMID:18855144

  4. Has the DOTS Strategy Improved Case Finding or Treatment Success? An Empirical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Nearly fifteen years after the start of WHO's DOTS strategy, tuberculosis remains a major global health problem. Given the lack of empirical evidence that DOTS reduces tuberculosis burden, considerable debate has arisen about its place in the future of global tuberculosis control efforts. An independent evaluation of DOTS, one of the most widely-implemented and longest-running interventions in global health, is a prerequisite for meaningful improvements to tuberculosis control efforts, including WHO's new Stop TB Strategy. We investigate the impact of the expansion of the DOTS strategy on tuberculosis case finding and treatment success, using only empirical data. Methods and Findings We study the effect of DOTS using time-series cross-sectional methods. We first estimate the impact of DOTS expansion on case detection, using reported case notification data and controlling for other determinants of change in notifications, including HIV prevalence, GDP, and country-specific effects. We then estimate the effect of DOTS expansion on treatment success. DOTS programme variables had no statistically significant impact on case detection in a wide range of models and specifications. DOTS population coverage had a significant effect on overall treatment success rates, such that countries with full DOTS coverage benefit from at least an 18% increase in treatment success (95% CI: 5–31%). Conclusions The DOTS technical package improved overall treatment success. By contrast, DOTS expansion had no effect on case detection. This finding is less optimistic than previous analyses. Better epidemiological and programme data would facilitate future monitoring and evaluation efforts. PMID:18320042

  5. CCTV Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objectives are: Research current state of condition assessment technology for wastewater collection systems; Evaluate performance and cost of innovative and advanced infrastructure monitoring technologies; Identify and evaluate innovative CCTV technologies; and Prepar...

  6. Monitoring network-design influence on assessment of ecological condition in wadeable streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated outcomes of three monitoring networks for assessing ecological character and condition of wadeable streams in the Waikato region, New Zealand. Sites were selected 1) based on a professional judgment network, 2) within categories of stream and watershed characteris...

  7. Assessing the condition of riverine systems using multimetric indices: An example from Oregon's Calapooia basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams and rivers of the Western United States are susceptible to the combined influences of climate change and an expanding human population. Empirical tools for assessing instream conditions play a critical role in monitoring change, preventing degradation, and mitigating imp...

  8. Innovative Internal Camera Inspection and Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this guidance document is to identify and evaluate innovative closed-circuit television (CCTV) and related technologies currently used by more advanced wastewater utilities to conduct condition assessment programs. The document is intended to facilitate ...

  9. Finding the proper methodology for geodiversity assessment: a recent approach in Brazil and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D.; Santos, L.; Silva, J.; Pereira, P.; Brilha, J.; França, J.; Rodrigues, C.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of geodiversity is a quite new topic. A first set of assessment methodologies was developed during the last years, although with no fully satisfactory results. This is mainly because the whole concept of geodiversity does not tend to be considered, but also because the results are difficult to apply practically. Several major key-points remain unsolved, including the criteria to be used, the scale-factor to be dealt with, the influence of the size of the area under analysis in the type of criteria and indicators, and the graphic presentation of the results. A methodology for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was defined and tested at various scales. It was applied to the Xingu River Basin, Amazon, Brazil (about 510,000 km2), Paraná state, Brazil (about 200,000 km2), and Portugal mainland (about 89,000 km2). This method is intended to assess all geodiversity components and to avoid overrating any particular component, such as lithology or relief, a common weakness of other methods. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales that range according to the areas under analysis, with the final Geodiversity Index being the sum of five partial indexes calculated on the grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, namely geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, palaeontology and soils. Another partial index covers singular occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters and springs. Partial indexes were calculated using GIS software by counting all the occurrences present in the selected maps for each grid square. The Geodiversity Index can take the form of a GIS automatically generated isoline map, allowing an easy interpretation by those without or with little geological background. The map can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management and use of

  10. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    PubMed

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  11. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global construction

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  13. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  14. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis: CT assessment in exposed workers and correlation with radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Remy-Jardin, M; Degreef, J M; Beuscart, R; Voisin, C; Remy, J

    1990-11-01

    To study the signs of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) at computed tomography (CT), the authors obtained thoracic CT scans in 170 coal-dust-exposed workers who were concomitantly evaluated with conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The profusion and extent of disease was assessed by means of CT in two groups of miners: group 1 (n = 86), miners with worker's compensation and radiographic evidence of CWP, and group 2(n = 84), miners who had applied for compensation without radiographic evidence of CWP. The CT signs of CWP consisted of micronodules, nodules, and progressive massive fibrosis. The comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of an optimal CT technique over chest radiography in the evaluation of simple silicosis, with improved sensitivity in the detection of small parenchymal opacities. CT provides additional information on the stage of the disease but also clarifies some ambiguities of the ILO classification of small opacities. CT was equivalent to radiography for complicated silicosis, except in the identification of necrosis. CT evaluations are complementary to plain radiography in the assessment of CWP, and the addition of high-resolution CT is useful in achieving a more accurate evaluation of the small parenchymal opacities. PMID:2217770

  15. Study Addiction – A New Area of Psychological Study: Conceptualization, Assessment, and Preliminary Empirical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Atroszko, Paweł A.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to ‘study addiction’. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested – reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) – related to studying. The scale was administered via a cross-sectional survey distributed to Norwegian (n = 218) and Polish (n = 993) students with additional questions concerning demographic variables, study-related variables, health, and personality. Results A one-factor solution had acceptable fit with the data in both samples and the scale demonstrated good reliability. Scores on BStAS converged with scores on learning engagement. Study addiction (BStAS) was significantly related to specific aspects of studying (longer learning time, lower academic performance), personality traits (higher neuroticism and conscientiousness, lower extroversion), and negative health-related factors (impaired general health, decreased quality of life and sleep quality, higher perceived stress). Conclusions It is concluded that BStAS has good psychometric properties, making it a promising tool in the assessment of study addiction. Study addiction is related in predictable ways to personality and health variables, as predicted from contemporary workaholism theory and research. PMID:26014668

  16. Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Holliman, Nick S.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Liversedge, Simon P.; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli.

  17. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF LONG ISLAND SOUND 1990-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) from 1990 to 1993 were used to assess the condition of the Long Island Sound (LIS) estuary. Ambient water, sediment and biota were collected during the summer months from ...

  18. Assessing the Ecological Condition of Streams in a Southeastern Brazilian Basin using a Probabilistic Monitoring Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodi...

  19. Condition of stream ecosystem in the US: An overview of the first national assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provided the first statistically sound summary of the ecological condition of streams and small rivers in the US. Information provided in the assessment filled an important gap in meeting the requirements of the US Clean Water Act. The purpos...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMETRIC INDEX FOR ASSESSING THE BIOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of fish communities to assess environmental quality is common for streams, but a standard methodology for large rivers is largely undeveloped. We developed an index to assess the condition of fish assemblages along 1580 km of the Ohio River. Representative samples of th...

  1. Reference site selection for wetland condition assessments: Integrating best professional judgement and objective selection criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Wetlands Condition Assessment (NWCA), one of a series of water assessments being conducted by states, tribes, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other partners, surveyed over 900 wetland sites across the lower 48 states during Summer 2011. The NWCA ...

  2. No-threshold dose-response curves for nongenotoxic chemicals: Findings and applications for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, Daniel M. . E-mail: dansheeh@swbell.net

    2006-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that no threshold exists when estradiol acts through the same mechanism as an active endogenous estrogen. A Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation accounting for response saturation, background effects, and endogenous estrogen level fit a turtle sex-reversal data set with no threshold and estimated the endogenous dose. Additionally, 31 diverse literature dose-response data sets were analyzed by adding a term for nonhormonal background; good fits were obtained but endogenous dose estimations were not significant due to low resolving power. No thresholds were observed. Data sets were plotted using a normalized MM equation; all 178 data points were accommodated on a single graph. Response rates from {approx}1% to >95% were well fit. The findings contradict the threshold assumption and low-dose safety. Calculating risk and assuming additivity of effects from multiple chemicals acting through the same mechanism rather than assuming a safe dose for nonthresholded curves is appropriate.

  3. Incidental findings in the use of DNA to identify human remains: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lisa S; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D

    2013-02-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)-that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking-may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists' widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure-specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human remains

  4. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa S.; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists’ widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure—specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human

  5. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

  7. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  8. The association between protective actions and homicide risk: findings from the Oklahoma Lethality Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Brown, Sheryll; Patchell, Beverly; Androff, David K; Wilson, Janet Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between women's risk of homicide as measured by the Danger Assessment and 13 protective actions. Participants (N = 432) experienced an incident of police involved intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequently completed a structured telephone interview. Most women in this sample experienced severe violence and were classified as being at high risk for homicide. Participants engaged in an average of 3.81 (SD = 2.73) protective actions. With the exception of the use of formal domestic violence services, women in the high-risk category were significantly more likely than women in the lower risk category to have used each of the protective actions examined. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25199385

  9. Correlation of MRI findings and cognitive function in multiple sclerosis patients using montreal cognitive assessment test

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Farzad; Behnam, Behdad; Arab Ahmadi, Mehran; Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Pakdaman, Hossein; Kharrazi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief, sensitive test that has been recommended by National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) as a reliable tool to detect mild cognitive impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between MoCA test and its sub-items with brain abnormalities in MRI of MS patients. Methods: Based on MRI scans of 46 MS patients, third ventricle and white matter lesions volumes were measured. Disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were recorded in each patient. In addition, cognitive domains of the patients were evaluated by Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) test. We analyzed data using t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and non-parametric Spearman test. Furthermore, multiple linear regression model was applied to evaluate the association between cognitive indices and MRI characteristics. Results: Among MRI indices, only severity of atrophy showed a significant difference between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved patients. Third ventricular volume was significantly correlated with total MoCA score (p=0.003, r=-0.42), but none of the juxtacortical or periventricular lesions volume revealed significant relation with total MoCA score. However, using multivariate linear regression after adjustment for educational level and disease duration, there was a significant negative association between juxtacortical lesions volume and total MoCA score as well as naming and attention sub-items. Also, memory score was adversely associated with the third ventricular volume (p=0.03, r=0.31). Conclusion: Cognitive disturbances detected by MoCA, may be associated with some pathological changes including atrophy, third ventricular volume, and juxtacortical lesion. MoCA, as a brief test, is not correlated

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A DISTURBANCE INDEX TO ASSESS THE CONDITION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective of aquatic monitoring is to assess the condition of aquatic habitats and biota. To rationally interpret aquatic condition, we must identify the range of human activities and the risks they pose to aquatic ecosystems. Placing stream reaches and their watersheds on a...

  11. A Rubric for Self-Assessment of Essential Technology Conditions in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steckelberg, Allen L.; Li, Lan; Liu, Xiongyi; Kozak, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a Web-based instrument that is part of a strategic planning initiative in technology in K-12 schools in Nebraska. The instrument provides rubrics for self-assessment of essential conditions necessary for integrating and adopting of technology. Essential conditions were defined by an extended panel of…

  12. 42 CFR 484.55 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive assessment of patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Comprehensive assessment of patients. 484.55 Section 484.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Furnishing of Services § 484.55 Condition...

  13. 42 CFR 486.348 - Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI). 486.348 Section 486.348 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE OF SPECIALIZED SERVICES FURNISHED BY...

  14. 42 CFR 486.348 - Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI). 486.348 Section 486.348 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE OF SPECIALIZED SERVICES FURNISHED BY...

  15. 42 CFR 482.96 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI). 482.96 Section 482.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements...

  16. 42 CFR 482.96 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI). 482.96 Section 482.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements...

  17. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: THE GREAT LAKES AND GREAT RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal research objective is develop assessment methodology that can be used to report on the condition of the Great Rivers and Great Lakes that can be used for state's reporting conditions under Section 303(b) of the CWA. One component of Great River research will determ...

  18. 42 CFR 416.43 - Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement. 416.43 Section 416.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Specific Conditions for Coverage §...

  19. 42 CFR 416.43 - Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement. 416.43 Section 416.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Specific Conditions for Coverage §...

  20. 42 CFR 416.43 - Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement. 416.43 Section 416.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Specific Conditions for Coverage §...

  1. 42 CFR 416.43 - Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement. 416.43 Section 416.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Specific Conditions for Coverage § 416.43...

  2. The condition of neighborhood parks following hurricane katrina: development of a post-hurricane assessment instrument.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parks provide environments for physical activity, yet, little is known about how natural disasters affect them or how these disasters alter physical activity. Objectives: 1) describe the development of an instrument to assess park conditions following a hurricane; and 2) document the conditions of ...

  3. Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the field demonstration program is to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on selected condition assessment technologies under defined field conditions. The selected technologies include zoom camera, electro-scan (FELL-41), and a multi-sens...

  4. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient. 418.54 Section 418.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of Participation: Patient Care § 418.54...

  5. How Effective Is Telecommuting? Assessing the Status of Our Scientific Findings.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Golden, Timothy D; Shockley, Kristen M

    2015-10-01

    Telecommuting has become an increasingly popular work mode that has generated significant interest from scholars and practitioners alike. With recent advances in technology that enable mobile connections at ever-affordable rates, working away from the office as a telecommuter has become increasingly available to many workers around the world. Since the term telecommuting was first coined in the 1970s, scholars and practitioners have debated the merits of working away from the office, as it represents a fundamental shift in how organizations have historically done business. Complicating efforts to truly understand the implications of telecommuting have been the widely varying definitions and conceptualizations of telecommuting and the diverse fields in which research has taken place.Our objective in this article is to review existing research on telecommuting in an effort to better understand what we as a scientific community know about telecommuting and its implications. In so doing, we aim to bring to the surface some of the intricacies associated with telecommuting research so that we may shed insights into the debate regarding telecommuting's benefits and drawbacks. We attempt to sift through the divergent and at times conflicting literature to develop an overall sense of the status of our scientific findings, in an effort to identify not only what we know and what we think we know about telecommuting, but also what we must yet learn to fully understand this increasingly important work mode.After a brief review of the history of telecommuting and its prevalence, we begin by discussing the definitional challenges inherent within existing literature and offer a comprehensive definition of telecommuting rooted in existing research. Our review starts by highlighting the need to interpret existing findings with an understanding of how the extent of telecommuting practiced by participants in a study is likely to alter conclusions that may be drawn. We then review

  6. Development and Deployment of the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS) to Measure Health-Related Neighborhood Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Michael D. M.; Mooney, Stephen J.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Sheehan, Daniel; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Teitler, Julien O.

    2014-01-01

    Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies. PMID:25545769

  7. Development and deployment of the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS) to measure health-related neighborhood conditions.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael D M; Mooney, Stephen J; Lee, Yeon Jin; Sheehan, Daniel; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G; Teitler, Julien O

    2015-01-01

    Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies. PMID:25545769

  8. Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: Key Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States, is a technical input to the National Climate Assessment. The 121-author report summarizes knowledge about climate change and its impacts across Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The report looks at links between climate and natural resources, vulnerabilities to climate variability and change across the region and along the U.S.-Mexico border, and adaptation and mitigation choices for addressing future changes. The period since 1950 has been warmer than any period of comparable length in the last 600 years. Droughts of the past 2,000 years have exceeded the most severe and sustained drought during 1901-2010. In the last decade, flows in the major river basins of the Southwest have been lower than their 20th century averages; many snowmelt-fed streams in the region exhibited earlier snowmelt and earlier center of mass of annual streamflows. Climate models project continued temperature increases, with longer and hotter summer heat waves. Average precipitation is projected to decrease in the southern part of the region. Reduced streamflows are projected for the Rio Grande, Colorado, and San Joaquin rivers. More frequent and intense winter flooding is projected for the western Sierra Nevada, whereas Colorado Front Range summer flooding is projected to increase. Observed ecosystems impacts include changes in phenology, widespread forest disturbance due to the confluence of drought, increased temperatures, and changes to insect life cycles. Area burned by wildfire is projected to increase in most of the Southwest. Plant and animal species' distributions will be affected by climate change, and studies show that observed climate changes are strongly associated with observed changes in species' distributions. California coastal ecosystems will be affected by a combination of ocean warming, reduced oxygen content, sea level rise and ocean acidification. When west coast sea levels are

  9. Recent experience in condition assessment of boiler header components and supports

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    This paper provides recent experience in the condition assessment of boiler header components and supports in fossil fired power plants. Condition assessment programs for boiler headers are now scheduled more frequently due to the current practices of cyclic operation and extended life for older boilers. Typical assessment tasks as applicable to all boiler headers, are described herein. Examples of common problems, with recommended actions, for each type of header are presented. This includes internal bore hole and ligament cracking, and external tube connector weld cracking. Emphasis will be focused on the historical cracking problems associated with economizer inlet and secondary superheater/reheater outlet headers.

  10. Students Whose Parents Did Not Go to College: Postsecondary Access, Persistence, and Attainment. Findings from the Condition of Education, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan

    "The Condition of Education" summarizes important developments and trends in U.S. education using the latest available data. The 2001 edition had a special focus essay on the access, persistence, and success of first-generation students (students whose parents did not attend college). To make the essay available to audiences interested in how…

  11. Methodology for the assessment of the relationship between structural and functional imaging findings in neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Griselda J.; Furuie, Sergio S.; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2003-05-01

    Using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), we have implemented methods to investigate the relation between findings from structural MRI and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT performed in groups of subjects with neuropsychiatric disorders and healthy controls. Using a MATLAB program developed and integrated into SPM, suited means of gray matter values (MGM) were calculated in regions relevant to the disorder in question, and linearly correlated with rCBF values from the same patients. In a study of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), patients showed a focus of increased MGM in the right putamen relative to controls. MGM from the putamen were significantly inversely correlated with rCBF measures in regions critical to OCD, mainly the anterior cingulate gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that an imbalance of cortico-striatal circuits is relevant to OCD pathophysiology. In a study of Alzheimer's disease (AD), foci of decreased gray matter in patients relative to controls were identified bilaterally in the hippocampus. In AD patients, reduced hippocampal MGM correlated significantly with decreased rCBF during a memory task, in a network of regions usually involved in memory processes. An inverse correlation with frontal rCBF was also observed, suggesting compensatory efforts of executive regions during the memory task.

  12. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population. PMID:25571199

  13. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  14. Internet use and misuse. Preliminary findings from a new assessment instrument.

    PubMed

    Rotunda, Robert J; Kass, Steven J; Sutton, Melanie A; Leon, David T

    2003-09-01

    The internet is an affordable and easily accessible technology that has many potential applications to psychology. Interactive technologies engage users psychologically and may facilitate adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. This research explored the Internet-use patterns, psychological characteristics, and negative consequences associated with online activities of 393 college students using the Internet Use Survey (IUS), a self-report instrument designed to administer online. Results indicated that participants spent an average of 3.3 total hours per day on the Internet during the past 12 months and used the medium for multiple purposes. Although participants reported the occurrence of some potentially negative consequences related to Internet use, the prevalence rates for most problematic behaviors were generally low. Exploratory principal component analysis of the IUS subscale that attempts to measure Internet-related impairment revealed four factors: absorption, negative consequences, disrupted sleep, and deception. All of these factors were then significantly related to a measure of boredom proneness. This research supports the necessity for multidimensional assessment (e.g., frequency and context) of Internet usage to enhance our understanding of how this new technology interfaces with users psychologically and behaviorally. PMID:12971124

  15. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  16. Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment and Findings of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA`s) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area`s maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

  17. An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of coastal wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands pilot survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestlerode, J.A.; Engle, V.D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Allen, Y.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM coastal watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected coastal wetlands sites. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland site is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-site evidence. Tier 3, an intensive site assessment, involves on-site collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  18. A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this

  19. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  20. What Factors Are Related to Success on Conditional Release/Discharge? Findings from the New Orleans Forensic Aftercare Clinic: 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Manguno-Mire, Gina M.; Coffman, Kelly L.; DeLand, Sarah M.; Thompson, John W.; Myers, Leann

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575 days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives. PMID:25328070

  1. Chariton Valley Biomass Project Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-07-11

    Switchgrass is a warm-weather, native Iowa grass that grows well on marginal land. It has been identified and extensively studied for its potential as a biomass energy crop, especially its potential for use as co-fire feedstock in coal-burning plants. In this environmental assessment (EA), the term ''co-fire'' refers to the burning of switchgrass in the OGS boiler in conjunction with coal, with the goal of reducing the amount of coal used and reducing emissions of some objectionable air pollutants associated with coal combustion. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide partial funding for (1) the design and construction of a biomass (switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) storage, handling, and conveying system into the boiler at the Ottumwa Generating Station (OGS) near Chillicothe, Iowa; (2) operational testing of switchgrass as a biomass co-fire feedstock at OGS; and (3) ancillary activities related to growing, harvesting, storing, and transporting switchgrass in areas of the Rathbun Lake watershed. Chillicothe is in Wapello County on the south side of the Des Moines River, approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles) northwest of Ottumwa, Iowa, and 130 kilometers (80 miles) southeast of Des Moines. The OGS is a 725-megawatt (MW) maximum output, low-sulfur, pulverized coal-burning plant jointly owned by several Iowa utilities and operated by Alliant Energy. The plant is located about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) northwest of Chillicothe, Iowa, on the Des Moines River. The following three-phase switchgrass co-fire test campaign has been planned and partially implemented at OGS: During Phase 1, which occurred from November 2000 through January 2001, Alliant Energy conducted Co-fire Test 1 at OGS. Phase 2 testing, the Proposed Action, would consist of two additional co-fire tests. Co-fire Test 2, which would utilize some residual equipment from Co-fire Test 1 and also test some new equipment, is currently planned for September/October 2003. It would be designed

  2. The significance of morphogenetic analysis in the assessment of soil-water conditions in Quaternary sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowska, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    The landform pattern of the Polish Lowlands, which originated during and after the Warta Glaciation, is closely connected with areal deglaciation and directions of geomorphological landform evolution. Landscape-shaping processes were significant for the creation of sediment configuration and sediment characteristics of particular landforms and thus for properties of sediments. Determination of the relationships between the origin of a landform and its physical/geochemical properties can facilitate the evaluation of geological conditions carried out for land use planning that should take into account the sensitivity of the geological environment (soil, groundwater) to the migration of contaminants. The aim of this research was to find geomorphological means of identifying physicochemical and hydrogeological properties of Quaternary sediments that enable fast and precise assessment of long-term and recent soil-water conditions. The investigations were conducted in two areas of the Polish Lowlands that were formed during the Warta Glaciation. During geological mapping of distinguished landforms, 169 samples of sediments were collected for laboratory testing. The samples were analyzed for particle size, calcium carbonate, organic matter content, pH, permeability coefficient, CEC, and adsorption of Cd and Pb. The results show that these distinguished glacial landforms are characterized by the recurrence of superficial lithological profiles with typical physicochemical parameters. Thus, the morphogenesis of postglacial areas of central Poland formed during the Warta Glaciation has influenced the ability of surface deposits to retain contamination. A total of seven insulation classes of landforms in terms of differentiated insulating abilities of deposits, as well as the ranges of values for each insulating parameter, have been identified.

  3. Conditionally Increased Acoustic Pressures in Nonfetal Diagnostic Ultrasound Examinations Without Contrast Agents: A Preliminary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Church, Charles C.; Harris, Gerald; Wear, Keith A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Carson, Paul L.; Jiang, Hui; Sandstrom, Kurt L.; Szabo, Thomas L.; Ziskin, Marvin C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical index (MI) has been used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1992 for regulatory decisions regarding the acoustic output of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Its formula is based on predictions of acoustic cavitation under specific conditions. Since its implementation over 2 decades ago, new imaging modes have been developed that employ unique beam sequences exploiting higher-order acoustic phenomena, and, concurrently, studies of the bioeffects of ultrasound under a range of imaging scenarios have been conducted. In 2012, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Technical Standards Committee convened a working group of its Output Standards Subcommittee to examine and report on the potential risks and benefits of the use of conditionally increased acoustic pressures (CIP) under specific diagnostic imaging scenarios. The term “conditionally” is included to indicate that CIP would be considered on a per-patient basis for the duration required to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. This document is a result of that effort. In summary, a fundamental assumption in the MI calculation is the presence of a preexisting gas body. For tissues not known to contain preexisting gas bodies, based on theoretical predications and experimentally reported cavitation thresholds, we find this assumption to be invalid. We thus conclude that exceeding the recommended maximum MI level given in the FDA guidance could be warranted without concern for increased risk of cavitation in these tissues. However, there is limited literature assessing the potential clinical benefit of exceeding the MI guidelines in these tissues. The report proposes a 3-tiered approach for CIP that follows the model for employing elevated output in magnetic resonance imaging and concludes with summary recommendations to facilitate Institutional Review Board (IRB)-monitored clinical studies investigating CIP in specific tissues. PMID:26112617

  4. Toxicity assessment of TiO₂ nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Z; Castro, V L S S; Moura, M A M; Jonsson, C M; Fraceto, L F

    2014-02-01

    The popularity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO2 under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96h to different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO2 appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the factors involved in the toxicity of these nanoparticles, as well as to the establishment of protocols for risk assessments of nanotechnology. PMID:24418748

  5. Treating Behavioral Health Conditions of OEF/OIF Veterans and Their Families: A State Needs Assessment of Civilian Providers

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Cook, Emily T.

    2014-01-01

    With the return of troops from Afghanistan and Iraq, increasing numbers of civilian behavioral health providers are treating veterans and their families for service-related conditions. However, little is known about civilian providers’ capacity to meet the needs of this population. A statewide needs assessment of 1,665 clinicians examined their screening/referral practices, knowledge and confidence in treating 14 veteran conditions, and training interests. Overall, providers had limited knowledge and confidence to treat veteran conditions but reported high interest in training to enhance their clinical skills. Findings informed the training of more than 700 state clinicians to provide culturally competent behavioral health care for veterans and their families. PMID:24999446

  6. The recent findings of the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010" and the World Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. A.; Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol

    2011-12-01

    The ozone layer is the Earth's natural sunscreen, blocking harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland proposed that the ozone layer could be depleted by chlorine released from human-produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Follow-up science investigations supported this hypothesis, leading to the landmark 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer). One of the Montreal Protocol provisions is that science assessments on ozone depletion be written and submitted to the signatory Parties every 4 years. In this talk, I will primarily focus on the science findings from the recently published "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010". This assessment is written and reviewed (multiple times) by the international science community. The 2010 assessment is the latest in a long series of reports that provide the science foundation for the Montreal Protocol. This assessment demonstrates that the Montreal Protocol is working, and that there are early signs that ozone is beginning to respond to decreasing CFC levels. There are now state-of-the-art simulations that show that the ozone layer would have been largely destroyed if CFCs had not been regulated, and therefore extreme levels of UV radiation have been avoided. The 2010 assessment also spotlights new insights into the impact of ozone depletion on surface climate, and climate impacts on ozone. However, the assessment also reveals that greenhouse gases are modifying the stratosphere and that the ozone layer will evolve into a different state than its pre-industrial values - you can't go home again.

  7. Systemic conditions, oral findings and dental management of chronic renal failure patients: general considerations and case report.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mahmud Juma Abdalla Abdel; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Pinto, Lourenço Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a relatively common systemic disease. Systemic abnormalities such as anemia, platelet disorders and hypertension as well as oral manifestations including xerostomia, uremic stomatitis, periodontal disease and maxillary and mandibular radiographic alterations can be observed in individuals with chronic renal disease. In view of its frequent occurrence and the need of knowledge by dentists dealing with this condition, this paper discusses the most important issues regarding chronic renal failure, addressing its systemic and oral manifestations and the dental management of chronic renal patients. A case report is presented. PMID:16924347

  8. Assessment of mycotoxin risk on corn in the Philippines under current and future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvacion, Arnold R; Pangga, Ireneo B; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the risk of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisins) contamination on corn in the Philippines under current and projected climate change conditions using fuzzy logic methodology based on the published range of temperature and rainfall conditions that favor mycotoxin development. Based on the analysis, projected climatic change will reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the country due to increased rainfall. In the case of fumonisin contamination, most parts of the country are at a very high risk both under current conditions and the projected climate change conditions. PMID:26351797

  9. Rangeland condition assessment using high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Edward William

    This research evaluated the use of electromagnetic induction (EM), broad-band (BB) spectrometry, and narrow-band (NB) spectrometry for assessing rangeland condition on six long-term sagebrush-steppe grazing treatments. Objectives included (1) updating quantitative differences in cover components among treatments, (2) using EM to assess soil depth variability within and among treatments, (3) determining the spectral characteristics of in situ cover components, (4) establishing BB and NB predictive regressions for individual cover components, and (5) testing the predictive accuracy of the regressions and their effectiveness in distinguishing among treatments. Few soil-based differences were found among the treatments. Shrub and annual herb cover were greater on the spring-grazed areas than fall-grazed and exclosed areas. Fall-grazed areas had less shrub and more perennial herb. Residual effects of spring grazing prior to 1950 were also evident within treatments. A subsequent investigation of the long-term fall and spring paddocks found that EM technology could predict soil depth. Positive relationships between apparent conductivity and depth were used to map soil depth across these two paddocks. Despite considerable local variability, overall soil depth differences between treatments were minimal, indicating vegetational differences between paddocks are likely as the result of grazing history and not soil depth. In situ spectral measurements of 15 rangeland cover components found that most were spectrally unique. Other factors that affected spectral reflectance were the field of view and soil moisture content. Greater spectral differences were found as plants advanced phenologically. Consequently, NB data, particularly multitemporal, may improve the identification of cover components. Localized mixed pixels were used to calibrate BB and NB spectral data from June, July, and August to measure ground cover of 11 components. Simple and multiple regression indicated some

  10. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress. PMID:18001223

  11. Revealing, identifying, and assessing flaws in operating equipment by the acoustic emission image recognition method under strong background noise condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muravin, Gregory; Muravin, Boris; Lezvisky, Ludmila

    2004-05-01

    The analysis has shown that high pressure and high temperature piping in fossil and nuclear power plants suffer from unexpected and rarely predictable failures. To guarantee operational safety and to prevent failures authors have performed the complex investigations and have created Quantitative Acoustic Emission NDI technology for revealing, identifying and assessing flaws in equipment operated under strong background noise condition. These enabled: Overall inspection of the piping operated under stress, temperature, pressure, steam flow and loading, variation. Locating suspected zones and zones of flaw development with low J-integral value and the great variation of the dynamic range of flaws danger level. Identification of flaw types and their danger level. Detection of defective components in service prior to shut down. The continuous and the burst Acoustic Emission (AE) were used in combination as an information tool. As result, the significant number of flaws such as creep at stage 3a-3b, closed-edge micro-cracks, systems of randomly dispersed pores and inclusions, plastic deformation development around them, or/and individual micro-cracking were revealed, identified and assessed in 50 operating high energy piping. The findings and assessing flaw danger level obtained by QAE NDI were confirmed by independent NDI methods as TOFD, X-ray, replication, metallurgical investigations, etc. The findings and assessing flaw danger level obtained by QAE NDI were confirmed by independent NDI methods such as TOFD, X-ray, replication, metallurgical investigations, etc

  12. Mississippi waters reaching South Florida reefs under no flood conditions: synthesis of observing and modeling system findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2014, in situ measurements revealed an intense salinity drop impacting South Florida coral reefs, between Pulley Ridge (Southwest Florida Shelf) and the Florida Keys. The low salinity waters had a surface signal of 32 (down from 35.2) and extended over a 15-20-m deep lens. Satellite observations showed that this abrupt drop in salinity was due to a southeastward export of Mississippi River waters from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), revealing strong interaction between coastal and oceanic flows. Unlike previous events of marked long-distance Mississippi water export, this episode is not associated with Mississippi flooding conditions, which makes it a unique study case. We have developed a high-resolution (~2 km) comprehensive hydrodynamic numerical model of the GoM to study the conditions that controlled the 2014 Mississippi River water export episode. It is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and assimilates remotely sensed altimetry and sea surface temperature observations, to ensure that the simulated upper-ocean is realistic. This regional model has a detailed representation of coastal physics (especially river plume dynamics) and employs high-frequency river discharge and atmospheric forcing. The combined use of the simulation and observations reveals a unique pathway that brought Mississippi waters first eastward along the Northern GoM continental shelf, under prevailing winds and the presence of an anticyclonic Loop Current eddy, then southward along the edge of the West Florida Shelf, before reaching the deep GoM. Unlike usually observed, the offshore advection of Mississippi River waters thus took place far from the Delta area, which is another specificity of the 2014 episode. Finally, in the Florida Straits, Mississippi waters were advected from the deep ocean to the continental shelf under the influence of both deep sea (particularly a cyclonic Loop Current frontal eddy) and shelf flows (wind-induced Ekman transport). The

  13. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures. PMID:27023563

  14. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures. PMID:27023563

  15. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Gussev, Maxim N

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  16. Using Online Assessment to Replace Invigilated Assessment in Times of Natural Disaster: Are Some Online Assessment Conditions Better than Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Steve; Hickson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the Canterbury earthquake on 4 September 2010, and associated aftershocks on 22 February 2011 and 13 June 2011, final examinations in the two first-year Economics papers at Canterbury University were cancelled at short notice in Semester 1, 2011. The final examination weightings were spread over the remaining assessments to obtain a…

  17. Assessing leukocyte-endothelial interactions under flow conditions in an ex vivo autoperfused microflow chamber assay.

    PubMed

    Mulki, Lama; Sweigard, J Harry; Connor, Kip M

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are early and critical events in acute and chronic inflammation and can, when dysregulated, mediate tissue injury leading to permanent pathological damage. Existing conventional assays allow the analysis of leukocyte adhesion molecules only after the extraction of leukocytes from the blood. This requires the blood to undergo several steps before peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be ready for analysis, which in turn can stimulate PBLs influencing the research findings. The autoperfused micro flow chamber assay, however, allows scientists to study early leukocytes functional dysregulation using the systemic flow of a live mouse while having the freedom of manipulating a coated chamber. Through a disease model, the functional expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules can be assessed and quantified in a micro-glass chamber coated with immobilized endothelial adhesion molecules ex vivo. In this model, the blood flows between the right common carotid artery and left external jugular vein of a live mouse under anesthesia, allowing the interaction of native PBLs in the chamber. Real-time experimental analysis is achieved with the assistance of an intravital microscope as well as a Harvard Apparatus pressure device. The application of a flow regulator at the input point of the glass chamber allows comparable physiological flow conditions amongst the experiments. Leukocyte rolling velocity is the main outcome and is measured using the National Institutes of Health open-access software ImageJ. In summary, the autoperfused micro flow chamber assay provides an optimal physiological environment to study leukocytes endothelial interaction and allows researchers to draw accurate conclusions when studying inflammation. PMID:25590688

  18. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition. PMID:27493966

  19. Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Burton, E J; Newnham, R; Bailey, S J; Alexander, L G

    2014-04-01

    There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score. The aim of this work was to evaluate the guide. Repeatability and reproducibility were measured by four assessors on three sequential days, using 38 budgerigars of mixed sex, age and weight. Data were analysed using a 3-factor anova, with Person and Bird as variable factors and occasion as a fixed factor. The association between body condition score and body fat was measured using three assessors and 63 dead budgerigars, which were chemically analysed for fat content after assessment. Data were statistically analysed to determine correlation using Spearman's Rank Coefficient. Occasion and person had no significant effect on body condition score (p = 0.988 and 0.347 respectively). Body condition score and percentage body fat were highly significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.768): percentage fat increased with increasing body condition score. The guide would appear to be a repeatable measure of body condition in budgerigars, suitable for use during physical examinations. PMID:23509997

  20. The National Wetland Condition Assessment: National Data on Wetland Quality to Inform and Improve Wetlands Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with states, tribes, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS), and other federal partners will conduct the first-ever National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) in 2011. The NWCA is designed to build on the succ...

  1. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  2. INVITED SESSION: THE 2011 NATIONAL WETLAND CONDITION ASSESSMENT: TECHNICAL UNDERPINNINGS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first-ever National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and its federal and state partners, using a survey design allowing extrapolation of results to national and regional scales. At each of 1138 locatio...

  3. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the financial condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice includes threshold values and associated scores for each financial subindicator derived from generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)-based......

  4. EPA Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains at Louisville, KY - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies that was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted by EPA’s contractor (Battelle), and hosted by the Louisvill...

  5. EPA FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE CONDITION ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER MAINS AT LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies that was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted by EPA’s contractor (Battelle), and hosted by the Louisvil...

  6. CONDITION ASSESSMENT FOR THE ESCAMBIA RIVER, FL, WATERSHED: BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE SURVEYS USING A PROBABILISTIC SAMPLING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Probabilistic sampling has been used to assess the condition of estuarine ecosystems, and the use of this survey design approach was examined for a northwest Florida watershed. Twenty-eight lotic sites within the Escambia River, Florida, watershed were randomly selected and visit...

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Disinfectant Activity Against Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms Under Flow Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes has a high mortality in humans and is responsible for most food recalls involving bacterial contamination. Our objective was to develop methods to quantitatively assess the pathogen under flow conditions to mimic wet food processing. A reactor was used to grow the bacteria on ...

  8. Appilications of National Wetland Condition Assessment Data to Wetland Protection and Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and its federal and state partners, using a survey design allowing extrapolation of results to national and regional scales. Vegetation, algae, soil, wat...

  9. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  10. Using underwater video imaging as an assessment tool for coastal condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort to monitor ecological conditions in nearshore habitats, from 2009-2012 underwater videos were captured at over 400 locations throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study focuses on developing a video rating system and assessing video images. This ratin...

  11. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning. PMID:26942452

  12. US EPA/ORD Condition Assessment Research for Drinking Water Conveyance Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research on condition assessment for drinking water transmission and distribution systems that EPA is conducting under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program. This research program will help U.S. ...

  13. THE CONDITION OF THE NATION'S ESTURINE SEDIMENTS: EPA'S NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summers, J. Kevin. In press. Condition of the Nation's Estuarine Sediments: EPA's National Coastal Assessment (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1001).

    The purpose of EPA's National Coastal Asse...

  14. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... palliation and management of the terminal illness and related conditions. (a) Standard: Initial assessment... calendar days after the election of hospice care in accordance with § 418.24. (c) Standard: Content of the... need for referrals and further evaluation by appropriate health professionals. (d) Standard: Update...

  15. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  16. SELECTING, DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION: THE NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. From 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 4500 locations) were representative...

  17. SELECTING THE DEVELOPING INDICATORS FOR MONITORING CONDITION: THE NATION COASTAL ASSESSMENT EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. From 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 4500 locations) were representative...

  18. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF A COASTAL PLAIN WATERSHED USING A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a probabilistic survey design, we assessed the ecological condition of the Florida (USA) portion of the Escambia River watershed using selected environmental and benthic macroinvertebrate data. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 28 sites during July-August 1996, and 3414 i...

  19. 42 CFR 418.58 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... collected to do the following: (i) Monitor the effectiveness and safety of services and quality of care. (ii..., patient safety, and quality of care. (2) Performance improvement activities must track adverse patient...: Patient Care § 418.58 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement....

  20. 42 CFR 418.58 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... collected to do the following: (i) Monitor the effectiveness and safety of services and quality of care. (ii..., patient safety, and quality of care. (2) Performance improvement activities must track adverse patient...: Patient Care § 418.58 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement....

  1. 42 CFR 418.58 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... collected to do the following: (i) Monitor the effectiveness and safety of services and quality of care. (ii..., patient safety, and quality of care. (2) Performance improvement activities must track adverse patient... Participation: Patient Care § 418.58 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance...

  2. 42 CFR 418.58 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... collected to do the following: (i) Monitor the effectiveness and safety of services and quality of care. (ii..., patient safety, and quality of care. (2) Performance improvement activities must track adverse patient... Participation: Patient Care § 418.58 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance...

  3. NATIONAL RESULTS FROM THE 2011 NATIONAL WETLAND CONDITION ASSESSMENT (NWCA) SOILS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, US Environmental Protection Agency conducted the first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). Field crews conducted one-day surveys of over 1000 wetlands across the contiguous United States. For every wetland sampled, soils were collected by layer (i.e., horizon)...

  4. [Assessment of psychological conditions for the use of firearms in law enforcement].

    PubMed

    Vilardell Molas, Jordi; Martí Agustí, Gabriel; Solé i Sanosa, M Angels

    2014-03-01

    To handle firearms safely, an individual needs to be in sound psychological conditions. This point is especially relevant in law enforcement, given that this group is likely to experience situations where there is a reasonably severe risk to life, physical integrity and that of third parties. These conditions cause high levels of stress and become a significant source of psychological strain. The assessment of these psychological conditions in law enforcement must stay ahead of this strain and should act preventively, establishing surveillance that is the product of a consensus between the needs of professionals and organizations. This evaluation should be conducted by technical specialists who understand and know the occupational reality of these professionals. A good assessment methodology starts with the need to discover the basic areas that need exploring, the ideal procedure for assessing these issues and the criteria that determine the aptitude (or lack thereof) for handling firearms. Once these goals have been established, we can be assured that the assessment will follow a set of principles that will give it homogeneity, effectiveness and efficiency. This type of assessment will help accomplish the mission that these security professionals are entrusted to by law, which is to protect the free exercise of rights and freedoms and ensure citizen safety. PMID:24913751

  5. Key Findings of the AMAP 2015 Assessment on Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone as Arctic Climate Forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.

    2015-12-01

    emission from each sector and region) were also calculated. Key findings from the 2015 assessment will be presented.

  6. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions - Effect of Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Inertial measurement of motion with Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) is emerging as an alternative to 3D motion capture systems in biomechanics. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of commercially available AHRS under various types of motion; and 2) to evaluate the effect of motion velocity on the accuracy of these measurements. Methods The criterion validity of accuracy was established under controlled conditions using an instrumented Gimbal table. AHRS modules were carefully attached to the center plate of the Gimbal table and put through experimental static and dynamic conditions. Static and absolute accuracy was assessed by comparing the AHRS orientation measurement to those obtained using an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was assessed by measuring the variation in relative orientation between modules during trials. Findings Evaluated AHRS systems demonstrated good absolute static accuracy (mean error < 0.5o) and clinically acceptable absolute accuracy under condition of slow motions (mean error between 0.5o and 3.1o). In slow motions, relative accuracy varied from 2o to 7o depending on the type of AHRS and the type of rotation. Absolute and relative accuracy were significantly affected (p<0.05) by velocity during sustained motions. The extent of that effect varied across AHRS. Interpretation Absolute and relative accuracy of AHRS are affected by environmental magnetic perturbations and conditions of motions. Relative accuracy of AHRS is mostly affected by the ability of all modules to locate the same global reference coordinate system at all time. Conclusions Existing AHRS systems can be considered for use in clinical biomechanics under constrained conditions of use. While their individual capacity to track absolute motion is relatively consistent, the use of multiple AHRS modules to compute relative motion between rigid bodies needs to be optimized according to

  7. Effects of uncertainty in boundary-conditions on flood hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-04-01

    Comprehensive flood-risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of utmost importance, especially in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where dike failures have to be considered. This paper focuses on a 50km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in inundation mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in the dike-failure location and breach morphology. We derive confidence bounds for flood hazard maps by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) - a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. IHAM couples in a dynamic way a 1D hydrodynamic model and a 2D raster-based hydraulic model through a probabilistic dike-breaching analysis that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. To address the randomness resulting from the variability in boundary conditions and dike-failures the system is run in a Monte Carlo framework. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterized by associating the rating-curve used as boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The results of the study are presented in terms of the Monte Carlo-based flood hazard mapping for different flood-intensity indicators (e.g., inundation depth, flow velocity, inundation duration, etc.) together with the corresponding uncertainty bounds. We conclude on the influence of uncertainty in boundary conditions and provide decision makers with an important piece of information

  8. [Assessment of job strain and its consequencies in a large public organisation. Findings from the SEMM Study].

    PubMed

    Ferrario, M M; Cimmino, L; Ganna, A; Cambiano, V; Borchini, R; Cesana, G

    2008-01-01

    The demand-control model originally developed by Robert Karasek is in Italy the preferred tool to investigate perceived work stress due to work-related organizational constrains. We wish to report the comprehensive results of the SEMM Study, carried on a wide sample of civil servants. N. 5271 women and 2601 men, employed at the Municipality of Milan in the years 1991-1996 were enrolled into the study. The overall participation rate was high in both gender group (75% or more), indicating a good compliance of employees for health prevention programmes carried out in work settings. Each participant, who has given consent, in addition to the medical examinations and biological tests related to the investigation of work exposures, underwent to a structured procedure to measure cardiovascular risk factors, according to the methods developed in the WHO MONICA Project, job strain adopting the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), and the Baecke Questionnaire to investigate major quotes of physical activity. In this contest the JCQ has shown an acceptable level of internal and external consistency as well as of acceptance, measured by employees compliance. Psychological job demand and decision latitude can be assessed with two different JCQ revisions available in Italian, which were validated with the contribution of the author, at different complexity, but with comparable results of weighted scores. For a comprehensive assessment of the working conditions social support at work is also of relevance. In the work public sector considered, the JCQ major scores resulted to be valid descriptors of key aspects of the work organization. The concurrent assessment of sick leaves, known marker of burnout, allows to identify work- and individual-related determinants and, in a specific work setting, to give indications for coping actions which may improve workers' integration. In addition, the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors, carried out with standardised and then reliable

  9. Bridge condition assessment from dynamic response collected using wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, A. K. M. Anwarul; Hamid, Hiwa F.; Li, Frank

    2014-03-01

    We propose dynamic response based condition assessment of prestressed box beam (PSBB) bridges that will be more realistic and cost-efficient. The hypothesis includes that the dynamic response is a sensitive indicator of the physical integrity and condition of a structure. We deployed two wireless sensor networks for collecting the real-time dynamic response of a 25-year old PSBB bridge under trucks with variable loads and speeds. The dynamic response of the bridge at its newest condition was collected from FE simulations of its 3-D FE models mimicking field conditions. The FE model was validated using experimental and theoretical methods. We used Fast Fourier Transform and peak-picking method to determine peak amplitudes and their corresponding fundamental frequencies at its newest and current condition. The analyses interestingly indicate a 37% reduction in its fundamental frequency over a 25-year service life. This reduction has been correlated to its current visual inspection to develop application software for quick and efficient condition assessment of PSBB bridges. The research outcome will provide an efficient and cost-effective solution for bridge inspection and maintenance.

  10. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  11. Electricity savings ``soon come'' to Jamaica -- Assessing the potential for air conditioning and refrigeration end-use DSM

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, T.; Hamzawi, E.; Campbell, V.

    1998-07-01

    With the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Global Environment Facility of the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation, the national electric utility in Jamaica (Jamaica Public Service Company) has begun an assessment of the technical, economic, and financial opportunities for achieving demand-side management (DSM) energy savings in the air conditioning and refrigeration end uses. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of specific measures is being assessed for both the residential and commercials segments. While structures as a traditional load-research-based market assessment, the project uses ethnographic data collection and analysis techniques and involves collaboration with local contractors. The skills of local experts are being taped to identify and interview the key market players, and to develop an understanding of the barriers to and opportunities for energy efficiency present in the evolving equipment markets. The paper outlines methods and presents preliminary case study results for the air conditioning market. The authors identify major groups of market players and dominant types of equipment, and provide an overview of market dynamics. The volume of sales passing through both formal and informal distribution channels is estimated and market barriers are identified. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations will be made for future program and policy initiatives designed to mitigate selected barriers in each of the supply chains.

  12. Scope for animal welfare education in open and distance learning: findings from a needs assessment study in India.

    PubMed

    Sasidhar, P V K; Jayasimha, N G

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the demand for animal welfare education by open and distance learning (ODL) and to identify content to be covered in an ODL animal welfare programme. Through email, personal interviews and online surveys, data were collected from 161 respondents. The key survey questions were on: the need and reasons for providing animal welfare education through ODL; entry-level qualifications; job/career prospects; duration of the programme, and suggestions on course content. The majority of respondents felt that there was a need for a one-year ODL academic programme on animal welfare. In the light of the findings of this study and related discussions, the authors recommend that online and ODL programmes in animal welfare be developed to meet the continuing educational needs of veterinary students, working veterinarians, para-veterinarians and other stakeholders closely related to animal welfare. PMID:27044145

  13. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths’ developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:22957108

  14. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Disposition Activities at the Paducah Site Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-11-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1339), which is incorporated herein by reference, for proposed disposition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site (Paducah Site) in Paducah, Kentucky. All of the wastes would be transported for disposal at various locations in the United States. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment with in the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Planning for sustainable tourism in southern Pulau Banggi: an assessment of biophysical conditions and their implications for future tourism development.

    PubMed

    Teh, Lydia; Cabanban, Annadel S

    2007-12-01

    A priori assessments of a site's biophysical and socio-economic capacity for accommodating tourism are less common than tourism impact studies. A priori evaluations can provide a contextual understanding of ecological, economic and socio-cultural forces, which shape the prospects for sustainable tourism development at the host destination, and can avert adverse impacts of tourism. We conduct an a priori assessment of the biophysical environment of Pulau Banggi, in the Malaysian state of Sabah for sustainable tourism development. We characterise baseline conditions of the island's marine biodiversity, seasonality, and infrastructure. We then evaluate how existing biophysical conditions will influence options for sustainable tourism development. In particular, we suggest conditions, if there are any, which constitute a limit to future tourism development in terms of compatibility for recreation and resilience to visitor impacts. We find that the biggest constraint is the lack of adequate water and sanitation infrastructure. Blast fishing, although occurring less than once per hour, can potentially destroy the major attraction for tourists. We conclude that while Pulau Banggi possesses natural qualities that are attractive for ecotourism, financial and institutional support must be made available to provide facilities and services that will enable local participation in environmental protection and enhance prospects for future sustainable tourism. PMID:17204361

  16. Assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species using population models: Findings and recommendations from a CropLife America Science Forum.

    PubMed

    Forbes, V E; Brain, R; Edwards, D; Galic, N; Hall, T; Honegger, J; Meyer, C; Moore, D R J; Nacci, D; Pastorok, R; Preuss, T G; Railsback, S F; Salice, C; Sibly, R M; Tenhumberg, B; Thorbek, P; Wang, M

    2015-07-01

    This brief communication reports on the main findings and recommendations from the 2014 Science Forum organized by CropLife America. The aim of the Forum was to gain a better understanding of the current status of population models and how they could be used in ecological risk assessments for threatened and endangered species potentially exposed to pesticides in the United States. The Forum panelists' recommendations are intended to assist the relevant government agencies with implementation of population modeling in future endangered species risk assessments for pesticides. The Forum included keynote presentations that provided an overview of current practices, highlighted the findings of a recent National Academy of Sciences report and its implications, reviewed the main categories of existing population models and the types of risk expressions that can be produced as model outputs, and provided examples of how population models are currently being used in different legislative contexts. The panel concluded that models developed for listed species assessments should provide quantitative risk estimates, incorporate realistic variability in environmental and demographic factors, integrate complex patterns of exposure and effects, and use baseline conditions that include present factors that have caused the species to be listed (e.g., habitat loss, invasive species) or have resulted in positive management action. Furthermore, the panel advocates for the formation of a multipartite advisory committee to provide best available knowledge and guidance related to model implementation and use, to address such needs as more systematic collection, digitization, and dissemination of data for listed species; consideration of the newest developments in good modeling practice; comprehensive review of existing population models and their applicability for listed species assessments; and development of case studies using a few well-tested models for particular species to

  17. Development of method for assessing traffic noise in certain typical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weixiong

    2005-09-01

    Assessing traffic noise is difficult in certain typical conditions in New York City due to changed street geometries, challenges of collection of non-traffic noise components, and levels of existing noise affected by heavy traffic at adjacent streets, among other variables. In general, a proportional model, i.e., a logarithmic equation to compute total passenger car equivalents (PCEs), is employed to assess traffic noise impacts based upon the noise methodology and the noise criteria under the City Environmental Quality Review (CEQR) guidelines. However, in some typical conditions, such as significant changes in roadway or street geometry, roadways that currently carry no or very low traffic volumes, and existing noise levels that are the result of multiple sources, the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (TNM) can be used to better compute project-generated traffic components. This paper presents a development of noise analysis method dealing with these conditions. Once a proportional model identifies any potential noise impacts for screening purposes, TNM computations can be conducted for more thorough and detailed noise analyses. The results demonstrate that while a proportional model provides a practical and convenient noise analysis for most situations, TNM can provide more accurate noise assessments for the conditions listed above.

  18. Condition assessment and trending of condenser tube degradation for condenser life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friant, C. Lee; Schlegel, Jennifer L.

    1995-05-01

    Eddy current testing (ET) is routinely used to assess tubing condition in heat exchangers at power plants. Generally, ET results provided by typical final report formats are not well- suited for facilitating condition assessments, especially when the component has a significant number of tubes. The main condenser at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) Unit #1 contains nearly 50,000 tubes. An accurate condition assessment based on 2,500 pages of final reports generated from a 100% condenser inspection in 1992 proved difficult, if not impossible, without some type of automated data management system. With the aid of a data management system, engineering recommendations, founded on database queries and graphics, can be made quickly and reliably. These displays effectively communicate information about overall condition, are helpful in making operating decisions, and aid in predicting future performance. Standard procedures for critical heat exchanger inspections require trending of indication growth over time to determine a rate of tube degradation. Specifically, for the 1994 ET inspection of CCNPP Unit #1 condenser, the size of indications were compared against their 1992 value to determine a mean growth rate. The results of these efforts are presented along with a discussion of how Baltimore Gas and Electric has used eddy current data to prolong the operating life of this condenser while ensuring leak tightness.

  19. Are human service agencies ready for disasters? Findings from a mixed-methods needs assessment and planning project.

    PubMed

    Hipper, Thomas J; Orr, Ashley; Chernak, Esther

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-methods design was used to assess the current capacity of human service agencies to provide services in a major disaster, identify challenges and successful strategies for providing those services, and formulate specific recommendations for government planners and the nonprofit sector to promote the integration of human service agencies into emergency preparedness and response. A web-based survey was completed by 188 unique human service agencies, 31 semistructured interviews were conducted with human service agency and government leaders from southeastern Pennsylvania and the mid-Atlantic region, and a collaborative planning meeting was held to review the findings and develop systems-based recommendations. Survey results indicated that human service agencies serve the most vulnerable communities during disasters and would welcome integration into preparedness and response plans, but they currently face challenges that include a lack of real-time communication and opportunities for collaborative planning with government partners. Interview findings were grouped according to 5 themes that emerged: capacity, coordination, communication, training, and leadership. This study identified recommendations to assist human service agencies, local health departments, and emergency management agencies as they work to ensure that needed human services are available during disasters, despite the resource challenges that most agencies face. PMID:25813974

  20. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota

    PubMed Central

    Kail, Jochem; Guse, Björn; Radinger, Johannes; Schröder, Maria; Kiesel, Jens; Kleinhans, Maarten; Schuurman, Filip; Fohrer, Nicola; Hering, Daniel; Wolter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability / ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes) on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact research as well

  1. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  2. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  3. Verification Assessment of Flow Boundary Conditions for CFD Analysis of Supersonic Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Boundary conditions for subsonic inflow, bleed, and subsonic outflow as implemented into the WIND CFD code are assessed with respect to verification for steady and unsteady flows associated with supersonic inlets. Verification procedures include grid convergence studies and comparisons to analytical data. The objective is to examine errors, limitations, capabilities, and behavior of the boundary conditions. Computational studies were performed on configurations derived from a "parameterized" supersonic inlet. These include steady supersonic flows with normal and oblique shocks, steady subsonic flow in a diffuser, and unsteady flow with the propagation and reflection of an acoustic disturbance.

  4. Assessment of the Relationship between Physical Working Conditions and Different Levels of Work Ability

    PubMed Central

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p<0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  5. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-07-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  6. Overview and highlights of Early Warning and Crop Condition Assessment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boatwright, G. O.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1985-01-01

    Work of the Early Warning and Crop Condition Assessment (EW/CCA) project, one of eight projects in the Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS), is reviewed. Its mission, to develop and test remote sensing techniques that enhance operational methodologies for crop condition assessment, was in response to initiatives issued by the Secretary of Agriculture. Meteorologically driven crop stress indicator models have been developed or modified for wheat, maize, grain sorghum, and soybeans. These models provide early warning alerts of potential or actual crop stresses due to water deficits, adverse temperatures, and water excess that could delay planting or harvesting operations. Recommendations are given for future research involving vegetative index numbers and the NOAA and Landsat satellites.

  7. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  8. The Attribute Accuracy Assessment of Land Cover Data in the National Geographic Conditions Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, X.; Niu, X.

    2014-04-01

    With the widespread national survey of geographic conditions, object-based data has already became the most common data organization pattern in the area of land cover research. Assessing the accuracy of object-based land cover data is related to lots of processes of data production, such like the efficiency of inside production and the quality of final land cover data. Therefore,there are a great deal of requirements of accuracy assessment of object-based classification map. Traditional approaches for accuracy assessment in surveying and mapping are not aimed at land cover data. It is necessary to employ the accuracy assessment in imagery classification. However traditional pixel-based accuracy assessing methods are inadequate for the requirements. The measures we improved are based on error matrix and using objects as sample units, because the pixel sample units are not suitable for assessing the accuracy of object-based classification result. Compared to pixel samples, we realize that the uniformity of object samples has changed. In order to make the indexes generating from error matrix reliable, we using the areas of object samples as the weight to establish the error matrix of object-based image classification map. We compare the result of two error matrixes setting up by the number of object samples and the sum of area of object samples. The error matrix using the sum of area of object sample is proved to be an intuitive, useful technique for reflecting the actual accuracy of object-based imagery classification result.

  9. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools. PMID:23201980

  10. Operation Reliability Assessment for Cutting Tools by Applying a Proportional Covariate Model to Condition Monitoring Information

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools. PMID:23201980

  11. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper aims to present the first outcomes of data collected using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys in 20 EU donkey facilities. Three assessors evaluated 278 donkeys. The authors found recurrent issues: tendency to obesity, lack of hoof care and irregular positive interactions with humans. The protocol proved to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. Abstract This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. PMID:26761034

  12. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaonan; Wang, Chen; Chen, Shengdi; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers’ subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers’ perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors) using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions. PMID:26894434

  13. Major methodological constraints to the assessment of environmental status based on the condition of benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, João Paulo; Pinto, Vanessa; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Azeda, Carla; Pereira, Tadeu; Quintella, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Lino Costa, José; José Costa, Maria; Chainho, Paula

    2014-05-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was published in 2008 and requires Member States to take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in aquatic ecosystems by the year of 2020. The MSFD indicates 11 qualitative descriptors for environmental status assessment, including seafloor integrity, using the condition of the benthic community as an assessment indicator. Member States will have to define monitoring programs for each of the MSFD descriptors based on those indicators in order to understand which areas are in a Good Environmental Status and what measures need to be implemented to improve the status of areas that fail to achieve that major objective. Coastal and offshore marine waters are not frequently monitored in Portugal and assessment tools have only been developed very recently with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The lack of historical data and knowledge on the constraints of benthic indicators in coastal areas requires the development of specific studies addressing this issue. The major objective of the current study was to develop and test and experimental design to assess impacts of offshore projects. The experimental design consisted on the seasonal and interannual assessment of benthic invertebrate communities in the area of future implementation of the structures (impact) and two potential control areas 2 km from the impact area. Seasonal benthic samples were collected at nine random locations within the impact and control areas in two consecutive years. Metrics included in the Portuguese benthic assessment tool (P-BAT) were calculated since this multimetric tool was proposed for the assessment of the ecological status in Portuguese coastal areas under the WFD. Results indicated a high taxonomic richness in this coastal area and no significant differences were found between impact and control areas, indicating the feasibility of establishing adequate control areas in marine

  14. Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Picard, Sandra

    2010-09-15

    Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO{sub 2}-enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

  15. Musculoskeletal Conditions of the Foot and Ankle: Assessments and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Smita; Riskowski, Jody; Hannan, Marian T.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle are an important public health challenge due to their increasing incidence combined with their substantial negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Non-pharmacological treatments serve as the first line of treatment and are frequently used for patients with musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle. This review provides a summary of the assessments and non-invasive treatment options based upon available evidence. Recent studies show that individuals with foot and ankle pain have multiple co-existing impairments in alignment, motion, load distribution and muscle performance that may be evident in static and/or dynamic tasks. Additionally, both clinical and epidemiological studies support the inter-dependence between the foot and proximal joints. For instance, aberrant foot structure has been linked to foot osteoarthritis (OA), as well as OA and pain at the knee and hip. Most recently, advances in motion capture technology and plantar load distribution measurement offer opportunities for precise dynamic assessments of the foot and ankle. In individuals with musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle, the chief objectives of treatment are to afford pain relief, restore mechanics (alignment, motion and/or load distribution) and return the patient to their desired level of activity participation. Given that most patients present with multiple impairments, combinational therapies that target foot-specific as well as global impairments have shown promising results. In particular, in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, comprehensive rehabilitation strategies including early detection, foot-based interventions (such as orthoses) and wellness-based approaches for physical activity and self-management have been successful. While significant improvements have been made in the last decade to the assessment and treatment of foot and ankle conditions, few randomized clinical

  16. Assessment of residual heat removal and containment spray pump performance under air and debris ingesting conditions. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, P.S.; Tantillo, T.J.; Swift, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of the performance of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) and Containment Spray (CS) pumps during the recirculation phase of reactor core and containment cooldown following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The pumped fluid is expected to contain debris such as insulation and may ingest air depending on sump conditions. Findings are based on information collected from the literature and from interviews with pump and seal manufacturers. These findings show that for pumps at normal flow rates operating with sufficient Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH), pump performance degradation is negligible if air ingestion quantities are less than 2% by volume. For air ingestion between 3% and 15% by volume, head degradation depends on individual pump design and operating conditions and for air quantities greater than 15% performance of most pumps will be fully degraded. Also, small quantities of air will increase NPSH requirements for these pumps. For the types and quantities of debris likely to be present in the recirculating fluid, pump performance degradation is expected to be negligible.

  17. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  18. National-Scale Air Quality Data Assessment: Initial Findings from the Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2. NO2 is a reactive gas that is emitted from motor vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and off-road equipment, as well as non-mobile sources, and is known to adversely affect human respiratory health. In conjunction with the NAAQS revision, EPA has mandated air quality monitoring next to selected major roadways throughout the United States that are in large urban areas where peak hourly NO2 concentrations are expected. Monitoring began in phases during 2012-2015 and included nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) at 40 monitoring sites nationwide. We conducted a national-scale review of near-road air pollutant concentrations, identified areas where high concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and CO occurred, and evaluated how concentrations varied by factors such as location, distance to roadway, fleet mix characteristics, and traffic volume. We present the findings from our national near-road data assessment for the 2014 monitoring year.

  19. Identifying trustworthy experts: how do policymakers find and assess public health researchers worth consulting or collaborating with?

    PubMed

    Haynes, Abby S; Derrick, Gemma E; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D; Gillespie, James A; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, "authenticity", and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  20. The use of haemoglobin concentrations to assess physiological condition in birds: a review

    PubMed Central

    Minias, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Total blood haemoglobin concentration is increasingly being used to assess physiological condition in wild birds, although it has not been explicitly recognized how reliably this parameter reflects different components of individual quality. Thus, I reviewed over 120 published studies linking variation in haemoglobin concentrations to different measures of condition and other phenotypic or ecological traits. In most of the studied avian species, haemoglobin concentrations were positively correlated with other commonly used indices of condition, such as body mass and fat loads, as well as with quality of the diet. Also, chick haemoglobin concentrations reliably reflected the intensity of nest infestation by parasitic arthropods, and haemoglobin was suggested to reflect parasitism by haematophagous ectoparasites much more precisely than haematocrit. There was also some evidence for the negative effect of helminths on haemoglobin levels in adult birds. Finally, haemoglobin concentrations were found to correlate with such fitness-related traits as timing of arrival at breeding grounds, timing of breeding, egg size, developmental stability and habitat quality, although these relationships were not always consistent between species. In consequence, I recommend the total blood haemoglobin concentration as a relatively robust indicator of physiological condition in birds, although this parameter is also strongly affected by age, season and the process of moult. Thus, researchers are advised to control fully for these confounding effects while using haemoglobin concentrations as a proxy of physiological condition in both experimental and field studies on birds. PMID:27293692

  1. [Medical and biological assessment of preventive drinks use among workers exposed to adverse working conditions].

    PubMed

    Nikanov, A N; Markova, O L; Frolova, N M; Kulikova, K S

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of the effect of treatment-and-preventive drinks, i.e. "Leovit" dietary kissels, and "Zosterin-Ultra" biologically active food additive, on copper, nickel and cobalt ion concentrations in urine and on lead blood concentrations in workers employed at the "Kola Mining Company" limited liability joint-stock company and exposed to long-term metal aerosol effects, were carried out. Dependence of ion concentrations of these metals in biological media on exposure duration was reported. The study findings reveal the advisability of use of the above-mentioned food additives, having detoxication properties, while carrying out preventive measures among workers exposed to heavy metals. PMID:24340762

  2. Application of a three-tier framework to assess ecological condition of Gulf of Mexico coastal wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi‐level coastal wetland assessment strategy was applied to wetlands in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) to evaluate the feasibility of this approach for a broad national scale wetland condition assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Wetlands Condition ...

  3. Assessing the use of remotely sensed measurements for characterizing rangeland condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folker, Geoffrey P.

    There are over 233 million hectares (ha) of nonfederal grazing lands in the United States. Conventional field observation and sampling techniques are insufficient methods to monitor such large areas frequently enough to confidently quantify the biophysical state and assess rangeland condition over large geographic areas. In an attempt to enhance rangeland resource managers' abilities to monitor and assess these factors, remote sensing scientists and land resource managers have worked together to determine whether remotely sensed measurements can improve the ability to measure rangeland response to land management practices. The relationship between spectral reflectance patterns and plant species composition was investigated on six south-central Kansas ranches. Airborne multispectral color infrared images for 2002 through 2004 were collected at multiple times in the growing season over the study area. Concurrent with the image acquisition periods, ground cover estimates of plant species composition and biomass by growth form were collected. Correlation analysis was used to examine relationships among spectral and biophysical field measurements. Results indicate that heavily grazed sites exhibited the highest spectral vegetation index values. This was attributed to increases in low forage quality broadleaf forbs such as annual ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Although higher vegetation index values have a positive correlation with overall above ground primary productivity, species composition may be the best indicator of healthy rangeland condition. A Weediness Index, which was found to be correlated with range condition, was also strongly linked to spectral reflectance patterns recorded in the airborne imagery.

  4. Condition assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory radioactive liquid waste collection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Edgemon, G. L.; Moss, W. D.; Worland, V. P.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive liquid waste collection system (RLWCS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANE) is a site-wide double-encased piping system installed in 1982 that allows radioactive liquid waste (RLW) producing facilities to gravity drain their waste to the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) through a system of underground high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes and vaults. The RLWCS stretches approximately four miles and typically receives approximately 10,000 gallons of RLW per day for treatment at the RLWTF. Uncertainty of the current condition of the RLWCS was recently identified as a potential risk to the future continued availability of the RLW treatment function. A condition assessment was performed in April 2004 to evaluate the risks and estimate the remaining useful life of the existing RLWCS. Several representative and 'worst-case' RLWCS primary piping sections and their associated inspection vaults were selected for direct visual assessment, remote borescopic examination, and in-situ durometer testing. This field investigation combined with an RLWCS materials compatibility review showed that the primary piping of the RLWCS is in relatively good condition, with only a few noteworthy areas of degradation.

  5. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  6. In-Season Assessment of Rabi Crop Progression and Condition from Multi Source Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, B.; Ramana, K. V.; Chandrsekar, K.; Biswal, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Rao, S. V. C. K.

    2014-11-01

    Timely and accurate information on periodic crop progress and condition is essential to an agricultural country like India. The current study has been carried out with the objective of monitoring the timelines of the sowing of rabi crops viz. wheat and mustard, their progression and condition assessment using data from multiple sources viz. a set of indices derived from remote sensing, meteorological parameters and crop simulation modeling. The study area consists of six districts with significant wheat and mustard crops namely Patiala, Bhiwani, Agra, Bharatpur, Morena and Rohtas, and has been done for three years (2008-09, 2012-13 and 2013-14). The methodology consists of analysis of multi-temporal AWiFS and MODIS datasets of historical and current seasons for the period October to March covering rabi season. Crop simulation for wheat was carried out using DSSAT-CERES crop growth model for assessing crop growth. The results were discussed in terms of crop progression, start-of-the-season and crop condition. As a future scope of this study, thermal indices can be incorporated for further refinement and the same can be extended to larger areas.

  7. Collaborative mobile sensing and computing for civil infrastructure condition assessment: framework and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianfei; Chen, ZhiQiang

    2012-04-01

    Multi-function sensing and imaging devices, GPS, communication and computing devices are being ubiquitously used in field by engineers in civil engineering and emergence response practice. Field engineers, however, still have difficulty to balance between ever-increasing data collection demand and capacity of real-time data processing and knowledge sharing. In addition, field engineers usually work collaboratively in a geospatially large area; however, the existing sensing and computing modalities used in the field are not designed to accommodate this condition. In this paper, we present a solution framework of collaborative mobile sensing and computing (CMSC) for civil infrastructure condition assessment, with the Android-based mobile devices as the basic nodes in the framework with a potential of adding other auxiliary imaging and sensing devices into the network. Difficulties in mixed C++ and Java code programming that are critical to realize the framework are discussed. With a few prototypes illustrated in this paper, we envisage that the proposed CMSC framework will enable seamless integration of sensing, imaging, real-time processing and knowledge discovery in future engineers-centered field reconnaissances and civil infrastructure condition assessment.

  8. Condition assessment of a highly porous limestone fortress: damage categories and structural integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos; Czinder, Balázs; Farkas, Orsolya; Görög, Péter; Kopecskó, Katalin; Lógó, János; Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta; Vásárhelyi, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    An emblematic monument the Citadella fortress of Budapest has been studied in details to assess the condition of stone structure. The fortress is a large stone structure of 220 m in length and 60 m in width. The height of the porous limestone walls are in between 12-16 metres. The fortress was completed in 1854 but has been partly rebuilt due to changes in function and war related structural damages. The present paper provides an overview of the lithology, weathering forms and structural condition of the fortress related to a forthcoming restoration-reconstruction project. To assess the condition of stone both on site and laboratory analyses were performed. Lithological varieties were documented. Major identified lithotypes are porous oolitic limestone, less porous bioclastic limestone and fine grained highly porous limestone. To identify wet zones portable moisture meter was applied. Surface strength and weathering grade were also assessed using Schmidt hammer and Duroscop. Decay features were diagnosed and mapped. The most common forms are white weathering crusts, scaling and blistering of crusts as well as granular disintegration. Black weathering crusts were also recognized. Laboratory tests were focused on mechanical properties of stones and on mineralogical and chemical compositional analyses. Small samples of stone were collected and tested by optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. Laboratory analyses proved that the major salt responsible for the damage of external walls is gypsum, although significant amount of halite and hygroscopic salts were found both on the external walls and in the interior parts of the fortress. During structural analyses displacement of walls, tilting and major amount of cracks were recognized. Loss of material and subsidence also caused problems and at some places unstable wall sections were recognized.

  9. A capillary electrophoretic-mass spectrometric method for the assessment of octreotide stability under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamizi, Elnaz; Yang, Yuanzhong; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Kelso, Geoffrey F; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-01-15

    A capillary zone electrophoretic-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometric method has been developed to assess the stability and pathways of degradation of the cancer therapeutic octapeptide, octreotide. As a somatostatin analogue, octreotide contains a single disulphide bond linking Cys(2)-Cys(7) with the structure of NH2-D-Phe-[Formula: see text]-Thr-OH. Resolution of octreotide from its degradation products was achieved using a capillary zone electrophoretic method with bare fused silica capillaries, a 10mM ammonium formate buffer, pH 3.20, at 25 °C and an applied voltage of 25 kV. An ion trap low energy collision induced dissociation procedure was applied for the characterization of the chemical structures of the degradation products derived from an acidic, alkaline, neutral and thermal solution treatment of octreotide. The results so obtained indicated that linear octreotide degradation products were formed under acidic and alkaline conditions, due to the hydrolysis of a ring amide bond and a hitherto unknown desulfurization of the Cys-Cys disulfide bond, respectively. Degradation under neutral conditions occurred via cleavage of the exocyclic N-((2R,3R)-1,3-dihydroxybutan-2-yl) amide bond which also preceded the ring amide hydrolysis under acidic conditions. The developed method was further successfully applied to assess the kinetics of these octreotide degradations. Overall, this method is suitable for the rapid and precise assessment of the stability and quality control of octreotide as a synthetic peptide-based pharmaceutical product, and has led to the discovery of a new Cys-Cys disulfide degradation pathway. PMID:26739913

  10. Assessment of the environmental conditions of the Sarno river basin (south Italy): a stream sediment approach.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Stefano; Iavazzo, Pietro; Adamo, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2013-06-01

    The Sarno river basin covers an area of 500 km(2) collecting the waters of Solofrana and Cavaiola tributaries. Originally it manly represents a source of livelihood for inhabitants by fishing and transporting goods; currently, the Sarno river, still partially used for irrigation, is affected by an extreme environmental degradation as a result of uncontrolled outflow of industrial waste. Within the framework of a wider geochemical prospecting project aiming at characterizing the whole territory of the Campania region, 89 stream sediment samples with a sampling density of 1 sample per 5 km(2) were collected in the river basin and analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in order to assess the environmental conditions at a regional scale. A GIS-aided technique, based on both the actual distribution of potentially harmful elements and their regional background values, was used to generate the maps of the contamination factors and of the contamination degrees for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, a factor analysis was performed to assess the nature and the extent of contamination sources for the river sediments. Results showed that the Sarno river basin could be divided in two "environmental status" units: one, low contaminated, corresponding to the hilly and mountain areas, and the second, from moderately to very highly contaminated, corresponding to the economically developed areas of the valley floor characterized by a high population density. This work was developed within a project that aims to investigate the relationships between environmental pollution and human health by analyzing environmental media (stream sediments, water, soil and vegetation) together with human hair of resident population. In this context, the spatial correlation between the extremely compromised environmental conditions of developed areas and the incidence rate of liver cancer in the same area was also explored posing the need of a careful costs

  11. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  12. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions – Changes in Accuracy over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their

  13. Design of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; occurrence and distribution of water-quality conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Alley, William M.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1995-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program assesses the status of and trends in the quality of the Nation's ground- and surface-water resources. The occurrence and distribution assessment component characterizes broad-scale water-quality conditions in relation to major contaminant sources and background conditions in each study area. The surface-water design focuses on streams. The ground-water design focuses on major aquifers, with emphasis on recently recharged ground water associated with human activities.

  14. The Validity and Utility of the California Family Risk Assessment under Practice Conditions in the Field: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Will L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of the validity and implementation of a child maltreatment actuarial risk assessment model, the California Family Risk Assessment (CFRA). Questions addressed: (1) Is there evidence of the validity of the CFRA under field operating conditions? (2) Do actuarial risk assessment results influence child welfare workers' service…

  15. Moraine Molded Plastics, Inc.: Industrial Energy Assessment Finds Opportunities to Save $24,000 in Annual Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices case study based on a comprehensive plant assessment conducted at the Moraine Molded Plastics by ITP's Industrial Assessment Center in conjunction with The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

  16. Spartech Plastics: North American Thermoplastic Extruder Implements Industrial Assessment Findings and Saves More Than $100,000 Per Year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices case study based on a comprehensive plant assessment conducted at Spartech Plastics by ITP's Industrial Assessment Center in conjunction with The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

  17. 75 FR 5757 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and...: Alaska State Office, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has prepared an Environmental Assessment...

  18. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders. PMID:23809894

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-15

    The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant

  20. Assessment of the Structural Conditions of the San Clemente a Vomano Abbey

    SciTech Connect

    Benedettini, Francesco; Alaggio, Rocco; Fusco, Felice

    2008-07-08

    The simultaneous use of a Finite Element (FE) accurate modeling, dynamical tests, model updating and nonlinear analysis are used to describe the integrated approach used by the authors to assess the structural conditions and the seismic vulnerability of an historical masonry structure: the Abbey Church of San Clemente al Vomano, situated in the Notaresco territory (TE, Italy) commissioned by Ermengarda, daughter of the Emperor Ludovico II, and built at the end of IX century together with a monastery to host a monastic community. Dynamical tests 'in operational conditions' and modal identification have been used to perform the FE model validation. Both a simple and direct method as the kinematic analysis applied on meaningful sub-structures and a nonlinear 3D dynamic analysis conducted by using the FE model have been used to forecast the seismic performance of the Church.

  1. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Josephine A; Galloway, Tamara S; Langston, William J; Jones, Malcolm B

    2009-07-01

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. PMID:19359075

  2. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W.

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  3. Assessment of controlling processes for field-scale uranium reactive transport under highly transient flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive model-based analysis of a uranyl [U(VI)] tracer test conducted at the U.S. DOE Hanford 300 Area (300A) IFRC. Despite the highly complex field conditions the numerical three-dimensional multicomponent reactive transport model was able to capture most of the spatiotemporal variations of the observed U(VI) concentrations. A multimodel analysis was performed to interrogate the relative importance of various processes and factors for controlling field-scale reactive transport during the uranyl tracer test. The results indicate that multirate sorption/desorption, surface complexation reactions, and initial concentration distributions were the most important processes and factors controlling U(VI) migration. On the other hand, cation exchange reactions, the choice of the surface complexation model, and dual-domain mass transfer processes played less important roles under the prevailing field-test conditions. Further analysis of the modeling results demonstrates that these findings are conditioned to the relatively stable groundwater chemistry and the selected length of the field experimental duration (16 days). The model analysis also revealed the crucial role of the intraborehole flow that occurred within the long-screened monitoring wells and thus affected both field measurements and simulated U(VI) concentrations as a combined effect of aquifer heterogeneity and dynamic flow conditions. This study provides the first highly data-constrained uranium transport simulations under highly dynamic flow conditions. It illustrates the value of reactive transport modeling for elucidating the relative importance of individual processes in controlling uranium transport under specific field-scale conditions.

  4. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Aldaach, Haidar; Billian, Hannah; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008. Principal Findings Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began. Discussion Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives. PMID:26417994

  5. The NAEP 1997 Arts Report Card: Eighth-Grade Findings from the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persky, Hilary R.; Sandene, Brent A.; Askew, Janice M.

    The last several years have seen a growing resolve among educators and policymakers to assure the place of a solid arts education in U.S. schools. In 1997, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) conducted a national assessment in the arts at grade 8. The assessment included the areas of music, theater, and visual arts. For each of…

  6. Development of a wireless bridge monitoring system for condition assessment using hybrid techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Fuchs, Michael P.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.

    2007-04-01

    The introduction and development of wireless sensor network technology has resulted in rapid growth within the field of structural health monitoring (SHM), as the dramatic cable costs associated with instrumentation of large civil structures is potentially alleviated. Traditionally, condition assessment of bridge structures is accomplished through the use of either vibration measurements or strain sensing. One approach is through quantifying dynamic characteristics and mode shapes developed through the use of relatively dense arrays of accelerometers. Another widely utilized method of condition assessment is bridge load rating, which is enabled through the use of strain sensors. The Wireless Sensor Solution (WSS) developed specifically for diagnostic bridge monitoring provides a hybrid system that interfaces with both accelerometers and strain sensors to facilitate vibration-based bridge evaluation as well as load rating and static analysis on a universal platform. This paper presents the development and testing of a wireless bridge monitoring system designed within the Laboratory for Intelligent Infrastructure and Transportation Technologies (LIITT) at Clarkson University. The system interfaces with low-cost MEMS accelerometers using custom signal conditioning for amplification and filtering tailored to the spectrum of typical bridge vibrations, specifically from ambient excitation. Additionally, a signal conditioning and high resolution ADC interface is provided for strain gauge sensors. To permit compensation for the influence of temperature, thermistor-based temperature sensing is also enabled. In addition to the hardware description, this paper presents features of the software applications and host interface developed for flexible, user-friendly in-network control of and acquisition from the sensor nodes. The architecture of the software radio protocol is also discussed along with results of field deployments including relatively large-scale networks and

  7. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  8. Multisensor System for Isotemporal Measurements to Assess Indoor Climatic Conditions in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Guijarro, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Balasch, Sebastián; Hospitaler, Antonio; Torres, Antonio G.

    2012-01-01

    The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers) is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R2 = 0.99) with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated succesfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and temperature, as well as differential

  9. A Biological Condition Gradient Model for Historical Assessment of Estuarine Habitat Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Pelletier, Marguerite C.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Davies, Susan; Pesch, Carol E.; Deacutis, Christopher F.; Pryor, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are affected by ever-increasing natural and human pressures. Because the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics unique to estuarine ecosystems control the ways that biological resources respond to ecosystem stressors, we present a flexible and adaptable biological assessment method for estuaries. The biological condition gradient (BCG) is a scientific framework of biological response to increasing anthropogenic stress that is comprehensive and ecosystem based and evaluates environmental conditions and the status of ecosystem services in order to identify, communicate, and prioritize management action. Using existing data, we constructed the first estuarine BCG framework that examines changes in habitat structure through time. Working in a New England (U.S.) estuary with a long history of human influence, we developed an approach to define a reference level, which we described as a "minimally disturbed" range of conditions for the ecosystem, anchored by observations before 1850 AD. Like many estuaries in the U.S., the relative importance of environmental stressors changed over time, but even qualitative descriptions of the biological indicators' status provided useful information for defining condition levels. This BCG demonstrated that stressors rarely acted alone and that declines in one biological indicator influenced the declines of others. By documenting the biological responses to cumulative stressors, the BCG inherently suggests an ecosystem-based approach to management. Additionally, the BCG process initiates thinking over long time scales and can be used to inspire scientists, managers, and the public toward environmental action.

  10. Assessing the Nonlinearity of Karst Response Function under Variable Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Léa; Fournier, Matthieu; Massei, Nicolas; Dupont, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The hydraulic and transfer response of karst aquifers is complex and often highly nonlinear: due to their high transmissivity and connection with the surface, such systems are very sensitive to modifications of their boundary conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the variation of the response depending on both upstream and downstream parameters, and propose a methodology to simulate the response of the karst system depending on those parameters. The impact of the variations of multiple environmental parameters on the response of a karstic system submitted to tidal variations (Normandy, France) was investigated after a campaign of artificial tracer tests acquired in very different hydrologic conditions (rainfall events, low tide, high tide, low/high piezometric level, and low/high waters). Principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering were applied on both environmental variables and karstic system response variables (parameters of the residence time distribution [RTD] curves). Equations between the RTD parameters and the most relevant variables were established using a symbolic regression algorithm. It appeared that the variations of the RTD parameters depend mainly on the cumulated rainfall preceding the injection, the piezometric level of the aquifer, and on the tide parameters. The hydraulic conditions downstream of the aquifer have a strong influence on the hydraulic and transfer response of the aquifer. The response of the aquifer in various and extreme conditions has been simulated using the equations resulting from the symbolic regression algorithm. Such relationships can be useful for management of water resources in karst media, and support decision making. PMID:25819146

  11. Key findings: a qualitative assessment of provider and patient perceptions of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages. PMID:19229772

  12. A New Tool for Assessing Context Conditioning Induced by US-Unpredictability in Humans: The Martians Task Restyled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulders, Ann; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Unpredictability of an unconditioned stimulus (US) typically produces context conditioning in animals and humans. We modified the Martians task--a computer game measuring learning of Pavlovian associations through conditioned suppression--for assessing context conditioning in humans. One between-subjects and one within-subjects study are reported.…

  13. The conditioned place preference test for assessing welfare consequences and potential refinements in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Roughan, John V; Coulter, Claire A; Flecknell, Paul A; Thomas, Huw D; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Most pre-clinical analgesic efficacy assays still involve nociceptive testing in rodents. This is despite concerns as to the relevance of these tests for evaluating the pain-preventative properties of drugs. More appropriate methods would target pain rather than nociception, but these are currently not available, so it remains unknown whether animal pain equates to the negatively affective and subjective/emotional state it causes in humans. Mouse cancer models are common despite the likelihood of substantial pain. We used Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) testing, assessments of thermal hyperalgesia and behaviour to determine the likelihood that MBT-2 bladder cancer impacts negatively on mouse welfare, such as by causing pain. There was no CPP to saline, but morphine preference in tumour bearing mice exceeded that seen in tumour-free controls. This occurred up to 10 days before the study end-point alongside reduced body weight, development of hyperalgesia and behaviour changes. These effects indicated mice experienced a negative welfare state caused by malaise (if not pain) before euthanasia. Due to the complexity of the assessments needed to demonstrate this, it is unlikely that this approach could be used for routine welfare assessment on a study-by-study basis. However, our results show mice in sufficiently similar studies are likely to benefit from more intensive severity assessment and re-evaluation of end-points with a view to implementing appropriate refinements. In this particular case, a refinement would have been to have euthanased mice at least 7 days earlier or possibly by provision of end-stage pain relief. CPP testing was found to be a helpful method to investigate the responses of mice to analgesics, possibly on a subjective level. These findings and those of other recent studies show it could be a valuable method of screening candidate analgesics for efficacy against cancer pain and possibly other pain or disease models. PMID:25100208

  14. Assessing health conditions and medication use among the homeless community in Long Beach, California

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Mok Thoong; Yamaki, Jason; Harwood, Megan; d'Assalenaux, Richard; Rosenberg, Ettie; Aruoma, Okezie; Bishayee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Persons experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population and are at increased risk for morbidity and all-cause mortality compared to the general population. This study sought to evaluate medication use, regular physician visits, and identify health conditions among the homeless population of Long Beach, California. Methods: Two “brown bag” medication review events were held at homeless shelters in the Long Beach area. Demographic information, medication use, and comorbid disease states were obtained through surveys. Findings: Three-fourths of the cohort (95 participants) consisted of males, and the average age of participants was 48 years. Psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular disease were the most common disease states reported at 32% and 46%, respectively and so were medications used in treating these chronic diseases. Medication adherence was found to be a significant problem in this population, where more than 30% of patients were nonadherent to medications for chronic diseases. Furthermore, foot problems, hearing and vision difficulties constitute the most commonly overlooked health problems within the homeless population. Conclusion: Based on this and other similar finding, we must accept that the homeless represent a vulnerable population, and that because of this fact, more programs should be focused at improving availability and access to health care among the homeless. Regarding the high number of reported health problems in the study, more studies are needed and more studies should incorporate screening for foot, hearing, and vision issues, both to increase awareness and to provide an opportunity for devising possible solutions to these highly preventable conditions. PMID:25114938

  15. Application of ultrasonic surface wave techniques for concrete bridge deck condition assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengxing; Anderson, Neil; Sneed, Lesley; Maerz, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonic surface wave (USW) is a well-established technique for the performance monitoring of concrete structures. In order to investigate the capability and reliability of this technique for concrete bridge deck condition assessment, a portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA) with USW capabilities was used to assess the condition of a reinforced concrete bridge deck exhibiting visible evidence of significant deterioration. After the investigation was completed, variable thicknesses of concrete were removed from upper surface of the concrete deck by milling and hydrodemolition, with greater thickness being removed where the concrete was more deteriorated. The thickness of removed concrete during the hydrodemolition process was mapped by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A comparison of the thickness of concrete removed and the USW data indicates that there is a qualitative correlation between the USW results at each test location and the thickness of concrete removed at those same test locations. Results suggest that the PSPA, and comparable USW techniques, could be potentially effective for estimating the thicknesses of concrete that would be removed during milling and hydrodemolition, although more work is needed to study the relationship between USW and removal thickness data in order to be used for quantity estimations.

  16. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Schrock, Robin M.

    1994-05-01

    Regression techniques were used to determine the effects of several biotic and abiotic variables on the migration rates of juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Comparisons of the effects of river flow and smoltification, assessed using gill Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity, were of primary interest. Day of the year, water temperature, change in flow, condition factor, and fork length were also considered as independent variables. Groups of fish were sampled to assess smoltification 2-3 times per week during the spring outmigrations during 1989-1992. These groups were assumed to be representative of other fish which were PIT-tagged and released as a part of the Smolt Monitoring Program in the Columbia Basin. River flow, gill ATPase activity, condition factor, water temperature, and change in flow were significant variables in regressions predicting the time for juvenile spring chinook salmon to travel between specific points (travel time), whereas river flow was the only significant contributor to models describing travel times of steelhead. Predicted travel times of wild steelhead were shorter than those of hatchery steelhead. River flow was the only variable common to all regression equations. Based on the characteristic, changes in river flow would be the most logical means to decrease travel times of both juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

  17. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Methods Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Results Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Conclusion Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development. PMID:26843827

  18. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2-45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. PMID:26761034

  19. Energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and body composition in subjects with chronic alcoholism: new findings from metabolic assessment.

    PubMed

    Addolorato, G; Capristo, E; Greco, A V; Stefanini, G F; Gasbarrini, G

    1997-09-01

    There is some controversy as to the effect of ethanol on body weight and alcohol energy contribution to body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alcohol addiction on resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition. Twelve patients with current alcoholism (A) without severe liver disease or lipid and carbohydrate malabsorption were compared with a group of healthy social drinkers (B) matched for sex, age, and height. Their caloric intake was computed on the basis of a food diary. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed by both anthropometry and bioimpedance. A significant decrease in fat mass in A compared with B was found (14.8 +/- 5.39 vs. 19.0 +/- 3.50 kg; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in fat-free mass (FFM) or in total body water between the two groups. A showed higher REE values normalized by FFM than B (35.5 +/- 2.97 vs. 33.0 +/- 2.95 kcal/kgFFM; p < 0.05). The nonprotein respiratory quotient was significantly lower in A than in B (0.76 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.03; p < 0.001), and A showed significantly higher lipid oxidation and lower carbohydrate oxidation than B (p < 0.05). The daily caloric intake provided only by food ingestion was found to be significantly higher in controls, but because the percentage of alcohol calories of total energy intake was 46.3 +/- 6.80 in alcoholics and 13.6 +/- 3.59 in controls (p < 0.0001), the total caloric intake, computed as food intake plus alcohol intake, was higher in alcoholics than in control subjects. No statistical differences were found in urinary nitrogen excretion and fecal loss between groups. Patients with alcoholism showed an increased REE over predicted values and a preferential lipid oxidation with respect to controls; these findings could be related to induction of microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and to mitochondrial function adaptation secondary to chronic alcohol abuse. In either case, the effects of such changes in

  20. Using radar direct wave for concrete condition assessment: Correlation with electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbartaï, Z. M.; Laurens, S.; Rhazi, J.; Balayssac, J. P.; Arliguie, G.

    2007-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that the direct wave of a radar ground-coupled antenna may be used for the nondestructive assessment of the physical condition of concrete, which directly influences the corrosion of the reinforcing bars in the structure. The validity of this method was evaluated by a comparison with the electrical resistivity method, which is frequently used for the evaluation of corrosion probability. Both methods were implemented in the laboratory on 72 concrete samples (25 × 25 × 8 cm 3) with various degrees of saturation and chloride contamination levels. On-site investigations were also carried out on the concrete slab (1080 m 2) of a car-park. The results of the laboratory tests show that the radar direct signal is strongly affected by variations in concrete moisture and chloride contamination level. The tests performed in real conditions confirm the good correlation between radar direct wave attenuation and electrical resistivity and, thus, the aptitude of the radar direct wave to detect concrete conditions leading to reinforcement corrosion.

  1. Assessment Regarding Impact of Atmospheric Conditions on Space Shuttle Launch Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson D. L.; Pearson, S. D.; Vaughan, W. W.; Batts, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The atmospheric environment definition has played a key role in the development and operation of the NASA Space Shuttle as it has in other NASA Space Vehicle Programs. The objective of any definition of natural environment design requirements for a space vehicle development is to insure that the vehicle will perform safely and in a timely manner relative to the mission(s) for which the vehicle is being developed. The NASA Space Shuttle has enjoyed the longest tenure of any Space Vehicle from an operational standpoint. As such, it has provided a wealth of information on many engineering aspects of a Space Vehicle plus the influence of the atmosphere on operational endeavors. The atmospheric environment associated with the NASA Space Shuttle launches at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida has been reviewed and studied over the entire NASA Space Shuttle flight history. The results of the analysis of atmospheric environment related launch delays relative to other sources of launch delays has been assessed. This paper will provide a summary of those conditions as well as mission analysis examples focused on atmospheric constraints for launch. Atmospheric conditions associated with NASA Space Shuttle launch delays will be presented to provide a reference as to the type conditions experienced which have mainly caused the delays.

  2. Accounting for Parameter Uncertainty in Reservoir Uncertainty Assessment: The Conditional Finite-Domain Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Babak, Olena Deutsch, Clayton V.

    2009-03-15

    An important aim of modern geostatistical modeling is to quantify uncertainty in geological systems. Geostatistical modeling requires many input parameters. The input univariate distribution or histogram is perhaps the most important. A new method for assessing uncertainty in the histogram, particularly uncertainty in the mean, is presented. This method, referred to as the conditional finite-domain (CFD) approach, accounts for the size of the domain and the local conditioning data. It is a stochastic approach based on a multivariate Gaussian distribution. The CFD approach is shown to be convergent, design independent, and parameterization invariant. The performance of the CFD approach is illustrated in a case study focusing on the impact of the number of data and the range of correlation on the limiting uncertainty in the parameters. The spatial bootstrap method and CFD approach are compared. As the number of data increases, uncertainty in the sample mean decreases in both the spatial bootstrap and the CFD. Contrary to spatial bootstrap, uncertainty in the sample mean in the CFD approach decreases as the range of correlation increases. This is a direct result of the conditioning data being more correlated to unsampled locations in the finite domain. The sensitivity of the limiting uncertainty relative to the variogram and the variable limits are also discussed.

  3. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OFWORKING ENVIRONMENT FOR REPAIRERS OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK IN PLANT CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Sudeikina, N A; Kurenkova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive hygienic assessment of working environment for main occupational groups Railway Car Repair Plant in factory conditions shows that workers are exposed to the impact of factors of chemical nature in concentrations exceeding maximum allowable (lead, manganese, alkali caustic, sulphuric and nitric acids, chromium trioxide, silicon-containing dust, white corundum, diiron trioxide, silicate-organic dust, wood and carbon dusts), the high level of noise, the local vibration, insufficient levels of artificial lighting. The manual work is used, that determines the high severity of the labor process in the most of workers. There was identified the inconsistency of quality and quantitative estimation of the work conditions on chemical factor at implementation of various types of control: certification of workplaces on work conditions, productions and state control. There was given an a priori evaluation of the occupational risk in the three main workshops, there were detected 13 occupations with mild (moderate) risk, 9 occupations with average (significant) risk, 6 professions with high (intolerable) risk category and 1 occupation--with very high (intolerable) risk category. Low indices of occupational diseases according to official statistics were establishedfail to be consistent with a high probability of their occurrence in the production. PMID:26856146

  4. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  5. River basin soil-vegetation condition assessment applying mathematic simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Meticulous attention paid nowadays to the problem of vegetation cover productivity changes is connected also to climate global transformation. At the same time ecosystems anthropogenic transformation, basically connected to the changes of land use structure and human impact on soil fertility, is developing to a great extent independently from climatic processes and can seriously influence vegetation cover productivity not only at the local and regional levels but also globally. Analysis results of land use structure and soil cover condition influence on river basin ecosystems productive potential is presented in the research. The analysis is carried out applying integrated characteristics of ecosystems functioning, space images processing results and mathematic simulation methods. The possibility of making permanent functional simulator defining connection between macroparameters of "phytocenosis-soil" system condition on the basis of basin approach is shown. Ecosystems of river catchment basins of various degrees located in European part of Russia were chosen as research objects. For the integrated assessment of ecosystems soil and vegetation conditions the following characteristics have been applied: 1. Soil-productional potential, characterizing the ability of natural and natural-anthropogenic ecosystem in certain soil-bioclimatic conditions for long term reproduction. This indicator allows for specific phytomass characteristics and ecosystem produce, humus content in soil and bioclimatic parameters. 2. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been applied as an efficient, remotely defined, monitoring indicator characterizing spatio-temporal unsteadiness of soil-productional potential. To design mathematic simulator functional simulation methods and principles on the basis of regression, correlation and factor analysis have been applied in the research. Coefficients values defining in the designed static model of phytoproductivity distribution has been

  6. Development of a multimetric index for assessing the biological condition of the Ohio River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, E.B.; Simon, T.P.; McCormick, F.H.; Angermeier, P.L.; Deshon, J.E.; Yoder, C.O.; Sanders, R.E.; Pearson, W.D.; Hickman, G.D.; Reash, R.J.; Thomas, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of fish communities to assess environmental quality is common for streams, but a standard methodology for large rivers is as yet largely undeveloped. We developed an index to assess the condition of fish assemblages along 1,580 km of the Ohio River. Representative samples of fish assemblages were collected from 709 Ohio River reaches, including 318 "least-impacted" sites, from 1991 to 2001 by means of standardized nighttime boat-electrofishing techniques. We evaluated 55 candidate metrics based on attributes of fish assemblage structure and function to derive a multimetric index of river health. We examined the spatial (by river kilometer) and temporal variability of these metrics and assessed their responsiveness to anthropogenic disturbances, namely, effluents, turbidity, and highly embedded substrates. The resulting Ohio River Fish Index (ORFIn) comprises 13 metrics selected because they responded predictably to measures of human disturbance or reflected desirable features of the Ohio River. We retained two metrics (the number of intolerant species and the number of sucker species [family Catostomidae]) from Karr's original index of biotic integrity. Six metrics were modified from indices developed for the upper Ohio River (the number of native species; number of great-river species; number of centrarchid species; the number of deformities, eroded fins and barbels, lesions, and tumors; percent individuals as simple lithophils; and percent individuals as tolerant species). We also incorporated three trophic metrics (the percent of individuals as detritivores, invertivores, and piscivores), one metric based on catch per unit effort, and one metric based on the percent of individuals as nonindigenous fish species. The ORFIn declined significantly where anthropogenic effects on substrate and water quality were prevalent and was significantly lower in the first 500 m below point source discharges than at least-impacted sites nearby. Although additional

  7. A coupled Bayesian and fault tree methodology to assess future groundwater conditions in light of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. J.; Du, M.; McBean, E. A.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.

    2014-08-01

    Maintaining acceptable groundwater levels, particularly in arid areas, while protecting ecosystems, are key measures against desertification. Due to complicated hydrological processes and their inherent uncertainties, investigations of groundwater recharge conditions are challenging, particularly in arid areas under climate changing conditions. To assist planning to protect against desertification, a fault tree methodology, in conjunction with fuzzy logic and Bayesian data mining, are applied to Minqin Oasis, a highly vulnerable regime in northern China. A set of risk factors is employed within the fault tree framework, with fuzzy logic translating qualitative risk data into probabilities. Bayesian data mining is used to quantify the contribution of each risk factor to the final aggregated risk. The implications of both historical and future climate trends are employed for temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) to assess water table changes under various future scenarios. The findings indicate that water table levels will continue to drop at the rate of 0.6 m yr-1 in the future when climatic effects alone are considered, if agricultural and industrial production capacity remain at 2004 levels.

  8. 76 FR 42121 - Final Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact for a Programmatic Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Assessment Implementing a Wind Energy Program at Marine Forces Reserve Facilities Located Across the United... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) Implementing a Wind Energy Program at Marine Forces Reserve... the MARFORRES Wind Energy Program will not have a significant adverse impact on the environment....

  9. Finding Out What They Really Think: Assessing Non-Science Majors' Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard; Parra, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    As institutions of higher learning are increasingly held accountable for student outcomes, faculty are faced with the challenge to clearly articulate and assess what students should learn in their courses. We report on the assessment of a liberal studies learning outcome related to the nature of science, which involved 178 students from 41…

  10. Alarmist misrepresentations of the findings of the latest scientific assessment report of the intergovernmental Panel on climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Henry R.

    2007-08-15

    The alarmist propaganda following release of the Policymakers Summary of the Fourth Assessment Report of Working Group 1 of the IPCC this year is unjustified. We had this information since 2001, when the Third Assessment Report was released. However, this does not mean that we should ignore the potential consequences of increasing the impact of the current interglacial period. (author)

  11. Incorporating Equipment Condition Assessment in Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can complement the current fleet of large light-water reactors in the USA for baseload and peak demand power production and process heat applications (e.g., water desalination, shale oil extraction, hydrogen production). The day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M); however, the effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on O&M is not fully understood. These costs could potentially be reduced by optimized scheduling, with risk-informed scheduling of maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a “living” probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), which reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant and combine event probabilities with population-based probability of failure (POF) for key components. “Risk monitors” extend the PRA by incorporating the actual and dynamic plant configuration (equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions, etc.) into risk assessment. In fact, PRAs are more integrated into plant management in today’s nuclear power plants than at any other time in the history of nuclear power. However, population-based POF curves are still used to populate fault trees; this approach neglects the time-varying condition of equipment that is relied on during standard and non-standard configurations. Equipment condition monitoring techniques can be used to estimate the component POF. Incorporating this unit-specific estimate of POF in the risk monitor can provide a more accurate estimate of risk in different operating and maintenance configurations. This enhanced risk assessment will be especially important for aSMRs that have advanced component designs, which don’t have an available operating history to draw from, and often use passive design features, which present challenges to PRA. This paper presents the requirements and technical gaps for developing a framework to integrate unit

  12. Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport under Highly Transient Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.

    2014-02-06

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive model-based analysis of a uranium tracer test conducted at the U.S Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300A) IFRC site. A three-dimensional multi-component reactive transport model was employed to assess the key factors and processes that control the field-scale uranium reactive transport. Taking into consideration of relevant physical and chemical processes, the selected conceptual/numerical model replicates the spatial and temporal variations of the observed U(VI) concentrations reasonably well in spite of the highly complex field conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed to interrogate the relative importance of various processes and factors for reactive transport of U(VI) at the field-scale. The results indicate that multi-rate U(VI) sorption/desorption, U(VI) surface complexation reactions, and initial U(VI) concentrations were the most important processes and factors controlling U(VI) migration. On the other hand, cation exchange reactions, the choice of the surface complexation model, and dual-domain mass transfer processes, which were previously identified to be important in laboratory experiments, played less important roles under the field-scale experimental condition at the 300A site. However, the model simulations also revealed that the groundwater chemistry was relatively stable during the uranium tracer experiment and therefore presumably not dynamic enough to appropriately assess the effects of ion exchange reaction and the choice of surface complexation models on U(VI) sorption and desorption. Furthermore, it also showed that the field experimental duration (16 days) was not sufficiently long to precisely assess the role of a majority of the sorption sites that were accessed by slow kinetic processes within the dual domain model. The sensitivity analysis revealed the crucial role of the intraborehole flow that occurred within the long-screened monitoring wells and thus significantly

  13. The uncertainty cascade in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions - the Biala Tarnowska case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the results of the hydraulic model is not only associated with the limitations of that model and the shortcomings of data. An important factor that has a major impact on the uncertainty of the flood risk assessment in a changing climate conditions is associated with the uncertainty of future climate scenarios (IPCC WG I, 2013). Future climate projections provided by global climate models are used to generate future runoff required as an input to hydraulic models applied in the derivation of flood risk maps. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the uncertainty of future climate projections, an uncertainty of flow routing model, the propagation of that uncertainty through the hydraulic model, and finally, the uncertainty related to the derivation of flood risk maps. One of the aims of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the process, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-section. The study shows that the application of the simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the

  14. Assessment of reference evapotranspiration using remote sensing and forecasting tools under semi-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Blanco, M.; Gavilán, P.; Santos, C.; Lorite, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) assessment at regional scale is a challenge to agricultural and hydrological research requiring the characterization of vast areas to obtain accurate meteorological variables. To account for this, a new approach considering a modified version of the Makkink equation and based on a combination of remotely sensed solar radiation (Rs) considering the MSG satellite, and numerical weather forecast of near surface air temperature (T2m), was developed. The new approach is referred as Makkink-Advection equation (MAK-Adv). Once Rs and T2m were validated for the semiarid conditions registered in Southern Spain with very satisfactory results (RMSE = 1.6 MJ m-2 d-1 and 1.4 °C respectively, with linear regressions with slope = 0.99 and R2 = 0.97), the MAK-Adv approach was calibrated and validated with ETo measurements from a weighing lysimeter under near-reference conditions in Southern Spain. The new approach has provided accurate daily ETo estimations compared with lysimeter data (RMSE = 0.50 mm d-1, RE = 12.3% and MAE = 0.39 mm d-1), and remains accurate during summer time (RMSE = 0.62 mm d-1 and RE = 9%), the critical period when accurate ETo data are essential for a correct agricultural water management. Once calibrated and validated, and thanks to the use of remotely sensed data, the MAK-Adv approach allowed the ETo assessment at regional scale. For a semi-arid region located in southern Spain with an area of 87,300 km2, a detailed spatial ETo assessment was performed, determining ETo values for the totality of the area with a resolution of about 9 km2 allowing to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability at basin/region scale. This new approach gets over the serious limitations for a correct ETo assessment when traditional methodologies are not able to provide these data for vast areas, even with the modern weather station networks. Thus, MAK-Adv approach is especially useful for those areas with missing or inaccurate

  15. Real-Time Web-Based Assessment of Total Population Risk of Future Emergency Department Utilization: Statewide Prospective Active Case Finding Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunqing; Zhao, Yifan; Hao, Shiying; Zheng, Le; Fu, Changlin; Wen, Qiaojun; Ji, Jun; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Xiaolin; Dai, Dorothy; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background An easily accessible real-time Web-based utility to assess patient risks of future emergency department (ED) visits can help the health care provider guide the allocation of resources to better manage higher-risk patient populations and thereby reduce unnecessary use of EDs. Objective Our main objective was to develop a Health Information Exchange-based, next 6-month ED risk surveillance system in the state of Maine. Methods Data on electronic medical record (EMR) encounters integrated by HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine’s Health Information Exchange, were used to develop the Web-based surveillance system for a population ED future 6-month risk prediction. To model, a retrospective cohort of 829,641 patients with comprehensive clinical histories from January 1 to December 31, 2012 was used for training and then tested with a prospective cohort of 875,979 patients from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013. Results The multivariate statistical analysis identified 101 variables predictive of future defined 6-month risk of ED visit: 4 age groups, history of 8 different encounter types, history of 17 primary and 8 secondary diagnoses, 8 specific chronic diseases, 28 laboratory test results, history of 3 radiographic tests, and history of 25 outpatient prescription medications. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective cohorts were 0.739 and 0.732 respectively. Integration of our method into the HIN secure statewide data system in real time prospectively validated its performance. Cluster analysis in both the retrospective and prospective analyses revealed discrete subpopulations of high-risk patients, grouped around multiple “anchoring” demographics and chronic conditions. With the Web-based population risk-monitoring enterprise dashboards, the effectiveness of the active case finding algorithm has been validated by clinicians and caregivers in Maine. Conclusions The active case finding model and associated real-time Web-based app were designed to

  16. Weyerhaeuser Company: Longview Mill Conducts Energy and Water Assessment that Finds Potential for $3.1 Million in Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Weyerhaeuser completed a plant-wide energy assessment at its pulp and paper manufacturing facility in Longview, Washington, in 2002. The assessment identified nine projects for improving energy efficiency and reducing water consumption. Implementing these projects will save an estimated $3.1 million annually in natural gas costs. These measures will also reduce site water consumption by 3,600 gallons per minute. The estimated cost of these improvements is estimated at $5 million to $11 million. Aside from the nine projects discussed above, the assessment team also identified the potential to increase onsite power generation by up to 15 megawatts.

  17. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    PubMed

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis. PMID:23752377

  18. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  19. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land. PMID:23238340

  20. AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE CONDITION: THE MID ATLANTIC ESTUARIES AS A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complex and interconnected nature of ecological systems often makes it difficult to understand and prevent multiresource, multistressor problems. This article describes a process to assess ecological condition at regional scales. The article also describes how the approach wa...

  1. Research Challenges in Water Infrastructure Condition Assessment, Rehabilitation and System Optimization – The U.S. Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation first provides an overview of U.S.EPA research activities on water infrastructure condition assessment, system rehabilitation, and asset management. It then describes in detail specific activities in pipe leak detection, water conservation and the advanced wate...

  2. INTEGRATING INDICATORS OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION, STRESSOR EXPOSURE, AND QUALITY OF LIFE TOWARDS AN ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL VULNERABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and evaluating approaches to integrate information on environmental condition, estimated stressor exposures, and quality of life indicators so that regional risks can be prioritized...

  3. Assessment Of Chemical Dispersant Effectiveness In A Wave Tank Under Regular Non-Breaking And Breaking Wave Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current chemical dispersant effectiveness tests for product selection are commonly performed with bench-scale testing apparatus. However, for the assessment of oil dispersant effectiveness under real sea state conditions, test protocols are required to have hydrodynamic conditio...

  4. Use of standardized visual assessments of riparian and stream condition to manage riparian bird habitat in eastern Oregon.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Hilary A; Zack, Steve

    2009-07-01

    The importance of riparian vegetation to support stream function and provide riparian bird habitat in semiarid landscapes suggests that standardized assessment tools that include vegetation criteria to evaluate stream health could also be used to assess habitat conditions for riparian-dependent birds. We first evaluated the ability of two visual assessments of woody vegetation in the riparian zone (corridor width and height) to describe variation in the obligate riparian bird ensemble along 19 streams in eastern Oregon. Overall species richness and the abundances of three species all correlated significantly with both, but width was more important than height. We then examined the utility of the riparian zone criteria in three standardized and commonly used rapid visual riparian assessment protocols--the USDI BLM Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessment, the USDA NRCS Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), and the U.S. EPA Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet (HAFDS)--to assess potential riparian bird habitat. Based on the degree of correlation of bird species richness with assessment ratings, we found that PFC does not assess obligate riparian bird habitat condition, SVAP provides a coarse estimate, and HAFDS provides the best assessment. We recommend quantitative measures of woody vegetation for all assessments and that all protocols incorporate woody vegetation height. Given that rapid assessments may be the only source of information for thousands of kilometers of streams in the western United States, incorporating simple vegetation measurements is a critical step in evaluating the status of riparian bird habitat and provides a tool for tracking changes in vegetation condition resulting from management decisions. PMID:18574622

  5. Use of Standardized Visual Assessments of Riparian and Stream Condition to Manage Riparian Bird Habitat in Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Hilary A.; Zack, Steve

    2009-07-01

    The importance of riparian vegetation to support stream function and provide riparian bird habitat in semiarid landscapes suggests that standardized assessment tools that include vegetation criteria to evaluate stream health could also be used to assess habitat conditions for riparian-dependent birds. We first evaluated the ability of two visual assessments of woody vegetation in the riparian zone (corridor width and height) to describe variation in the obligate riparian bird ensemble along 19 streams in eastern Oregon. Overall species richness and the abundances of three species all correlated significantly with both, but width was more important than height. We then examined the utility of the riparian zone criteria in three standardized and commonly used rapid visual riparian assessment protocols—the USDI BLM Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessment, the USDA NRCS Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), and the U.S. EPA Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet (HAFDS)—to assess potential riparian bird habitat. Based on the degree of correlation of bird species richness with assessment ratings, we found that PFC does not assess obligate riparian bird habitat condition, SVAP provides a coarse estimate, and HAFDS provides the best assessment. We recommend quantitative measures of woody vegetation for all assessments and that all protocols incorporate woody vegetation height. Given that rapid assessments may be the only source of information for thousands of kilometers of streams in the western United States, incorporating simple vegetation measurements is a critical step in evaluating the status of riparian bird habitat and provides a tool for tracking changes in vegetation condition resulting from management decisions.

  6. Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

  7. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety R.; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-11-15

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses-frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world-act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-making may be understood from this perspective. Environmental knowledge that is inconsistent with dominant discourses runs the risk of being ignored. Discourses on the value of EA as a tool for decision-making may have a similar effect. Stimulating decision-makers and stakeholders to critically reflect on and reconsider their discourses in the light of EAs-also known as frame reflection or policy learning-may enhance the probability that these assessments and the knowledge that they generate impact upon decision-making. Up to now little has been written about how discourse reflection in the context of EA can be promoted. Valuable inputs are fragmented over different bodies of literature. In this paper we draw from these bodies to identify favourable conditions for discourse reflection.

  8. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  9. Toxicity testing strategies for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explores the use of short-term, EPA-approved laboratory toxicity tests for assessing water-quality conditions in streams and rivers. Strategies for the cost-effective application of such tests for long-term monitoring objectives are considered in the context of logistic constraints and statistical design. A subtle but important difference in objectives for effluent versus ambient testing is this: in effluent testing for regulatory purposes, a key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. This difference shapes the strategy for cost-effective ambient testing and determines the framework for effective statistical analysis and interpretation of ambient toxicity test results. Recommendations derived as `` lessons learned`` from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective, in terms of information gained per dollar spent, than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Various laboratory and in situ methods for environmental assessment are now under development, but these methods probably will not gain acceptance for use in regulatory situations for many years. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Thus, laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

  10. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  11. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  12. Ambient bioassays for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.

    1995-04-01

    Short-term EPA-approved tests with fish, aquatic invertebrates or algae can be used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of effluent and can be used to assess water-quality conditions in streams or rivers that receive pollutants from industry or municipal or agricultural areas. These methods also can be used to assess water quality in receiving streams. However, in effluent testing, the key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. Specific case-study examples are provided demonstrating the kinds of information that can be extracted from ambient toxicity testing by use of different statistical methods. Examples also are given supporting the idea that an effective ambient testing program should be long-term, and contain a diagnostic-testing component analogous to the toxicity identification procedures used to supplement effluent-testing programs. Recommendations derived as {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

  13. Adaptive responses of the cardiovascular system to prolonged spaceflight conditions: assessment with Holter monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Bungo, M. W.; Charles, J. B.; Goldberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents selected findings obtained with Holter monitoring from two crew members of the expedition, performed during a 175-day space mission on board orbital space station "MIR." Using mathematical processing of daily cardiointervals files, 5-minute sections of records were analyzed consecutively. Then, the average daily values of indices, the average-per-every-eight-hours values (morning, evening, night) and mean values per hour were computed. The results of analysis showed that prolonged exposure of man to microgravity conditions leads to important functional alteration in human neuroautonomic regulatory mechanisms. Both crew members had significant increase of heart rate, the rise of stress index, the decrease in power of the spectrum in the range of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These marked signs of activation of the sympathetic section of the vegetative nervous system showed individual variations. The analysis of the daily collection of cardiointervals with Holter monitoring allows us to understand and forecast the functional feasibilities of the human organism under a variety of stress conditions associated with acute and chronic microgravity exposure.

  14. Adaptive responses of the cardiovascular system to prolonged spaceflight conditions: assessment with Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baevsky, R M; Bennett, B S; Bungo, M W; Charles, J B; Goldberger, A L; Nikulina, G A

    1997-01-01

    This article presents selected findings obtained with Holter monitoring from two crew members of the expedition, performed during a 175-day space mission on board orbital space station "MIR." Using mathematical processing of daily cardiointervals files, 5-minute sections of records were analyzed consecutively. Then, the average daily values of indices, the average-per-every-eight-hours values (morning, evening, night) and mean values per hour were computed. The results of analysis showed that prolonged exposure of man to microgravity conditions leads to important functional alteration in human neuroautonomic regulatory mechanisms. Both crew members had significant increase of heart rate, the rise of stress index, the decrease in power of the spectrum in the range of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These marked signs of activation of the sympathetic section of the vegetative nervous system showed individual variations. The analysis of the daily collection of cardiointervals with Holter monitoring allows us to understand and forecast the functional feasibilities of the human organism under a variety of stress conditions associated with acute and chronic microgravity exposure. PMID:11539935

  15. Site characterization, visualization, and uncertainty assessment using zonal kriging and conditional simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wingle, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    When evaluating a site, whether for oil, minerals, or contaminants in ground water, a principle concern is the distribution of material properties. A traditional approach has been to apply geostatistical methods such as kriging or conditional simulation. These approaches are based on the assumption of stationarity (i.e. that the spatial variation of properties is consistent across the site). At many sites, the stationarity assumption is not valid and can lead to inaccurate results. One approach to circumvent this limitation is to divide the area into zones where the stationarity assumptions are reasonable, krige each zone, and manually merge the results together. This approach has three major draw backs, (1) boundaries between zones are abrupt, (2) the merging process is tedious, and (3) there is no way to manage{open_quote}gradational{close_quote} boundaries. An integrated system which allows a modeler to: (1) define multiple, distinct zones within a model; (2) define zonal inter-relationships (e.g. Zone A grades into zone B. Zone C and Zone D have a sharp contact), and model the results using simple or ordinary kriging, or conditional simulation is presented. This technique is integrated into a modeling package which allows users to examine basic site statistics, develop and model semivariograms, krige and simulate material properties, model ground water flow and contaminant transport, assess risk or uncertainty, and visualize results with 2D, 2-1/2D, and 3D tools.

  16. Site characterization, visualization, and uncertainty assessment using zonal kriging and conditional simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wingle, W.L. )

    1996-01-01

    When evaluating a site, whether for oil, minerals, or contaminants in ground water, a principle concern is the distribution of material properties. A traditional approach has been to apply geostatistical methods such as kriging or conditional simulation. These approaches are based on the assumption of stationarity (i.e. that the spatial variation of properties is consistent across the site). At many sites, the stationarity assumption is not valid and can lead to inaccurate results. One approach to circumvent this limitation is to divide the area into zones where the stationarity assumptions are reasonable, krige each zone, and manually merge the results together. This approach has three major draw backs, (1) boundaries between zones are abrupt, (2) the merging process is tedious, and (3) there is no way to manage[open quote]gradational[close quote] boundaries. An integrated system which allows a modeler to: (1) define multiple, distinct zones within a model; (2) define zonal inter-relationships (e.g. Zone A grades into zone B. Zone C and Zone D have a sharp contact), and model the results using simple or ordinary kriging, or conditional simulation is presented. This technique is integrated into a modeling package which allows users to examine basic site statistics, develop and model semivariograms, krige and simulate material properties, model ground water flow and contaminant transport, assess risk or uncertainty, and visualize results with 2D, 2-1/2D, and 3D tools.

  17. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Wagner, Eric J.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1989-03-01

    Estimates of migration rates and travel times of juvenile salmonids within index reaches of the Columbia River basin are collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program for use by the Fish Passage Center. With increased reliance upon travel time estimates in 1988 by the Fish Passage Center, this study was implemented to monitor the biological attributes of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss used for the travel time estimates. The physiological ability of fish to respond to stress was assessed by measuring levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride before and after a stress-challenge test. The development of smoltification was evaluated by measuring gill Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase, plasma thyroxine, purines, and body morphology. Most groups were similar at the hatcheries but differed as the migration to McNary Dam proceeded. The prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in spring chinook salmon was evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Prevalence of BKD in groups tested using the ELISA method was as high as 99% at some downstream locations. A review of indices is presented as a guide to the development of an index of smolt condition and preliminary data are presented. An index could be used as a tool to synthesize information on fish condition to assist with management and evaluation of the Water Budget.

  18. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  19. Statistical approach for assessing the influence of synoptic and meteorological conditions on ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia; Butler, Tim; Sillmann, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in many industrialized and densely-populated urban areas due to its negative effects on human health, damages agricultural crops and ecosystems. The concentration of air pollutants is the result of several factors, including emission sources, lifetime and spatial distribution of the pollutants, atmospheric properties and interactions, wind speed and direction, and topographic features. Episodes of air pollution are often associated with stationary or slowly migrating anticyclonic (high-pressure) systems that reduce advection, diffusion, and deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Certain weather conditions facilitate the concentration of pollutants, such as the incidence of light winds that contributes to the increasing of stagnation episodes affecting air quality. Therefore, the atmospheric circulation plays an important role in air quality conditions that are affected by both, synoptic and local scale processes. This study assesses the influence of the large-scale circulation along with meteorological conditions on tropospheric ozone in Europe. The frequency of weather types (WTs) is examined under a novel approach, which is based on an automated version of the Lamb Weather Types catalog (Jenkinson and Collison, 1977). Here, we present an implementation of such classification point-by-point over the European domain. Moreover, the analysis uses a new grid-averaged climatology (1°x1°) of daily surface ozone concentrations from observations of individual sites that matches the resolution of global models (Schnell,et al., 2014). Daily frequency of WTs and meteorological conditions are combined in a multiple regression approach for investigating the influence on ozone concentrations. Different subsets of predictors are examined within multiple linear regression models (MLRs) for each grid cell in order to identify the best regression model. Several statistical metrics are applied for estimating the robustness of the

  20. Characterizing the Source Water for Montane Meadows to Assess Resiliency under Changing Hydroclimatic Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Peek, R.; Bell, A.; Weixelman, D.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically and hydrologically functioning montane meadows provide a variety of ecosystem services and create biological hotspots in high-elevation landscapes. They serve as wetlands that filter water, attenuate floods, sequester carbon, sustain downstream flows, and provide high productivity habitat in typically lower productivity mountain regions. Their importance to watershed quality and health is well recognized, and restoration of meadows is a high priority for resource management agencies and non-governmental organizations. Yet many meadow restoration projects have limited outcomes or fail to achieve the desired effects due to a lack of understanding the underlying hydrological and geomorphic processes inherent to meadows that contribute to their resiliency. Few studies exist on how meadows are sustained through time despite various land use impacts or how the origin of water supplying the meadow (snowmelt-dominated versus regional groundwater-dominated) may influence meadow conditions. Furthermore, as climate conditions continue to change, questions remain regarding which meadows will be most resistant to and resilient from climate warming and thus have the highest potential for successful and sustainable restoration of meadow processes. We discuss these concepts and present two methods for assessing the regional and local contributions of source water to meadows as an indicator of resiliency. On a broad scale, comparisons of satellite imagery using metrics such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for regions with meadows may be useful to detect inter-annual and seasonal variations in meadow wetness and thus indicate meadow sites with larger groundwater sources that are more resilient over time. Locally, use of a hydrogeomorphic typing key that relates water source, geomorphic position, groundwater table elevation, and plant species composition may be useful to detect local groundwater sources that provide greater consistency of conditions and

  1. Ancient sandstone condition assessment in relation to degradation, cleaning and consolidation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdácký, Miloš; Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana

    2015-04-01

    Non-invasive methods for assessing the state of historic stone types rely on measurement of their surface or subsurface characteristics, which are supposed to correlate with objective physical characteristics. Such measurements are influenced by surface conditions of stone, as well as by previous conservation treatments. The authors performed a comprehensive study of characteristics and behaviour of typical sandstone types present in the Charles' Bridge in Prague as a preparatory work for its diagnostic and restoration in order to understand the problem of a large, important, and non-homogeneous (from the material point of view) historic structure, that was intended for repair interventions. The study itself took advantage of the combination of non-invasive, or considerately destructive methods and fully destructive tests, because it was possible to use damaged sandstone blocks, which were extracted from a masonry rail of the bridge before replacement with new elements. Stone characteristics were studied on test specimens prepared from materials in various conditions and after various interventions. Seven types of sandstone were tested in nine sets (degraded surface layer with a crust, degraded surface layer after cleaning, and unweathered core material; all three without any consolidation treatment, and all three after consolidation with two products based on silicic acid ester - Funcosil 100 and 300). The paper will present only selected results of experiments and the most important conclusions taken from the tests and their comparison. During experimental work the following characteristics were investigated: bending strength, modulus of elasticity, ultrasonic velocity, micro-drilling resistance, water uptake, porosity, frost resistance, hydric dilation and thermal dilation. The degraded stone had a rather strong variation of its characteristics along the depth profile from the surface inside the stone ashlar. Therefore, the stone samples were prepared in a form

  2. A Rapid Assessment of Instructional Strategies to Teach Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Clements, Andrea; LeBlanc, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate a rapid assessment procedure to identify effective instructional strategies to teach auditory-visual conditional discriminations to children diagnosed with autism. We replicated and extended previous rapid skills assessments (Lerman, Vorndran, Addison, & Kuhn, 2004) by evaluating the effects…

  3. Reference site selection for the National Wetland Condition Assessment: Integrating best professional judgement and objective selection criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Wetlands Condition Assessment (NWCA), one of a series of environmental assessments being conducted by states, tribes, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other partners, surveyed over 900 wetland sites across the lower 48 states during Summer 2011. The NWC...

  4. NASA SMD Education and Public Outreach Forums K-12 Working Group: Key Findings from the National K-12 Educator Needs Assessment Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeffing, C.; Bartolone, L.; Nelson, A.; Paglierani, R.; Burck, L.; Klug-Boonstra, S.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; Davey, B.

    2015-11-01

    A national survey, conducted in 2012 by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach Forums, assessed who was using NASA resources, what educators were looking for when using NASA data, and what attracted them to NASA workshops. The key findings of the survey were distributed through NASA and national education networks.

  5. Ambient bioassays for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A J

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how short-term laboratory tests, conducted according to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures, can be used effectively to assess water-quality conditions in streams or rivers that receive pollutants from industry or municipal or agricultural areas. Standardized, short-term tests with fish, aquatic invertebrates or algae are commonly used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of wastewaters; this is referred to as effuent testing. The methods used for testing effluents also can be used to assess water quality in receiving streams: in this application, the procedures are referred to as ambient testing. Despite similarity in methods, the major objective of effluent testing differs importantly from that of ambient testing. In effluent testing, the key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. This difference is subtle but very important: it shapes the strategy for cost-effective ambient testing, and determines the framework for effective statistical analysis and interpretation of ambient toxicity test results. Specific case-study examples are provided demonstrating the kinds of information that can be extracted from ambient toxicity testing by use of different statistical methods, including analysis of variance, contingency-table analysis, and two types of multivariate procedures (principal components analysis and logistic regression). Examples also are given supporting the idea that an effective ambient testing programme should be long-term, and contain a diagnostic-testing component analogous to the toxicity identification procedures used to supplement effluent-testing programmes. Recommendations derived as 'lessons learned' from largescale ambient toxicity testing programmes for receiving streams at Department of Energy facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably

  6. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  7. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale were reviewed and analyzed. The scar assessment scales were identified and organized by various criteria. Among the types of scar assessment scales, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was found to be the most frequently used scale. As for the assessment of newly developed operative scars, the POSAS was most used. Meanwhile, for categories depending on the treatment methods for preexisting scars, the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used in 6 studies following a laser treatment, the POSAS was used in 7 studies following surgical treatment, and the POSAS was used in 7 studies following a conservative treatment. Within the 12 categories of scar status, the VSS showed the highest frequency in 6 categories and the POSAS showed the highest frequency in the other 6 categories. According to our reviews, the POSAS and VSS are the most frequently used scar assessment scales. In the future, an optimal, universal scar scoring system is needed in order to better evaluate and treat pathologic scarring. PMID:24665417

  8. 76 FR 15935 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 3076-3077, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0115) a notice... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). Based on its finding of no significant...

  9. 76 FR 45780 - Notice of Availability for a Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Oil Spill Response (EA) was completed by NOAA, and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was... seagrass beds that resulted from Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response activities. The injuries...

  10. Elementary-School Mathematics Instruction and Achievement of Fourth-Grade Students in Japan: Findings from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Research findings indicate that specific instructional strategies, such as the use of real-world examples and independent learning activities, are positively related to mathematics achievement. This study was designed to investigate relationships between classroom instructional strategies and mathematics achievement of elementary-school students…

  11. Evaluation of the Enhanced Assessment Grants (EAGs) SimScientists Program: Site Visit Findings. CRESST Report 791

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan; Dai, Yunyun; Htut, Aye Mon; Martinez, Marcela; Rivera, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    This evaluation report addresses the implementation, utility, and feasibility of SimScientists' simulation-based assessments for middle school science classrooms, with particular attention to the use of accommodations available in the program. Data were collected from a convenience sample of five schools and eight teachers across three states…

  12. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

  13. Confidence in Mathematics and Algebra Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Japan: Findings from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing interest in the identification of student and instructional factors associated with the mathematics achievement of students in Japan. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have provided opportunities to examine factors associated with mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was…

  14. Assessment Challenges in Open Learning: Way-Finding, Fork in the Road, or End of the Line?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Growing global commitments to open learning through the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) are accompanied by concerns over what "to do" with that learning when learners present it to traditional institutions for assessment and accreditation. This paper proposes that established RPL (recognizing prior learning) protocols, in place…

  15. Houston, We Have a Problem: Teachers Find No Value in the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Clarin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®) in practice, as perceived and experienced by teachers in the Southwest School District (SSD). To evaluate teacher effectiveness, SSD is using SAS EVAAS® for high-stakes consequences more than any other district or state in the country. A mixed-method design including a…

  16. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  17. Mesial temporal lobe morphology in intractable pediatric epilepsy: so-called hippocampal malrotation, associated findings, and relevance to presurgical assessment.

    PubMed

    Leach, James L; Awwad, Reem; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer J; Miles, Lili; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Diagnostic criteria for hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL) on brain MRI typically include a rounded hippocampus, vertical collateral sulcus, and architectural blurring. Relationship to epileptogenesis remains speculative, and usefulness for surgical guidance is unknown. The study was performed to determine the prevalence of hippocampal rotational anomalies in a cohort of pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing evaluation for surgery and to determine the significance of this finding in the context of surgical planning. METHODS Forty-eight surgically treated children with intractable epilepsy were compared with matched healthy subjects; reviewers were blinded to surgical side. Each temporal lobe was evaluated for rounded hippocampus, blurring, vertical collateral sulcus, wide choroidal fissure, enlarged temporal horn, low fornix, hippocampal signal, and findings of hippocampal sclerosis. A mesial temporal lobe (MTL) score was calculated by summing the number of features, and the collateral sulcus angle (CSA) was measured in each temporal lobe. Surgical side, pathological diagnosis, and imaging findings elsewhere in the brain were tabulated. Presence of HIMAL, associated imaging features, and MTL score were compared between sides, between epilepsy and control groups, in relationship to side of surgery, and in relationship to postoperative outcome. RESULTS Only 3 epilepsy patients (6.2%) and no controls exhibited all 3 features of HIMAL (p = 0.12). Eight of 48 (16.7%) epilepsy versus 2 of 48 (4.6%) control subjects had both a rounded hippocampus and vertical collateral sulcus (suggesting HIMAL) (p = 0.045). In control and epilepsy subjects, most findings were more prevalent on the left, and the left CSA was more vertical (p < 0.0001). Epilepsy subjects had higher MTL scores (z = -2.95, p = 0.002) and more acute CSAs (p = 0.04) than controls. Only lateralizing raw MTL score had a significant association with surgical side (p = 0.03, OR 7

  18. Demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Menz, H.B.; Roddy, E.; Marshall, M.; Thomas, M.J.; Rathod, T.; Myers, H.; Thomas, E.; Peat, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To explore demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (OA) (First MTPJ OA). Design Adults aged ≥50 years registered with four general practices were mailed a Health Survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12 months were invited to undergo a clinical assessment and weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. Radiographic first MTPJ OA in the most severely affected foot was graded into four categories using a validated atlas. Differences in selected demographic and clinical factors were explored across the four radiographic severity subgroups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ordinal regression. Results Clinical and radiographic data were available from 517 participants, categorised as having no (n = 105), mild (n = 228), moderate (n = 122) or severe (n = 62) first MTPJ OA. Increased radiographic severity was associated with older age and lower educational attainment. After adjusting for age, increased radiographic first MTPJ OA severity was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dorsal hallux and first MTPJ pain, hallux valgus, first interphalangeal joint (IPJ) hyperextension, keratotic lesions on the dorsal aspect of the hallux and first MTPJ, decreased first MTPJ dorsiflexion, ankle/subtalar joint eversion and ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and a trend towards a more pronated foot posture. Conclusions This cross-sectional study has identified several dose–response associations between radiographic severity of first MTPJ OA and a range of demographic and clinical factors. These findings highlight the progressive nature of first MTPJ OA and provide insights into the spectrum of presentation of the condition in clinical practice. PMID:25450852

  19. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  20. Earthworm ecotoxicological assessments of pesticides used to treat seeds under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Cardoso, Elke J B N; Martines, Alexandre M; Sousa, José Paulo; Pasini, Amarildo

    2013-03-01

    Ecotoxicological laboratory tests (lower-tier tests) are fundamental tools for assessing the toxicity of pesticides to soil organisms. In this study, using these tests under tropical conditions, we quantified the impact of the insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil, and thiametoxam, and the fungicides captan and carboxin+thiram, all of which are used in the chemical treatment of crop seeds, on the survival, reproduction, and behavior of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta). With the exception of imidacloprid, none of the pesticides tested caused mortality in E. andrei in artificial soils. The LC(50) of imidacloprid was estimated as 25.53 mg active ingredient kg(-1) of dry soil. Earthworm reproduction rates were reduced by imidacloprid (EC(50)=4.07 mgkg(-1)), fipronil (EC(20)=23.16 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (EC(50)=56.38 mgkg(-1)), captan (EC(50)=334.84 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (EC(50)=791.99 mgkg(-1)). Avoidance behavior was observed in the presence of imidacloprid (AC(50)=0.11 mgkg(-1)), captan (AC(50)=33.54 mgkg(-1)), carboxin+thiram (AC(50)=60.32 mgkg(-1)), and thiametoxam (AC(50)=>20 mgkg(-1)). Earthworms showed a preference for soils with the insecticide fipronil. Imidacloprid was the most toxic of the substances tested for E. andrei. The avoidance test was the most sensitive test for most pesticides studied, but results varied between pesticides. These results offer new insights on the toxicity of pesticides used to treat seeds in tropical regions. However, they should be complemented with higher-tier tests in order to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessment. PMID:23261124

  1. Fitness for purpose study of the Field Assessment Conditioning Tool (FACT): a research protocol

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Ralph James; Kennedy, Chris; Doherty, Catherine; Shepherd, Michael; Cole, Joanne; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As part of a programme of research aiming to improve the outcomes of traumatically injured children, a multisource healthcare advocacy tool has been developed to allow trauma team members and hospital governance administrators to reflect and to act on complex trauma team-hospital systems interactions. We have termed this tool a Field Assessment Conditioning Tool (FACT). The FACT draws on quantitative data including clinical care points in addition to self-reflective qualitative data. The FACT is designed to provide feedback on this assessment data both horizontally across fellow potential team members and vertically to the hospital/organisation governance structure, enabling process gap identification and allowing an agenda of improvements to be realised. The aim of the study described in this paper is to explore the perceived fitness for purpose of the FACT to provide an opportunity for healthcare advocacy by healthcare professionals caring for traumatically injured children. Methods and analysis The FACT will be implemented and studied in three district hospitals, each around a major trauma centre in the UK, USA and New Zealand. Using a qualitative approach with standardised semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis we will explore the following question: Is the FACT fit for purpose in terms of providing a framework to evaluate, reflect and act on the individual hospital's own performance (trauma team—hospital interactions) in terms of readiness to receive traumatically injured children? Ethics and dissemination Ethics opinion was sought for each research host organisation participating and deemed not required. The results will be disseminated to participating sites, networks and published in high-impact journals. PMID:25869682

  2. Using the remote sensing vegetation condition to assess the drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerádová, Daniela; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Hayes, Michael; Wardlow, Brian; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of the meteorological and soil drought is one of the major hydrometeorological extremes with significant impacts on agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The drought monitor system for the Czech Republic was released in 2012. It is based on a daily step calculations of soil moisture for the whole area of the Czech Republic divided into regular grids with a spatial resolution of 500 m. The results are published on the weekly operated webpage (www.intersucho.cz). Using freely available data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument onboard Terra satellite) the vegetation state condition is taken into account as support tool for vegetation drought impact assessment. Based on the surface reflectance bands the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated. Consequently, weekly NDVI anomaly is expressed as Percent of Average Actual Greenness (PAAG) in relation to the average for the period of 2000-2014. The system contains filter algorithms that eliminate the noise in the satellite NDVI data mainly due to cloud effects. The following operation allows for changing crop patterns between seasons and aggregates filtered values to the 5x5 km resolution with regard to the main land use categories. The aim of this study was to compare the satellite based vegetation condition to the results of soil moisture calculation in order to detect the impacts of drought on vegetation during seasons with low and normal precipitation sums. This contribution was supported by COST CZ program, project No. LD14121 and the Operational Program of the Czech Republic, project No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248.

  3. Assessing plantation canopy condition from airborne imagery using spectral mixture analysis and fractional abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Nicholas; Coops, Nicholas C.; Stone, Christine

    2005-05-01

    Pine plantations in Australia are subject to a range of abiotic and biotic damaging agents that affect tree health and productivity. In order to optimise management decisions, plantation managers require regular intelligence relating to the status and trends in the health and condition of trees within individual compartments. Remote sensing technology offers an alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of these plantations. Automated estimation of foliar crown health, especially in degraded crowns, can be difficult due to mixed pixels when there is low or fragmented vegetation cover. In this study we apply a linear spectral unmixing approach to high spatial resolution (50 cm) multispectral imagery to quantify the fractional abundances of the key image endmembers: sunlit canopy, shadow, and soil. A number of Pinus radiata tree crown attributes were modelled using multiple linear regression and endmember fraction images. We found high levels of significance ( r2 = 0.80) for the overall crown colour and colour of the crown leader ( r2 = 0.79) in tree crowns affected by the fungal pathogen Sphaeropsis sapinea, which produces both needle necrosis and chlorosis. Results for stands associated with defoliation and chlorosis through infestation by the aphid Essigella californica were lower with an r2 = 0.33 for crown transparency and r2 = 0.31 for proportion of crown affected. Similar analysis of data from a nitrogen deficient site produced an outcome somewhat in between the other two damaging agents. Overall the sunlit canopy image fraction has been the most important variable used in the modelling of forest condition for all damaging agents.

  4. Assessment of mechanical properties of porcine aortas under physiological loading conditions using vascular elastography.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Edgar J S; Peters, Mathijs F J; Nijs, Jan; Rutten, Marcel C M; van de Vosse, Frans N; Lopata, Richard G P

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the elastic properties of the arterial wall is often performed with ultrasound (US) imaging. The purpose of this study is to estimate mechanical properties of the vascular wall using in vitro inflation testing on biological tissue and two-dimensional (2-D) US elastography, and investigate the performance of the proposed methodology for physiological conditions. An inflation experiment was performed on 12 porcine aortas for (a) a large pressure range (0-140mmHg); and (b) physiological pressures (70-130mmHg) to mimic in vivo hemodynamic conditions. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired for one longitudinal and two transverse cross-sections for both experiments, and were analyzed to obtain the geometry and diameter-time behavior. The shear modulus (G) was estimated from these data for each pressure range applied. In addition, an incremental study based on the static data was performed to (1) investigate the changes in G for increasing mean arterial pressure (MAP) for a certain pressure difference (30, 40, 50 and 60mmHg); (2) compare the results with those from the dynamic experiment, for the same pressure range. The resulting stress-strain curves and shear moduli G (94±16kPa) for the static experimentare in agreement with literature and previous work. A linear dependency on MAP was found for G, yet the effect of the pulse pressure difference was negligible. The dynamic data revealed a G of 250±20kPa, whereas the incremental shear modulus (Ginc) was 240±39kPa. For all experiments, no significant differences in the values of G were found between different image planes. This study shows that 2-D US elastography of aortas during inflation testing is feasible and reproducible under controlled and physiological circumstances. In future studies, the in vivo, dynamic experiment should be repeated for a range of MAPs, and pathological vessels should be examined. PMID:26766329

  5. Assessment of "non-recordable" electroretinograms by 9 Hz flicker stimulation under scotopic conditions.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Andreas; Wilke, Robert; Strasser, Torsten; Gekeler, Florian; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2012-02-01

    To refine methods of electroretinographical (ERG) recording for the analysis of low retinal potentials under scotopic conditions in advanced retinal degenerative diseases. Standard Ganzfeld ERG equipment (Diagnosys LLC, Cambridge, UK) was used in 27 healthy volunteers (mean age 28 ± SD 8.5 years) to define the stimulation protocol. The protocol was then applied in clinical routine and 992 recordings were obtained from patients (mean age 40.6 ± 18.3 years) over a period of 5 years. A blue stimulus with a flicker frequency of 9 Hz was specified under scotopic conditions to preferentially record rod-driven responses. A range of stimulus strengths (0.0000012-6.32 scot. cd s/m² and 6-14 ms flash duration) was tested for maximal amplitudes and interference between rods and cones. Analysis of results was done by standard Fourier Transformation and assessment of signal-to-noise ratio. Optimized stimulus parameters were found to be a time-integrated luminance of 0.012 scot. cd s/m² using a blue (470 nm) flash of 10 ms duration at a repetition frequency of 9 Hz. Characteristic stimulus strength versus amplitude curves and tests with stimuli of red or green wavelength suggest a predominant rod-system response. The 9 Hz response was found statistically distinguishable from noise in 38% of patients with otherwise non-recordable rod responses according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards. Thus, we believe this protocol can be used to record ERG potentials in patients with advanced retinal diseases and in the evaluation of potential treatments for these patients. The ease of implementation in clinical routine and of statistical evaluation providing an observer-independent evaluation may further facilitate its employment. PMID:22179598

  6. Splenic and hepatic ultrasound and cytology in canine lymphoma: effects of findings on stage migration and assessment of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eberle, N; Joetzke, A E; Hoeinghaus, R; Hungerbuehler, S; Mischke, R; Nolte, I; Betz, D

    2016-08-01

    Stage migration is described in humans and dogs as a sequel of using more sensitive diagnostic methods. One hundred eighty-six dogs with multicentric lymphoma were enrolled with results of conventional staging as well as ultrasonographic and cytological examination of liver and spleen being available. The addition of splenic respective hepatic ultrasound and cytology findings resulted in slightly lower number of dogs classified as having liver and spleen involvement. In dogs with multicentric lymphoma, addition of cytology led to a significant shift of individuals from stage IV to stage III. Findings of hepatic and splenic ultrasound and cytology exerted no significant influence on complete remission and survival durations in dogs with combination chemotherapy. Staging methodology in canine lymphoma should be redefined, considering that the prognostic significance of splenic and hepatic ultrasound and cytology warrants further investigation. PMID:25470748

  7. Assessment of Invasive Breast Cancer Heterogeneity Using Whole-Tumor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Texture Analysis: Correlations With Detailed Pathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Sook; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lim, Yaeji; Han, Boo-Kyung; Cho, Eun Yoon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    There is no study that investigates the potential correlation between the heterogeneity obtained from texture analysis of medical images and the heterogeneity observed from histopathological findings. We investigated whether texture analysis of magnetic resonance images correlates with histopathological findings.Seventy-five patients with estrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma who underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. Tumor entropy and uniformity were determined on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images under different filter levels. Two pathologists evaluated the detailed histopathological findings of the tumors including tumor cellularity, dominant stroma type, central scar, histologic grade, extensive intraductal component (EIC), and lymphovascular invasion. Entropy and uniformity values on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images were compared with detailed pathological findings.In a multivariate analysis, entropy significantly increased only on unfiltered T2-weighted images (P = 0.013). Tumor cellularity and predominant stroma did not affect the uniformity or entropy on both T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. High histologic grades showed increased uniformity and decreased entropy on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, whereas the opposite tendency was observed on T2-weighted images. Invasive ductal carcinoma with an EIC or lymphovascular invasion only affected the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images, through increased uniformity and decreased entropy. The best uniformity results were recorded on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images at a filter level of 0.5. Entropy showed the best results at a filter level of 0.5 on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images. However, on T2-weighted images, an ideal model was achieved on unfiltered images.MRI texture analysis correlated with pathological

  8. Risk posed by the Ebola epidemic to the Pacific islands: findings of a recent World Health Organization assessment

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Adam T; Ronsse, Axelle; Hardie, Kate; Pavlin, Boris I; Biaukula, Viema

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the public health risk posed by the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa to Pacific island countries and areas and to highlight priority risk management actions for preparedness and response. Method The likelihood of EVD importation and the magnitude of public health impact in Pacific island countries and areas were assessed to determine overall risk. Literature about the hazard, epidemiology, exposure and contextual factors associated with EVD was collected and reviewed. Epidemiological information from the current EVD outbreak was assessed. Results As of 11 March 2015, there have been more than 24 200 reported cases of EVD and at least 9976 deaths in six West African countries. Three EVD cases have been infected outside of the West African region, and all have epidemiological links to the outbreak in West Africa. Pacific island countries’ and areas’ relative geographic isolation and lack of travel or trade links between countries with transmission means that EVD importation is very unlikely. However, should a case be imported, the health and non-health consequences would be major. The capacity of Pacific island countries and areas to respond adequately varies greatly between (and within) states but in general is limited. Discussion This risk assessment highlights the needs to enhance preparedness for EVD in the Pacific by strengthening the capacities outlined in the World Health Organization Framework for Action on Ebola. Priority areas include the ability to detect and respond to suspected EVD cases quickly, isolation and management of cases in appropriately resourced facilities and the prevention of further cases through infection prevention and control. These efforts for Ebola should enhance all-hazards public health preparedness in line with the International Health Regulations (2005). PMID:26306216

  9. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Trump, Jeremy; Karl, David

    2002-12-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about these threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2001 field season (March to November, 2001).

  10. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-11-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77. 12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000).

  11. Use of Video Podcasts to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists— Examples from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harned, D. A.; McMahon, G.; Capelli, K.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to resource managers and the general public. Two video podcasts have been produced to date (9-1-2010). The first film “Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems” is a 3-minute summary of results of the EUSE study. The film is accessible on the USGS Corecast website (http://www.usgs.gov/corecast/details.asp?ep=127) and is available in MPG, WMV, and QuickTime formats, as an audio-only podcast, with a complete transcript of the film; and as a YouTube video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYwZiiORYG8) with subtitles. The film has been viewed over 6200 times, with most downloads occurring in the first 3 weeks after the June release. Views of the film declined to approximately 60 a week for the following 9 weeks. Most of the requests for the film have originated from U.S. domain addresses with 13 percent originating from international addresses. The film was posted on YouTube in June and has received 262 views since that time. A 15-minute version of the film with more technical content is also available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). It has been downloaded over 660 times. The bulk of the requests occurred in the first 2 weeks after release, with most requests originating from U.S. addresses and 11 percent originating internationally. In the second film “Stormwater, Impervious Surface, and Stream Health” (not

  12. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Faler, Joyce C.

    1990-11-01

    The Water Budget is a volume of water used to enhance environmental conditions (flows) in the Columbia and Snake rivers for juvenile salmonids during their seaward migration. To manage the Water Budget, the Fish Passage Center estimates travel times of juvenile salmonids in index reaches of the main-stem rivers, using information on river flows and the migrational characteristics of the juvenile salmonids. This study was initiated to provide physiological information on the juvenile salmonids used for these travel time estimates. The physiological ability to respond to stressors was evaluated by measuring concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chlorides before and after a 30-s handling-stress challenge test. The development of smoltification was assessed by measuring gill Na{sup +}--K{sup +} ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine concentrations. Prevalence of bacterial kidney disease in spring chinook salmon was generally higher than in 1988, ranging from 81--100{percent} using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had more severe infections than those from mid-Columbia hatcheries. 42 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  14. Assessing the Land-Ocean Interaction under Extreme Climate Change Condition - a Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Wang, T.; Leung, R.; Balaguru, K.; Hibbard, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Many modeling applications, at global and regional scales, have demonstrated that numerical models are useful tools to quantify the uncertainty and the interactions between natural physical and biogeochemical processes and human activities in coastal regions. A regional integrated assessment modeling framework to investigate the interactions of agriculture and land use, coastal ecological issues, energy supply and effects of climate changes is under development by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with specific application to the Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf is vulnerable to the direct impacts of climate changes, such as sea level rise, hurricane-induced storm surge and extreme floods due to high precipitation and river run-off. This presentation will focus on the coastal modeling aspect of this integrated modeling approach. An unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model, which has the capability of simulating coastal circulation, wave and storm surges, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes, is applied to simulate hurricane storm surges and extreme flood events in the coastal region of Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, storm surge along the US Southeast coasts and freshwater plume in the Mississippi Delta were simulated and compared to observations. Numerical sensitivity studies with boundary conditions and forcing indicated the urgent need of a real observation network as well as the importance of accurate model predictions at regional scales to drive the model at smaller scales. The implication of natural pressures, such as storm surge and flooding to biogeochemical processes and marine ecosystem will be discussed.

  15. An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.

    PubMed

    Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions. PMID:19540980

  16. Dissipation, terminal residues and risk assessment of fluopicolide and its metabolite in cucumber under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Li, Li; Liu, Fengmao

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the dissipation, terminal residue levels, and risk assessment of fluopicolide and its metabolite (2,6-dichlorobenzamide) in cucumber and soil under field conditions were investigated. An analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of fluopicolide and its metabolite in cucumber and soil using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed. Recoveries were between 78 and 111%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.6 to 10.2% at different spiked levels (0.01, 0.025, 0.5, and 2 mg kg(-1)). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1). Fluopicolide exhibited half-lives ranging from 2.0 to 3.3 days and 35 to 63 days, in cucumber and soil under field ecosystem, respectively. The results suggested that the degradation of fluopicolide to 2,6-dichlorobenzamide was quite limited. During harvest, the terminal residues of fluopicolide and its metabolite were both below 0.13 mg kg(-1), which were lower than the established temporary maximum residue limits (MRLs), 0.5 mg kg(-1). The risk quotients (RQs) ranged from 0.0033 to 0.0078, which showed low risk for different groups of people in China. The present study may provide guidance on reasonable use of this pesticide and serve as a reference for establishment official MRLs in China. PMID:26493991

  17. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

  18. Assessment of Cocaine-induced Behavioral Sensitization and Conditioned Place Preference in Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura N; Penrod, Rachel D; Taniguchi, Makoto; Cowan, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that rewarding experiences with drugs create strong contextual associations and encourage repeated intake. In turn, repeated exposures to drugs of abuse make lasting alterations in the brain function of vulnerable individuals, and these persistent alterations likely serve to maintain the maladaptive drug seeking and taking behaviors characteristic of addiction/dependence(2). In rodents, reward experience and contextual associations are frequently measured using the conditioned place preference assay, or CPP, wherein preference for a previously drug-paired context is measured. Behavioral sensitization, on the other hand, is an increase in a drug-induced behavior that develops progressively over repeated exposures. Since sensitized behaviors can often be measured after several months of drug abstinence, depending on the dose and length of initial exposure, they are considered observable correlates of lasting drug-induced plasticity. Researchers have found these assays useful in determining the neurobiological substrates mediating aspects of addiction as well as assessing the potential of different interventions in disrupting these behaviors. This manuscript describes basic, effective protocols for mouse CPP and locomotor behavioral sensitization to cocaine. PMID:26967472

  19. Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of

  20. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different