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Sample records for assessment united states

  1. Geothermal resource assessment of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Geothermal resource assessment is the broadly based appraisal of the quantities of heat that might be extracted from the earth and used economically at some reasonable future time. In the United States, the Geological Survey is responsible for preparing geothermal assessments based on the best available data and interpretations. Updates are required every few years owing to increasing knowledge, enlarging data base, improving technology, and changing economics. Because geothermal understanding is incomplete and rapidly evolving, the USGS complements its assessments with a broad program of geothermal research that includes (1) study of geothermal processes on crustal and local scales, (2) regional evaluations, (3) intensive study of type systems before and during exploitation (4) improvement of exploration techniques, and (5) investigation of geoenvironmental constraints. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  2. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square

  3. United States Regional GIC Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, J. L.; Trichtchenko, L.; Fernberg, P.

    2012-12-01

    Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GICs) are driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. These disturbances result in ground-level, time varying magnetic fields, which, when large, can create induced currents that may interfere with electric transmission systems. We present a first step towards a regional GIC hazard assessment map by considering the spatial distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon for specific physiographic regions. The analysis is based on 1D models of Earth conductivity that were compiled and interpreted from past conductivity measurements and specified levels of the change of magnetic field with time (dB/dt), representing different levels of geomagnetic storm conditions. In addition, we compare the estimated electric field values with derived indices often used as proxies for geomagnetic disturbance, including the realtime USGS-K index and local magnetic disturbance values calculated from magnetic field data at US Geological Survey magnetic observatories.

  4. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  5. Assessing Compliance with United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no exceptions or special considerations for CubeSats in the United States Government (USG) Orbital Debris (OD) Mitigation Guidelines. For all objects launched into space the 2010 United States Space Policy requires that any failure to comply with the USG OD Mitigation Guidelines requires approval by the head of the launching agency. In addition it requires that the US Secretary of State be notified of any non-compliance. For these reasons it is important that missions consider these policies during their design phase. This paper will discuss methods to assess compliance with USG OD mitigation guidelines as they apply to CubeSat missions using tools such as the NASA Debris Assessment Software (DAS).

  6. Natural Hazard Assessment and Communication in the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Lynch, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the central United States, natural hazards, such as floods, tornados, ice storms, droughts, and earthquakes, result in significant damages and losses of life every year. For example, the February 5-6, 2008 tornado touched down in nine states (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee), killing 57, injuring 350, and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. The January 2009 ice storm struck Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia, killing 36 and causing more than 1.0 billion in damages. It is a great challenge for the society to develop an effective policy for mitigating these natural hazards in the central United States. However, the development of an effective policy starts with a good assessment of the natural hazards. Scientists play a key role in assessing the natural hazards. Therefore, scientists play an important role in the development of an effective policy for the natural hazard mitigation. It is critical for scientists to clearly define, quantify, and communicate the hazard assessments, including the associated uncertainties which are a key factor in policy decision making, to end-users. Otherwise, end-users will have difficulty understanding and using the information provided. For example, ground motion hazard maps with 2, 5, and 10 percent probabilities of exceedance (PE) in 50 years in the central United States have been produced for seismic hazard mitigation purpose. End-users have difficulty understanding and using the maps, however, which has led to either indecision or ineffective policy for seismic hazard mitigation in many communities in the central United States.

  7. The State of Learning Outcomes Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; Ewell, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, economic and other factors are pressing institutions of higher education to assess student learning to insure that graduates acquire the skills and competencies demanded in the 21st century. This paper summarises the status of undergraduate student learning outcomes assessment at accredited colleges and universities in the United…

  8. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Condition in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustini, John M.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2009-09-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, later amended by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977, it tasked the newly created U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the states, with periodically assessing the quality of U.S. waters and reporting on progress toward meeting the goals of the CWA. In subsequent decades, reviews by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations consistently have found available water quality data and reporting to be inadequate to evaluate the nation's progress [Shapiro et al., 2008]. In response to these concerns, in 1989 EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to develop and demonstrate scientific tools to monitor the status of, and trends in, U.S. aquatic resources and environmental stressors affecting them. Recent EPA-led efforts involve monitoring wadeable perennial streams (streams or rivers shallow enough to be wadeable during seasonal low flows), which make up an estimated 90% of the total length of all perennial flowing waters in the United States [EPA, 2006]. Selected results from the first national survey of these streams, the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) [EPA, 2006; Paulsen et al., 2008], illustrate how such surveys can provide critical information to guide management of this important resource. Nonmonitoring applications of data from the WSA and earlier regional surveys show the wide-ranging applicability of these rich data sets.

  9. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  10. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward, (Edited By); Williams, David L.

    1975-01-01

    This assessment of geothermal resources of the United States consists of two major parts: (1) estimates of total heat in the ground to a depth of 10 km and (2) estimates of the part of this total heat that is recoverable with present technology, regardless of price. No attempt has been made to consider most aspects of the legal, environmental, and institutional limitations in exploiting these resouces. In general, the average heat content of rocks is considerably higher in the Western United States than in the East. This also helps to explain why the most favorable hydrothermal convection systems and the hot young igneous systems occur in the West. Resources of the most attractive identified convection systems (excluding national parks) with predicted reservoir temperatures above 150 deg C have an estimated electrical production potential of about 8,000 megawatt century, or about 26,000 megawatt for 30 years. Assumptions in this conversion are: (1) one-half of the volume of the heat reservoirs is porous and permeable, (2) one-half of the heat of the porous, permeable parts is recoverable in fluids at the wellheads, and (3) the conversion efficiency of heat in wellhead fluids to electricity ranges from about 8 to 20 percent , depending on temperature and kind of fluid (hot water or steam). The estimated overall efficiency of conversion of heat in the ground to electrical energy generally ranges from less than 2 to 5 percent, depending on type of system and reservoir temperature. (See also W77-07477) (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes in United States Government Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champney, Leonard; Edleman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study employs the Solomon Four-Group Design to measure student knowledge of the United States government and student knowledge of current events at the beginning of a U.S. government course and at the end. In both areas, knowledge improves significantly. Regarding knowledge of the U.S. government, both males and females improve at similar…

  12. Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Tongans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Moy, Karen; Dinger, Mary K.; Williams, Daniel P.; Harbour, Vanessa J.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, health statistics data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) in the United States were almost nonexistent, due to their being historically aggregated into one homogenous group with Asian Americans. However, recent studies on U.S. NHPI highlight a multitude of obesity-related health disparities indicating the necessity…

  13. Air pollution: assessing total exposure in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.R.

    1988-10-01

    In recent years air pollution science has been undergoing two revolutions as the result of shifts of perception in the volumetric scale on which important adverse impacts occur. One revolution has come about because of the realization that some pollutants produce impacts at an extremely large scale. The second revolution is the result of the growing realization that the health impacts of many pollutants can only be understood through careful consideration of such microenvironments as those inside homes, vehicles, and work places. In both cases, the traditional focus of air pollution monitoring and regulation, which has been principally at the intermediate scale of urban outdoor air quality, is no longer adequate. The shift in perception has revealed a whole new set of sources and control needs along with impacts what far-reaching consequences for human well-being. Important changes in perspective result from the shift in focus to air pollution on a small scale. Not only does another set of impacts become apparent but also a new ordering of priorities for affected populations is revealed. A symptom of this second revolution that has frequently come to public attention in recent years is the growing concern with indoor air pollution. The revolution is due to the realization that health-damaging pollutants must be measured where the people are. Part 1 of this series explains the total exposure assessment revolution as it has occurred in the United States. Part 2 extends the discussion to other countries. Attention is focused on benzene, tetrachloroethylene, p-dichlorobenzene, limonene, and particulates.

  14. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Greer, Colleen D; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Refined risk assessments for birds exposed to flowable and granular formulations ofCPY were conducted for a range of current use patterns in the United States. Overall,the collective evidence from the modeling and field study lines of evidence indicate that flowable and granular CPY do not pose significant risks to the bird communities foraging in agro-ecosystems in the United States. The available information indicates that avian incidents resulting from the legal, registered uses of CPY have been very infrequent since 2002 (see SI Appendix 3). The small number of recent incidents suggests that the current labels for CPY are generally protective of birds.However, incident data are uncertain because of the difficulties associated with finding dead birds in the field and linking any mortality observed to CPY.Plowable CPY is registered for a variety of crops in the United States including alfalfa, brassica vegetables, citrus, corn, cotton, grape, mint, onion, peanut, pome and stone fruits, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet potato, tree nuts, and wheat under the trade name Lorsban Advanced. The major routes of exposure for birds to flowable CPY were consumption of treated dietary items and drinking water. The Liquid Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (Liquid PARAM) was used to simulate avian ingestion of CPY by these routes of exposure. For acute exposure,Liquid PARAM estimated the maximum retained dose in each of 20 birds on each of1,000 fields that were treated with CPY over the 60-d period following initial application.The model used a 1-h time step. For species lacking acceptable acute oral toxicity data (all focal species except northern bobwhite (C. virginianus) and redwinged blackbird (A. phoeniceus)), a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach was used to generate hypothetical dose-response curves assuming high, median and low sensitivity to CPY. For acute risk, risk curves were generated for each use pattern and exposure scenario. The risk

  15. Recent advances in soil quality assessment in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality is a concept that is useful as an educational and assessment tool. A number of assessment tools have been developed including: the Soil Conditioning Index (SCI), the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF), the AgroEcosystem Performance Assessment Tool (AEPAT), and the new Cornell “...

  16. Database for Assessment Unit-Scale Analogs (Exclusive of the United States)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, T.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents a database of geologic analogs useful for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Particularly in frontier areas, where few oil and gas fields have been discovered, assessment methods such as discovery process models may not be usable. In such cases, comparison of the assessment area to geologically similar but more maturely explored areas may be more appropriate. This analog database consists of 246 assessment units, based on the U.S. Geological Survey 2000 World Petroleum Assessment. Besides geologic data to facilitate comparisons, the database includes data pertaining to numbers and sizes of oil and gas fields and the properties of their produced fluids.

  17. National assessment of the consequences of climate change for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M. C., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is initiating a national assessment of the consequences of climate change and climate variability for the United States and the significance of these consequences for its people.

  18. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  19. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  20. Seismic risk assessment and application in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk is a somewhat subjective, but important, concept in earthquake engineering and other related decision-making. Another important concept that is closely related to seismic risk is seismic hazard. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different: seismic hazard describes the natural phenomenon or physical property of an earthquake, whereas seismic risk describes the probability of loss or damage that could be caused by a seismic hazard. The distinction between seismic hazard and seismic risk is of practical significance because measures for seismic hazard mitigation may differ from those for seismic risk reduction. Seismic risk assessment is a complicated process and starts with seismic hazard assessment. Although probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the most widely used method for seismic hazard assessment, recent studies have found that PSHA is not scientifically valid. Use of PSHA will lead to (1) artifact estimates of seismic risk, (2) misleading use of the annual probability of exccedance (i.e., the probability of exceedance in one year) as a frequency (per year), and (3) numerical creation of extremely high ground motion. An alternative approach, which is similar to those used for flood and wind hazard assessments, has been proposed. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  1. An assessment of liquid propulsion in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, John P.; Murphy, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the status of liquid propulsion capability and technology in the U.S. today versus where it needs to be to satisfy proposed near and long term goals. Attention is given to four areas of liquid propulsion: earth-to-orbit propulsion, orbital transfer propulsion, on-orbit and planetary propulsion, and advanced propulsion. Recommendations on improving the state of liquid propulsion in the U.S. are presented.

  2. Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000: Analysis of Questionnaire Data from United States Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) is an International Examination that was developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to assess the reading, mathematics, and science literacy of students in participating countries, including the United States. PISA is a two-hour paper-and-pencil…

  3. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  4. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  5. A National Assessment of Forest Fragmentation Change for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of land-cover change is important for ecological assessments and environmental planning. We used national land-cover change data, resolved at 0.09 ha per pixel, to assess change in forest fragmentation for the conterminous United States. Temporal change in fragmen...

  6. Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Potential for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Defne, Z.; Jiang, L.; Fritz, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    Tidal streams are high velocity sea currents created by periodic horizontal movement of the tides, often magnified by local topographical features such as headlands, inlets to inland lagoons, and straits. Tidal stream energy extraction is derived from the kinetic energy of the moving flow; analogous to the way a wind turbine operates in air, and as such differs from tidal barrages, which relies on providing a head of water for energy extraction. With the constantly increasing effort in promoting alternative energy, tidal streams have become promising energy sources due to their continuous, predictable and concentrated characteristics. However, the present lack of a full spatial-temporal assessment of tidal currents for the U.S. coastline down to the scale of individual devices is a barrier to the comprehensive development of tidal current energy technology. A methodology for creating a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology has been developed. The tidal flows are simulated using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is calibrated and validated using observations and tidal predictions. The calibration includes adjustments to model parameters such as bottom friction coefficient, changed land/water masks, or increased grid resolutions. A systematic validation process has been developed after defining various parameters to quantify the validation results. In order to determine the total tidal stream power resource, a common method frequently proposed is to estimate it as a fraction of the total kinetic energy flux passing through a vertical section; however, this now has been shown to generally underestimate the total available resource. The total tidal energy flux includes not just the kinetic energy but also the energy flux due to the work done by the pressure force associated with the tidal motion on the water column as well

  7. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  8. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris

    2001-11-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous United States, and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the United States where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data are used to calibrate model parameters and to determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern United States and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western United States. Crop yields typically increase, except for winter wheat in the southern United States and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and in direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher

  9. Quantifying ecosystem services from pastureland in the United States: The conservation effects assessment project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands of the United States. Society for Range Management members are familiar with the rangeland CEAP effort but may know...

  10. NONINDIGENOUS PATHOGENIC SHRIMP VIRUS INTRODUCTIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES: DEVELOPING A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonindigenous Pathogenic Shrimp Virus Introductions into the United States: Developing a Qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment. Austin, R.K.; van der Schalie, W.R.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Menzie, C.; Menzie-Cura and Associates, Chelmsford, MA; Fair...

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as par...

  12. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY CHANGES IN THE LAKES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES USING SEDIMENT DIATOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatom assemblages were selected as indicators of lake condition and to assess historical lake water quality changes in 257 lakes in the northeastern United States. The "top" (surface sediments, present-day) and "bottom" (generally from >30 cm deep, representing historical condit...

  13. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…

  14. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…

  15. Assessment of epidemiology capacity in state health departments - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Lampkins, Rebecca; Lemmings, Jennifer; Lichtenstein, Meredith; Huang, Monica; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-04-17

    Since 2001, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) periodically has conducted a standardized national assessment of state health departments' core epidemiology capacity (1-4). During August-September 2013, CSTE sent a web-based questionnaire to state epidemiologists in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The questionnaire inquired into workforce capacity and technology advancements to support public health surveillance. Measures of capacity included the total number of epidemiologists, a self-assessment of the state's ability to carry out four of the 10 essential public health services* most relevant to epidemiologists, and program-specific epidemiology capacity. This report summarizes the results, which indicated that in 2013, most of these measures were at their highest level since assessments began in 2001, including the number of epidemiologists, the percentage of state health departments with substantial-to-full (>50%) capacity for three of the 10 essential public health services, and the percentage with substantial-to-full epidemiology capacity for eight of 10 program areas. However, >50% of states reported minimal-to-no (<25%) epidemiology capacity for four of 10 program areas, including occupational health (55%), oral health (59%), substance abuse (73%), and mental health (80%). Federal, state, and local agencies should work together to develop a strategy to address continued outstanding gaps in epidemiology capacity. PMID:25879899

  16. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources Team; Biewick, Laura R. H., (compiler)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  17. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  18. United States.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Karen

    2008-10-01

    The 'Green House' effect; the rise of community care; and suicide awareness Baltimore: When he took a parttime job in a nursing home, Harvard-trained physician Bill Thomas realised that the biggest problems residents faced were not their illnesses but 'loneliness, helplessness and boredom'. He went on to found the Eden Alternative, 'a movement to de-institutionalise nursing homes', and has since revolutionised older people's residential care around Baltimore, replacing nursing homes with clusters of small homes, each for up to ten residents. Called 'Green Houses', Dr Thomas now has a $10 million (£5.6 million) grant to replace more than 100 nursing homes in all 50 US states with these small dwellings. Last month he began teaching an experimental class at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County's Erickson School on Aging, Management and Policy: 'Aging 100: You Say You Want a Revolution'. Classes will be broadcast on YouTube. PMID:27316081

  19. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  20. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  1. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2012-12-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the same time, a survey of faculty indicates that other concepts, such as the application of genetics to society or the environment, are viewed as equally or even more important than foundation concepts. This disconnect suggests a need for more explicit goal setting prior to curriculum development. We also review the relationship between concept inventories, multiple-choice tests measuring conceptual understanding, and curricular goals. Existing concept inventories offer a strong foundation on which to build community-developed concept assessments of genetics knowledge. Concept assessments such as these would allow the genetics education community to test hypotheses of curricular change.

  2. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

  3. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Chilenski, Sarah M; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness-that is, contextual factors and capacity-influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition context include community problems, community leadership style, and sense of community. Measures of coalition capacity include the existence of collaborative partnerships and coalition champions. The assessment was completed by 195 members of 9 coalitions in Mexico and 139 members of 7 coalitions in the United States. Psychometric analyses indicate the measures have moderate to strong internal consistency, along with good convergent and discriminant validity in both settings. Results indicate that members of Mexican coalitions perceive substantially more serious community problems, especially with respect to education, law enforcement, and access to alcohol and drugs. Compared to respondents in the United States, Mexican respondents perceive sense of community to be weaker and that prevention efforts are not as valued by the population where the coalitions are located. The Mexican coalitions appear to be operating in a substantially more challenging environment for the prevention of violence and substance use. Their ability to manage these challenges will likely play a large role in determining whether they are successful in their prevention efforts. The context and capacity assessment is a valuable tool that coalitions can use in order to identify and address initial barriers to success. PMID:26205249

  4. Assessment of the economic impacts of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Lee L; Tonsor, Glynn T

    2015-11-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which first emerged in the United States in 2013, spread throughout the U.S. hog population. Limited preemptive knowledge impeded the understanding of PEDV introduction, spread, and prospective economic impacts in the United States. To assess these impacts, this article reviews the timeline of PEDV in the United States and the corresponding impacts. PEDV is a supply-impacting disease and is not demand inhibiting, as pork demand remained strong since PEDV first appeared. Pig losses reached significant levels during September 2013 through August 2014, with the majority of pork production impacts occurring in 2014. PEDV had differing impacts for subsectors of the pork industry. A budget model demonstrates that producers could have had pig losses and decreases in productivity proportionally smaller than price increases, resulting in net returns above what was expected before the major outbreak of PEDV. Previous literature is reviewed to identify the potential main industry beneficiaries of the PEDV outbreaks in the United States. As a result of reduced volumes of available pig and hog supplies, reductions in annual returns likely occurred for packers, processors, distributors, and retailers. In addition, pork consumers who experienced reduced-supply-induced pork-price increases were likely harmed directly by higher prices paid for pork and indirectly as prices of competing meats were also likely strengthened by PEDV. This article also identifies future considerations motivated by the appearance of PEDV in the United States, such as discussions of industry-wide efficiency and competitive advantage, the future role of PEDV vaccines, enhancement in biosecurity measures, and consumer perceptions of food safety and insecurity. PMID:26641031

  5. 76 FR 19124 - United States Section, Notice of Availability of a Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United States Section, Notice of Availability of a Draft... and Water Commission, United States and Mexico (USIBWC). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Draft... Procedures for Implementing Section 102 of NEPA, published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981 (46...

  6. Developing Statistical Models to Assess Transplant Outcomes Using National Registries: The Process in the United States.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jon J; Salkowski, Nicholas; Kim, S Joseph; Zaun, David; Xiong, Hui; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bertram L

    2016-02-01

    Created by the US National Organ Transplant Act in 1984, the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) is obligated to publicly report data on transplant program and organ procurement organization performance in the United States. These reports include risk-adjusted assessments of graft and patient survival, and programs performing worse or better than expected are identified. The SRTR currently maintains 43 risk adjustment models for assessing posttransplant patient and graft survival and, in collaboration with the SRTR Technical Advisory Committee, has developed and implemented a new systematic process for model evaluation and revision. Patient cohorts for the risk adjustment models are identified, and single-organ and multiorgan transplants are defined, then each risk adjustment model is developed following a prespecified set of steps. Model performance is assessed, the model is refit to a more recent cohort before each evaluation cycle, and then it is applied to the evaluation cohort. The field of solid organ transplantation is unique in the breadth of the standardized data that are collected. These data allow for quality assessment across all transplant providers in the United States. A standardized process of risk model development using data from national registries may enhance the field. PMID:26814440

  7. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  8. International Comparative Assessments: Broadening the Interpretability, Application and Relevance to the United States. Research in Review 2012-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Fishbein, Bethany G.; Buckley, Vanessa W.

    2013-01-01

    Many articles and reports have reviewed, researched, and commented on international assessments from the perspective of exploring what is relevant for the United States' education systems. Researchers make claims about whether the top-performing systems have transferable practices or policies that could be applied to the United States. However,…

  9. 1998 Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Resource Assessment Team

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 1998 National Mineral Resource Assessment that estimated the gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in undiscovered deposits in the United States. This project also estimated the identified resources and past production of these five metals. Assessment results include the following: (1) It is estimated that 18,000 metric tons (t) of gold, 460,000 t of silver, 290,000 kilotons (kt) of copper, 85,000 kt of lead, and 210,000 kt of zinc are in undiscovered deposits minable with existing technology. (2) In addition, it is estimated that 15,000 t of gold, 160,000 t of silver, 260,000 kt of copper, 51,000 kt of lead, and 55,000 kt of zinc remain in identified resources. (3) Past production from the largest identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc is estimated to be 12,000 t of gold, 170,000 t of silver, 91,000 kt of copper, 41,000 kt of lead, and 44,000 kt of zinc. These deposits account for about 99 percent of cumulative domestic production in the United States.

  10. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  11. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources; results, methodology, and supporting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, G.L.; Takahashi, K.I.; Varnes, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the Minerals Management Service. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  12. 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Varnes, Katharine L.

    1996-01-01

    This revised CD-ROM summarizes the results, released in 1995, of the 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. Minor errors in the original DDS-30 (listed in DDS-35 and DDS-36) are corrected in this revised version and in the data files now released in DDS-35 and DDS-36. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  13. [Assessment system for watershed ecological health in the United States: development and application].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-07-01

    To meet the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act, the environmental agencies in the United States (U.S.) have developed a comprehensive ecological assessment system of watershed health in the last two decades. The system employs a watershed approach, and includes a large set of hydrological, chemical, and biological indices, having become an essential part of the watershed water quality management system in the U.S. and provided strong support for the protection of water environment and the restoration of aquatic system. In this paper, the development and application of the ecological assessment system of watershed health by the U.S. environmental regulators, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were overviewed from the aspects of related laws and regulations, ecosystem function analysis, ecological health indicators, comprehensive assessment system, and monitoring and data management systems, and the health assessment systems for the rivers, lakes, estuaries, coasts, and wetlands adopted by the National$t1-1-1 Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) were introduced. Some suggestions for the future development of the scientific ecological assessment system of watershed health in China were put forward based on the understanding of the protection and remediation practices of our water environment. PMID:24175541

  14. Assessing evapotranspiration variability in contiguous United States: Comparing the various remote-sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zeng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) couples the water cycle and energy budget of hydrological processes. Understanding the components of ET variability and their spatial distribution is essential for improving hydrological simulations, quantifying ET observation uncertainties and supporting water resources management under climate change. Although advances in monitoring hydrological components have been made, how to use various existing observations to obtain a better knowledge about ET variability remains a challenging task. This study adopts a system approach to analyze ET variability in contiguous United States, considering the factors of climatic forcing fluctuations and catchment storage dynamics. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai, 2015) to calculate monthly ET variance based on climatic forcing (i.e., precipitation and potential ET) and GRACE terrestrial storage change data. We quantify the various sources of ET variance, in terms of variances of precipitation, potential ET and terrestrial storage and their covariances, and obtain a spatial map of its primary and secondary controlling factors in the in contiguous United States. Furthermore, the estimated ET variance is compared to two existing ET products (e.g., MODIS-based remote sensing and FLUEXNET-based interpolation). It is found that FLUXNET-based interpolation is systematically smaller than the estimated ET variance with less deviation; while the MODIS-based ET agrees with estimated ET variance with larger uncertainty. The decomposition framework provides not only an independent estimation of ET variance but also a method to assess the uncertainty of existing ET products.

  15. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook.

  16. An Evaluation of Health Impact Assessments in the United States, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Diana; Cahill, Carol; Dannenberg, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Center for Community Health and Evaluation conducted a 3-year evaluation to assess results of health impact assessments (HIAs) in the United States and to identify elements critical for their success. Methods The study used a retrospective, mixed-methods comparative case study design, including a literature review; site visits; interviews with investigators, stakeholders, and decision makers for 23 HIAs in 16 states that were completed from 2005 through 2013; and a Web-based survey of 144 HIA practitioners. Results Analysis of interviews with decision makers suggests HIAs can directly influence decisions in nonhealth-related sectors. HIAs may also influence changes beyond the decision target, build consensus and relationships among decision makers and their constituents, and give community members a stronger voice in decisions that affect them. Factors that may increase HIA success include care in choosing a project or policy to be examined’ selecting an appropriate team to conduct the HIA; engaging stakeholders and decision makers throughout the process; crafting clear, actionable recommendations; delivering timely, compelling messages to appropriate audiences; and using multiple dissemination methods. Challenges to successful HIAs include underestimating the level of effort required, political changes during the conduct of the HIA, accessing relevant local data, engaging vulnerable populations, and following up on recommendations. Conclusion Results of this study suggest HIAs are a useful tool to promote public health because they can influence decisions in nonhealth-related sectors, strengthen cross-sector collaborations, and raise awareness of health issues among decision makers. PMID:25695261

  17. A preliminary assessment of the Montreal process indicators of air pollution for the United States.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Riitters, Kurt H; Smith, Gretchen C

    2004-07-01

    Air pollutants pose a risk to forest health and vitality in the United States. Here we present the major findings from a national scale air pollution assessment that is part of the United States' 2003 Report on Sustainable Forests. We examine trends and the percent forest subjected to specific levels of ozone and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Results are reported by Resource Planning Act (RPA) reporting region and integrated by forest type using multivariate clustering. Estimates of sulfate deposition for forested areas had decreasing trends (1994-2000) across RPA regions that were statistically significant for North and South RPA regions. Nitrate deposition rates were relatively constant for the 1994 to 2000 period, but the South RPA region had a statistically decreasing trend. The North and South RPA regions experienced the highest ammonium deposition rates and showed slightly decreasing trends. Ozone concentrations were highest in portions of the Pacific Coast RPA region and relatively high across much of the South RPA region. Both the South and Rocky Mountain RPA regions had an increasing trend in ozone exposure. Ozone-induced foliar injury to sensitive species was recorded in all regions except for the Rocky Mountain region. The multivariate analysis showed that the oak-hickory and loblolly-shortleaf pine forest types were generally exposed to more air pollution than other forest types, and the redwood, western white pine, and larch forest types were generally exposed to less. These findings offer a new approach to national air pollution assessments and are intended to help focus research and planning initiatives related to air pollution and forest health. PMID:15195820

  18. Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Levis, J W; Barlaz, M A; Themelis, N J; Ulloa, P

    2010-01-01

    Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic wastes (SSO). The objective of this study was to characterize the state-of-the-practice of food waste treatment alternatives in the US and Canada. Site visits were conducted to aerobic composting and two anaerobic digestion facilities, in addition to meetings with officials that are responsible for program implementation and financing. The technology to produce useful products from either aerobic or anaerobic treatment of SSO is in place. However, there are a number of implementation issues that must be addressed, principally project economics and feedstock purity. Project economics varied by region based on landfill disposal fees. Feedstock purity can be obtained by enforcement of contaminant standards and/or manual or mechanical sorting of the feedstock prior to and after treatment. Future SSO diversion will be governed by economics and policy incentives, including landfill organics bans and climate change mitigation policies. PMID:20171867

  19. Assessment of Staffing, Services, and Partnerships of Local Health Departments - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sarah J; Ye, Jiali; Leep, Carolyn J; Hasbrouck, LaMar; Zometa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2008, the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) periodically surveyed local health departments (LHDs) to assess the impact of the economic recession on jobs and budgets (1). In 2014, the survey was expanded to assess a wider range of factors affecting programs, services, and infrastructure in LHDs and renamed the Forces of Change survey (2). The survey was administered in to January-February 2015 to 948 LHDs across the United States to assess budget changes, job losses, changes in services, and collaboration with health care partners; 690 (73%) LHDs responded. Findings indicated a change in LHD infrastructure: compared with the previous fiscal year.* Overall, LHDs reported 3,400 jobs lost; 25% of LHDs reported budget decreases; 36% reported a reduction in at least one service area; and 35% reported serving fewer patients in clinics. In addition, up to 24% of LHDs reported expanding population-based prevention services, and LHDs reported exploring new collaborations with nonprofit hospitals and primary care providers (PCPs). PMID:27359256

  20. Environmental risk assessment of hydrotropes in the United States, Europe, and Australia.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kathleen; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Certa, Hans; Greggs, William; Hillebold, Donna; Jovanovich, Lela; Woltering, Daniel; Sedlak, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An environmental assessment of hydrotropes was conducted under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Screening Information Data Sets (SIDS) for High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Hydrotropes Consortium. The assessment and its conclusions were presented at a meeting of the OECD member countries in Washington, DC in 2005. The SIDS Initial Assessment Report (SIAR) was accepted by the membership. Their conclusion was “The chemicals in this [hydrotropes] category are of low priority for further work because of their low hazard profile.” Hydrotropes are used to solubilize the water-insoluble ingredients of cleaning and personal care products including, for example, powder and liquid laundry detergents, hard-surface cleaners, machine dishwashing rinse aids, hand dishwashing liquids, body washes, shampoos, hair conditioners, and liquid hand and face soaps. Global production equals approximately 46 500 metric tons, a little more than half of which is used in the United States. The 8 chemicals accounted for in the “hydrotropes category” include ammonium, Ca, K, and Na salts that are described by 10 Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registration numbers. The 8 chemical entities are generally comparable and predictable in their chemical behavior and that measured and/or modeled data for members from one subgroup can be applied to other subgroups and to the hydrotropes category as a whole. The assessment is based on a search for and evaluation of available data on physical–chemical properties, biodegradability, removal by wastewater treatment, and aquatic toxicity. Reliable ecotoxicity and environmental fate data were found for selected members of the category. Partitioning, once released into the environment, and exposure in surface waters were modeled for consumer use and manufacturing scenarios relevant to the United States, Europe, and Australia. The models indicate

  1. Historical View of the Influences of Measurement and Writing Theories on the Practice of Writing Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behizadeh, Nadia; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interactions among measurement theories, writing theories, and writing assessments in the United States from an historical perspective. The assessment of writing provides a useful framework for examining how theories influence, and in some cases fail to influence actual practice. Two research traditions…

  2. USGCRP 2016: The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  3. ASSESSMENT STREAMS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES USING A PERIPHYTON INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic algae were collected from 186 eastern United States streams and analyzed for diatom species richness and dominance, the relative abundance of acidobiontic, eutraphentic, and motile diatoms, standing crops of chlorophyll and biomass, and alkaline phosphatase activity. Thes...

  4. Weed Risk Assessment for Aquatic Plants: Modification of a New Zealand System for the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Doria R.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P.; Champion, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand’s Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31–39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species. PMID:22808088

  5. Nutrition Screening and Assessment in Hospitalized Patients: A Survey of Current Practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vihas; Romano, Michelle; Corkins, Mark R; DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Earthman, Carrie; Malone, Ainsley; Miller, Sarah; Sabino, Kim; Wooley, Jennifer; Guenter, Peggi

    2014-07-01

    Background: The Joint Commission has mandated universal screening and assessment of hospitalized patients for malnutrition since 1995. Although various validated and nonvalidated tools are available, implementation of this mandate has not been well characterized. We report results of a survey of hospital-based professionals in the United States describing their perspective on the current range of nutrition screening and assessment practices as well as associated gaps in knowledge. Methods and Materials: Data from a 2012-2013 cross-sectional, web-based survey targeting members of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, and the Society of Hospital Medicine were collected with non-hospital-based members excluded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Survey data from 1777 unique email addresses are included in this report. A majority of respondents were dietitians, nearly half were A.S.P.E.N. members, and 69.4% reported caring for a mix of adult and pediatric patients. Most respondents answered affirmatively about nutrition screening being performed in alignment with The Joint Commission mandate, but only 50% were familiar with the 2012 Consensus Statement from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/A.S.P.E.N. on adult malnutrition. In most cases, nurses were primarily responsible for nutrition screening, while dietitians had primary responsibility for assessment. No one specific assessment tool or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code was identified as being used a majority of the time in assessing or coding a patient for malnutrition. Conclusions: The survey findings affirmed compliance with accreditation standards in completing a nutrition screen within 24 hours of admission, and most hospitals appear to have a process to perform a nutrition assessment once a screen is completed. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in both use of tools and

  6. Groundwater availability in the United States: the value of quantitative regional assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Cunningham, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of water resources is under continued threat from the challenges associated with a growing population, competing demands, and a changing climate. Freshwater scarcity has become a fact in many areas. Much of the United States surface-water supplies are fully apportioned for use; thus, in some areas the only potential alternative freshwater source that can provide needed quantities is groundwater. Although frequently overlooked, groundwater serves as the principal reserve of freshwater in the US and represents much of the potential supply during periods of drought. Some nations have requirements to monitor and characterize the availability of groundwater such as the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (EPCEU 2000). In the US there is no such national requirement. Quantitative regional groundwater availability assessments, however, are essential to document the status and trends of groundwater availability for the US and make informed water-resource decisions possible now and in the future. Barthel (2014) highlighted that the value of regional groundwater assessments goes well beyond just quantifying the resource so that it can be better managed. The tools and techniques required to evaluate these unique regional systems advance the science of hydrogeology and provide enhanced methods that can benefit local-scale groundwater investigations. In addition, a significant, yet under-utilized benefit is the digital spatial and temporal data sets routinely generated as part of these studies. Even though there is no legal or regulatory requirement for regional groundwater assessments in the US, there is a logical basis for their implementation. The purpose of this essay is to articulate the rationale for and reaffirm the value of regional groundwater assessments primarily in the US; however, the arguments hold for all nations. The importance of the data sets and the methods and model development that occur as part of these assessments is stressed

  7. Assessment of Traffic-Related Noise in Three Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice Y.; Jerrett, Michael; Ross, Zev; Coogan, Patricia F.; Seto, Edmund Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traffic-related noise is a growing public health concern in developing and developed countries due to increasing vehicle traffic. Epidemiological studies have reported associations between noise exposure and high blood pressure, increased risk of hypertension and heart disease, and stress induced by sleep disturbance and annoyance. These findings motivate the need for regular noise assessments within urban areas. This paper assesses the relationships between traffic and noise in three US cities. Methods Noise measurements were conducted in downtown areas in three cities in the United States: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York City. For each city, we measured ambient noise levels, and assessed their correlation with simultaneously measured vehicle counts, and with traffic data provided by local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO). Additionally, measured noise levels were compared to noise levels predicted by the Federal Highway Administration’s Traffic Noise Model using (1) simultaneously measured traffic counts or (2) MPO traffic data sources as model input. Results We found substantial variations in traffic and noise within and between cities. Total number of vehicle counts explained a substantial amount of variation in measured ambient noise in Atlanta (78%), Los Angeles (58%), and New York City (62%). Modeled noise levels were moderately correlated with measured noise levels when observed traffic counts were used as model input. Weaker correlations were found when MPO traffic data was used as model input. Conclusions Ambient noise levels measured in all three cities were correlated with traffic data, highlighting the importance of traffic planning in mitigating noise-related health effects. Model performance was sensitive to the traffic data used as input. Future noise studies that use modeled noise estimates should evaluate traffic data quality and should ideally include other factors, such as local roadway, building, and meteorological

  8. Regional Climate and Variability of the Summertime Continental United States: Assessing Reanalyses Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Robertson, F. R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding climate variability at regional scales is an important for research and societal needs. Atmospheric retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) integrate multitudes of observing systems with numerical models to produce continuous data that include variables not observed easily, if at all. The breadth of variables as well as observational influence included in reanalyses make them ideal for investigating processes climate variability. In this paper, we assess NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) regional variability in North America, specifically the United States, in conjunction with current satellite data reanalyses. Emphasis is placed on summertime precipitation because 1) it is a difficult parameter to capture in the most difficult season, 2) significant observational resources exist to benchmark comparisons and 3) accurate assessment of precipitation variability is crucial to a multitude of sectors and applications. Likewise, we have also begun to evaluate surface air temperature, which provides a robust field, relative to observed data. While precipitation biases are identified, year to year variability of the precipitation, in many cases, are quite reasonable. However, some spurious long term trends and sudden shifts in the time series are also identified. In surface air temperature, analysis of station observations provides ERA Interim a clear overall advantage. However, in a number of regions, all the reanalyses are quite comparable in variability and trend. In other regions, significant precipitation biases may occur, which has implications for the ancillary process data in a reanalysis, such as surface fluxes. We also characterize the reanalyses ability to capture variability related to ENSO. In general, the summertime variations of precipitation in the reanalyses are more highly correlated (positively) to ENSO (using Nino 3.4) than are the observations. The Northwestern US shows the largest positive

  9. Assessment of science-related environmental issues among Venezuelan students, with comparison to United States Student Data

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Arredondo, O.D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study is a comparative investigation of the current level of understanding of science-related environmental issues of students in the United States and Venezuela. Major facets of the study include the following aspects. The principal science-related environmental issues included in environmental curriculum programs in the United States and Venezuela were identified from school curriculum-programs, dissertations, environmental studies of the National Association of Environmental Education in the United States, and the Memoria y Cuenta (Memoirs and Accounts) of the ministries of Education and Environment in Venezuela. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test items pertaining to science-related environmental issues administered to representative United States' students in 1981-1982, were subsequently translated and administered to comparable students in Venezuela, in 1984.

  10. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  11. Assessing Climate Change Impacts for Military Installations in the Southwest United States During the Warm Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C.

    2013-05-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are experiencing some of the most adverse impacts of climate change with increased heat waves, droughts, and extreme weather. These events will likely exacerbate socioeconomic and political instabilities in regions where the United States has vital strategic interests and ongoing military operations. The Southwest U.S. is strategically important in that it houses some of the most spatially expansive and important military installations in the country. The majority of severe weather events in the Southwest occur in association with the North American monsoon system (NAMS), and current observational record has shown a 'wet gets wetter and dry gets drier' global monsoon precipitation trend. We seek to evaluate the warm season extreme weather projection in the Southwest U.S., and how the extremes can affect Department of Defense (DoD) military facilities in that region. A baseline methodology is being developed to select extreme warm season weather events based on historical sounding data and moisture surge observations from Gulf of California. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)-type high resolution simulations will be performed for the extreme events identified from Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model simulations initiated from IPCC GCM and NCAR Reanalysis data in both climate control and climate change periods. The magnitude in extreme event changes will be analyzed, and the synoptic forcing patterns of the future severe thunderstorms will provide a guide line to assess if the military installations in the Southwest will become more or less susceptible to severe weather in the future.

  12. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin A.

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  14. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elkinton, Chris; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  15. Assessment of mediators of racial disparities in cervical cancer survival in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Candace S; El-Zein, Mariam; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) morbidity and mortality have decreased in the United States, but they remain high among black women. We assessed racial disparities in CC mortality, accounting for socioeconomic status (SES). We linked data from the 1988 to 2007 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to the US Census. Additional SES information was obtained through linkage with Area Resource Files. We used the Kaplan-Meier method for estimating probabilities following CC diagnosis and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CC mortality by race. The models were incrementally adjusted for marital status, registry, period, stage, age at diagnosis, histology, treatment, household income, poverty and unemployment rates. We stratified the analyses by disease stage and American state. A total of 44,554 women with CC were identified. Compared to white women, black women had a higher risk of dying from CC; crude and adjusted HRs were 1.41 (CI: 1.34-1.48) and 1.09 (CI: 1.03-1.15), respectively. Corresponding estimates for Hispanic women were 0.85 (CI: 0.80-0.89) and 0.75 (CI: 0.71-0.80). Black women diagnosed at late disease stages had a higher risk of CC death, whereas Hispanic women diagnosed at early and late stages had significantly lower risks. Black CC patients in California experienced poorer survival relative to white women. Conversely, longer CC survival was seen among Hispanic women in California, Georgia and Utah. While crude estimates indicated an increased CC death risk among black women, risks diminished upon adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:26756569

  16. Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment and Public Policy in the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2007-05-01

    United States, however. This inconsistency is caused by the methodology being used for seismic hazard and risk assessment: probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Although PSHA is the most widely used method for seismic hazard and risk assessment, it contains a mathematical error in the formulation: incorrectly treating the ground-motion uncertainty as an independent random variable. The ground-motion uncertainty is an explicit or implicit dependent variable as it is modeled in the ground-motion attenuation relationship. The mathematical error results in difficulty in understanding and applying PSHA. PSHA mixes temporal measurement (occurrence of an earthquake and its consequence [ground motion] at a site) with spatial measurement (ground-motion variability due to the source, path, and site effects). Thus, use of PSHA in seismic hazard and risk assessment is problematic for policy consideration.

  17. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  18. Assessing Academic Outcomes at the United States Coast Guard Academy: The Role of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezendes, George J.; Gable, Robert K.

    This paper discusses the efforts of the Department of Mathematics at the United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) to determine the degree to which their courses support the published academic outcomes of the institution, and presents the results of a survey of student attitudes toward the academic outcomes. A survey questionnaire was developed…

  19. ASSESSING OZONE EFFECTS ON PLANTS NATIVE TO THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the last six years, the U.S. National Park Service, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and University researchers have been documenting the effects of ozone on a large number of woody and herbaceous species native to the southeastern United States. n Great Smoky Mountains ...

  20. Vulnerability Assessment of Dust Storms in the United States under a Changing Climate Scenario

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe weather events, such as flooding, drought, forest fires, and dust storms can have a serious impact on human health. Dust storm events are not well predicted in the United States, however they are expected to become more frequent as global climate warms through the 21st cen...

  1. Developing a Dataset to Assess Ecosystem Services in the Midwest, United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need in the science community to enhance our understanding of the services provided by the ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The following paper describes a method for creating an enhanced spatially explicit land cover for the Midwest. We constructed...

  2. Assessment, Accountability, and Educational Quality in the United States and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Steven M.; Warfvinge, Per

    2013-01-01

    In both Europe and the United States, accountability pressures have continued to increase, spurred by the higher-level policy groups represented by the EC in Europe and by the federal government in the US, forcing institutions to measure their effectiveness in ways that are more transparent to governmental bodies and the general public. These ways…

  3. Cultural Competence in the Assessment of Poor Mexican Families in the Rural Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina U.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of poor Mexican immigrant families are settling in the rural southeastern United States. Most of these families are from isolated agrarian communities in Mexico and are headed by unskilled laborers or displaced farm workers with little education. Child welfare workers and other service providers in rural communities may be…

  4. Current Assessment of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstock Crops for Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable fuel production has become an important topic in the United States over the past few years. Increased ethanol production and use as fuel, in particular, is seen as a means of reducing the nation’s dependence on petroleum. Brazil has become independent from petroleum imports by converting...

  5. Monitoring the Condition of the Estuaries of the United States: The National Coastal Assessment Experience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the United States include estuaries, bays, sounds, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, intertidal zones, mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and coastal ocean and upwelling areas (i.e. deep water rising to surface). These coastal areas encompass a wide diver...

  6. Community Prevention Coalition Context and Capacity Assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Louis D.; Chilenski, Sarah M.; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness--that is, contextual factors and capacity--influences implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition…

  7. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1546.213 Section 1546.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  8. 49 CFR 1540.115 - Threat assessments regarding citizens of the United States holding or applying for FAA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Threat assessments regarding citizens of the United States holding or applying for FAA certificates, ratings, or authorizations. 1540.115 Section 1540.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  9. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; McManamay, Ryan A; Stewart, Kevin M; Samu, Nicole M; Hadjerioua, Boualem; DeNeale, Scott T; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A; Smith, Brennan T

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  10. Integrating Intimate Partner Violence Assessment and Intervention into Healthcare in the United States: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, Brigid; Humphreys, Betsy L.; Mitchell, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Institute of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), and national healthcare organizations recommend screening and counseling for intimate partner violence (IPV) within the US healthcare setting. The Affordable Care Act includes screening and brief counseling for IPV as part of required free preventive services for women. Thus, IPV screening and counseling must be implemented safely and effectively throughout the healthcare delivery system. Health professional education is one strategy for increasing screening and counseling in healthcare settings, but studies on improving screening and counseling for other health conditions highlight the critical role of making changes within the healthcare delivery system to drive desired improvements in clinician screening practices and health outcomes. This article outlines a systems approach to the implementation of IPV screening and counseling, with a focus on integrated health and advocacy service delivery to support identification and interventions, use of electronic health record (EHR) tools, and cross-sector partnerships. Practice and policy recommendations include (1) ensuring staff and clinician training in effective, client-centered IPV assessment that connects patients to support and services regardless of disclosure; (2) supporting enhancement of EHRs to prompt appropriate clinical care for IPV and facilitate capturing more detailed and standardized IPV data; and (3) integrating IPV care into quality and meaningful use measures. Research directions include studies across various health settings and populations, development of quality measures and patient-centered outcomes, and tests of multilevel approaches to improve the uptake and consistent implementation of evidence-informed IPV screening and counseling guidelines. PMID:25606823

  11. A scientifically based nationwide assessment of groundwater quality in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.; Cohen, P.

    1991-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began an effort to develop a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The basic premise underlying this initiative is that a better understanding of the quality of water resources across the country, both surface- and groundwater, is needed to develop effective programs and policies to meet the nation's water-quality concerns. The program will focus on water-quality conditions that are prevalent or large in scale, such as occur from nonpoint sources of pollution or from a high density of point sources. The design of the program is substantially different from the traditional approach of a diffuse national monitoring network. The major activities of the assessment program will be clustered within a set of hydrologic systems (river basins and aquifer systems), referred to as study units. In aggregate, the study units will account for a large part of the nation's water use and represent a wide range of settings across the country. Unique attributes of the program include: (1) the use of consistent study approaches, field and laboratory methods, water-quality measurements, and ancillary data measurements for all study units; (2) the development of a progressive understanding of water-quality conditions and trends in each study unit through long-term studies that rotate periods of intensive data collection and analysis with periods during which the assessment activities are less intensive; and (3) the focus of considerable effort on synthesizing results from among the study units to provide information on regional and national water-quality issues. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. Assessment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P.

    2012-12-12

    This report describes the methodology and results of the most rigorous assessment to date of the riverine hydrokinetic energy resource in the contiguous 48 states and Alaska, excluding tidal waters. The assessment provides estimates of the gross, naturally available resource, termed the theoretical resource, as well as estimates, termed the technically recoverable resource, that account for selected technological factors affecting capture and conversion of the theoretical resource. The technically recoverable resource does not account for all technical constraints on energy capture and conversion.

  13. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  14. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Potential in the United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Musial, W.

    2011-05-01

    The development of an offshore wind resource database is one of the first steps necessary to understand the magnitude of the resource and to plan the distribution and development of future offshore wind power facilities. The U.S. Department of Energy supported the production of offshore wind resource maps and potential estimates for much of the United States. This presentation discusses NREL's 2010 offshore wind resources report; current U.S., regional, and state offshore maps; methodology for the wind mapping and validation; wind potential estimates; the Geographic Information Systems database; and future work and conclusions.

  15. Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

  16. Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: Key Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States, is a technical input to the National Climate Assessment. The 121-author report summarizes knowledge about climate change and its impacts across Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The report looks at links between climate and natural resources, vulnerabilities to climate variability and change across the region and along the U.S.-Mexico border, and adaptation and mitigation choices for addressing future changes. The period since 1950 has been warmer than any period of comparable length in the last 600 years. Droughts of the past 2,000 years have exceeded the most severe and sustained drought during 1901-2010. In the last decade, flows in the major river basins of the Southwest have been lower than their 20th century averages; many snowmelt-fed streams in the region exhibited earlier snowmelt and earlier center of mass of annual streamflows. Climate models project continued temperature increases, with longer and hotter summer heat waves. Average precipitation is projected to decrease in the southern part of the region. Reduced streamflows are projected for the Rio Grande, Colorado, and San Joaquin rivers. More frequent and intense winter flooding is projected for the western Sierra Nevada, whereas Colorado Front Range summer flooding is projected to increase. Observed ecosystems impacts include changes in phenology, widespread forest disturbance due to the confluence of drought, increased temperatures, and changes to insect life cycles. Area burned by wildfire is projected to increase in most of the Southwest. Plant and animal species' distributions will be affected by climate change, and studies show that observed climate changes are strongly associated with observed changes in species' distributions. California coastal ecosystems will be affected by a combination of ocean warming, reduced oxygen content, sea level rise and ocean acidification. When west coast sea levels are

  17. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  18. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  19. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  20. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  1. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  2. Rapid assessment of vectorborne diseases during the Midwest flood--United States, 1993.

    PubMed

    1994-07-01

    Heavy spring and summer rainfall during 1993 caused the most extensive flash and riverine flooding ever recorded in the upper midwestern United States. In portions of the flood region,* standing water provided large expanses of habitat capable of producing large populations of the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Cx. tarsalis. These species can rapidly amplify transmission of the arboviruses that cause St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE). Although information from state health departments in the disaster area indicated minimal SLE or WEE activity in the region before the flooding, large vector populations in certain areas following the flooding increased the potential for exposure of residents and emergency workers to arboviral infection. To determine the risk for arboviral disease in the disaster area, CDC, in collaboration with state and local health departments, conducted surveillance during August-September 1993. This report summarizes the results of the surveillance activity. PMID:7911970

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN HYDROTHERMAL CONVECTION SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1984-01-01

    The amount of thermal energy in high-temperature geothermal systems (>150 degree C) in the United States has been calculated by estimating the temperature, area, and thickness of each identified system. These data, along with a general model for recoverability of geothermal energy and a calculation that takes account of the conversion of thermal energy to electricity, yield a resource estimate of 23,000 MWe for 30 years. The undiscovered component was estimated based on multipliers of the identified resource as either 72,000 or 127,000 MWe for 30 years depending on the model chosen for the distribution of undiscovered energy as a function of temperature.

  4. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  5. Assessment of freshwater fish assemblages and their habitats in the National Park Service system of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; McAbee, Kevin T.; Stahli, Julie W.

    2012-01-01

    The southeast region of the United States contains the highest diversity of freshwater fish species in the country: approximately 662 species. Existing protected areas like units of the National Park Service (NPS) should reflect this biodiversity, but there has been no broad-scale assessment. We compiled several data sets identifying native freshwater fish species distributions in and surrounding NPS units and threats to those resources. Focusing on the 26 NPS units containing only freshwater fish species, we documented 288 species within NPS boundaries. The largest NPS units tended to have the most fish species and aquatic habitat but also the greatest amount of alteration. Increasing rates of urbanization, declines in percentage agriculture land cover, and increased density of road-stream crossings in surrounding watersheds were good predictors of nonindigenous species presence within NPS unit boundaries. These results help document the role of NPS units in conserving freshwater fish diversity and, in this region, suggest that measures aimed at controlling urbanization in the adjacent watersheds could affect the diversity of freshwater fish communities in these units.

  6. Progress report on the SERI/HBCU task to upgrade the assessment of insolation resources in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; Szwarc, V.S.; Stoffel, T.L.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes the formulation, development, and initial results of a joint task undertaken by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The task seeks to upgrade the assessment of insolation resources in the southeastern United States and to introduce solar energy information and solar resource data into the HBCUs and their surrounding communities. The report describes the establishment of a six-station solar radiation network, its operation, the processing of data, and initial results.

  7. Assessing PM2.5 Exposures with High Spatiotemporal Resolution across the Continental United States.

    PubMed

    Di, Qian; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-05-01

    A number of models have been developed to estimate PM2.5 exposure, including satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) models, land-use regression, or chemical transport model simulation, all with both strengths and weaknesses. Variables like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface reflectance, absorbing aerosol index, and meteoroidal fields are also informative about PM2.5 concentrations. Our objective is to establish a hybrid model which incorporates multiple approaches and input variables to improve model performance. To account for complex atmospheric mechanisms, we used a neural network for its capacity to model nonlinearity and interactions. We used convolutional layers, which aggregate neighboring information, into a neural network to account for spatial and temporal autocorrelation. We trained the neural network for the continental United States from 2000 to 2012 and tested it with left out monitors. Ten-fold cross-validation revealed a good model performance with a total R(2) of 0.84 on the left out monitors. Regional R(2) could be even higher for the Eastern and Central United States. Model performance was still good at low PM2.5 concentrations. Then, we used the trained neural network to make daily predictions of PM2.5 at 1 km × 1 km grid cells. This model allows epidemiologists to access PM2.5 exposure in both the short-term and the long-term. PMID:27023334

  8. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  9. Assessing Public Preferences for Forest Biomass Based Energy in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaeta, Andres; Alavalapati, Janaki; Lal, Pankaj; Matta, Jagannadha R.; Mercer, Evan

    2010-04-01

    This article investigated public preferences for forest biomass based liquid biofuels, particularly ethanol blends of 10% ( E10) and 85% ( E85). We conducted a choice experiment study in three southern states in the United States: Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia. Reducing atmospheric CO2, decreasing risk of wildfires and pest outbreaks, and enhancing biodiversity were presented to respondents as attributes of using biofuels. Results indicated that individuals had a positive extra willingness to pay (WTP) for both ethanol blends. The extra WTP was greater for higher blends that offered larger environment benefits. The WTPs for E10 were 0.56 gallon-1, 0.58 gallon-1, and 0.48 gallon-1, and for E85 they were 0.82 gallon-1, 1.17 gallon-1, and 1.06 gallon-1 in Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia, respectively. Although differences in WTP for E10 were statistically insignificant among the three states, significant differences were found in the WTP for E85 between AR and FL and between AR and VA. Preferences for the environmental attributes appeared to be heterogeneous, as respondents’ were willing to pay a premium for E10 in all three states to facilitate the reduction of CO2 and the improvement of biodiversity but were not willing to pay more for E85 in order to enhance biodiversity.

  10. Assessing and Managing Methylmercury Risks Associated With Power Plant Mercury Emissions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or “hot spots.” The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little

  11. Bioterrorism in the United States: a balanced assessment of risk and response.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2003-01-01

    There are many definitions of terrorism and numerous examples of the use of explosives and small arms, especially against civilians and with the objective of instilling fear. Although chemical and biological agents have only rarely been used by terrorists, there has recently been much concern about the threat of bioterrorism and the role of future health personnel in counteracting it. Rational setting of priorities requires the balance of risks against benefits in prevention and preparedness. Adverse effects of preparedness include inappropriate warnings, diversion of resources from other public health measures, both in the United States and overseas and constraints on civil rights. It is argued that the US should counteract the threat of bioterrorism by dealing with its root causes and by strengthening civil rights, international arms control and international law rather than by a self-defeating 'war on terrorism'. PMID:14703129

  12. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change, Land-Use Changes, and Regional Carbon Dynamics in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J. E.; Sleeter, B. M.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The fact that climate change is likely to accelerate throughout this century means that climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture will need to adapt increasingly to climate change. This fact also means that understanding the potential for agricultural adaptation, and how it could come about, is important for ongoing technology investments in the public and private sectors, for infrastructure investments, and for the various policies that address agriculture directly or indirectly. This paper is an interdisciplinary study by collaborating with climate scientist, agronomists, economists, and ecologists. We first use statistical models to estimate impacts of climate change on major crop yields (wheat, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and cotton) and predict changes in crop yields under future climate condition using downscaled climate projections from CMIP5. Then, we feed the predicted yield changes to a partial equilibrium economic model (FASOM-GHG) to evaluate economic and environmental outcomes including changes in land uses (i.e., cropland, pastureland, forest land, urban land and land for conservation) in United States. Finally, we use outputs from FASOM-GHG as inputs for the ST-SIM ecological model to simulate future carbon dynamics through changes in land use under future climate conditions and discuss the rate of adaptation through land-use changes. Findings in this paper have several merits compared to previous findings in the literature. First, we add economic components to the carbon calculation. It is important to include socio-economic conditions when calculating carbon emission and/or carbon sequestration because human activities are the major contribution to atmosphere GHG emissions. Second, we use the most recent downscaled climate projections from CMIP5 to capture uncertainties from climate model projections. Instead of using all GCMs, we select five GCMs to represent the ensemble. Third, we use a bottom-up approach because we start from micro-level data

  13. Definition of Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous Lower Cenomanian Shale Gas Assessment Unit, United States Gulf of Mexico Basin Onshore and State Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment unit (AU) for undiscovered continuous “shale” gas in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian and Albian) and basal Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian) rocks in the USA onshore Gulf of Mexico coastal plain recently was defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The AU is part of the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Definition of the AU was conducted as part of the 2010 USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Gulf Coast Mesozoic stratigraphic intervals. The purpose of defining the Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous Shale Gas AU was to propose a hypothetical AU in the Cretaceous part of the Gulf Coast TPS in which there might be continuous “shale” gas, but the AU was not quantitatively assessed by the USGS in 2010.

  14. 75 FR 77662 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United States Section; Notice of Availability of a Final... Water Commission, United States and Mexico (USIBWC). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Final... Procedures for Implementing Section 102 of NEPA, published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46...

  15. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M., (Edited By)

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  17. Environmental Impacts of Surgical Procedures: Life Cycle Assessment of Hysterectomy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare sector is a driver of economic growth in the U.S., with spending on healthcare in 2012 reaching $2.8 trillion, or 17% of the U.S. gross domestic product, but it is also a significant source of emissions that adversely impact environmental and public health. The current state of the healthcare industry offers significant opportunities for environmental efficiency improvements, potentially leading to reductions in costs, resource use, and waste without compromising patient care. However, limited research exists that can provide quantitative, sustainable solutions. The operating room is the most resource-intensive area of a hospital, and surgery is therefore an important focal point to understand healthcare-related emissions. Hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to quantify environmental emissions from four different surgical approaches (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic) used in the second most common major procedure for women in the U.S., the hysterectomy. Data were collected from 62 cases of hysterectomy. Life cycle assessment results show that major sources of environmental emissions include the production of disposable materials and single-use surgical devices, energy used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, and anesthetic gases. By scientifically evaluating emissions, the healthcare industry can strategically optimize its transition to a more sustainable system. PMID:25517602

  18. A look at state-level risk assessment in the United States: making decisions in the absence of federal risk values.

    PubMed

    Effio, Diana G; Kroner, Oliver; Maier, Andrew; Hayes, William; Willis, Alison; Strawson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    State environmental agencies in the United States are charged with making risk management decisions that protect public health and the environment while managing limited technical, financial, and human resources. Meanwhile, the federal risk assessment community that provides risk assessment guidance to state agencies is challenged by the rapid growth of the global chemical inventory. When chemical toxicity profiles are unavailable on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System or other federal resources, each state agency must act independently to identify and select appropriate chemical risk values for application in human health risk assessment. This practice can lead to broad interstate variation in the toxicity values selected for any one chemical. Within this context, this article describes the decision-making process and resources used by the federal government and individual U.S. states. The risk management of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the United States is presented as a case study to demonstrate the need for a collaborative approach among U.S. states toward identification and selection of chemical risk values while awaiting federal risk values to be set. The regulatory experience with TCE is contrasted with collaborative risk science models, such as the European Union's efforts in risk assessment harmonization. Finally, we introduce State Environmental Agency Risk Collaboration for Harmonization, a free online interactive tool designed to help to create a collaborative network among state agencies to provide a vehicle for efficiently sharing information and resources, and for the advancement of harmonization in risk values used among U.S. states when federal guidance is unavailable. PMID:22650987

  19. Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States. A Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Margolis, Robert; Melius, Jennifer; Phillips, Caleb; Elmore, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    How much energy could be generated if PV modules were installed on all of the suitable roof area in the nation? To answer this question, we first use GIS methods to process a lidar dataset and determine the amount of roof area that is suitable for PV deployment in 128 cities nationwide, containing 23% of U.S. buildings, and provide PV-generation results for a subset of those cities. We then extend the insights from that analysis to the entire continental United States. We develop two statistical models--one for small buildings and one for medium and large buildings--and populate them with geographic variables that correlate with rooftop's suitability for PV. We simulate the productivity of PV installed on the suitable roof area, and present the technical potential of PV on both small buildings and medium/large buildings for every state in the continental US. Within the 128 cities covered by lidar data, 83% of small buildings have a location suitable for a PV installation, but only 26% of the total rooftop area of small buildings is suitable for development. The sheer number of buildings in this class, however, gives small buildings the greatest technical potential. Small building rooftops could accommodate 731 GW of PV capacity and generate 926 TWh/year of PV energy, approximately 65% of rooftop PV's total technical potential. We conclude by summing the PV-generation results for all building sizes and therefore answering our original question, estimating that the total national technical potential of rooftop PV is 1,118 GW of installed capacity and 1,432 TWh of annual energy generation. This equates to 39% of total national electric-sector sales.

  20. Assessing public health burden associated with exposure to ambient black carbon in the United States.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Henze, Daven K; Jack, Darby; Henderson, Barron H; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which has been linked to a series of adverse health effects, in particular premature mortality. Recent scientific research indicates that BC also plays an important role in climate change. Therefore, controlling black carbon emissions provides an opportunity for a double dividend. This study quantifies the national burden of mortality and morbidity attributable to exposure to ambient BC in the United States (US). We use GEOS-Chem, a global 3-D model of atmospheric composition to estimate the 2010 annual average BC levels at 0.5×0.667° resolution, and then re-grid to 12-km grid resolution across the continental US. Using PM2.5 mortality risk coefficient drawn from the American Cancer Society cohort study, the numbers of deaths due to BC exposure were estimated for each 12-km grid, and then aggregated to the county, state and national level. Given evidence that BC particles may pose a greater risk on human health than other components of PM2.5, we also conducted sensitivity analysis using BC-specific risk coefficients drawn from recent literature. We estimated approximately 14,000 deaths to result from the 2010 BC levels, and hundreds of thousands of illness cases, ranging from hospitalizations and emergency department visits to minor respiratory symptoms. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the total BC-related mortality could be even significantly larger than the above mortality estimate. Our findings indicate that controlling BC emissions would have substantial benefits for public health in the US. PMID:26383853

  1. Assessing the future of crop yield variability in the United States with downscaled climate projections (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, D. B.; Urban, D.

    2010-12-01

    One aspect of climate change of particular concern to farmers and food markets is the potential for increased year-to-year variability in crop yields. Recent episodes of food price increases following the Australian drought or Russian heat wave have heightened this concern. Downscaled climate projections that properly capture the magnitude of daily and interannual variability of weather can be useful for projecting future yield variability. Here we examine the potential magnitude and cause of changes in variability of corn yields in the United States up to 2050. Using downscaled climate projections from multiple models, we estimate a distribution of changes in mean and variability of growing season average temperature and precipitation. These projections are then fed into a model of maize yield that explicitly factors in the effect of extremely warm days. Changes in yield variability can result from a shift in mean temperatures coupled with a nonlinear crop response, a shift in climate variability, or a combination of the two. The results are decomposed into these different causes, with implications for future research to reduce uncertainties in projections of future yield variability.

  2. Assessing United States Patient and Dermatologist Experiences with Severe Chronic Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Eileen; Zelt, Susan; Reynolds, Maria; Sherrill, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with severe chronic hand eczema often have persistent symptoms that interfere with daily activities, social functioning, and employment. Many patients are refractory to topical corticosteroids. This survey-based study was performed to characterize treatment experiences, impact on productivity, and quality of life of patients with severe chronic hand eczema; understand dermatologists’ severe chronic hand eczema treatment patterns. Design: A web-based survey in the United States queried pre-identified patients with severe chronic hand eczema regarding symptoms, treatment history, quality of life, work productivity, treatment satisfaction, and healthcare utilization. In a separate survey, dermatologists were asked about treatment patterns and satisfaction with currently available therapies. Results: The most commonly reported symptoms currently experienced by patients (n=163) were dryness/flaking (81%), itchiness (75%), and cracking/tearing of the skin (71%). Over the last three months, 84 percent of patients with severe chronic hand eczema self-reported using topical steroids, and 30 percent used systemic corticosteroids or retinoids. Approximately 30 percent reported impairment while working and productivity loss. Patient quality of life was negatively impacted. Dermatologists (n=125) reported most often treating severe chronic hand eczema with topical corticosteroids (99%), followed by topical immunomodulators (71%) and systemic treatments (70%). Only two percent were very satisfied with currently available products. Conclusion: Patients with severe chronic hand eczema experience symptoms that negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. Few dermatologists are very satisfied with currently available severe chronic hand eczema treatment options. PMID:26705436

  3. Production and Adaptation Assessments of Agricultural Crops under Climate Change in Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absar, M.; Touma, D. E.; Mei, R.; Rastogi, D.; Surendran Nair, S.; Ahmed, K. F.; Wu, W.; Preston, B. L.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-12-01

    We use multiple Global Climate Models (GCMs) data from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) in a point based crop simulation model, Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT), to investigate the impact of climate variability and change on crop yields in the southeastern United States. The input data consists of maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation at daily time-scale, covering 30 years (1975-2004) in the baseline period, and 90 years (2010-2100) in the future period under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. The DSSAT model is run for 1009 counties of 10 southeastern states, representing the study area. Default DSSAT crop and biophysical process parameter values are used with some minor adjustments based on suggestions from scientific literature. For the analyses of projected changes, we divide the 21st century into the near-term (2010-2039), mid-term (2040-2069) and long-term (2070-2100) periods and investigate the effect of changes in mean and extreme hydro-meteorological characteristics on crop yields by using future temperature, precipitation and CO2 data. We conduct two sets of experiments; the first set of experiments isolates the effect of temperature and precipitation on crop yields by using temperature and precipitation data from each of the three future periods while keeping CO2 at the baseline level (380ppm). The second set of experiments isolates the effect of CO2 on crop yields by using temperature and precipitation from the baseline period and using CO2 level as an average of the last 10 years in each of the three future periods (467ppm, 636ppm and 886ppm). Given the projected changes in the crop yields in the future, we focus on the adaptation strategies at the local level based on the optimal management practices such as irrigation, fertilization and planting date that will be needed to adapt to regional climate variability and change.

  4. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  5. Production and Adaptation Assessments of Agricultural Crops under Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absar, S. M.; Touma, D. E.; Preston, B. L.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-12-01

    We use multiple Global Climate Models (GCMs) data from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) in a point based crop simulation model, Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT), to investigate the impact of climate variability and change on crop yields in the southeastern United States. The input data consists of maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation at daily time-scale, covering 40 years (1960-1999) in the baseline period, and 90 years (2010-2100) in the future period under the baseline emissions scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. The DSSAT model has been calibrated for 29 sites, representing the study area, using field experiment data. The input soil parameters for DSSAT include soil classification, surface slope, color, permeability, and drainage. For the analyses of projected changes, we divide the 21st century into the near-term (2010-2049) and long-term (2050-2100) periods and focus on comparing the yields of major crops grown at the selected sites, during each future period, with the corresponding yields in the baseline period. In particular, we investigate the effect of changes in mean and extreme hydro-meteorological characteristics on crop yields in the region. Given the projected changes in the crop yields in the future periods, we focus on the adaptation strategies at the local level based on the optimal management practices such as irrigation, fertilization, sowing date that will be needed to cope with climate variability and change in the region.

  6. Psychometric properties of a novel knowledge assessment tool of mechanical ventilation for emergency medicine residents in the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prior descriptions of the psychometric properties of validated knowledge assessment tools designed to determine Emergency medicine (EM) residents understanding of physiologic and clinical concepts related to mechanical ventilation are lacking. In this setting, we have performed this study to describe the psychometric and performance properties of a novel knowledge assessment tool that measures EM residents’ knowledge of topics in mechanical ventilation. Methods: Results from a multicenter, prospective, survey study involving 219 EM residents from 8 academic hospitals in northeastern United States were analyzed to quantify reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination of each of the 9 questions included in the knowledge assessment tool for 3 weeks, beginning in January 2013. Results: The response rate for residents completing the knowledge assessment tool was 68.6% (214 out of 312 EM residents). Reliability was assessed by both Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.6293) and the Spearman-Brown coefficient (0.6437). Item difficulty ranged from 0.39 to 0.96, with a mean item difficulty of 0.75 for all 9 questions. Uncorrected item discrimination values ranged from 0.111 to 0.556. Corrected item-total correlations were determined by removing the question being assessed from analysis, resulting in a range of item discrimination from 0.139 to 0.498. Conclusion: Reliability, item difficulty and item discrimination were within satisfactory ranges in this study, demonstrating acceptable psychometric properties of this knowledge assessment tool. This assessment indicates that this knowledge assessment tool is sufficiently rigorous for use in future research studies or for assessment of EM residents for evaluative purposes. PMID:26924540

  7. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  8. Life cycle impact assessment weights to support environmentally preferable purchasing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Thomas P; Lippiatt, Barbara C; Cooper, Jennifer

    2007-11-01

    LCA is a quantitative method for understanding the environmental impacts of a product, yet all product purchasing decisions are ultimately subjective. Weights are the nexus between the quantitative results of LCA and the values-based, subjective choices of decision makers. In May 2007, NIST introduced a new optional weight set in Version 4.0 of the BEES software. Three key points about this new optional weight set are the basis for discussion in this paper: The new weight set was created specifically in the context of BEES. It is intended to support a practical method to assist environmentally preferable purchasing in the United States based on LCIA results. This is in contrast to the weight sets currently in BEES, which are based on generalist perspectives. The new weight set was created by a multi-stakeholder panel via the AHP method, and is a synthesis of panelists' perspectives on the relative importance of each environmental impact category in BEES. The weight set draws on each panelist's personal and professional understanding of, and value attributed to, each impact category. While the synthesized weight set may not equally satisfy each panelist's view of impact importance, it does reflect contemporary values in applying LCAto real world decisions, and represents one approach others can learn from in producing weight sets. The new weight set offers BEES users an additional option for synthesizing and comparing the environmental performance of building products and making purchasing decisions. In so doing, it strengthens the decision-making process, which is important when making product comparisons in the public domain. The Weight Set: Across all panelists and with explicit consideration of all time horizons, anthropogenic contributions to global warming, weighted at 29%, was judged most important, yet not so important that decisions can be made solely on the basis of this impact. A strong tail of other concerns include fossil fuel depletion (10%), criteria

  9. United States crustal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.

  10. Use of geographic information systems (GIS) to assess environmental risk factors threatening rare redeye bass (Micropterus coosae) in the southeastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat destruction, pollution, species introductions, and drainage alterations are frequently cited as the principal anthropogenic stressors responsible for wide-scale imperilment of the freshwater ichthyofauna of the southeastern United States. Quantification and assessment of ...

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Physical Fitness and Sports Promotion and Delivery in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Final Report. Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzo, Robert

    A final report is given of an assessment and comparison series which evaluated the national fitness and sport promotion systems in the United States, Australia, and Canada. The framework of the three country-specific assessments treated national level policies and programs first, followed by state or provincial activities. At each stage, physical…

  12. Medical Licensing Examinations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Donald E.; Dillon, Gerard F.; Swanson, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examination requirements for medical licensure in the United States, focusing on the exam components related to assessment of hands-on clinical skills with patients and assessment of medical decision-making skills. Provides a brief history of medical licensing exams, describes the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and…

  13. Health technology assessment of cancer drugs in Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia: should the United States take notice?

    PubMed

    Dranitsaris, George; Papadopoulos, George

    2015-06-01

    Cancer remains a global problem, with 7.5 million deaths annually, making it responsible for approximately 13% of deaths from all causes. Cancer also becomes more prevalent as the population ages, making it a major health policy challenge for many countries around the world. However, the encouraging news is that the number of cancer-related deaths has stabilized in many countries. At least part of this success may be attributed to improved diagnosis, early intervention strategies and the development of a newer class of anticancer agents, collectively called "targeted therapies", that are more specific in inhibiting key pathways in tumour genesis. However, these newer drugs are associated with a higher cost. As a result, expenditures for agents and cancer in general have been rising rapidly, far beyond the rate of inflation. Some view this as threatening the very health care systems themselves, which are integral to the modern social contract. Different countries have adopted unique mechanisms to facilitate patient access to these newer agents, with the intent of ensuring value for money and sustainability. In this review, cancer care policies and mechanisms for patient access to new drugs will be discussed and compared between select countries. Given its position as a country that allows free pharmaceutical pricing and multi-payer health insurance, the USA will be the reference country and will be compared with the UK, Canada and Australia, three countries with socialized health care systems and active health technology assessment programmes. PMID:25274258

  14. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    U.S. research-doctorate programs in the humanities were assessed by a committee of the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils. Attention was focused on 522 programs in nine disciplines in the humanities that award research doctorates. The effectiveness of these programs in preparing students for research careers was assessed. Indices…

  15. An Assessment of the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Situation in the United States. Volume II: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    An immediate assessment of the migrant and seasonal farmworker situation was conducted between August 1975 and January 1976. The assessment described the elements affecting these farmworkers; discussed current and projected changes in migration patterns; analyzed the effects of inflation and of changes in agricultural demand and production on…

  16. Educational Evaluation and Assessment in the United States. Position Paper and Recommendations for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.

    The lack of high quality data to describe and monitor U.S. educational systems hampers reform decisions and will impair reform evaluation. This paper sets forth the Council of Chief State School Officers' (CCSSO) recommendations for the Council and federal, state, and local education agencies to help improve the quality of educational indicators.…

  17. United States Environmental Protection Agency: Use of risk assessment and risk management methodologies. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lamuro, R.J.

    1992-09-30

    Make a full investigation of the policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management in regulatory programs under various Federal laws to prevent cancer and other chronic health effects which may result from exposure to hazardous substances. This is the primary mission of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission (Risk Commission). The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), created the Risk Commission reflecting Congress' concern over agency use of risk assessment and risk management techniques and methodologies to implement federal laws protective of human health. The Risk Commission is to consider: methods for measuring and describing risks of chronic health effects from hazardous substances; methods to reflect uncertainties associated with estimation techniques, and whether it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology or a consistent standard of acceptable risk for various federal programs.

  18. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  19. Plan for assessment of the occurrence, status, and distribution of volatile organic compounds in aquifers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, W.W.; Tadayon, Saeid

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water is of national concern because of their relatively high aqueous solubility, mobility, and persistence, because many are known or suspected carcinogens, because of their widespread use, and because they have been found in drinking-water supplies. Because of this national concern, VOCs were selected for National investigation (hereafter termed "National Synthesis") by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1994. The broad goals of this National Synthesis are to: (1) describe current water- quality conditions with respect to VOCs; (2) define trends, or lack of trends, in VOCs in surface and ground water; and (3) identify, describe, and explain causal relations among the occurrence and distribution of VOCs in surface water and ground water, and natural and human factors. The National Synthesis of VOCs in ground water has three objectives: (1) to describe their occurrence, status, and distribution; (2) to determine relations among VOCs in shallow ground water and natural and human factors; and (3) to determine, compare, and contrast the occurrence, transformation, transport, and fate of selected VOCs in the hydrologic cycle for several regionally or nationally important aquifer systems. The description of VOC occurrence, status, and distribution in ground water focuses on major aquifers of the United States. Occurrence describes the presence or absence of VOCs, their frequency of occurrence, and their ranges of concentrations. Status compares the concentrations of VOCs detected in relation to water-quality regulations or advisories, such as Maximum Contaminant Levels, Proposed Maximum Contaminant Levels, Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, and Health Advisories. Distribution describes the variability of VOCs in ground water, areally and by depth. This report describes the study design for conducting such an assessment. The assessment focuses on aquifers, or parts of

  20. A strategy for assessing potential future changes in climate, hydrology, and vegetation in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert Stephen; Hostetler, Steven W.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Anderson, Katherine H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical and geological data indicate that significant changes can occur in the Earth's climate on time scales ranging from years to millennia. In addition to natural climatic change, climatic changes may occur in the near future due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are the result of human activities. International research efforts using atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM's) to assess potential climatic conditions under atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of twice the pre-industrial level (a '2 X CO2' atmosphere) conclude that climate would warm on a global basis. However, it is difficult to assess how the projected warmer climatic conditions would be distributed on a regional scale and what the effects of such warming would be on the landscape, especially for temperate mountainous regions such as the Western United States. In this report, we present a strategy to assess the regional sensitivity to global climatic change. The strategy makes use of a hierarchy of models ranging from an AGCM, to a regional climate model, to landscape-scale process models of hydrology and vegetation. A 2 X CO2 global climate simulation conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) GENESIS AGCM on a grid of approximately 4.5o of latitude by 7.5o of longitude was used to drive the NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over the Western United States on a grid of 60 km by 60 km. The output from the RegCM is used directly (for hydrologic models) or interpolated onto a 15-km grid (for vegetation models) to quantify possible future environmental conditions on a spatial scale relevant to policy makers and land managers.

  1. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF AQUIFER VULNERABILITY AND SENSITIVITY IN THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides, in a generalized, largely graphic format, are presentation of ground-water vulnerability, precipitation distribution, population density, potential well yield, and aquifer sensitivity for each of the 48 conterminous states. lassification scheme is developed ...

  2. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF AQUIFER VULNERABILITY AND SENSITIVITY IN THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides, in a generalized, largely graphic format, are presentation of ground-water vulnerability, precipitation distribution, population density, potential well yield, and aquifer sensitivity for each of the 48 conterminous states. Classification scheme is developed...

  3. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen. PMID:20136749

  4. The United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Key results

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the US Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The Market Assessment was sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The project's principal objectives were to create a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities, estimate motor system energy use and potential for energy savings. The research and analysis to support these objectives consisted primarily of on-site motor system inventories of a probability sample of 354 manufacturing facilities nationwide. In addition to characterizing the motor systems in use, the research effort also gathered detailed information on motor system management and purchasing practices. This paper presents key findings from the Market Assessment in regard to patterns of motor energy use, saturation of energy efficiency measures such as efficient motors and adjustable speed drives, and motor system purchase and maintenance practices.

  5. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  10. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of School Connectedness: Testing Measurement Invariance with United States and Chilean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.; Castro-Villarreal, Felicia; McWhirter, Benedict T.; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Karcher, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Positive associations between measures of school or academic connectedness and behavioral and academic outcomes suggest that connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescents in the United States. However, little is known about the meaning or measurement of academic connectedness, outside the United States, and especially in South…

  11. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  12. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2000-01-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous U.S., and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the U.S. where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically-based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data is used to calibrate model parameters and determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern U.S. and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western U.S. Crop yields typically increase except for winter wheat in the southern U.S. and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher variability in future climatic forcing and, consequently

  13. Flight-vehicle structures education in the United States Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Dixon, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment is made of the technical contents of flight-vehicle structures curricula at 41 U.S. universities with accredited aerospace engineering programs. The assessment is based on the technical needs for the new and projected aeronautical and space systems as well as on the likely characteristics of the aerospace engineering work environment. A number of deficiencies and areas of concern are identified and recommendations are presented for enhancing the effectiveness of flight-vehicle structures education. A number of government supported programs that can help aerospace engineering education are listed in the appendix.

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  15. Assessment of the United States Military Academy's Academic Program Outcome Goal: Understand Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Johnston

    The assessment model used to examine the human behavior outcome goal had three components: purpose, principles, and process. The purpose was to improve programs and respond to external agencies. Six principles provided a framework and addressed three general criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy. The process contained four components:…

  16. Assessment and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Gary D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 10 papers on solutions and barriers to improving the access of Hispanic American students to higher education. Following an introductory essay on: "Advances in Assessment and the Potential for Increasing the Number of Hispanics in Higher Education" (G. D. Keller), the papers are organized into four parts. Papers in part I…

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AVIATION TRAINING CENTER, MOBILE, ALABAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes a pollution prevention opportunity assessment of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Aviation Training Center (ATC) in Mobile, Alabama. he ATC maintains the readiness and airworthiness of Dauphin and Jayhawk Helicopters and Falcon Jets used in training and search a...

  18. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  19. Dilemmas Faced Establishing Portfolio Assessment of Pre-Service Teachers in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Meta; Bogan, Margaret B.; Kamen, Michael; Baird, William; Butcher, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing pressure to evaluate and document the capabilities of students exiting teacher education programs. A professional portfolio can serve as an effective tool for documenting this process. Faculty wishing to institute portfolios in pre-service teacher assessment should be aware of the difficulties that arise during discourse and…

  20. MONITORING CHANGES IN THE ESTUARIES OF THE UNITED STATES: THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program/Estuaries (EMAP-E) is to estimate the current status, extent, changes, and trends in ecological indicators of the condition of the nation's coastal resources (intertidal, subtidal, and offshore) on a regional and ...

  1. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-10-01

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts--if any--the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions. PMID:16209703

  2. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions. PMID:16209703

  3. An ecological risk assessment of nonnative boas and pythons as potentially invasive species in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert N

    2005-06-01

    The growing international trade in live wildlife has the potential to result in continuing establishment of nonnative animal populations in the United States. Snakes may pose particularly high risks as potentially invasive species, as exemplified by the decimation of Guam's vertebrate fauna by the accidentally introduced brown tree snake. Herein, ecological and commercial predictors of the likelihood of establishment of invasive populations were used to model risk associated with legal commercial imports of 23 species of boas, pythons, and relatives into the United States during the period 1989-2000. Data on ecological variables were collected from multiple sources, while data on commercial variables were collated from import records maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Results of the risk-assessment models indicate that species including boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), ball pythons (Python regius), and reticulated pythons (P. reticulatus) may pose particularly high risks as potentially invasive species. Recommendations for reducing risk of establishment of invasive populations of snakes and/or pathogens include temporary quarantine of imports to increase detection rates of nonnative pathogens, increasing research attention to reptile pathogens, reducing the risk that nonnative snakes will reach certain areas with high numbers of federally listed species (such as the Florida Keys), and attempting to better educate individuals purchasing reptiles. PMID:16022706

  4. Survey design for lakes and reservoirs in the United States to assess contaminants in fish tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lake Fish Tissue Study (NLFTS) was the first survey of fish contamination in lakes and reservoirs in the 48 conterminous states based on probability survey design. This study included the largest set (268) of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals ev...

  5. Use of remotely sensed data for assessing forest stand conditions in the Eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Nelson, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for the detection, classification, and measurement of forest disturbances, using digital Landsat data for three study areas (Pennsynvania, North Carolina, and Maine) are reported. Results with respect to (1) the delineation and assessment of forest damage due to the use of two forest insect defoliators, and (2) qualitative assessment of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper data for delineating forest stand characteristics are presented. Key results include a development of a statewide MSS digital data base and associated image-processing techniques for accurately delineating insect-damaged and healthy forest areas. For classification of broad land-cover classes which are spectrally homogeneous, the accuracy yielded by the use of either MSS data or TM Simulator data is similar. However, the TMS data provided 20 percent accuracy improvement over the MSS results when detailed (Level III) forest classes were mapped.

  6. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in

  7. Assessing Opportunities for Student Pharmacist Leadership Development at Schools of Pharmacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Tara T.; Witry, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize student pharmacist leadership development opportunities delivered by pharmacy programs, to describe selected opportunities, and to assess how these opportunities meet leadership development competencies. Methods. A multi-method study was conducted that comprised a systematic content analysis of pharmacy education journals, pharmacy program websites, and telephone interviews with key informants, which included open-ended questions and scaled responses. Results. Review of six articles, 37 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Annual Meeting abstracts, and 138 websites resulted in the identification of 191 leadership development opportunities. These consisted of courses, projects/programs, and events/speaker series. Interviews with 12 key informants detailed unique events that developed leadership competencies. Formal assessments of student leadership development were limited and primarily focused on informal feedback and course evaluations. Conclusion. Most US pharmacy programs offer their students an array of opportunities to develop leadership abilities. Pharmacy programs should consider expanding opportunities beyond elective courses, learn from the successes of others to implement new leadership development opportunities, and bolster the assessment of student leadership competencies and outcomes. PMID:27402982

  8. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George

    2011-12-01

    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  9. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

  10. Assessing the relative influence of surface soil moisture and ENSO SST on precipitation predictability over the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-06-28

    This study assesses the relative influence of soil moisture memory and tropical sea surface temperature (SST) in seasonal rainfall over the contiguous United States. Using observed precipitation, the NINO3.4 index and soil moisture and evapotranspiration simulated by a land surface model for 61 years, analysis was performed using partial correlations to evaluate to what extent land surface and SST anomaly of El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can affect seasonal precipitation over different regions and seasons. Results show that antecedent soil moisture is as important as concurrent ENSO condition in controlling rainfall anomalies over the U.S., but they generally dominate in different seasons with SST providing more predictability during winter while soil moisture, through its linkages to evapotranspiration and snow water, has larger influence in spring and early summer. The proposed methodology is applicable to climate model outputs to evaluate the intensity of land-atmosphere coupling and its relative importance.

  11. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990–1992 to 2007–2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. RESULTS Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7–8% and sorghum prices by 19–20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 109 annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 109 annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000–390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. CONCLUSION Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. PestManagement Science published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24318916

  12. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, B. J.; Texeira, R. H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. Data were compiled on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region.

  14. Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level. PMID:21958200

  15. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-07-14

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

  16. LACIE--An Application of Meteorology for United States and Foreign Wheat Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jerry D.; Strommen, Norton D.; Sakamoto, Clarence M.; Leduc, Sharon K.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a critical world food situation during the early 1970's was the background leading to the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). The need was to develop a capability for timely monitoring of crops on a global scale. Three U.S. Government agencies, NASA, NOAA and USDA, undertook the task of developing technology to extract the crop-related information available from the global weather-reporting network and the Landsat satellite. This paper describes the overall LACIE technical approach to make a quasi-operational application of existing research results and the accomplishments of this cooperative experiment in utilizing the weather information.Using available agrometeorological data, techniques were implemented to estimate crop development, assess relative crop vigor and estimate yield for wheat, the crop of principal interest to the experiment. Global weather data were utilized in preparing timely yield estimates for selected areas of the U.S. Great Plains, the U.S.S.R. and Canada. Additionally, wheat yield models were developed and pilot tested for Brazil, Australia, India and Argentina. The results of the work show that heading dates for wheat in North America can be predicted with an average absolute error of about 5 days for winter wheat and 4 days for spring wheat. Independent tests of wheat yield models over a 10-year period for the U.S. Great Plains produced a root-mean-square error of 1.12 quintals per hectare (q ha1) while similar tests in the U.S.S.R. produced an error of 1.31 q ha1. Research designed to improve the initial capability is described as is the rationale for further evolution of a capability to monitor global climate and assess its impact on world food supplies.

  17. An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-07-01

    Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants. PMID:21425326

  18. United States Coast Guard AtoN battery scientific assessment. Final report, October 1993--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, J.; Borener, S.

    1997-12-01

    The USCG maintains about 12,000 fixed lighted aids to navigation (AtoNs). Historically, many of these lights were powered by primary batteries containing small amounts of mercury. These batteries were sometimes disposed of at the AtoN sites. The assessment of the potential impact of the mercury, as well as lead, zinc, and copper from these batteries was performed at five aquatic and two terrestrial locations by the Volpe Center and CH2M Hill between October 1993 and December 1997. This work includes laboratory studies of the batteries upon which was based on a fate and transport model and a plan for onsite investigations. Thses site characterizations took place in the Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, the Tennessee River, Puget Sound, Midway Island, and the Channel Islands near Santa Barbara, CA. The studies included substrate and biological sampling at locations before and after batteries were removed. Comparisons to background levels established based upon the literature and onsite sample collection were made to determine whether any environmental or human health risk was presented by batteries. Estimates of the percent of mercury found in elemental and methylated form were made to determine the potential for biological impacts.

  19. LACIE - An application of meteorology for United States and foreign wheat assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. D.; Strommen, N. D.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the overall Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment technical approach utilizing the global weather-reporting network and the Landsat satellite to make a quasi-operational application of existing research results, and the accomplishments of this cooperative experiment in utilizing the weather information. Global weather data were utilized in preparing timely yield estimates for selected areas of the U.S. Great Plains, the U.S.S.R. and Canada. Additionally, wheat yield models were developed and pilot tested for Brazil, Australia, India and Argentina. The results of the work show that heading dates for wheat in North America can be predicted with an average absolute error of about 5 days for winter wheat and 4 days for spring wheat. Independent tests of wheat yield models over a 10-year period for the U.S. Great Plains produced a root-mean-square error of 1.12 quintals per hectare (q/ha) while similar tests in the U.S.S.R. produced an error of 1.31 q/ha. Research designed to improve the initial capability is described as is the rationale for further evolution of a capability to monitor global climate and assess its impact on world food supplies.

  20. Assessing the Prevalence of Traumatic Head Injury amongst Recreational Surfers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Surfing is a popular recreational sport that carries a substantial risk of injury. Although head injuries are frequently documented in the surfing population, an in depth assessment of the prevalence of surfing-related head injury has not been reported. A web-based survey was conducted in May of 2015. Participants were asked a series of questions regarding surfing-related injuries and demographic characteristics. A total of 50 responses were obtained, of which 35 (70%) reported sustaining a head injury. The most common injury was laceration of the head/face (n=27), followed by concussion (n=13). Other injuries, such as skull fracture and broken nose, were also reported. Only 2 of the 50 participants reported wearing a protective helmet. Neurosurgical intervention was required in 2 instances. Increased emphasis on preventative measures by the medical community may reduce the future incidence of such injuries. Medical professionals should be aware of the most common forms of injury sustained by the surfing population in order to better recognize and treat these conditions. PMID:26668771

  1. Beaver lodge distributions and damage assessments in a forested wetland ecosystem in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.; Moore, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Caddo Lake, USA, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance, is a lacustrine wetland complex consisting of stands of flooded baldcypress intermixed with open water and emergent wetland habitats. Recently, concern has been expressed over a perceived increase in the beaver population and the impact of beaver on the long-term sustainability of the baldcypress ecosystem. We used intensive beaver lodge surveys to determine the distribution and relative abundance of beaver and the amount, type, and distribution of beaver damage to mature trees and seedlings at Caddo Lake. A total of 229 lodges were located with a combination of aerial and boat/ground surveys. Most lodges were located in open water and edge habitats. About 95% of the lodges were occupied by beaver or nutria. Some form of damage was exhibited by one or more trees near 85% of the lodges. Intensive damage assessments around 35 lodges indicated that most damage to trees, baldcypress in particular, was restricted to peeling or stripping of bark which is believed to have minimal effect on tree survival. Surveys of regeneration indicated that baldcypress seedlings were very abundant; however, over 99.9% were less than 30 cm tall. The lack of recruitment into the larger size classes appears to be a result of high stand densities and water management practices. At this time, the young age and density of the baldcypress forests suggest that recruitment is not a major concern and herbivore damage appears to be having a minimal effect on the forest.

  2. Assessing increasing susceptibility to wildfire at the wildland-urban fringe in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Much of the western U.S. is increasingly susceptible to wildfire activity due to drier conditions, elevated fuel loads, and expanding urbanization. As population increases, development pushes the urban boundary further into wildlands, creating more potential for human interaction at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), primarily from human ignitions and fire suppression policies. The immediate impacts of wildfires include vulnerability to debris flows, flooding, and impaired water quality. Fires also alter longer-term hydrological and ecosystem behavior. The current study utilizes geospatial datasets to investigate historical wildfire size and frequency relative to the WUI for a range of cities across western North America. California, the most populous state in the U.S., has an extensive fire history. The decennial population and acres burned for four major counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) in California show that increasing wildfire size and frequency follow urbanization trends, with high correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and increasing population. Ultimately, results will provide information on urban fringe communities that are most vulnerable to the risks associated with wildfire and post-fire impacts. In light of evolving land use policies (i.e. forest management and treatment, development at the urban-fringe) and climate change, it is critical to advance our knowledge of the implications that these conditions pose to urban centers, communicate risks to the public, and ultimately provide guidance for wildfire management.

  3. Assessment of soil calcium status in red spruce forests in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Shortle, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term changes in concentrations of available Ca in soils of red spruce forests have been documented, but remaining questions about the magnitude and regional extent of these changes have precluded an assessment of the current and future status of soil Ca. To address this problem, soil samples were collected in 1992-93 from 12 sites in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine to provide additional data necessary to synthesize all available research results on soil Ca in red spruce forests. Sites were chosen to encompass the range of environmental conditions experienced by red spruce. Concentrations of exchangeable Ca ranged from 2.13 to 21.6 cmol(c) kg-1 in the Oa horizon, and from 0.11 to 0.68 cmol(c) kg-1 in the upper 10 cm of the B horizon. These measurements expanded the range of exchangeable Ca reported in the literature for both horizons in northeastern red spruce forests. Exchangeable Ca was the largest Ca fraction in the forest floor at most sites (92% of acid-extractable Ca), but mineral Ca was the largest fraction at the three sites that also had the highest mineral-matter concentrations. The primary factor causing variability in Ca concentrations among sites was the mineralogy of parent material, but exchangeable concentrations in the B horizon of all sites were probably reduced by acidic deposition. Because the majority of Ca in the forest floor is in a readily leachable form, and Ca inputs to the forest floor from the mineral soil and atmospheric deposition have been decreasing in recent decades, the previously documented decreases in Ca concentrations in the forest floor over previous decades may extend into the future.

  4. Improving Coastal Flood Risk Assessments for the Northeastern United States: New York City to Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Stromer, Z.; Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in extreme flood vulnerability in the Northeastern U.S. has increased significantly since Hurricane Sandy caused more than $50 billion dollars in damages. Despite increased focus there is still no overall consensus regarding the true return period in the region for flood events of Sandy's magnitude. The application of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory to water level data is one of the most common techniques for estimating the return period for these rare events. Here we assess the skill of this popular technique by combining modeled, instrumental and sedimentologically derived records of flooding for the region. We show that GEV derived return periods greatly and consistently underappreciate risk for sites from New York City east to southern Cape Cod. This is in part because at these locations maximum annual flood data represents a mixture of two very different populations of storms, i.e. tropically derived disturbances and extratropical Nor'easters. Nor'easters comprise a majority of floods with 10-yr return periods and shorter, hurricanes for 100-yr floods or longer, and a combination in between. In contrast, the GEV technique functions better in estimating the 100-yr flood for points north of Cape Cod including Boston. At these locations flooding occurs more often from just one type of disturbance, i.e. Nor'easters. However, modeled and sedimentary reconstructions of storms indicate hurricanes likely still dominate flood distribution at northern location like Boston for 500 yr or greater events. Results stress the need for separating storm populations before applying the GEV technique, especially where flood behavior can vary depending on the type of disturbance.

  5. Applying a statewide geospatial leaching tool for assessing soil vulnerability ratings for agrochemicals across the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan; Hantush, Mohamed M

    2015-06-15

    A large-scale leaching assessment tool not only illustrates soil (or groundwater) vulnerability in unmonitored areas, but also can identify areas of potential concern for agrochemical contamination. This study describes the methodology of how the statewide leaching tool in Hawaii modified recently for use with pesticides and volatile organic compounds can be extended to the national assessment of soil vulnerability ratings. For this study, the tool was updated by extending the soil and recharge maps to cover the lower 48 states in the United States (US). In addition, digital maps of annual pesticide use (at a national scale) as well as detailed soil properties and monthly recharge rates (at high spatial and temporal resolutions) were used to examine variations in the leaching (loads) of pesticides for the upper soil horizons. Results showed that the extended tool successfully delineated areas of high to low vulnerability to selected pesticides. The leaching potential was high for picloram, medium for simazine, and low to negligible for 2,4-D and glyphosate. The mass loadings of picloram moving below 0.5 m depth increased greatly in northwestern and central US that recorded its extensive use in agricultural crops. However, in addition to the amount of pesticide used, annual leaching load of atrazine was also affected by other factors that determined the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability such as soil and recharge properties. Spatial and temporal resolutions of digital maps had a great effect on the leaching potential of pesticides, requiring a trade-off between data availability and accuracy. Potential applications of this tool include the rapid, large-scale vulnerability assessments for emerging contaminants which are hard to quantify directly through vadose zone models due to lack of full environmental data. PMID:25864002

  6. Institutional Policies on Assessment of Pedagogy and Faculty Classroom Practices: Evidence from 4-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Myers, Scott M.; Stewart, Tammy; Nynas, Suzette

    2015-01-01

    This study used a multi-theoretical approach to examine the associations between institutional policies on the assessment of faculty pedagogy and faculty's use of learner-centred assessment (LCA) practices in their undergraduate classrooms in the United States. We found strong evidence that it was not the number of methods but the types of methods…

  7. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as “active transportation”), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59) premature deaths potentially could

  8. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  9. 49 CFR 1540.115 - Threat assessments regarding citizens of the United States holding or applying for FAA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES...) Applicability. This section applies when TSA has determined that an individual who is a United States...

  10. 49 CFR 1540.115 - Threat assessments regarding citizens of the United States holding or applying for FAA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES...) Applicability. This section applies when TSA has determined that an individual who is a United States...

  11. Changing perceptions of United States natural-gas resources as shown by successive U. S. Department of the Interior assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in four successive estimates of United States technically recoverable natural gas resources are examined in this report. The effective dates of these assessments were January 1 of 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1994. The 1994 estimate of the U.S. total gas endowment increased significantly over the previous three estimates, indicating that the technically recoverable endowment of gas is not an absolute volume, but rather is a quantity that can increase through time in response to advances in technology and in geologic understanding. Much of this increase was in the category of reserve growth. Reserve growth refers to additions to the estimated ultimate recovery of fields that typically occur as discovered fields are developed and produced. The potential for U.S. reserve growth, rather than being rapidly used up, appears to be sustainable for many years by intensive engineering efforts coupled with improving technology. Potential additions to reserves in continuous (unconventional) accumulations also represent a type of reserve growth, and were estimated (for the first time) in the 1994 assessment at 358 trillion cubic feet of gas. This resource category provides a significant new contribution to the estimated U.S. total gas endowment.

  12. Assessment of the Average Price and Ethanol Content of Alcoholic Beverages by Brand – United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Joanna T.; Siegel, Michael; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Lee, Stephanie; Chen, Kelsey; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Kenney, Jessica; Jernigan, David H.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no existing data on alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the level of alcohol brand. A comprehensive understanding of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level is essential for the development of effective public policy to reduce alcohol use among underage youth. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the brand level. Methods Using online alcohol price data from 15 control states and 164 online alcohol stores, we estimated the average alcohol price and percentage alcohol by volume for 900 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types, in the United States in 2011. Results There is considerable variation in both brand-specific alcohol prices and ethanol content within most alcoholic beverage types. For many types of alcohol, the within-category variation between brands exceeds the variation in average price and ethanol content among the several alcoholic beverage types. Despite differences in average prices between alcoholic beverage types, in 12 of the 16 alcoholic beverage types, customers can purchase at least one brand of alcohol that is under one dollar per ounce of ethanol. Conclusions Relying on data or assumptions about alcohol prices and ethanol content at the level of alcoholic beverage type is insufficient for understanding and influencing youth drinking behavior. Surveillance of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level should become a standard part of alcohol research. PMID:22316218

  13. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  14. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. PMID:21901443

  15. Common Formative Assessments Developed through Professional Learning Communities (PLCs): A Case Study to Analyze the Alignment of Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction in a Math PLC at a Title I Middle School in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tory C.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of No Child Left Behind increased performance expectations for students across the United States and compelled teachers to focus on standardized assessments instead of frequent formative assessments to monitor instruction and promote student learning. Common formative assessments (CFAs) help teachers align curriculum, assessment,…

  16. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Competency-Based Teacher Certification in the United States. A Working Paper of the Pennsylvania Competency-Assessment Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Wallace M., Ed.

    With the exception of Vermont, all state educational agencies responded to a survey questionnaire designed to ascertain the current status of competency assessment teacher certification (CAC). Only 19 states presently award certificates through CAC. This can be explained partially by the fact that state educational agencies can attain the goal of…

  18. Application of the SPARROW model to assess surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, Daniel R.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to estimate mean annual surface-water nutrient conditions (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and to identify important nutrient sources in catchments of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for 2002. Model-estimated nutrient yields were generally higher in catchments on the wetter, western side of the Cascade Range than in catchments on the drier, eastern side. The largest source of locally generated total nitrogen stream load in most catchments was runoff from forestland, whereas the largest source of locally generated total phosphorus stream load in most catchments was either geologic material or livestock manure (primarily from grazing livestock). However, the highest total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields were predicted in the relatively small number of catchments where urban sources were the largest contributor to local stream load. Two examples are presented that show how SPARROW results can be applied to large rivers—the relative contribution of different nutrient sources to the total nitrogen load in the Willamette River and the total phosphorus load in the Snake River. The results from this study provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to researchers and water-quality managers performing local nutrient assessments.

  19. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  20. Environmental assessment for the manufacture and shipment of nuclear reactor fuel from the United States to Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has declared 41.9 tons (38 metric tons) of weapons-usable plutonium surplus to the United States` defense needs. A DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement analyzed strategies for plutonium storage and dispositioning. In one alternative, plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel would be irradiated (burned) in a reengineered heavy-water-moderated reactor, such as the Canadian CANDU design. In an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE proposes to fabricate and transport to Canada a limited amount of MOX fuel as part of the Parallex (parallel experiment) Project. MOX fuel from the US and Russia would be used by Canada to conduct performance tests at Chalk River Laboratories. MOX fuel would be fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory and transported in approved container(s) to a Canadian port(s) of entry on one to three approved routes. The EA analyzes the environmental and human health effects from MOX fuel fabrication and transportation. Under the Proposed Action, MOX fuel fabrication would not result in adverse effects to the involved workers or public. Analysis showed that the shipment(s) of MOX fuel would not adversely affect the public, truck crew, and environment along the transportation routes.

  1. Assessing the impacts of future demand for saline groundwater on commercial deployment of CCS in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2009-04-20

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the potential impact that future demand for groundwater might have on the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies within the United States. A number of regions within the U.S. have populations, agriculture and industries that are particularly dependent upon groundwater. Moreover, some key freshwater aquifers are already over-utilized or depleted, and others are likely to be moving toward depletion as demand grows. The need to meet future water demands may lead some parts of the nation to consider supplementing existing supplies with lower quality groundwater resources, including brackish waters that are currently not considered sources of drinking water but which could provide supplemental water via desalination. In some areas, these same deep saline-filled geologic formations also represent possible candidate carbon dioxide (CO2) storage reservoirs. The analysis presented here suggests that future constraints on CCS deployment due to potential needs to supplement conventional water supplies by desalinating deeper and more brackish waters are likely to be necessary only in limited regions across the country, particularly in areas that are already experiencing water stress.

  2. Assessment of Recently Unchanged Forested Areas in the United States Using Landsat-WELD and LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    According to the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis Program (2006) the amount of forestland in the United States has remained relatively constant in the past century and is estimated at an average of 755 million acres. However, forested areas are the subject of various land use activities, leading to disturbances altering forest ecology and biodiversity. Therefore the objective of the current research is to assess the extent of recently unchanged and relatively unfragmented (forest patch area >100 km2) forest areas in different WWF-defined terrestrial ecoregions of the contiguous US. Landsat-based WELD tree cover product for the year 2006 and tree cover loss product for 2006-2010 were used as input data for GIS-analysis aimed to identify recently unchanged core forest areas. More than 1.2 million ICESat-GLAS shots facilitated distinguishing between core and recently disturbed forests' vertical structure. Analysis of core forest areas distribution by ecoregion showed that in several ecoregions, such as Piney Woods, Southeastern Mixed forests and Southeastern Conifer forests, due to the high forest use intensity unfragmented recently unchanged forests occupy less than 30% of ecoregion forest area, though total forested area in these regions remains high. We've also analyzed the protection status of core forest areas in terms of potential forest disturbances in the years to come.

  3. An Assessment of Land Availability and Price in the Coterminous United States for Conversion to Algal Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2012-12-01

    Realistic economic assessment of land-intensive alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, and biofuels) requires information on land availability and price. Accordingly, we created a comprehensive, national-scale model of these parameters for the United States. For algae-based biofuel, a minimum of 1.04E+05 km2 of land is needed to meet the 2022 EISA target of 2.1E+10 gallons year-1. We locate and quantify land types best converted. A data-driven model calculates the incentive to sell and a fair compensation value (real estate and lost future income). 1.02E+6 km2 of low slope, non-protected land is relatively available including croplands, pasture/ grazing, and forests. Within this total there is 2.64E+5 km2 of shrub and barren land available. The Federal government has 7.68E+4 km2 available for lease. Targeting unproductive lands minimizes land costs and impacts to existing industries. However, shrub and barren lands are limited by resources (water) and logistics, so land conversion requires careful consideration.

  4. A biological assessment of streams in the eastern United States using a predictive model for macroinvertebrate assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A predictive model (RIVPACS-type) for benthic macroinvertebrates was constructed to assess the biological condition of 1,087 streams sampled throughout the eastern United States from 1993-2003 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. A subset of 338 sites was designated as reference quality, 28 of which were withheld from model calibration and used to independently evaluate model precision and accuracy. The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) taxa richness was used as a continuous measure of biological condition, and sites with O/E values <0.8 were classified as biologically degraded. Spatiotemporal variability of O/E values was evaluated with repeated annual and within-site samples at reference sites. Values of O/E were regressed on a measure of urbanization in three regions and compared among streams in different land-use settings. The model accurately predicted the expected taxa at validation sites with high precision (SD = 0.11). Within-site spatial variability in O/E values was much larger than annual and among-site variation at reference sites and was likely caused by environmental differences among sampled reaches. Values of O/E were significantly correlated with basin road density in the Boston, Massachusetts (p < 0.001), Birmingham, Alabama (p = 0.002), and Green Bay, Wisconsin (p = 0.034) metropolitan areas, but the strength of the relations varied among regions. Urban streams were more depleted of taxa than streams in other land-use settings, but larger networks of riparian forest appeared to mediate biological degradation. Taxa that occurred less frequently than predicted by the model were those known to be generally intolerant of a variety of anthropogenic stressors. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  5. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  6. An assessment of the available windy land area and wind energy potential in the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.L.; Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.

    1991-08-01

    Estimates of land areas with various levels of wind energy resource and resultant wind energy potential have been developed for each state in the contiguous United States. The estimates are based on published wind resource data and account for the exclusion of some windy lands as a result of environmental and land-use considerations. Despite these exclusions, the amount of wind resource estimated over the contiguous United States is surprisingly large and has the potential to supply a substantial fraction of the nation's energy needs, even with the use of today's wind turbine technology. Although this study shows that, after exclusions, only about 0.6% of the land area in the contiguous United States is characterized by high wind resource (comparable to that found in windy areas of California where wind energy is being cost-effectively developed), the wind electric potential that could be extracted with today's technology from these areas across the United States is equivalent to about 20% of the current US electric consumption. Future advances in wind turbine technology will further enhance the potential of wind energy. As advances in turbine technology allow areas of moderate wind resource to be developed, more than a tenfold increase in the wind energy potential is possible. These areas, which cover large sections of the Great Plains and are widely distributed throughout many other sections of the country, have the potential of producing more than three times the nation's current electric consumption. 9 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The first phase of intensive data collection for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) was completed during 1993−1995 in 20 major hydrologic basins of the United States. Groundwater land-use studies, designed to sample recently recharged groundwater (generally within 10 years) beneath specific land-use and hydrogeologic settings, are a major component of the groundwater quality as sessment for NAWQA. Pesticide results from the 41 land-use studies conducted during 1993−1995 indicate that pesticides were commonly detected in shallow groundwater, having been found at 54.4% of the 1034 sites sampled in agricultural and urban settings across the United States. Pesticide concentrations were generally low, with over 95% of the detections at concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, 39 were detected. The compounds detected most frequently were atrazine (38.2%), deethylatrazine (34.2%), simazine (18.0%), metolachlor (14.6%), and prometon (13.9%). Statistically significant relations were observed between frequencies of detection and the use, mobility, and persistence of these compounds. Pesticides were commonly detected in both agricultural (56.4%; 813 sites) and urban (46.6%; 221 sites) settings. Frequent detections of pesticides in urban areas indicate that, as is the case with agricultural pesticide use in agricultural areas, urban and suburban pesticide use significantly contribute to pesticide occurrence in shallow groundwater. Although pesticides were detected in groundwater sampled in urban areas and all nine of the agricultural land-use categories examined, significant variations in occurrence were observed among these categories. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were exceeded for only one pesticide (atrazine, 3 μg/L) at a single location. However, MCLs have been established for only 25 of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, do not cover pesticide

  8. A National Assessment of Green Infrastructure and Change for the Conterminous United States Using Morphological Image Processing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is a popular framework for conservation planning. The main elements of green infrastructure are hubs and links. Hubs tend to be large areas of ‘natural’ vegetation and links tend to be linear features (e.g., streams) that connect hubs. Within the United State...

  9. Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Components Using Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is a widely used framework for conservation planning in the United States and elsewhere. The main components of green infrastructure are hubs and corridors. Hubs are large areas of natural vegetation, and corridors are linear features that connect hubs. W...

  10. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  11. Cyanotoxins in Inland Lakes of the United States: Occurrence and Potential Recreational Health Risks in the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large nation-wide survey or cyanotoxlns (1161 lakes)in the United States (U.S.) was conducted dunng the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007. Cyanotoxin data were compared with cyanobacteria abundance- and chlorophyll-based World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds and mouse to...

  12. The Assessment of the Intelligence of Latinos in the United States. (La Medicion de la Inteligencia de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana M.; And Others

    Most of the research on the assessment of the intelligence of Latinos in the United States appears to be based on some possibly erroneous or at least dubious assumptions. Among these are the following: (1) the assumption of bilinguality; (2) the assumption of equal proficiency in the English language; (3) the assumption of the equivalence of…

  13. Assessing and Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Changes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Liu, S.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T. L.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Stackpoole, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land changes (land use and ecosystem disturbances) are the primary driver of stability and vulnerability of ecosystem carbon sequestration. Advances in remote sensing and modeling make it possible that carbon storage in relation to land changes can be assessed and monitored at the national and regional scales. Using remote sensing and modeling tools, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a national assessment to estimate spatial and temporal distributions of carbon storage in relation to land changes. The assessment covers all major ecosystems: forests, shrub and grasslands, croplands, wetlands, and aquatic systems. Recent land changes (baseline, 1992 to current) are mapped on an annual basis using Landsat imagery; future land changes (current to 2050) are modeled by incorporating IPCC socioeconomic storylines and climate change projections (three storylines and projections used: A1B, A2, and B1, each with multiple GCM runs). Carbon storage in, and transitions between, ecosystems are modeled and estimated annually using biogeochemical models, with the baseline and future potential land use changes and fire disturbances as the primary input. Effects of land changes and management activities are analyzed. A series of regional-scale maps and datasets are produced as deliverables of the assessment. The Great Plains region of the United States is the first region to complete for the assessment. The region encompasses 2.17 million square kilometers from eastern half of Montana south to Texas and east to Minnesota and Iowa. Changes in land use between 1992 and 2050 are pronounced for major ecosystems, including 7-16% gains in agriculture, 8-17% losses of grasslands and 18-19% losses of wetlands under A1B and A2 scenarios. More environmental oriented scenarios such as B1 will see gains in wetlands (15%) while holding areas of other ecosystems stable. For fire disturbances, number, size, and severity of large wildland fires in the region are highly variable, depending on

  14. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United...

  15. Landforms of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in landforms of the United States with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine deposital versus erosional landforms in the central stable region of the United States, the Appalachian Highlands, the Ozark Region,…

  16. Climates of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John L.

    This document is designed to provide basic information about the climates of the United States and the causes of these climates. Events of interest in the climatological history of the United States are described and illustrated by many maps, charts and diagrams. The booklet has three major parts. Part I discusses climate and climate control in…

  17. UNITED STATES RENAL DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is a national data system that collects, analyzes, and distributes information about end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. The USRDS is funded directly by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseas...

  18. 77 FR 27481 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Exelon Corporation, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment Pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), the United States hereby publishes below the...

  19. Digital map data, text, and graphical images in support of the 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, William R., (compiler); Obuch, Raymond C.; Brewton, James D.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains files in support of the 1995 USGS National assessment of United States oil and gas resources (DDS-30), which was published separately and summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. The study describes about 560 oil and gas plays in the United States--confirmed and hypothetical, conventional and unconventional. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the U.S. Minerals Management Service. This CD-ROM contains files in multiple formats, so that almost any computer user can import them into word processors and mapping software packages. No proprietary data are released on this CD-ROM. The complete text of DDS-30 is also available, as well as many figures. A companion CD-ROM (DDS-36) includes the tabular data, the programs, and the same text data, but none of the map data.

  20. Bovine tuberculosis slaughter surveillance in the United States 2001–2010: assessment of its traceback investigation function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of tracing cattle to the herd of origin after the detection and confirmation of bovine tuberculosis (TB) lesions in cattle at slaughter is a critical component of the national bovine TB eradication program in the United States (U.S.). The aims of this study were to 1) quantify the number of bovine TB cases identified at slaughter that were successfully traced to their herd of origin in the U.S. during 2001–2010, 2) quantify the number of successful traceback investigations that found additional TB infected animals in the herd of origin or epidemiologically linked herds, and 3) describe the forms of animal identification present on domestic bovine TB cases and their association with traceback success. Results We analyzed 2001–2010 data in which 371 granulomatous lesions were confirmed as bovine TB. From these 114 bovine TB cases, 78 adults (i.e. sexually intact bovines greater than two years of age), and 36 fed (i.e. less than or equal to two years of age) were classified as domestic cattle (U.S. originated). Of these adults and fed cases, 83% and 13% were successfully traced, respectively. Of these traceback investigations, 70% of adult cases and 50% of fed cases identified additional bovine TB infected animals in the herd of origin or an epidemiologically linked herd. We found that the presence of various forms of animal identification on domestic bovine TB cases at slaughter may facilitate successful traceback investigations; however, they do not guarantee it. Conclusions These results provide valuable information with regard to epidemiological traceback investigations and serve as a baseline to aid U.S. officials when assessing the impact of newly implemented strategies as part of the national bovine TB eradication in the U.S. PMID:25123050

  1. Preliminary assessment of the occurrence and possible sources of MTBE in groundwater in the United States, 1993-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S.; Wilber, W.G.; Price, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require fuel oxygenates to be added to gasoline used in some metropolitan areas to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide or ozone. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most commonly used fuel oxygenate and is a relatively new gasoline additive. Nevertheless, out of 60 volatile organic chemicals analyzed, MTBE was the second most frequently detected chemical in samples of shallow ambient groundwater from urban areas that were collected during 1993-1994 aspart of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Samples were collected from five drinking water wells, 12 springs, and 193 monitoring wells in urban areas. No MTBE was detected in drinking water wells. At a reporting level of 0.2 ??g/L, MTBE was detected most frequently in shallow groundwater from urban areas (27% of 210 wells and springs sampled in eight areas) as compared to shallow groundwater from agricultural areas (1.3% of 549 wells sampled in 21 areas) or deeper groundwater from major aquifers (1.0% of 412 wells sampled in nine areas). Only 3% of the shallow wells sampled in urban areas had concentrations of MTBE that exceed 20 ??g/L, which is the estimated lower limit of the United States Environmental Protection Agency draft drinking water health advisory. Because MTBE is persistent and mobile in groundwater, it can move from shallow to deeper aquifers with time. In shallow urban groundwater, MTBE generally was not found with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or xylene (BTEX) compounds, which commonly are associated with gasoline spills. This disassociation causes uncertainty as to the source of MTBE. Possible sources of MTBE in groundwater include point sources, such as leaking storage tanks, and non-point sources, such as recharge of precipitation and stormwater runoff.

  2. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  3. United States earthquakes, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains information for eartthquakes in the 50 states and Puerto Rico and the area near their shorelines. The data consist of earthquake locations (date, time, geographic coordinates, depth, and magnitudes), intensities, macroseismic information, and isoseismal and seismicity maps. Also, included are sections detailing the activity of seismic networks operated by universities and other government agencies and a list of results form strong-motion seismograph records.

  4. Using remote sensing, ecological niche modeling, and Geographic Information Systems for Rift Valley fever risk assessment in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedrow, Christine Atkins

    transmission to humans. Maps delineating the geographic areas in Virginia with highest risk for RVF establishment in mosquito populations and RVF disease transmission to human populations were generated in a GIS using human, domestic animal, and white-tailed deer population estimates and the MaxEnt potential RVF competent vector species distribution prediction. The candidate RVF competent vector predicted distribution and RVF risk maps presented in this study can help vector control agencies and public health officials focus Rift Valley fever surveillance efforts in geographic areas with large co-located populations of potential RVF competent vectors and human, domestic animal, and wildlife hosts. Keywords. Rift Valley fever, risk assessment, Ecological Niche Modeling, MaxEnt, Geographic Information System, remote sensing, Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, vectors, mosquito distribution, mosquito density, mosquito surveillance, United States, Virginia, domestic animals, white-tailed deer, ArcGIS

  5. United States laws under review.

    PubMed

    Leahey, M

    2007-01-01

    As well as reauthorisation of the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act, others isues are under consideration by the United States Congress. These include the introduction of incentives for the development of medical devices for paediatric care. PMID:17585722

  6. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  7. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  8. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  9. Using GIS to assess priorities of infrastructure and health needs of colonias along the United States-Mexico border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcher, J.W.; Humberson, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border setdements in the United. States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for themselves and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with several Federal and Texas state agencies has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report: generator can be tailored, to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. CHIPS is publicly available on the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative website at http://borderhealth.cr. usgs.gov.

  10. 75 FR 81651 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10- cv-01629, 75 FR 60820, 60828-30 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010... firm's employees. United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10-cv-01629, Complaint, 75 FR 60822 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010); Competitive Impact ] Statement, 75 FR 60823 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24,...

  11. Conducting Haugh Unit Assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, when candling, it is almost impossible...

  12. Self-Assessment Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Howard S.; Tamblyn, Robyn M.

    1976-01-01

    The self assessment technique described here allows a student to evaluate his own clinical skills without the need for a faculty observer. In use for over two years for medical and nursing students and residents in the area of neurology, it requires the services of a simulated patient, a videotape machine, and a secretary. (JT)

  13. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  15. An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Patel, P. L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power plants account for approximately half of the total water use in the United States. With growing electricity demands in the future and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states in the U.S., grasping the trade-off between energy and water requires an integrated modeling approach that can capture the interactions among energy, water availability, climate, technology, and economic factors at various scales. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, with 14 geopolitical regions that are further dissaggregated into up to 18 agro-ecological zones, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. More specifically, GCAM was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and demands, and the associated water withdrawals and consumptions under a set of six scenarios with extensive levels of details on generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and water use intensities. The state-level estimates were compared against available inventories where good agreement was achieved on national and regional levels. We then explored the electric-sector water use up to 2095, focusing on implications from: 1) socioeconomics and growing demands, 2) the adoption of climate mitigation policy (e.g., RCP4.5 W/m2 vs. a reference scenario), 3) the transition of cooling systems, 4) constraints on electricity trading across states (full trading vs. limited trading), and 5) the adoption of water saving technologies. Overall, the fast retirement of once-through cooling, together with the gradual transition from fossil fuels dominant to a mixture of different fuels, accelerate the decline of water withdrawals and correspondingly compensate consumptive water use. Results reveal that U.S. electricity generation expands significantly as population grows

  16. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  17. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  18. Enhancement of the assessment of physician-patient communication skills in the United States Medical Licensing Examination.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Ruth B; King, Ann M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Furman, Gail E; Wick-Garcia, Penelope; Corcoran-Ponisciak, Heather; Katsufrakis, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) reviewed all components of the United States Medical Licensing Examination as part of a strategic planning activity. One recommendation generated from the review called for enhancements of the communication skills component of the Step 2 Clinical Skills (Step 2 CS) examination. To address this recommendation, the NBME created a multidisciplinary team that comprised experts in communication content, communication measurement, and implementation of standardized patient (SP)-based examinations. From 2007 through 2012, the team reviewed literature in physician-patient communication, examined performance characteristics of the Step 2 CS exam, observed case development and quality assurance processes, interviewed SPs and their trainers, and reviewed video recordings of examinee-SP interactions. The authors describe perspectives gained by their team from the review process and outline the resulting enhancements to the Step 2 CS exam, some of which were rolled out in June 2012. PMID:24072122

  19. Update: Influenza Activity - United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sophie; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Steffens, Craig; Reed, Carrie; Bramley, Anna; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2015-12-11

    CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States. The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States remained low through October and November in 2015. Influenza A viruses have been most frequently identified, with influenza A (H3) viruses predominating. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity for the period October 4-November 28, 2015. PMID:26656182

  20. Spring onset variations and trends in the continental United States: past and regional assessment using temperature-based indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2012-01-01

    Phenological data are simple yet sensitive indicators of climate change impacts on ecosystems, but observations have not been made routinely or extensively enough to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns across most continents, including North America. As an alternative, many studies use weather-based algorithms to simulate specific phenological responses. Spring Indices (SI) are a set of complex phenological models that have been successfully applied to evaluate variations and trends in the onset of spring across the Northern Hemisphere’s temperate regions. To date, SI models have been limited by only producing output in locations where both the plants’ chilling and warmth requirements are met. Here, we develop an extended form of the SI (abbreviated SI-x) that expands their application into the subtropics by ignoring chilling requirements while still retaining the utility and accuracy of the original SI (now abbreviated SI-o). The validity of the new indices is tested, and regional SI anomalies are explored across the data-rich continental United States. SI-x variations from 1900 to 2010 show an abrupt and sustained delay in spring onset of about 4–8 d (around 1958) in parts of the Southeast and southern Great Plains, and a comparable advance of 4–8 d (around 1984) in parts of the northern Great Plains and the West. Atmospheric circulation anomalies, linked to large-scale modes of variability, exert modest but significant roles in the timing of spring onset across the United States on interannual and longer timescales. The SI-x are promising metrics for tracking spring onset variations and trends in mid-latitudes, relating them to relevant ecological, hydrological, and socioeconomic phenomena, and exploring connections between atmospheric drivers and seasonal timing.

  1. Direct Broadcasting Satellite in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Haeryon

    The introduction of Direct Broadcasting Satellites (DBS) in the United States sparked both government's regulatory development of domestic DBS services and the communication industry's efforts to implement a commercial DBS system. J. D. Slack's symptomatic causality and technological assessment models help to explain how these practices were…

  2. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  3. Assessing awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry among secondary mathematics teachers in the United States and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suanrong

    Fractal geometry has gained great attention from mathematicians and scientists in the past three decades (Fraboni & Moller, 2008). As a new geometry language and subject, fractal geometry has significant value in teaching and learning secondary mathematics. The present study focused on investigating the current state of mathematics teachers' awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry in the United States (U.S.) and China, as well as the factors that influence them. The instrument of the study included a survey and a test designed by the researcher and validated by five experts. The results of the study indicated that secondary math teachers in the U.S. and China had very low levels of awareness of fractals and lack the knowledge and skills of solving fractal problems, but they had a higher level of interest in fractals related to classroom teaching and professional development as compared with their levels of awareness. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the factor 'experience of learning fractals' had the most positive effect on the average score of awareness. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most positive effect on the average score of interest. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most negative effect on the average score of knowledge.

  4. Multiple approaches to assessing the effects of delays for hip fracture patients in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, V.; Hamilton, B. H.; Roos, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the determinants of postsurgery length of stay (LOS) and inpatient mortality in the United States (California and Massachusetts) and Canada (Manitoba and Quebec). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Patient discharge abstracts from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Nationwide Inpatient Sample and from provincial health ministries. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive statistics by state or province, pooled competing risks hazards models (which control for censoring of LOS and inpatient mortality data), and instrumental variables (which control for confounding in observational data) were used to analyze the effect of wait time for hip fracture surgery on postsurgery outcomes. DATA EXTRACTIONS: Data were extracted for patients admitted to an acute care hospital with a primary diagnosis of hip fracture who received hip fracture surgery, were admitted from home or the emergency room, were age 45 or older, stayed in the hospital 365 days or less, and were not trauma patients. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The descriptive data indicate that wait times for surgery are longer in the two Canadian provinces than in the two U.S. states. Canadians also have longer postsurgery LOS and higher inpatient mortality. Yet the competing risks hazards model indicates that the effect of wait time on postsurgery LOS is small in magnitude. Instrumental variables analysis reveals that wait time for surgery is not a significant predictor of postsurgery length of stay. The hazards model reveals significant differences in mortality across regions. However, both the regressions and the instrumental variables indicate that these differences are not attributable to wait time for surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Statistical models that account for censoring and confounding yield conclusions that differ from those implied by descriptive statistics in administrative data. Longer wait time for hip fracture surgery does not explain the difference in postsurgery outcomes across countries. PMID:10737450

  5. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... complaint'' to inquire into other matters that the United States did not pursue. Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1459... the allegations in the complaint; none of the factors involve comparisons to other matters); Microsoft... likewise beyond Tunney Act review. As a general matter, the Tunney Act does not provide an opportunity...

  6. 76 FR 23839 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Register on December 28, 2010, see United States, et al. v. Lucasfilm Ltd., 75 FR 81651; and...) (``Collaboration Guidelines''). See also Major League Baseball v. Salvino, 542 F.3d 290, 339 (2d Cir. 2008... Baseball teams created a formal joint venture to exclusively license, and share profits for,...

  7. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  8. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... the proposed Final Judgment and CIS in the Federal Register on May 22, 2013, see 78 FR 30399-30660... the sale of beer in the United States and specifically in 26 local markets in violation of Section 7... venture established by Modelo and Constellation to import, market, and sell certain Modelo beers into...

  9. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  10. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  11. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  12. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in United States..., 2010, the United States and seven States filed a Complaint alleging that certain rules, policies,...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  16. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  17. United States National seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Filson, J.R.; Murphy, A.

    1989-01-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

  18. Hydrologic Unit Map - 1974, state of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    This map and accompanying table show Hydrologic Units that are basically hydrographic in nature.  The Cataloging Units shown will supplant the Cataloging Units previously used by the U.S. Geological Survey in its Catalog of Informaiton on Water Data (1966-72).  The previous U.S. Geological Survey Catalog-Indexing System was by map number and letter, such as 49M.  The boundaries as shown have been adapted from "The Catalog of Information on Water Data" (1972), "Water Resources Regions and Subregions for the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources" by the U.S. Water Reseources Council (1970), "River Basins of the United States" by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service ((1963, 1970), "River Basin Maps Showing Hydrologic Stations" by the Inter-Agency Committee on Water Resources, Subcommittee on Hydrology (1961), and State planning maps.

  19. Electricity without carbon dioxide: Assessing the role of carbon capture and sequestration in United States electric markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will likely require significant cuts in electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The ability to capture and sequester CO2 in a manner compatible with today's fossil-fuel based power generating infrastructure offers a potentially low-cost contribution to a larger climate change mitigation strategy. This thesis fills a niche between economy-wide studies of CO 2 abatement and plant-level control technology assessments by examining the contribution that carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) might make toward reducing US electric sector CO2 emissions. The assessment's thirty year perspective ensures that costs sunk in current infrastructure remain relevant and allows time for technological diffusion, but remains free of assumptions about the emergence of unidentified radical innovations. The extent to which CCS might lower CO2 mitigation costs will vary directly with the dispatch of carbon capture plants in actual power-generating systems, and will depend on both the retirement of vintage capacity and competition from abatement alternatives such as coal-to-gas fuel switching and renewable energy sources. This thesis therefore adopts a capacity planning and dispatch model to examine how the current distribution of generating units, natural gas prices, and other industry trends affect the cost of CO2 control via CCS in an actual US electric market. The analysis finds that plants with CO2 capture consistently provide significant reductions in base-load emissions at carbon prices near 100 $/tC, but do not offer an economical means of meeting peak demand unless CO2 reductions in excess of 80 percent are required. Various scenarios estimate the amount by which turn-over of the existing generating infrastructure and the severity of criteria pollutant constraints reduce mitigation costs. A look at CO2 sequestration in the seabed beneath the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) complements this model

  20. Summary of three regional assessment studies of solar electric generation opportunities in the Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Harty, H.

    1981-02-01

    Market opportunities for solar generation of electricity for utility and for residential/commercial/industrial applications in the Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest regions of the United States were evaluated in three studies (JBF 1979, Stone and Webster 1979a, 1979b) and are summarized. The evaluations were based on both economic analyses and user perception of what they would require to select or approve the use of solar electric generation for themselves or for their employers. Over 30 utilities and several industrial and commercial firms and homeowners were involved. Solar electric technologies considered included biomass, hybrid retrofit, OTEC, photovoltaic, solar thermal, and wind. The studies projected that solar electric technologies could account for several percent of the forecast generation in year 2000 in the Southeast and Southwest regions,and up to 10 to 20% in the Northeast region. No single solar electric technology or application (for utility or industrial/commercial/residential use) arrived earlier at economic breakeven than other technologies in the Southeast region, but wind generation for both utility and industrial applications predominated in the Northeast region. The Southwest region, in which only utility applications were considered, showed wind energy and retrofit hybrid (a solar adjunct to an existing fossil-fueled plant) to be the most likely early applications.

  1. An Assessment of the Potential Predictability of Drought Over the United States Based on Climate Model Simulations with Specified SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Suarez, Max; Koster, Randal

    2010-01-01

    The USCLIV AR working group on drought recently initiated a series of global climate model simulations forced with idealized SST anomaly patterns, designed to address a number of uncertainties regarding the impact of SST forcing and the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks on regional drought. The runs were done with several global atmospheric models including NASA/NSIPP-l, NCEP/GFS, GFDLlAM2, and NCAR CCM3 and CAM3.5. Specific questions that the runs are designed to address include: What are mechanisms that maintain drought across the seasonal cycle and from one year to the next. To what extent can droughts develop independently of ocean variability due to year-to-year memory that may be inherent to the land. What is the role of the different ocean basins? Here we focus on the potential predictability of drought conditions over the United States. Specific issues addressed include the seasonality and regionality of the signal-to-noise ratios associated with Pacific and Atlantic SST forcing, and the sensitivity of the results to the climatological stationary waves simulated by the different AGCMs.

  2. Mass Balance Assessment for Six Neonicotinoid Insecticides During Conventional Wastewater and Wetland Treatment: Nationwide Reconnaissance in United States Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence and removal of six high-production high-volume neonicotinoids was investigated in 13 conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one engineered wetland. Flow-weighted daily composites were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing the occurrence of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin at ng/L concentrations in WWTP influent (60.5 ± 40.0; 2.9 ± 1.9; 149.7 ± 289.5, respectively) and effluent (58.5 ± 29.1; 2.3 ± 1.4; 70.2 ± 121.8, respectively). A mass balance showed insignificant removal of imidacloprid (p = 0.09, CI = 95%) and limited removal of the sum of acetamiprid and its degradate, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl (18 ± 4%, p = 0.01, CI = 95%). Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected. In the wetland, no removal of imidacloprid or acetamiprid was observed. Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000–3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide. This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates. PMID:27196423

  3. Identification of Eastern United States Reticulitermes Termite Species via PCR-RFLP, Assessed Using Training and Test Data

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Collins, Benjamin D.; Yi, Rachel N.; Dyer, Rodney J.; Hyseni, Chaz

    2015-01-01

    Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni and R. malletei) have overlapping ranges and are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Here we present a molecular tool for species identification. It is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene, followed by a three-enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, with banding patterns resolved via agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was designed using a large set of training data obtained from a public DNA sequence database, then evaluated using an independent test panel of Reticulitermes from the Southern Appalachian Mountains, for which species assignments were determined via phylogenetic comparison to reference sequences. After refining the interpretive framework, the PCR-RFLP assay was shown to provide accurate identification of four co-occurring species (the fifth species, R. hageni, was absent from the test panel, so accuracy cannot yet be extended to training data). The assay is cost- and time-efficient, and will help improve knowledge of Reticulitermes species distributions. PMID:26463202

  4. Mass Balance Assessment for Six Neonicotinoid Insecticides During Conventional Wastewater and Wetland Treatment: Nationwide Reconnaissance in United States Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sadaria, Akash M; Supowit, Samuel D; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-21

    Occurrence and removal of six high-production high-volume neonicotinoids was investigated in 13 conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one engineered wetland. Flow-weighted daily composites were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing the occurrence of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin at ng/L concentrations in WWTP influent (60.5 ± 40.0; 2.9 ± 1.9; 149.7 ± 289.5, respectively) and effluent (58.5 ± 29.1; 2.3 ± 1.4; 70.2 ± 121.8, respectively). A mass balance showed insignificant removal of imidacloprid (p = 0.09, CI = 95%) and limited removal of the sum of acetamiprid and its degradate, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl (18 ± 4%, p = 0.01, CI = 95%). Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected. In the wetland, no removal of imidacloprid or acetamiprid was observed. Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000-3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide. This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates. PMID:27196423

  5. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  6. Comparative water-quality assessment of the Hai He River basin in the People's Republic of China and three similar basins in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph; Xinquan, Zhou; Chao, Lin; Deguo, Zhi; Chi, Fan Lan; Kaitai, Xu; Ying, Lu; Luo, Yang; Shide, Liu; Dewen, Liu; Yong, Guo; Qi, Tian; Jing, Liu; Weidong, Yu; Shedlock, Robert; Knifong, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water quality with respect to nitrate, major inorganic constituents, pesticides, stable isotopes, and tritium was assessed in the agricultural Tangshan region in the Hai He River basin of the People's Republic of China and compared with three similar regions in the United States: the Delmarva Peninsula of the States of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, and the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys of the State of California. These four regions are considered similar with respect to size, land use, or climate. Median nitrate concentrations were found to be similar in the four regions in most instances, and those median concentrations were below the American nitrate drinking water standard of 10 milligrams per liter, however, higher concentrations, and a greater range of concentration, were evident for the Tangshan region.

  7. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  8. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and possessions....

  9. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  10. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  11. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  13. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  14. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  15. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  16. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  17. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  18. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  19. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  1. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  2. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  3. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  4. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  5. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  7. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  8. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  12. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  13. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  15. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  17. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  18. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  19. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  20. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  1. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  2. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  5. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  8. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  9. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  14. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  15. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  16. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1969-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a crosscountry traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The present-day landforms the features that make up the face of the earth are products of the slow, sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the earth's beginning.

  17. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a cross-country traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, and deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The presentday landforms the features that make up the face of the Earth are products of the slow sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the Earth's beginning.

  18. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  19. United States Life Tables, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with the 1997 tables, U.S. life tables have been constructed with a new methodology that is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Life expectancy and other tables are shown for the first time for ages 85 to…

  20. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  1. Developing a situational judgment test blueprint for assessing the non-cognitive skills of applicants to the University of Utah School of Medicine, the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The situational judgment test (SJT) shows promise for assessing the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants, but has only been used in Europe. Since the admissions processes and education levels of applicants to medical school are different in the United States and in Europe, it is necessary to obtain validity evidence of the SJT based on a sample of United States applicants. Methods: Ninety SJT items were developed and Kane’s validity framework was used to create a test blueprint. A total of 489 applicants selected for assessment/interview day at the University of Utah School of Medicine during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle completed one of five SJTs, which assessed professionalism, coping with pressure, communication, patient focus, and teamwork. Item difficulty, each item’s discrimination index, internal consistency, and the categorization of items by two experts were used to create the test blueprint. Results: The majority of item scores were within an acceptable range of difficulty, as measured by the difficulty index (0.50-0.85) and had fair to good discrimination. However, internal consistency was low for each domain, and 63% of items appeared to assess multiple domains. The concordance of categorization between the two educational experts ranged from 24% to 76% across the five domains. Conclusion: The results of this study will help medical school admissions departments determine how to begin constructing a SJT. Further testing with a more representative sample is needed to determine if the SJT is a useful assessment tool for measuring the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants. PMID:26582629

  2. Data Base for a National Mineral-Resource Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, S.D.; Cox, D.P.; McCammon, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    For this assessment, the conterminous United States was divided into 12 regions Adirondack Mountains, Central and Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau, East Central, Great Basin, Great Plains, Lake Superior, Northern Appalachians, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Coast, Southern Appalachians, and Southern Basin and Range. The assessment, which was conducted by regional assessment teams of scientists from the USGS, was based on the concepts of permissive tracts and deposit models. Permissive tracts are discrete areas of the United States for which estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits of a particular deposit type were made. A permissive tract is defined by its geographic boundaries such that the probability of deposits of the type delineated occurring outside the boundary is neglible. Deposit models, which are based on a compilation of worldwide literature and on observation, are sets of data in a convenient form that describe a group of deposits which have similar characteristics and that contain information on the common geologic attributes of the deposits and the environments in which they are found. Within each region, the assessment teams delineated permissive tracts for those deposit models that were judged to be appropriate and, when the amount of information warranted, estimated the number of undiscovered deposits. A total of 46 deposit models were used to assess 236 separate permissive tracts. Estimates of undiscovered deposits were limited to a depth of 1 km beneath the surface of the Earth. The estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc were expressed in the form of a probability distribution. Commonly, the number of undiscovered deposits was estimated at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program was used to combine the probability distribution of the number of undiscovered deposits with the grade and tonnage data sets associated with each deposit model to

  3. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  4. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  5. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  6. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  7. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  8. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  9. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  10. A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by

  11. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Taylor, Ben; Rehm, Jürgen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US) using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight–obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood), and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. Methods and Findings We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i) for major potential confounders, and (ii) where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000–500,000) and 395,000 (372,000–414,000) deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight–obesity (216,000; 188,000–237,000) and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000–222,000) were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000–107,000), low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000–96,000), and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000–97,000) were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000–40,000) deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were

  12. Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Samantha; Conrad, Corrie; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Mohebbi, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1) pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was developed using data from the beginning of pH1N1. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the accuracy of each U.S. GFT model by comparing weekly estimates of ILI (influenza-like illness) activity with the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet). For each GFT model we calculated the correlation and RMSE (root mean square error) between model estimates and ILINet for four time periods: pre-H1N1, Summer H1N1, Winter H1N1, and H1N1 overall (Mar 2009–Dec 2009). We also compared the number of queries, query volume, and types of queries (e.g., influenza symptoms, influenza complications) in each model. Both models' estimates were highly correlated with ILINet pre-H1N1 and over the entire surveillance period, although the original model underestimated the magnitude of ILI activity during pH1N1. The updated model was more correlated with ILINet than the original model during Summer H1N1 (r = 0.95 and 0.29, respectively). The updated model included more search query terms than the original model, with more queries directly related to influenza infection, whereas the original model contained more queries related to influenza complications. Conclusions Internet search behavior changed during pH1N1, particularly in the categories “influenza complications” and “term for influenza.” The complications associated with pH1N1, the fact that pH1N1 began in the summer rather than winter, and changes in health-seeking behavior each may have played a part. Both GFT models performed well prior to and during pH1N1

  13. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  14. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  15. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  16. Design and testing of a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system for predicting concentrations of agrichemicals in groundwater across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E; Voss, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to assess the likelihood of groundwater contamination from surface-derived compounds have spanned more than three decades. Relatively few of these assessments, however, have involved the use of process-based simulations of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface, or compared the predictions from such models with measured data—especially over regional to national scales. To address this need, a process-based groundwater vulnerability assessment (P-GWAVA) system was constructed to use transport-and-fate simulations to predict the concentration of any surface-derived compound at a specified depth in the vadose zone anywhere in the conterminous United States. The system was then used to simulate the concentrations of selected agrichemicals in the vadose zone beneath agricultural areas in multiple locations across the conterminous United States. The simulated concentrations were compared with measured concentrations of the compounds detected in shallow groundwater (that is, groundwater drawn from within a depth of 6.3 ± 0.5 meters [mean ± 95 percent confidence interval] below the water table) in more than 1,400 locations across the United States. The results from these comparisons were used to select the simulation approaches that led to the closest agreement between the simulated and the measured concentrations.The P-GWAVA system uses computer simulations that account for a broader range of the hydrologic, physical, biological and chemical phenomena known to control the transport and fate of solutes in the subsurface than has been accounted for by any other vulnerability assessment over regional to national scales. Such phenomena include preferential transport and the influences of temperature, soil properties, and depth on the partitioning, transport, and transformation of pesticides in the subsurface. Published methods and detailed soil property data are used to estimate a wide range of model input parameters for each site, including surface

  17. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  18. The Use of Learner-Centered Assessment Practices in the United States: The Influence of Individual and Institutional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Myers, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining the contexts that influence the use of learner-centered assessment (LCA) practices in undergraduate courses has not kept pace with those focusing on teaching practices. Such research is needed given that conceptualizations of effective pedagogy generally include both teaching and assessment. The authors examined a range of…

  19. Australian Students with Disabilities Accessing NAPLAN: Lessons from a Decade of Inclusive Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Australian legislation and educational policies may espouse, but not yet fully enact, inclusive assessments for all. In relation to the National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN), for example, almost 5% of students are either exempt or withdrawn. The achievement levels of these students, many of whom have disabilities, are not…

  20. Gender Gaps in Assessment Outcomes in Vermont and the United States. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 062

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine; Ehrlich, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the New England Common Assessment Program (NECAP), this report examines how gender gaps differ between Vermont NAEP scores and U.S. NAEP scores and between Vermont NAEP and NECAP scores in grades 4 and 8. Overall and disaggregated by poverty and disability status, gender…

  1. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  2. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  5. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  6. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS - JOHN H. KERR DAM AND RESERVOIR, BOYDTON, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works facilities including a flood control reservoir and associated public use areas. ecommended methods for reducing pollution result...

  9. The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the United States: Strategies for Monitoring Trends and Results from the First Two Decades of Study: 1991-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, B.; McMahon, P.; Rupert, M.; Tesoriero, J.; Starn, J.; Anning, D.; Green, C.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was implemented in 1991 to provide long-term, consistent, and comparable information on the quality of surface and groundwater resources of the United States. Findings are used to support national, regional, state, and local information needs with respect to water quality. The three main goals of the program are to 1) assess the condition of the nation's streams, rivers, groundwater, and aquatic systems; 2) assess how conditions are changing over time; and 3) determine how natural features and human activities affect these conditions, and where those effects are most pronounced. As data collection progressed into the second decade, the emphasis of the interpretation of the data has shifted from primarily understanding status, to evaluation of trends. The program has conducted national and regional evaluations of change in the quality of water in streams, rivers, groundwater, and health of aquatic systems. Evaluating trends in environmental systems requires complex analytical and statistical methods, and a periodic re-evaluation of the monitoring methods used to collect these data. Examples given herein summarize the lessons learned from the evaluation of changes in water quality during the past two decades with an emphasis on the finding with respect to groundwater. The analysis of trends in groundwater is based on 56 well networks located in 22 principal aquifers of the United States. Analysis has focused on 3 approaches: 1) a statistical analysis of results of sampling over various time scales, 2) studies of factors affecting trends in groundwater quality, and 3) use of models to simulate groundwater trends and forecast future trends. Data collection for analysis of changes in groundwater-quality has focused on decadal resampling of wells. Understanding the trends in groundwater quality and the factors affecting those trends has been conducted using quarterly sampling, biennial sampling

  10. Use of Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPERs) to Rapidly Assess Public Health Issues — United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.; Schnall, Amy H.; Ballou, Shimere G.; Zane, David F.; Burrer, Sherry L.; Noe, Rebecca S.; Wolkin, Amy F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) is an epidemiologic technique designed to provide quick, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable household-based public health information about a community’s emergency response needs. The Health Studies Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides in-field assistance and technical support to state, local, tribal, and territorial (SLTT) health departments in conducting CASPERs during a disaster response and in non-emergency settings. Data from CASPERs conducted from 2003 through 2012 were reviewed to describe uses of CASPER, ascertain strengths of the CASPER methodology, and highlight significant findings. Methods Through an assessment of the CDC’s CASPER metadatabase, all CASPERs that involved CDC support performed in US states and territories from 2003 through 2012 were reviewed and compared descriptively for differences in geographic distribution, sampling methodology, mapping tool, assessment settings, and result and action taken by decision makers. Results For the study period, 53 CASPERs were conducted in 13 states and one US territory. Among the 53 CASPERS, 38 (71.6%) used the traditional 2-stage cluster sampling methodology, 10 (18.8%) used a 3-stage cluster sampling, and two (3.7%) used a simple random sampling methodology. Among the CASPERs, 37 (69.9%) were conducted in response to specific natural or human-induced disasters, including 14 (37.8%) for hurricanes. The remaining 16 (30.1%) CASPERS were conducted in non-disaster settings to assess household preparedness levels or potential effects of a proposed plan or program. The most common recommendations resulting from a disaster-related CASPER were to educate the community on available resources (27; 72.9%) and provide services (18; 48.6%) such as debris removals and refills of medications. In preparedness CASPERs, the most common recommendations were to educate the community in disaster

  11. Evolution of Public Participation in the Assessment and Management of Environmental Health Risks: A Brief History of Developments in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Significance for public health Risk-based decision making is a core feature of government actions aimed at protecting public health from the adverse effects of environmental hazards. In the past, it has often been an expert-driven, mostly obscure process used by federal agencies to justify and defend regulatory decisions made outside the public arena. But the nature of decision making has changed as it has become apparent that environmental health problems are more complicated, controversial, and costly to solve than originally thought. Meaningful public engagement is now an inherent component of all phases of the risk assessment – risk management paradigm because it promotes stakeholder buy in, taps into unique stakeholder knowledge, and promotes the concept of environmental democracy. In the United States, the risk assessment – risk management paradigm that underpins federal decisions about environmental health risks was first established in 1983. In the beginning, the importance of public participation was not explicitly recognized within the paradigm. Over time, however, it has become evident that not only must risk-based decisions be founded on the best available scientific knowledge and understanding, but also that they must take account of the knowledge, values, and preferences of interested and affected parties, including community members, business people, and environmental advocates. This article examines the gradually expanding role of public participation in risk-based decision making in the United States, and traces its evolution from a peripheral issue labeled as an external pressure to an integral element of the 21st century risk assessment – risk management paradigm. Today, and into the foreseeable future, public participation and stakeholder involvement are intrinsic features of the emerging American regulatory landscape, which emphasizes collaborative approaches for achieving cooperative and cost-effective solutions to complicated and often

  12. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  13. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boards Representing the 70 medical boards of the United States and its territories. The Federation of State ... the 70 medical and osteopathic boards of the United States and its territories. Since its founding, the ...

  14. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  15. Pre-release assessment of Gadirtha inexacta a proposed biological control agent of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to China, Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The noctuid, Gadirtha inexacta, is a multivoltine herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological control agent in the United States...

  16. Assessing the Relationship between Marijuana Availability and Marijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…

  17. ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND POLICIES AFFECTING SOIL CARBON IN AGROECOSYSTEMS OF THE CENTRAL UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the U.S. EPA BIOME Agroecosystems Assessment Project is to evaluate the degree to which agroecosystems can be technically managed, on a sustainable basis, to conserve and sequester carbon, reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and provide refere...

  18. Vocational Psychology and Assessment with Immigrants in the United States: Future Directions for Training, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Hsieh, Catherine; Chiao, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants are vital members of U.S. society and are essential contributors to the U.S. labor force. Today, immigrants comprise a significant portion of the U.S. population, however, career assessment research has largely ignored their work experiences, and career counselors are not trained on the intricacies on the delivery of career counseling…

  19. LAND USE CHANGE DUE TO URBANIZATION FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT REGION OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Regional Vulnerability Assessment Pro- gram (REVA) is designed to develop and demonstrate approaches to identify the ecosystems at the greatest risk from regional population growth and economic activity (Smith, 1999). A region is a...

  20. A set of scientific issues being considered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding pollinator risk assessment framework.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 11-14, 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the Office of Pesticides Program’s (OPP) proposed “Pollinator Risk Assessment Framework”. Several sources have reporte...

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS GARRISON DAM HYDRO- ELECTRIC POWERPLANT - RIVERDALE, NORTH DAKOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works dam and hydroelectric power plant. ecommended methods for reducing pollution resulting primarily from the operation of these fac...

  2. An Assessment of the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Situation in the United States. Volume I: Executive Summary and Conclusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Washington, DC.

    From August 1975 to January 1976, a study was conducted to provide an assessment of the migrant and seasonal farmworker situation. Inquiry was along the topic divisions of demographics, employment and manpower, housing, education, health, supportive services, economic development, Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) 303 and other…

  3. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  4. Assessing Nation-wide Distributions of Contaminant Levels in Selected Finfish and Shellfish from the Estuaries of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of mercury is well documented and has led to laws and regulations governing its use and disposal; however mercury contamination of coastal and estuarine biota continues to be of public concern. The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program provided da...

  5. Assessing the vulnerablitiy of selected sorghum lines from the United States of America to long smut (Sporisorium ehrenbergii Vanky) disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long smut is a limiting factor in sorghum productivity in some countries and therefore, a threat to food security. To assess long smut (Sporisorium ehrenbergii Vanky) disease response, experiments were conducted with 51 sorghum accessions including 31 commercial hybrids and 20 cultivars from the Un...

  6. A Quantitative and Model-Driven Approach to Assessing Higher Education in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Zuqing; Qiu, Robin G.

    2016-01-01

    University ranking or higher education assessment in general has been attracting more and more public attention over the years. However, the subjectivity-based evaluation index and indicator selections and weights that are widely adopted in most existing ranking systems have been called into question. In other words, the objectivity and…

  7. Risk Assessment of Escherichia coli O157 illness from consumption of hamburgers in the United States made from Australian manufacturing beef.

    PubMed

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the risk of contracting illness due to the consumption in the United States of hamburgers contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of serogroup O157 produced from manufacturing beef imported from Australia. We have used a novel approach for estimating risk by using the prevalence and concentration estimates of E. coli O157 in lots of beef that were withdrawn from the export chain following detection of the pathogen. For the purpose of the present assessment an assumption was that no product is removed from the supply chain following testing. This, together with a number of additional conservative assumptions, leads to an overestimation of E. coli O157-associated illness attributable to the consumption of ground beef patties manufactured only from Australian beef. We predict 49.6 illnesses (95%: 0.0-148.6) from the 2.46 billion hamburgers made from 155,000 t of Australian manufacturing beef exported to the United States in 2012. All these illness were due to undercooking in the home and less than one illness is predicted from consumption of hamburgers cooked to a temperature of 68 °C in quick-service restaurants. PMID:24984959

  8. Evaluating the extent of pharmaceuticals in surface waters of the United States using a National-scale Rivers and Streams Assessment survey.

    PubMed

    Batt, Angela L; Kincaid, Thomas M; Kostich, Mitchell S; Lazorchak, James M; Olsen, Anthony R

    2016-04-01

    To assess the potential exposure of aquatic ecosystems to active pharmaceutical ingredients, the authors conducted a national-scale, probability-based statistical survey of the occurrence of these compounds in surface waters of the United States. The survey included 182 sampling sites and targeted rivers with close proximity to urban areas. The 46 analytes reported represent many classes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including antibiotics, diuretics, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. Of the 46 analytes, 37 were detected in at least 1 sampling location. Sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic) was the most frequently detected compound, being measured in 141 of the 182 surface waters surveyed at concentrations ranging up to 570 ng/L. Ten of the compounds were detected in 20% or more of the sampling sites. Weighted means of the analytical measurements are used with the statistical survey design and analysis to provide national estimates of the extent of contamination for these APIs in the nation's urban rivers. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26562077

  9. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  17. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... also order print versions from our online catalog. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States Page Content On ... for Vascular Access Acknowledgments The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease Kidney disease statistics for the United States convey ...

  18. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  19. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  20. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  1. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  2. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  3. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  5. Syphilis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shockman, Solomon; Buescher, Lucinda S; Stone, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis gained notoriety in the 1500s, when it became widespread throughout Europe. While the origins of syphilis are not certain, recent data have shown that it may have originated in the Americas from a close relative that causes Yaws (Treponema pallidum pertenue).(1) For the past 500years, the disease has shown its various faces all over the world. The 19th century saw an entire medical subspecialty-syphilology (sometimes known as syphilography)-devoted to the study of the great disease, then known as "the great imitator." Syphilis has an entire textbook of presentations and can mimic many other infections and immune-mediated processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the many faces of the disease led to Sir William Osler's well-known aphorism, "The physician who knows syphilis knows medicine."(2) When penicillin was discovered, and used to treat syphilis in 1943, some thought that syphilis would go by the wayside, but syphilis continued what it has been doing for so many years . . . inconspicuously infecting humans. The United States has seen the incidence of syphilis increase numerous times throughout the past 70years. Every decrease in the incidence of syphilis is followed shortly by an increase. A marked shift in the epidemiology occurred from 1990 to 2000. In the 1990s, syphilis primarily occurred in heterosexual minority groups. In the new millennium, a majority of cases of syphilis are now transmitted among men who have sex with men (MSM).(3) This contribution discusses the incidence of syphilis in the United States and the reasons these trends continue. PMID:24559556

  6. Biotic, water-quality, and hydrologic metrics calculated for the analysis of temporal trends in National Water Quality Assessment Program Data in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Matthew P.; May, Jason T.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1991 to collect long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. The NAWQA Program utilizes interdisciplinary and dynamic studies that link the chemical and physical conditions of streams (such as flow and habitat) with ecosystem health and the biologic condition of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish communities. This report presents metrics derived from NAWQA data and the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network for sampling sites in the Western United States, as well as associated chemical, habitat, and streamflow properties. The metrics characterize the conditions of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. In addition, we have compiled climate records and basin characteristics related to the NAWQA sampling sites. The calculated metrics and compiled data can be used to analyze ecohydrologic trends over time.

  7. A five-year analysis of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for grassland drought assessment over the central Great Plains of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Y.; Brown, J.F.; Verdin, J.P.; Wardlow, B.

    2007-01-01

    A five-year (2001-2005) history of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data was analyzed for grassland drought assessment within the central United States, specifically for the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. Initial results show strong relationships among NDVI, NDWI, and drought conditions. During the summer over the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, the average NDVI and NDWI were consistently lower (NDVI 0.6 and NDWI>0.4). NDWI values exhibited a quicker response to drought conditions than NDVI. Analysis revealed that combining information from visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared channels improved sensitivity to drought severity. The proposed normalized difference drought index (NDDI) had a stronger response to summer drought conditions than a simple difference between NDVI and NDWI, and is therefore a more sensitive indicator of drought in grasslands than NDVI alone. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Design and implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: a United States example: understanding the limitations of using compliance-monitoring data to assess the water quality of a large river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wangsness, David J.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s it was determined that existing ambient and compliance-monitoring data could not satisfactorily evaluate the results of hundreds of billions of dollars spent for water-pollution abatement in the United States. At the request of the US Congress, a new programme, the National Water-Quality Assessment, was designed and implemented by government agency, the US Geological Survey (USGS). The Assessment has reported status and trends in surface- and ground-water quality at national, regional, and local scales since 1991. The legislative basis for US monitoring and data-sharing policies are identified as well as the successive phases of the design and implementation of the USGS Assessment. Application to the Danube Basin is suggested. Much of the water-quality monitoring conducted in the United States is designed to comply with Federal and State laws mandated primarily by the Clean Water Act of 1987 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986. Monitoring programs generally focus on rivers upstream and downstream of point-source discharges and at water-supply intakes. Few data are available for aquifer systems, and chemical analyses are often limited to those constituents required by law. In most cases, the majority of the available chemical and streamflow data have provided the information necessary to meet the objectives of the compliance-monitoring programs, but do not necessarily provide the information requires for basin-wide assessments of the water quality at the local, regional, or national scale.

  9. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Brizzee, Julie; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  10. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  11. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tate, Michael T; Lutz, Michelle A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Willacker, James J; Jackson, Allyson K; Evers, David C; Wiener, James G; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-11-15

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts. PMID

  12. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  13. Assessing the Vulnerability of Streams to Increased Frequency and Severity of Low Flows in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate poses risks to the availability and quality of water resources. Among the risks, increased frequency and severity of low flow periods in streams would be significant for many in-stream and out-of-stream uses of water. While down-scaled climate projections serve as the basis for understanding impacts of climate change on hydrologic systems, a robust framework for risk assessment incorporates multiple dimensions of risks including the vulnerability of hydrologic systems to climate change impacts. Streamflow records from the southeastern US were examined to assess the vulnerability of streams to increased frequency and severity of low flows. Long-term (>50 years) records provide evidence of more frequent and severe low flows in more streams than would be expected from random chance. Trends in low flows appear to be a result of changes in the temporal distribution rather than the annual amount of preciptation and/or in evaporation. Base flow recession provides an indicator of a stream's vulnerability to such changes. Linkages between streamflow patterns across temporal scales can be used for understanding and asessing stream responses to the various possible expressions of a changing climate.

  14. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease in annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.

  15. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease inmore » annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.« less

  16. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Ulman, Catherine A.; Binder, Stephen Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%). Many students (87.6%) felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training. PMID:25989840

  17. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project report, 20 June-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.; Smith, J.; Snow, S.; Thomas, R.

    1995-08-01

    The approach for conducting a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) at the Norfolk NAS is described along with background information about the site. Section 2 provides background information related to cooling tower operations and water treatment processes. Section 3 describes the current cooling tower activities and operations that were observed during the NAS site visit. Possible alternative practices for minimizing these wastes are discussed in Section 4. Recommendations on potential follow-up activities are also included in Section 4. Appendices include PPOA worksheets (Appendix A), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) discharge limits (Appendix B), discharge data (Appendix C), material safety data sheets (MSDS) (Appendix D), the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Cooling Tower Waste Discharge Policy with Industrial Wastewater Pollutant Limitations and Discharge Requirements (Appendix E), and the MSDS for DIAS-Aid Tower Treatment XP-300 (Appendix F).

  19. Challenges to the recognition and assessment of Alzheimer’s disease in American Indians of the southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Griffin-Pierce, Trudy; Silverberg, Nina; Connor, Donald; Jim, Minnie; Peters, Jill; Kaszniak, Alfred; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative diseases in American Indian (AI) populations. To provide appropriate health care to elder AIs, whose population is expected to increase dramatically during the next 50 years, it is imperative to attain a better understanding of the interaction of culture and disease in this underserved population. Raising awareness in the AI population regarding the nature of dementia as it compares to normal aging and the development of culturally appropriate instruments to detect and stage AD are essential for future health care efforts. Barriers restricting clinical service to this population include historical factors relating to access to health care, cultural beliefs regarding aging, demographic diversity of the population, competing epidemiologic risk factors, and lack of proper assessment tools for clinicians. PMID:18631981

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment of reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southeast United States Coast.

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Voit, Eberhard O; Hansen, Larry J; Wells, Randall S; Mitchum, Greg B; Hohn, Aleta A; Fair, Patricia A

    2002-12-01

    High levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported in the tissues of some species of marine mammals. The high concentrations are of concern because a growing body of experimental evidence links PCBs to deleterious effects on reproduction, endocrine homeostasis, and immune system function. Much of the recent research has focused on determining the exposure of marine mammal populations to PCBs, but very little effort has been devoted to the actual risk assessments that are needed to determine the expected impacts of the documented exposures. We describe a novel risk assessment approach that integrates measured tissue concentrations of PCBs with a surrogate dose-response relationship and leads to predictions of health risks for marine mammals as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. Specifically, we use PCB tissue residue data from three populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), study the feasibility of published dose-response data from a surrogate species. and combine this information to estimate the risk of detrimental reproductive effects in female dolphins. Our risk analyses for dolphin populations near Beaufort (NC, USA), Sarasota (FL, USA), and Matagorda Bay (TX, USA) indicate a high likelihood that reproductive success, primarily in primiparous females, is being severely impaired by chronic exposure to PCBs. Excess risk of reproductive failure, measured in terms of stillbirth or neonatal mortality, for primiparous females was estimated as 60% (Beaufort), 79% (Sarasota), and 78% (Matagorda Bay). Females of higher parity, which have previously off-loaded a majority of their PCB burden, exhibit a much lower risk. PMID:12463575

  1. Epidemiology of Congenital Upper Limb Anomalies in a Midwest United States Population: An Assessment Using the OMT Classification

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Charles A.; Wall, Lindley B.; Bohn, Deborah C.; Moen, Patrick; Van Heest, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relative presentation frequency of children with upper limb congenital anomalies at 3 Midwestern referral centers using the Oberg, Manske, and Tonkin (OMT) classification and to assess the utility of this new classification system. Methods 641 individuals with 653 congenital upper extremity anomalies were identified at 3 hospitals in 2 large metropolitan areas during a 1-year interval. Patients were identified prospectively and the specific upper extremity anomaly and any associated syndromes were confirmed using medical records and radiographs. We applied the OMT classification that categorizes anomalies using a dysmorphology outline as malformations, dysplasias, deformations, and syndromes, and assessed its utility and ease of use. Results There were 480 extremities (74%) with a limb malformation including 184 involving the entire limb. Arthrogryposis was the most common of these (53 extremities). Anomalies affecting only the hand plate accounted for 62% (296) of the malformations. Of these, radial polydactyly (15%) was the most common specific anomaly, followed by symbrachydactyly (13%) and cleft hand (11%). Dysplasias were noted in 86 extremities; 55 of these were multiple hereditary exostoses. There were 87 extremities with deformations and 58 of these were trigger digits. A total of 98 children had a syndrome or association. Constriction ring sequence was most common. The OMT was straightforward to use and most anomalies could be easily assigned. There were a few conditions, such as Madelung deformity and symbrachydactyly, that would benefit from clarification on how to best classify them. Conclusions Malformations were the most common congenital anomalies in the 653 upper extremities evaluated over a 1-year period at 3 institutions. We were able to classify all individuals using the OMT classification system. PMID:25534840

  2. Assessing hydroclimate impacts of a large-scale perennial biofuel crop expansion over the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Wagner, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Mahalov, A.; Georgescu, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial bioenergy crops are a potential alternative energy source to fossil fuels that could increase U.S. energy independence and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Large-scale conversion of existing lands to perennial bioenergy crops has shown the potential to decrease near-surface temperatures but could cause unintended consequences on water resources via changes in soil moisture/groundwater depletion. Spatiotemporal analysis of long-term and extreme hydrological impacts remains limited but is necessary for examination of large-scale sustainable deployment of this alternative energy pathway. Here, we quantify hydroclimatic impacts associated with perennial bioenergy crop expansion (e.g., miscanthus or switchgrass) and examine simulated effects on magnitude and frequency of extreme events (i.e. heat waves and anomalous precipitation events). We conduct 10-year (2001-2010) U.S. continental scale simulations of baseline and perennial bioenergy crop expansion (based on recent assessments of abandoned and degraded cropland over the conterminous U.S.) using WRF coupled to a land surface model (LEAF-Hydro) at 20 km resolution. Time series analysis and spatial statistical methods are applied to quantify extreme hydroclimate frequency owing to biofuels expansion, investigated through groundwater table depth, soil moisture and energy partitioning change and variability, and consequential impacts on ET, temperature, and precipitation. A further quantification of intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events is made based on extreme value theory. This study demonstrates a framework of feedback assessment between land use/land cover change and water resources, as well as evaluating feasibility and long-term sustainability of large-scale deployment of perennial bioenergy crops across the continental U.S.

  3. Foreign Medical Graduates and Physician Manpower in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Betty A.; Williams, Kathleen N.

    This report provides data and analyses on the foreign medical graduate (FMG) component of physician supply in the United States and identifies and assesses possible federal government options in the area of foreign medical graduates. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 reviews the current situation in the United States with respect to the…

  4. Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health: United States-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…

  5. PREVENTION OF WATERBORNE CHOLERA IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the outbreak of cholera in Peru in January 1991, the disease has spread to other Latin-American countries and on several occasions has been imported into the United States. n order to assess the risk of transmission of cholera by water in the United States, an ad hoc commit...

  6. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

  7. An assessment of survey measures used across key epidemiologic studies of United States Gulf War I Era Veterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, 12 large epidemiologic studies and 2 registries have focused on U.S. veterans of the 1990–1991 Gulf War Era. We conducted a review of these studies’ research tools to identify existing gaps and overlaps of efforts to date, and to advance development of the next generation of Gulf War Era survey tools. Overall, we found that many of the studies used similar instruments. Questions regarding exposures were more similar across studies than other domains, while neurocognitive and psychological tools were the most variable. Many studies focused on self-reported survey results, with a range of validation practices. However, physical exams, biomedical assessments, and specimen storage were not common. This review suggests that while research may be able to pool data from past surveys, future surveys need to consider how their design can yield data comparable with previous surveys. Additionally, data that incorporate recent technologies in specimen and genetic analyses would greatly enhance such survey data. When combined with existing data on deployment-related exposures and post-deployment health conditions, longitudinal follow-up of existing studies within this collaborative framework could represent an important step toward improving the health of veterans. PMID:23302181

  8. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 6. An ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    In this volume, an ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions is developed. Exposures of wildlife species to methylmercury through the aquatic food chain are compared with toxicity data calculated in the development of criteria for the protection of fish-eating avian and mammalian wildlife. Descriptions of mercury impacts on biota are provided in the problem formulation chapter. Estimates are provided of mercury deposition on a local scale in areas near emissions point sources. the distributions of selected fish-consuming wildlife species are overlaid with predicted high mercury areas of high concern (e.g., areas with low-pH surface water) and compared with predicted deposition of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for mercury in fish vary widely. Field data were used to calculate representive mean BAFs for different trophic levels based on dissolved methylmercury. Methylmercury criteria for the protection of piscivorous avian and mammalian wildlife are provided. This volume of the draft Report analyzes sources of variability and uncertainty in these estimates and identifies data that would strengthen the certainty of these findings.

  9. Family Formation Processes: Assessing the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    The American family has undergone rapid transformation. Careful measurement attention to family formation is important because families are at the heart of numerous decisions, roles, and responsibilities with implications for understanding the well-being of families, adults and children. This paper considers whether there is a need for a new household panel study that addresses family formation. This paper consists of a review of the recent body of population-based, American surveys and finds a considerable gap in the ability to study the implications of families for the health and well-being of Americans. Earlier panel surveys used to assess family life anchored questions around marital events, but changes in family patterns require attention to a more diverse set of family forms. The paper concludes with recommendations for a multi-purpose panel study. The key challenge is to keep to pace with complexity and changes in American family life while at the same time maintaining a parsimonious set of survey questions. PMID:26612969

  10. A Satellite Based Assessment of the Impact of Urban Sprawl on Carbon Balance (NPP) of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Lawrence, W.; Bounoua, L.; Stutzer, D.; Tucker, C. J.; Ricketts, T.; Drob, K. M.

    2001-12-01

    For the first time, diurnal observations from two Earth imaging satellites were used to measure the extent of urban sprawl and estimate the photosynthetic capacity of the land surface inside and outside urbanized areas and assess the impact of urbanization on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Night-time data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System were used to map urban areas and monthly maximum NDVI values from1-km AVHRR data were used with the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach biophysical model to estimate net primary production (NPP). Seasonal profiles of NPP for urban and non-urban areas describe a variable effect on production depending upon the prevailing local climate and a strong urban "warming" signal can be seen. A comparison between a simulated "pre-urban" landscape and current conditions indicates that urbanization has reduced the productivity of the US land surface by about 0.012 PgC per year - about 0.5% of the estimated annual total. In terms of human requirements, this loss translates to enough energy to feed 105 million persons per year. The impact on biological systems therefore may be significant.

  11. Hispanic older adult mortality in the United States: new estimates and an assessment of factors shaping the Hispanic paradox.

    PubMed

    Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D

    2015-02-01

    Hispanics make up a rapidly growing proportion of the U.S. older adult population, so a firm grasp of their mortality patterns is paramount for identifying racial/ethnic differences in life chances in the population as a whole. Documentation of Hispanic mortality is also essential for assessing whether the Hispanic paradox--the similarity in death rates between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites despite Hispanics' socioeconomic disadvantage--characterizes all adult Hispanics or just some age, gender, nativity, or national-origin subgroups. We estimate age-/sex- and cause-specific mortality rate ratios and life expectancy for foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites ages 65 and older using the 1989-2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files. Results affirm that Hispanic mortality estimates are favorable relative to those of blacks and whites, but particularly so for foreign-born Hispanics and smoking-related causes. However, if not for Hispanics' socioeconomic disadvantage, their mortality levels would be even more favorable. PMID:25550142

  12. International Comparisons to Assess Effects of Payment and Regulatory Changes in the United States on Anemia Practice in Patients on Hemodialysis: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas S; Bieber, Brian A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal; Akizawa, Tadao; Jacobson, Stefan H; Locatelli, Francesco; Port, Friedrich K; Robinson, Bruce M

    2016-07-01

    For years, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) use among patients on dialysis was much higher in the United States than in Europe or Japan. Sweeping changes to dialysis reimbursement and regulatory policies for ESA in the United States in 2011 were expected to reduce ESA use and hemoglobin levels. We used the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) data from 7129 patients in 223 in-center hemodialysis facilities (average per month) to estimate and compare time trends in ESA dose and hemoglobin levels among patients on hemodialysis in the United States, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Japan. From 2010 to 2013, substantial declines in ESA use and hemoglobin levels occurred in the United States but not in other DOPPS countries. Between August of 2010 and April of 2013, mean weekly ESA dose in the United States decreased 40.4% for black patients and 38.0% for nonblack patients; mean hemoglobin decreased from 11.5 g/dl in black patients and 11.4 g/dl in nonblack patients to 10.6 g/dl in both groups. In 2010 and 2013, adjusted weekly ESA doses per kilogram were 41% and 11% lower, respectively, in patients in Europe and 60% and 18% lower, respectively, in patients in Japan than in nonblack patients in the United States. Adjusted hemoglobin levels in 2010 and 2013 were 0.07 g/dl lower and 0.56 g/dl higher, respectively, in patients in Europe and 0.93 and 0.01 g/dl lower, respectively, in patients in Japan than in nonblack patients in the United States. In conclusion, ESA dosing reductions in the United States likely reflect efforts in response to changes in reimbursement policy and regulatory guidance. PMID:26582402

  13. Assessment of environmental problems associated with increased enhanced oil recovery in the United States: 1980-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Garrell, M.; Royce, B.; Riedel, E.F.; Sathaye, J.

    1983-01-01

    Water requirements and uncontrolled air emissions from well vents and steam generators were estimated for each technology based upon available literature. Estimates of best air emission control technologies were made using data for EOR steam generators actually in use, as well as control technologies presently available but used by other industries. Amounts of solid wastes were calculated for each air emission control technology. Estimates were also made of the heavy metal content of these solid wastes. The study also included environmental residuals which may be expected should coal be used instead of lean crude to produce steam for thermal EOR. It was concluded that from an environmental prospective tertiary oil is preferable in many respects to shale oil, coal and synfuels. Alternative sources of oil such as syncrude, new exploration, and primary production could cause far more environmental damage than incremental EOR. Future EOR in specific regions may be constrained because of environmental issues: air emissions, solid waste disposal, water availability, and aquifer contaminators. Competition for water and the scarcity of surface water or groundwater which are low in total diminutive solids will impede some EOR projects. Risks of groundwater contamination should be minimized particularly because of requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new underground injection control program. A quantitative environmental assessment will require a complete and consistent data base for all fields for which EOR is planned out in which tertiary production is taking place. This is particularly true for EOR which will occur in Alaska or in offshore areas, where environments are fragile and where operating conditions are severe. 147 references, 29 figures, 46 tables.

  14. Taxonomic assessment of Alligator Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae: Macrochelys), with the description of two new species from the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Travis M; Granatosky, Michael C; Bourque, Jason R; Krysko, Kenneth L; Moler, Paul E; Gamble, Tony; Suarez, Eric; Leone, Erin; Roman, Joe

    2014-01-01

    The Alligator Snapping Turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, is a large, aquatic turtle limited to river systems that drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Previous molecular analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA suggested that Macrochelys exhibits significant genetic variation across its range that includes three distinct genetic assemblages (western, central, and eastern = Suwannee). However, no taxonomic revision or morphological analyses have been conducted previously. In this study, we test previous hypotheses of distinct geographic assemblages by examining morphology, reanalyzing phylogeographic genetic structure, and estimating divergence dating among lineages in a coalescent framework using Bayesian inference. We reviewed the fossil record and discuss phylogeographic and taxonomic implications of the existence of three distinct evolutionary lineages. We measured cranial (n=145) and post-cranial (n=104) material on field-captured individuals and museum specimens. We analyzed 420 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA sequence data for 158 Macrochelys. We examined fossil Macrochelys from ca. 15-16 million years ago (Ma) to the present to better assess historical distributions and evaluate named fossil taxa. The morphological and molecular data both indicate significant geographical variation and suggest three species-level breaks among genetic lineages that correspond to previously hypothesized genetic assemblages. The holotype of Macrochelys temminckii is from the western lineage. Therefore, we describe two new species as Macrochelys apalachicolae sp. nov. from the central lineage and Macrochelys suwanniensis sp. nov. from the eastern lineage (Suwannee River drainage). Our estimates of divergence times suggest that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of M. temminckii (western) and M. apalachicolae (central) existed 3.2-8.9 Ma during the late Miocene to late Pliocene, whereas M. temminckii-M. apalachicolae and M. suwanniensis last shared a MRCA 5.5-13.4 Ma

  15. Wall-to-wall assessment of carbon stock and flux consequences of forest disturbances in the Pacific Northwest United States using remote sensing and forest inventory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.; Moisen, G.; Schleeweis, K.; Ghimire, B.; Zhao, F. A.; Huang, C.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbances profoundly alter the structure and function of forests, imposing long lasting carbon legacies and strongly influencing rates of terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Disturbance legacies vary across ecoregions, by forest types, and with disturbance severity and type. The complexity presents a significant challenge for observing and modeling carbon exchange, and hinders assessments of current and likely future states of the global carbon cycle. We demonstrate how carbon legacies vary following harvest, fire and bark beetle for forests in Pacific Norwest (PNW) United States, and how these processes influence carbon stocks and fluxes at pixel and regional scales. This study involves the use of satellite and aerial remote sensing products to characterize the frequency and severity of fire, harvest and insects over the past three decades. We use forest inventory data (FIA) to parameterize a carbon cycle model to represent post-disturbance carbon trajectories of carbon pools and fluxes for harvest, fire and bark beetle disturbances of varying severity across forest types and site productivity. We infer forest stand age and associated uncertainty based on maps of aboveground biomass, disturbance and forest types derived from remote sensing data, as well as carbon stock trajectories and stand productivity map derived from FIA. We then apply the group of carbon flux trajectories to the forest stand age map throughout the study area. Finally, we summarize the net carbon uptake as a consequence of disturbance and regrowth at pixel and regional scales. As such, this study represents a first demonstration of a spatially explicit assessment of carbon stock and flux responses to disturbances by linking remote sensing disturbance products, biomass maps and forest inventory data in a carbon cycle modeling framework. The methodology will be further applied across the conterminous US to provide a comprehensive forest carbon budget assessment.

  16. Seismic hazard and risk assessment in the intraplate environment: The New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Although the causes of large intraplate earthquakes are still not fully understood, they pose certain hazard and risk to societies. Estimating hazard and risk in these regions is difficult because of lack of earthquake records. The New Madrid seismic zone is one such region where large and rare intraplate earthquakes (M = 7.0 or greater) pose significant hazard and risk. Many different definitions of hazard and risk have been used, and the resulting estimates differ dramatically. In this paper, seismic hazard is defined as the natural phenomenon generated by earthquakes, such as ground motion, and is quantified by two parameters: a level of hazard and its occurrence frequency or mean recurrence interval; seismic risk is defined as the probability of occurrence of a specific level of seismic hazard over a certain time and is quantified by three parameters: probability, a level of hazard, and exposure time. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), a commonly used method for estimating seismic hazard and risk, derives a relationship between a ground motion parameter and its return period (hazard curve). The return period is not an independent temporal parameter but a mathematical extrapolation of the recurrence interval of earthquakes and the uncertainty of ground motion. Therefore, it is difficult to understand and use PSHA. A new method is proposed and applied here for estimating seismic hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone. This method provides hazard estimates that are consistent with the state of our knowledge and can be easily applied to other intraplate regions. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  17. The United States Uranium Industry, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1993-08-01

    Low prices and foreign competition continue to plague the United States uranium industry. For eight years (1984-1991) the Secretary of Energy has declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected late in 1993 for 1992. Surface drilling for uranium in 1993 is expected to be about 1 million ft., because deposits are developed prior to mining. Drilling for claim assessment purposes has ceased due to changes in the mining law. All conventional mining and milling in the United States ceased in early 1992 when the last open-pit mine closed. Underground mining ceased in late 1990. Current uranium production is from solution mining (in-situ leaching) in Wyoming, Texas, and Nebraska. Uranium is recovered from Florida phosphate rock processed in Louisiana and from mine water in New Mexico. Uranium concentrate production in 1993 is expected to be about 5 million lbs U[sub 3]O[sub 8]. The United States has large reserves of uranium, but a significant price increase is needed for the industry to rebound.

  18. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS PITTSBURGH ENGINEER WAREHOUSE AND REPAIR STATION AND EMSWORTH LOCKS AND DAMS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Pittsburgh Engineering Warehouse and Repair Station (PEWARS) and Emsworth Locks and Dams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Reduction...

  19. United States transportation fuel economics (1975 - 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1975-01-01

    The United States transportation fuel economics in terms of fuel resources options, processing alternatives, and attendant economics for the period 1975 to 1995 are evaluated. The U.S. energy resource base is reviewed, portable fuel-processing alternatives are assessed, and selected future aircraft fuel options - JP fuel, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen - are evaluated economically. Primary emphasis is placed on evaluating future aircraft fuel options and economics to provide guidance for future strategy of NASA in the development of aviation and air transportation research and technology.

  20. Protecting Endangered Species in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shogren, Jason F.; Tschirhart, John

    2001-05-01

    Protecting Endangered Species in the United States is a collection of original papers by economists, biologists and political scientists with a common theme--protecting species at risk while safeguarding social order is a policy challenge that entangles biology, politics, and economics. The volume begins by assessing the biological needs that define the endangered species problem. The authors then explore the political realities that delimit the debate--who pays the costs and receives the benefits, and how interest groups affect species protection. The book addresses the economic choices that must be confronted for effective protection strategies including incentive schemes to promote preservation on public and private land.

  1. 31 CFR 510.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 510.309 Section 510.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.309 United States. The term United...

  2. A proxy for high-resolution regional reanalysis for the Southeast United States: assessment of precipitation variability in dynamically downscaled reanalyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stefanova, Lydia; Misra, Vasubandhu; Chan, Steven; Griffin, Melissa; O'Brien, James J.; Smith, Thomas J., III

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the seasonal, subseasonal, and diurnal variability of rainfall from COAPS Land- Atmosphere Regional Reanalysis for the Southeast at 10-km resolution (CLARReS10). Most of our assessment focuses on the representation of summertime subseasonal and diurnal variability.Summer precipitation in the Southeast United States is a particularly challenging modeling problem because of the variety of regional-scale phenomena, such as sea breeze, thunderstorms and squall lines, which are not adequately resolved in coarse atmospheric reanalyses but contribute significantly to the hydrological budget over the region. We find that the dynamically downscaled reanalyses are in good agreement with station and gridded observations in terms of both the relative seasonal distribution and the diurnal structure of precipitation, although total precipitation amounts tend to be systematically overestimated. The diurnal cycle of summer precipitation in the downscaled reanalyses is in very good agreement with station observations and a clear improvement both over their "parent" reanalyses and over newer-generation reanalyses. The seasonal cycle of precipitation is particularly well simulated in the Florida; this we attribute to the ability of the regional model to provide a more accurate representation of the spatial and temporal structure of finer-scale phenomena such as fronts and sea breezes. Over the northern portion of the domain summer precipitation in the downscaled reanalyses remains, as in the "parent" reanalyses, overestimated. Given the degree of success that dynamical downscaling of reanalyses demonstrates in the simulation of the characteristics of regional precipitation, its favorable comparison to conventional newer-generation reanalyses and its cost-effectiveness, we conclude that for the Southeast United states such downscaling is a viable proxy for high-resolution conventional reanalysis.

  3. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases. PMID:25633631

  4. At the Crossroads: Hazard Assessment and Reduction of Health Risks from Arsenic in Private Well Waters of Northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimism bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research. PMID:25466685

  5. At the crossroads: Hazard assessment and reduction of health risks from arsenic in private well waters of the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph D

    2015-02-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic (As) hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimistic bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research. PMID:25466685

  6. At the crossroads: Hazard assessment and reduction of health risks from arsenic in private well waters of the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic (As) hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimistic bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research.

  7. Assessing patients' and caregivers' perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A: a web-based study in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T; Pericleous, L; Kulkarni, R

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage and stability are critical. Our primary objective was to assess haemophilia A patients' and caregivers' experiences and preferences with FVIII product storage and stability. A secondary objective was to evaluate the use of the social media site Facebook in recruitment. In this cross-sectional study, 145 English-speaking adult patients and caregivers of children with haemophilia A were recruited through two state-based haemophilia organizations in the United States (US) and one national organization in Canada for a web-based survey assessing demographics and FVIII product ordering, usage, and storage practices. Of the 101 individuals who completed the survey, 60% resided in Canada; 57% were recruited through Facebook. Caregivers and patients responded similarly to questions about ordering practices and product usage, with some distinction between groups in storage practices. Two-thirds of participants noted challenges with storing FVIII products, especially storage away from home. More than half preferred storing FVIII products at room temperature vs. in the refrigerator for long periods of time. FVIII product accessibility, usage and storage affect disease management. Results support the need for more convenient and accessible FVIII products for patients in daily life and while travelling. In addition, the use of social media has potential value in recruiting this population. PMID:24870350

  8. Climate impact assessment, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This report considers unusual or abnormal meteorological or geophysical events (unusual in time, location, intensity, frequency or persistence) that will likely have an impact on societal or economic activities in a special and significant manner. This report considers: 1) violent meteorological events such as damaging thunderstorms, tornadoes, and tropical and winter storms, 2) non-violent meteorological events, including mild, unusually pleasant weather, lack of precipitation, and temperature extremes, 3) meteorologically related events, particularly drought, floods, forest fires and ice jams, and 4) geophysical events such as avalanches, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamies, waves, tides and shoreline erosion.

  9. United States Space Explorations 1958

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  15. Comments on the process and product of the health impacts assessment component of the national assessment of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S M; Ebi, K L

    2001-01-01

    In 1990 Congress formed the U.S. Global Change Research Program and required it to conduct a periodic national assessment of the potential impacts of climate variability and change on all regions and select economic/resource sectors of the United States. Between 1998 and 2000, a team of experts collaborated on a health impacts assessment that formed the basis for the first National Assessment's analysis of the potential impacts of climate on human health. The health impacts assessment was integrated across a number of health disciplines and involved a search for and qualitative expert judgment review of data on the potential links between climate events and population health. Accomplishments included identification of vulnerable populations, adaptation strategies, research needs, and data gaps. Experts, stakeholders, and the public were involved. The assessment is reported in five articles in this issue; a summary was published in the April 2000 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives. The assessment report will enhance understanding of ways human health might be affected by various climate-associated stresses and of the need for further empirical and predictive research. Improved understanding and communication of the significance and inevitability of uncertainties in such an assessment are critical to further research and policy development. PMID:11359684

  16. Comments on the process and product of the health impacts assessment component of the national assessment of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the United States.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Ebi, K L

    2001-05-01

    In 1990 Congress formed the U.S. Global Change Research Program and required it to conduct a periodic national assessment of the potential impacts of climate variability and change on all regions and select economic/resource sectors of the United States. Between 1998 and 2000, a team of experts collaborated on a health impacts assessment that formed the basis for the first National Assessment's analysis of the potential impacts of climate on human health. The health impacts assessment was integrated across a number of health disciplines and involved a search for and qualitative expert judgment review of data on the potential links between climate events and population health. Accomplishments included identification of vulnerable populations, adaptation strategies, research needs, and data gaps. Experts, stakeholders, and the public were involved. The assessment is reported in five articles in this issue; a summary was published in the April 2000 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives. The assessment report will enhance understanding of ways human health might be affected by various climate-associated stresses and of the need for further empirical and predictive research. Improved understanding and communication of the significance and inevitability of uncertainties in such an assessment are critical to further research and policy development. PMID:11359684

  17. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  18. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  19. State Tobacco Control Program Spending--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jidong; Walton, Kimp; Gerzoff, Robert B; King, Brian A; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-06-26

    Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases and deaths. States that made larger investments in tobacco prevention and control have seen larger declines in cigarettes sales than the United States as a whole, and the prevalence of smoking has declined faster as spending for tobacco control programs has increased. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs (Best Practices) outlines the elements of an evidence-based state tobacco control program and provides recommended state funding levels to substantially reduce tobacco-related disease, disability, and death. To analyze states' spending in relation to program components outlined within Best Practices, CDC assessed state tobacco control programs' expenditures for fiscal year 2011. In 2011, states spent approximately $658 million on tobacco control and prevention, which accounts for less than 3% of the states' revenues from the sale of tobacco products and only 17.8% of the level recommended by CDC. Evidence suggests that funding tobacco prevention and control efforts at the levels recommended in Best Practices could achieve larger and more rapid reductions in tobacco use and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26110838

  20. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  1. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  2. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  3. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  4. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  5. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  9. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  10. Plant distributions in the southwestern United States; a scenario assessment of the modern-day and future distribution ranges of 166 Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia P.; Gass, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed spatial models of the predicted modern-day suitable habitat (SH) of 166 dominant and indicator plant species of the southwestern United States (herein referred to as the Southwest) and then conducted a coarse assessment of potential future changes in the distribution of their suitable habitat under three climate-change scenarios for two time periods. We used Maxent-based spatial modeling to predict the modern-day and future scenarios of SH for each species in an over 342-million-acre area encompassing all or parts of six states in the Southwest--Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. Modern-day SH models were predicted by our using 26 annual and monthly average temperature and precipitation variables, averaged for the years 1971-2000. Future SH models were predicted for each species by our using six climate models based on application of the average of 16 General Circulation Models to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios B1, A1B, and A2 for two time periods, 2040 to 2069 and 2070 and 2100, referred to respectively as the 2050 and 2100 time periods. The assessment examined each species' vulnerability to loss of modern-day SH under future climate scenarios, potential to gain SH under future climate scenarios, and each species' estimated risk as a function of both vulnerability and potential gains. All 166 species were predicted to lose modern-day SH in the future climate change scenarios. In the 2050 time period, nearly 30 percent of the species lost 75 percent or more of their modern-day suitable habitat, 21 species gained more new SH than their modern-day SH, and 30 species gained less new SH than 25 percent of their modern-day SH. In the 2100 time period, nearly half of the species lost 75 percent or more of their modern-day SH, 28 species gained more new SH than their modern-day SH, and 34 gained less new SH than 25 percent of their modern-day SH. Using nine risk categories we found only two

  11. Initial assessment of patient handoff in accredited general surgery residency programs in the United States and Canada: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Abdulaziz M.; Paulus, Jessica K.; Vassiliou, Melina C.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication errors are considered one of the major causes of sentinel events. Our aim was to assess the process of patient handoff among junior surgical residents and to determine ways in which to improve the handoff process. Methods We conducted nationwide surveys that included all accredited general surgery residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results Of the 244 American and 17 Canadian accredited surgical residency programs contacted, 65 (27%) and 12 (71%), respectively, participated in the survey. Of the American and Canadian respondents, 66% and 69%, respectively, were from postgraduate year (PGY) 1, and 32% and 29%, respectively, were from PGY 2; 85 (77%) and 50 (96%), respectively, had not received any training about patient handoff before their surgical residency, and 27% and 64%, respectively, reported that the existing handoff system at their institutions did not adequately protect patient safety. Moreover, 29% of American respondents and 37% of Canadian respondents thought that the existing handoffs did not support continuity of patient care. Of the American residents, 67% and 6% reported receiving an incomplete handoff that resulted in minor and major patient harm, respectively. These results mirrored those from Canadian residents (63% minor and 7% major harm). The most frequent factor reported to improve the patient handoff process was standardization of the verbal handoff. Conclusion Our survey results indicate that the current patient handoff system contributes to patient harm. More efforts are needed to establish standardized forms of verbal and written handoff to ensure patient safety and continuity of care. PMID:26204366

  12. Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on return periods of hydrological extremes in the Illinois River watershed of the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, H.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Knouft, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the Earth's climate is predicted to change significantly in terms of warmer temperature and higher precipitation extremes during this century due to the increased combustion of fossil fuels, accurate estimations of the frequencies of future hydrological extremes are important to understanding the potential impacts of changes in climate on water resources management, particularly in accessing flood risk. The goal of this study is to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed landscape-scale hydrological model, to predict current streamflow and the potential impacts of climate change on future stream flows in the Illinois River watershed in the Midwestern United States. Subsequently Gumbel distribution (Extreme Value Type Ⅰ) is fitted to the annual maxima simulated streamflow to derive a number of return periods of future hydrological extremes. The question in this study is: How do the return periods of future hydrological extremes change under future climate change scenarios and what factors cause the change? Daily simulated future streamflow from 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 are simulated using SWAT model based on nine separate downscaled global climate models (GCM) with three emissions scenarios. SWAT model predictions generally indicate that annual streamflow will likely decrease due to warmer temperatures. Based on the simulated daily streamflow, probability models for annual maxima flows frequency analysis are developed using Gumbel distribution and the values of hydrological extremes for different return periods including 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 years are derived. The change of return periods of hydrological extremes and the implications will be discussed.

  13. A Critical Assessment of Sea-Level Rise Projections for the Northeast United States in the 21st Century: Discrepancies and Their Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have projected the magnitudes of sea-level rise (SLR) in the Northeast United States for the 21th Century as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Among them are those by NOAA, the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The projected magnitudes of SLR from some of these sources are being used by policymakers to make difficult choices of investments on infrastructure that can be resilient against anticipated SLR. While there is no question that SLR will happen and resilience measures against SLR is very necessary, this presentation questions the rigor of science behind some of these projections that can have significant costs to the society. A critical assessment of available SLR projections for the northeast US and their discrepancies is presented. It is concluded from the current understanding of science that the mean values and upper bounds of SLR from NOAA, NPCC and COE are likely exaggerated for the region. It is also argued that scientists should treat the SLR projection as a separate problem from policies so that the best cost-benefit analysis can be performed in the decision process.

  14. A five-year analysis of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for grassland drought assessment over the central Great Plains of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yingxin; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Verdin, James P.; Wardlow, Brian

    2007-03-01

    A five-year (2001-2005) history of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data was analyzed for grassland drought assessment within the central United States, specifically for the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma. Initial results show strong relationships among NDVI, NDWI, and drought conditions. During the summer over the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, the average NDVI and NDWI were consistently lower (NDVI < 0.5 and NDWI < 0.3) under drought conditions than under non-drought conditions (NDVI>0.6 and NDWI>0.4). NDWI values exhibited a quicker response to drought conditions than NDVI. Analysis revealed that combining information from visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared channels improved sensitivity to drought severity. The proposed normalized difference drought index (NDDI) had a stronger response to summer drought conditions than a simple difference between NDVI and NDWI, and is therefore a more sensitive indicator of drought in grasslands than NDVI alone.

  15. Cyanotoxins in inland lakes of the United States: Occurrence and potential recreational health risks in the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Keith A.; Graham, Jennifer; Elizabeth Hilborn; Sarah Lehmann; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Griffith, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    A large nation-wide survey of cyanotoxins (1161 lakes) in the United States (U.S.) was conducted during the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007. Cyanotoxin data were compared with cyanobacteria abundance- and chlorophyll-based World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds and mouse toxicity data to evaluate potential recreational risks. Cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, and saxitoxins were detected (ELISA) in 4.0, 32, and 7.7% of samples with mean concentrations of 0.56, 3.0, and 0.061 mg/L, respectively (detections only). Co-occurrence of the three cyanotoxin classes was rare (0.32%) when at least one toxin was detected. Cyanobacteria were present and dominant in 98 and 76% of samples, respectively. Potential anatoxin-, cylindrospermopsin-, microcystin-, and saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria occurred in 81, 67, 95, and 79% of samples, respectively. Anatoxin-a and nodularin-R were detected (LC/MS/MS) in 15 and 3.7% samples (n = 27). The WHO moderate and high risk thresholds for microcystins, cyanobacteria abundance, and total chlorophyll were exceeded in 1.1, 27, and 44% of samples, respectively. Complete agreement by all three WHO microcystin metrics occurred in 27% of samples. This suggests that WHO microcystin metrics based on total chlorophyll and cyanobacterial abundance can overestimate microcystin risk when compared to WHO microcystin thresholds. The lack of parity among the WHO thresholds was expected since chlorophyll is common amongst all phytoplankton and not all cyanobacteria produce microcystins.

  16. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  17. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  3. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  5. Sources and preparation of data for assessing trends in concentrations of pesticides in streams of the United States, 1992–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Eberle, Michael; Nakagaki, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This report updates a previously published water-quality dataset of 44 commonly used pesticides and 8 pesticide degradates suitable for a national assessment of trends in pesticide concentrations in streams of the United States. Water-quality samples collected from January 1992 through September 2010 at stream-water sites of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) were compiled, reviewed, selected, and prepared for trend analysis. The principal steps in data review for trend analysis were to (1) identify analytical schedule, (2) verify sample-level coding, (3) exclude inappropriate samples or results, (4) review pesticide detections per sample, (5) review high pesticide concentrations, and (6) review the spatial and temporal extent of NAWQA pesticide data and selection of analytical methods for trend analysis. The principal steps in data preparation for trend analysis were to (1) select stream-water sites for trend analysis, (2) round concentrations to a consistent level of precision for the concentration range, (3) identify routine reporting levels used to report nondetections unaffected by matrix interference, (4) reassign the concentration value for routine nondetections to the maximum value of the long-term method detection level (maxLT-MDL), (5) adjust concentrations to compensate for temporal changes in bias of recovery of the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) analytical method, and (6) identify samples considered inappropriate for trend analysis. Samples analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) by the GCMS analytical method were the most extensive in time and space and, consequently, were selected for trend analysis. Stream-water sites with 3 or more water years of data with six or more samples per year were selected for pesticide trend analysis. The selection criteria described in the report produced a dataset of 21

  6. Summary of Ceftaroline Activity against Pathogens in the United States, 2010: Report from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Sader, Helio S.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program is a sentinel resistance monitoring system designed to track the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents. In the United States, a total of 8,434 isolates were collected during the 2010 surveillance program from 65 medical centers distributed across the nine census regions (5 to 10 medical centers per region). All organisms were isolated from documented infections, including 3,055 (36.2%) bloodstream infections, 2,282 (27.1%) respiratory tract infections, 1,965 (23.3%) acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, 665 (7.9%) urinary tract infections, and 467 (5.5%) miscellaneous other infection sites. Ceftaroline was the most potent β-lactam agent tested against staphylococci. The MIC90 values were 1 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; 98.4% susceptible) and 0.5 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ceftaroline was 16- to 32-fold more potent than ceftriaxone against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal strains. All staphylococcus isolates (S. aureus and CoNS) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml. Ceftaroline also displayed potent activity against streptococci (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae). Potent activity was also shown against Gram-negative pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Furthermore, wild-type strains of Enterobacteriaceae (non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing strains and non-AmpC-hyperproducing strains) were often susceptible to ceftaroline. Continued monitoring through surveillance networks will allow for the assessment of the evolution of resistance as this new cephalosporin is used more broadly to provide clinicians with up-to-date information to assist in antibiotic stewardship and therapeutic decision making

  7. Violence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  8. STATE SOIL GEOGRAPHIC (STATSGO) DATA BASE FOR THECOTERNIMOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produce...

  9. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  10. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Dean Foods Company; Proposed Final Judgment, Stipulation and... of America, et al. v. Dean Foods Company, Civil Action No. 2:10-cv-00059 (JPS). On January 22, 2010, the United States and its co-plaintiffs filed a Complaint alleging that Dean Foods...

  11. Update: Fusarium Keratitis - United States, 2005 - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the results of a Fusarium keratitis outbreak investigation being conducted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological data indicate that the 2005-2006 outbreaks of corneal infections within the United States are linked to the use of on...

  12. 31 CFR 562.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 562.309 Section 562.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.309 United States. The...

  13. 31 CFR 562.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 562.309 Section 562.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.309 United States. The...

  14. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  15. Snapshot: Diabetes in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    A SNAPSHOT DIABETES IN THE UNITED STATES DIABETES 29.1 MILLION 29.1 million people have diabetes That's about 1 out of every 11 people 1 4 ... estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health ...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States....

  17. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Terrace, London, W2 6LG, United Kingdom, and Alcan Corporation, 8770 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL...''), Rio Tinto plc (``Rio Tinto''), and Alcan Corporation to enjoin Amcor's proposed acquisition from Rio... sales totaled approximately $44 billion. Rio Tinto acquired Alcan Corporation in 2007. 6....

  18. Latino College Completion: United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Meteorological database for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.

  20. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Age Group- United States, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2013 ... by Age Group- United States, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2011 ...

  1. 76 FR 38460 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2011, the United States...

  2. 75 FR 54705 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2010, the United States...

  3. 77 FR 31071 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Send applications to: United States Sentencing Commission, One Columbus Circle NE., Suite...

  4. 78 FR 36641 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2013, the United States...

  5. 77 FR 31070 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2012, the United States...

  6. GIS Analysis to Assess where Shallow Ground Water Supplies in the United States are Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data reported on the long form of the 1990 United State Census were used to identify the number of households in each census block group that obtained water from a private source. A data file was purchased form ESRI Business Solutions (ESRI, 2009) that contained the latitude and ...

  7. ASSESSING THE SECURITY OF ECOLOGICAL POPULATIONS WITH REGARDS T0 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND HABITATE THREATS ACROSS THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southeastern United States is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the country and is home to significant numbers of threatened and endangered species. It is also one of the fastest growing regions in terms of human population, urban development, and the associated...

  8. The Demography of Canada and the United States from the 1980s to the 2000s A Summary of Changes and a Statistical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Magali; Ouellette, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Canada and the United States have enjoyed vigorous population growth since the early 1980s. Although mortality is slightly higher in the United States than in Canada, this is largely offset by much higher fertility, with a total fertility rate at replacement level, compared with just 1.5 children per woman in Canada. The United States is also the world’s largest immigrant receiving country, although its immigration rate is only half that of Canada, where today one person in five is foreign-born, versus one in eight in the United States. Based on recent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration, the populations of these two North American countries will continue to grow over the next five decades, but at a progressively slower pace. The most acute demographic issue today is not, as in Europe, that of imminent population decline, but rather of the geographic and social inequalities which have increased steadily since the early 1980s and which are reflected in major fertility and health differentials between regions and social groups. PMID:24032004

  9. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Three Theories of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparison between Business Students of Chile and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert F.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the United States (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310) to compare three theories of pro-environmental behavior.We examined Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, Schawartz's norm activation theory, and the values-beliefs-norms theory created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and Kalof. We produced reliable…

  10. A Near-Road Modeling System for Community-Scale Assessments of Traffic-Related AirPollution in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways within the continental United States. It accesses publicly available traffic and meteorological datasets, and is optimized for use on community-sized areas (...

  11. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 8: Ocean fishing case study. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to ocean fishing industries in the United States and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The potential application of SEASAT data with regard to ocean fisheries is discussed. Tracking fish populations, indirect assistance in forecasting expected populations and assistance to fishing fleets in avoiding costs incurred due to adverse weather through improved ocean conditions forecasts were investigated. Case studies on fisheries in the United States and Canada are cited.

  12. Intranets and Extranets at State Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Nancy M.

    This paper is an analysis of Intranets and Extranets at selected state libraries in the United States. The paper does not review World Wide Web sites designed for use by the general public; rather, it focuses on Web sites designed and delivered by the state library to a targeted audience, typically state government employees, state library…

  13. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  18. A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model-based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Andrew W.; Kumar, Arun; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2005-02-01

    We assess the potential forecast skill of a climate model-based approach for seasonal ensemble hydrologic and streamflow forecasting for the western United States. By using climate model ensemble forecasts and ensembles formed via the resampling of observations, we distinguish hydrologic forecast skill resulting from the predictable evolution of initial hydrologic conditions from that derived from the climate model forecasts. Monthly climate model ensembles of precipitation and temperature produced by the National Centers for Environmental prediction global spectral model (GSM) are downscaled for use as forcings of the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. VIC then simulates ensembles of streamflow and spatially distributed hydrologic variables such as snowpack, soil moisture, and runoff. The regional averages of the ensemble forcings and derived hydrologic variables were evaluated over five regions: the Pacific Northwest, California, the Great Basin, the Colorado River basin, and the upper Rio Grande River basin. The skill assessment focuses on a retrospective 21-year period (1979-1999) during which GSM retrospective forecast ensembles (termed hindcasts), created using similar procedures to GSM real-time forecasts, are available. The observational verification data set for the hindcasts was a retrospective hydroclimatology at 1/8°-1/4° consisting of gridded observations of temperature and precipitation and gridded hydrologic simulation results (for hydrologic variables and streamflow) based on the observed meteorological inputs. The GSM hindcast skill was assessed relative to that of a naive ensemble climatology forecast and to that of ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) hindcasts, a forecast baseline sharing the same initial condition information as the GSM-based hindcasts. We found that the unconditional (all years) GSM hindcasts for regionally averaged variables provided practically no skill improvement over the ESP hindcasts and did not

  19. Assessment and statistical modeling of the relationship between remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Liu, Yang

    2012-05-01

    predicting PM2.5 concentrations in the eastern United States. We analyzed the spatiotemporal structure of the relationship between PM2.5 and AOD, first using simple correlations both before and after calibration based on meteorology, as well as large-scale spatial and temporal calibration to account for discrepancies between AOD and PM2.5. We then used both raw and calibrated AOD retrievals in statistical models to predict PM2.5 concentrations, accounting for AOD in two ways: primarily as a separate data source contributing a second likelihood to a Bayesian statistical model, as well as a data source on which we could directly regress. Previous consideration of satellite AOD has largely focused on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) instruments. One contribution of our work is more extensive consideration of AOD derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite East Aerosol/Smoke Product (GOES GASP) AOD and its relationship with PM2.5. In addition to empirically assessing the spatiotemporal relationship between GASP AOD and PM2.5, we considered new statistical techniques to screen anomalous GOES reflectance measurements and account for background surface reflectance. In our statistical work, we developed a new model structure that allowed for more flexible modeling of the proxy discrepancy than previous statistical efforts have had, with a computationally efficient implementation. We also suggested a diagnostic for assessing the scales of the spatial relationship between the proxy and the spatial process of interest (e.g., PM2.5). In brief, we had little success in improving predictions in our eastern-United States domain for use in epidemiologic applications. We found positive correlations of AOD with PM2.5 over time, but less correlation for long-term averages over space, unless we used calibration that adjusted for large

  20. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean