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Sample records for association avhs relation

  1. Decreased integrity of the fronto-temporal fibers of the left inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Lena K L; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been proposed to result from altered connectivity between frontal speech production regions and temporal speech perception regions. Whilst the dorsal language pathway, serviced by the arcuate fasciculus, has been extensively studied in relation to AVH, the ventral language pathway, serviced by the inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus (IOFF) has been rarely studied in relation to AVH. This study examined whether structural changes in anatomically defined subregions of the IOFF were associated with AVH in patients with schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging scans and clinical data were obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank for 113 schizophrenia patients, of whom 39 had lifetime experience of AVH (18 had current AVH, 21 had remitted AVH), 74 had no lifetime experience of AVH, and 40 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with a lifetime experience of AVH exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fronto-temporal fibers of the left IOFF compared to both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients without AVH. In contrast, structural abnormalities in the temporal and occipital regions of the IOFF were observed bilaterally in both patient groups, relative to the healthy controls. These results suggest that while changes in the structural integrity of the bilateral IOFF are associated with schizophrenia per se, integrity reductions in the fronto-temporal fibers of the left IOFF may be specifically associated with AVH. PMID:26112051

  2. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C. E.; Cifelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. In 3 cases of the 4 cases, these GIFT workshops represented the first workshop specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  3. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  4. Auditory verbal hallucinations result from combinatoric associations of multiple neural events

    PubMed Central

    Stephane, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    While Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) refer to specific experiences shared by all subjects who have AVH—the perception of auditory speech without corresponding external stimuli, the characteristics of these experiences differ from one subject to another. These characteristics include aspects such as the location of AVH (inside or outside the head), the linguistic complexity of AVH (hearing words, sentences, or conversations), the range of content of AVH (repetitive or systematized content), and many other variables. In another word, AVH are phenomenologically heterogeneous experiences. After decades of research focused on a few explanatory mechanisms for AVH, it is apparent that none of these mechanisms alone explains the wide phenomenological range of AVH experiences. To date, our phenomenological understanding of AVH remains largely disjointed from our understanding of the mechanisms of AVH. For a cohesive understanding of AVH, I review the phenomenology and the cognitive and neural basis of AVH. This review indicates that the phenomenology of AVH is not a pointless curiosity. How a subject describes his AVH experiences could inform about the neural events that resulted in AVH. I suggest that a subject-specific combinatoric associations of different neural events result in AVH experiences phenomenologically diverse across subjects. PMID:23755004

  5. An examination of auditory processing and affective prosody in relatives of patients with auditory hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Rachel; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil; Groot, Christopher; Rossell, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Research on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) indicates that AVH schizophrenia patients show greater abnormalities on tasks requiring recognition of affective prosody (AP) than non-AVH patients. Detecting AP requires accurate perception of manipulations in pitch, amplitude and duration. Schizophrenia patients with AVHs also experience difficulty detecting these acoustic manipulations; with a number of theorists speculating that difficulties in pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination underlie AP abnormalities. This study examined whether both AP and these aspects of auditory processing are also impaired in first degree relatives of persons with AVHs. It also examined whether pitch, amplitude and duration discrimination were related to AP, and to hallucination proneness. Unaffected relatives of AVH schizophrenia patients (N = 19) and matched healthy controls (N = 33) were compared using tone discrimination tasks, an AP task, and clinical measures. Relatives were slower at identifying emotions on the AP task (p = 0.002), with secondary analysis showing this was especially so for happy (p = 0.014) and neutral (p = 0.001) sentences. There was a significant interaction effect for pitch between tone deviation level and group (p = 0.019), and relatives performed worse than controls on amplitude discrimination and duration discrimination. AP performance for happy and neutral sentences was significantly correlated with amplitude perception. Lastly, AVH proneness in the entire sample was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination (r = 0.44) and pitch perception was shown to predict AVH proneness in the sample (p = 0.005). These results suggest basic impairments in auditory processing are present in relatives of AVH patients; they potentially underlie processing speed in AP tasks, and predict AVH proneness. This indicates auditory processing deficits may be a core feature of AVHs in schizophrenia, and are worthy of further study as a potential endophenotype

  6. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Your source for autoimmune related disease information. **We need your input** We want to know of your experiences with Non- ... email address with us. Please be assured that we will always keep your email private. We will ...

  7. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  8. Categorical and associative relations increase false memory relative to purely associative relations.

    PubMed

    Coane, Jennifer H; McBride, Dawn M; Termonen, Miia-Liisa; Cutting, J Cooper

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of associative strength and similarity in terms of shared features to the production of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott list-learning paradigm. Whereas the activation/monitoring account suggests that false memories are driven by automatic associative activation from list items to nonpresented lures, combined with errors in source monitoring, other accounts (e.g., fuzzy trace theory, global-matching models) emphasize the importance of semantic-level similarity, and thus predict that shared features between list and lure items will increase false memory. Participants studied lists of nine items related to a nonpresented lure. Half of the lists consisted of items that were associated but did not share features with the lure, and the other half included items that were equally associated but also shared features with the lure (in many cases, these were taxonomically related items). The two types of lists were carefully matched in terms of a variety of lexical and semantic factors, and the same lures were used across list types. In two experiments, false recognition of the critical lures was greater following the study of lists that shared features with the critical lure, suggesting that similarity at a categorical or taxonomic level contributes to false memory above and beyond associative strength. We refer to this phenomenon as a "feature boost" that reflects additive effects of shared meaning and association strength and is generally consistent with accounts of false memory that have emphasized thematic or feature-level similarity among studied and nonstudied representations. PMID:26250805

  9. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert. J.; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D.; Clark, Vincent P.; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH (“AVH-on” versus “AVH-off”), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital–temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  10. Functional MRI Evaluation of Multiple Neural Networks Underlying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Robert J; Chaze, Charlotte; Lewine, Jeffrey David; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Bustillo, Juan; Houck, Jon; Ford, Judith; Bigelow, Rose; Wilhelmi, Corbin; Stephen, Julia M; Turner, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter. In an effort to identify AVH-related networks, the raw data were also processed using independent component analyses (ICAs). Four ICA components were spatially consistent with an a priori network framework based upon published meta-analyses of imaging correlates of AVH. Of these four components, only a network involving bilateral auditory cortices and posterior receptive language areas was significantly and positively correlated to the pattern of AVH-on versus AVH-off. The ICA also identified two additional networks (occipital-temporal and medial prefrontal), not fully matching the meta-analysis framework, but nevertheless containing nodes reported as active in some studies of AVH. Both networks showed significant AVH-related profiles, but both were most active during AVH-off periods. Overall, the data suggest that AVH generation requires specific and selective activation of auditory cortical and posterior language regions, perhaps coupled to a release of indirect influence by occipital and medial frontal structures. PMID:27065889

  11. Auditing Associative Relations across Two Knowledge Sources

    PubMed Central

    Vizenor, Lowell T.; Bodenreider, Olivier; McCray, Alexa T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This paper proposes a novel semantic method for auditing associative relations in biomedical terminologies. We tested our methodology on two Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge sources. Methods We use the UMLS semantic groups as high-level representations of the domain and range of relationships in the Metathesaurus and in the Semantic Network. A mapping created between Metathesaurus relationships and Semantic Network relationships forms the basis for comparing the signatures of a given Metathesaurus relationship to the signatures of the semantic relationship to which it is mapped. The consistency of Metathesaurus relations is studied for each relationship. Results Of the 177 associative relationships in the Metathesaurus, 84 (48%) exhibit a high degree of consistency with the corresponding Semantic Network relationships. Overall, 63% of the 1.8M associative relations in the Metathesaurus are consistent with relations in the Semantic Network. Conclusion The semantics of associative relationships in biomedical terminologies should be defined explicitly by their developers. The Semantic Network would benefit from being extended with new relationships and with new relations for some existing relationships. The UMLS editing environment could take advantage of the correspondence established between relationships in the Metathesaurus and the Semantic Network. Finally, the auditing method also yielded useful information for refining the mapping of associative relationships between the two sources. PMID:19475724

  12. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: ‘hearing voices’) are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual’s personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed ‘dissociative AVH’) and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called ‘psychotic AVH’) needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. PMID:26283997

  13. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference. PMID:27015349

  14. Ladder operators and recursion relations for the associated Bessel polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.; Chenaghlou, A.

    2006-10-01

    Introducing the associated Bessel polynomials in terms of two non-negative integers, and under an integrability condition we simultaneously factorize their corresponding differential equation into a product of the ladder operators by four different ways as shape invariance symmetry equations. This procedure gives four different pairs of recursion relations on the associated Bessel polynomials. In spite of description of Bessel and Laguerre polynomials in terms of each other, we show that the associated Bessel differential equation is factorized in four different ways whereas for Laguerre one we have three different ways.

  15. Association of Variants in MANEA With Cocaine-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Yu, Yi; Weiss, Roger D.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Anton, Raymond; Cubells, Joseph F.; Gelernter, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Context Cocaine dependence (CD) and related behaviors are highly heritable, but no genetic association has been consistently demonstrated. A recent genome-wide study of drug dependence identified an association between cocaine-induced paranoia (CIP) and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the α-endomannosidase (MANEA) locus in a family-based sample of European Americans and African Americans. Objective To conduct a comprehensive genetic association study of the MANEA locus with CD and CIP. Design Genome-wide association study. Setting Four university hospitals. Participants A total of 3992 individuals from 2 family-based and 2 case-control samples. Intervention Participants were classified as having CD or CIP or as a control using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. They were genotyped for 11 SNPs spanning MANEA and its surrounding region. Main Outcome Measure Association of CD and CIP with individual SNPs and haplotypes. Results Cocaine-induced paranoia was associated with 6 SNPs in the European American families and 9 SNPs in the African American families. The strongest evidence in the total sample of families was observed in 3 markers located in the promoter and 3′ untranslated regions (P < .001). The association of MANEA SNPs with CD in both family samples was much weaker. In the African American case-control sample, multiple markers were significantly associated with CIP and CD; CIP and CD were also significantly associated with a 2-SNP haplotype in the European American case-control sample. The A allele of the 3′ untranslated region SNP rs9387522 was associated with increased risk of CIP in all 4 data sets. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CD and associated behaviors may involve biological pathways not typically thought to be associated with brain metabolism. PMID:19255376

  16. Alterations of Functional and Structural Networks in Schizophrenia Patients with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been many attempts at explaining the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia on the basis of regional brain changes, with the most consistent findings being that AVH are associated with functional and structural impairments in auditory and speech-related regions. However, the human brain is a complex network and the global topological alterations specific to AVH in schizophrenia remain unclear. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenia patients with AVH, 41 patients without AVH, and 50 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The whole-brain functional and structural networks were constructed and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Inter-group differences in global network metrics (including small-world properties and network efficiency) were investigated. Results: We found that three groups had a typical small-world topology in both functional and structural networks. More importantly, schizophrenia patients with and without AVH exhibited common disruptions of functional networks, characterized by decreased clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency, and increased characteristic path length; structural networks of only schizophrenia patients with AVH showed increased characteristic path length compared with those of healthy controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that less “small-worldization” and lower network efficiency of functional networks may be an independent trait characteristic of schizophrenia, and regularization of structural networks may be the underlying pathological process engaged in schizophrenic AVH symptom expression. PMID:27014042

  17. Developmental changes in effective connectivity associated with relational reasoning.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Narges; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Christoff, Kalina; Dumontheil, Iroise

    2014-07-01

    Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) is part of a frontoparietal network of regions involved in relational reasoning, the mental process of working with relationships between multiple mental representations. RLPFC has shown functional and structural changes with age, with increasing specificity of left RLPFC activation for relational integration during development. Here, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate changes in effective connectivity during a relational reasoning task through the transition from adolescence into adulthood. We examined fMRI data of 37 healthy female participants (11–30 years old) performing a relational reasoning paradigm. Comparing relational integration to the manipulation of single relations revealed activation in five regions: the RLPFC, anterior insula, dorsolateral PFC, inferior parietal lobe, and medial superior frontal gyrus. We used a new exhaustive search approach and identified a full DCM model, which included all reciprocal connections between the five clusters in the left hemisphere, as the optimal model. In line with previous resting state fMRI results, we showed distinct developmental effects on the strength of long-range frontoparietal versus frontoinsular short-range fixed connections. The modulatory connections associated with relational integration increased with age. Gray matter volume in left RLPFC, which decreased with age, partly accounted for changes in fixed PFC connectivity. Finally, improvements in relational integration performance were associated with greater modulatory and weaker fixed PFC connectivity. This pattern provides further evidence of increasing specificity of left PFC function for relational integration compared to the manipulation of single relations, and demonstrates an association between effective connectivity and performance during development. PMID:25050424

  18. Association between pregnancy-related hypertension and severity of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira, L B; Gus, M; Nunes, G; Gonçalves, C B C; Martins, J; Wiehe, M; Fuchs, F D

    2009-06-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is an emerging sex-specific risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may lead to more severe hypertension after pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of pregnancy-related hypertension among patients referred to a hypertension clinic and its association with the severity of hypertension and evidence of end-organ damage. In this cross-sectional study, women with hypertension were submitted to a systematic clinical evaluation. The occurrence of pregnancy-related hypertension was investigated by questionnaire. The association between pregnancy-related hypertension and severity of hypertension (stage 2 according to Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII)) and end-organ damage was assessed in a logistic regression model. The mean age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) of the 768 women examined were 51.6+/-12.7 years, 158.2+/-26.6 mm Hg, 93.8+/-14.3 mm Hg and 29.4+/-5.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The proportion of women with pregnancy-related hypertension was 32.9%. It was significantly associated with hypertension at stage 2 (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.14-2.24; P=0.01) after controlling for confounders. The occurrence of a pregnancy-related hypertension was not associated with evidence of optic fundi abnormalities, left ventricular hypertrophy or abnormalities in kidney function. In conclusion, pregnancy-related hypertension is frequent in women referred to a hypertension clinic, and is associated with severe hypertension but not with evidence of end-organ damage. PMID:19020534

  19. The Relative Stigma Associated with Smoking, Obesity, and Criminality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, John Paul; Conroy, Matthew; Bucy, Paige; Landis, Pamela L.; Chambliss, Catherine

    Despite the increased use of cigarettes among college students, there is evidence to suggest that anti-smoking norms still predominate among both students and faculty. In order to assess the prejudice against college students who smoke, relative to that associated with membership in other disparaged groups, a sample of 99 college students were…

  20. Mitochondrial Factors and VACTERL Association-Related Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Siebel, S.; Solomon, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    VACTERL/VATER association is a group of congenital malformations characterized by at least 3 of the following findings: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. To date, no unifying etiology for VACTERL/VATER association has been established, and there is strong evidence for causal heterogeneity. VACTERL/VATER association has many overlapping characteristics with other congenital disorders that involve multiple malformations. In addition to these other conditions, some of which have known molecular causes, certain aspects of VACTERL/VATER association have similarities with the manifestations of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can result from a number of distinct causes and can clinically manifest in diverse presentations; accurate diagnosis can be challenging. Case reports of individuals with VACTERL association and confirmed mitochondrial dysfunction allude to the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in the pathogenesis of VACTERL/VATER association. Further, there is biological plausibility involving mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible etiology related to a diverse group of congenital malformations, including those seen in at least a subset of individuals with VACTERL association. PMID:23653577

  1. Prostate Cancer Related JAZF1 Gene is Associated with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Zuo, Lingjun; Owusu, Daniel; Pan, Yue; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that there is a reduced risk of prostate cancer among persons diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the mechanism of such relationship is not clear. The reduced incidence of cancer observed in SCZ patients may be related to differences in genetic background. Recently, the JAZF1 gene is found to be associated with prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes. However, no study has focused on the association of JAZF1 with the risk of SCZ. Methods We examined genetic associations of 118 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the JAZF1 gene with SCZ using one European American (EA) sample of 1,149 cases and 1,347 controls. Logistic regression analysis of SCZ as a binary trait was performed using PLINK software. Results The most significant association with SCZ was observed with rs10258132 (p = 0.0011); while the next best signal was rs17156259 (p = 0.0031). The third best associated SNP was rs7791865 (p = 0.00889). In addition, haplotype analyses revealed that the A-C haplotype from rs10244184 and rs10258132 was associated with SCZ (p = 0.00093); and the G-G haplotype from rs17156238 and rs17156259 was associated with SCZ (p = 0.00455). Conclusion These findings provide evidence of several genetic variants in JAZF1 gene influencing the risk of SCZ and will serve as a resource for replication in other populations.

  2. Genotypic association analysis using discordant-relative-pairs.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Yang, Y-N; Cheng, X; DeAngelis, M M; Hoh, J; Zhang, H

    2009-01-01

    In practice, family-based design has been widely used in disease-gene association analysis. The major advantage of such design is that it is not subject to spurious association due to population structure such as population stratification (PS) and admixture. A disadvantage is that parental genotypes are hard to obtain if the disease is late onset for which a discordant-relative-pair design is useful. Designs of such kind include full-sib-pair, half-sib-pair, first-cousin-pair, and so on. The closer the relatedness of the pair, the less possible that they are subject to population stratification. On the other hand, the association test using close relative-pairs may be less powerful due to over-matching. Trade-off between these two factors (population structure and over-matching) is the major concern of this study. Some tests, namely McNemar's test, matched Cochran-Armitage trend tests (CATTs), matched maximum efficient robust test (MERT), and Bhapkar's test, are used for testing disease-gene association based on relative-pair designs. These tests are shown to be valid in the presence of PS but not admixture. Numerical studies show that the McNemar's test, additive CATT, MERT, and Bhapkar's test are robust in power, but none of them is uniformly more powerful than the others. In most simulations, the power of any of the tests increases as the pair is more distant. The proposed methods are applied to two real examples. PMID:19040657

  3. Chromosomal and related Mendelian syndromes associated with Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, S W

    2012-11-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a fairly frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in children. It is characterized as a sex-linked heterogonous disorder with variable severity and incomplete penetrance giving rise to a variable pattern of inheritance. Although Hirschsprung's disease occurs as an isolated phenotype in at least 70% of cases, it is not infrequently associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and associated syndromes, demonstrating a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Certain of these syndromic phenotypes have been linked to distinct genetic sites, indicating underlying genetic associations of the disease and probable gene-gene interaction, in its pathogenesis. These associations with HSCR include Down's syndrome and other chromosomal anomalies, Waardenburg syndrome and other Dominant sensorineural deafness, the Congenital Central Hypoventilation and Mowat-Wilson and other brain-related syndromes, as well as the MEN2 and other tumour associations. A number of other autosomal recessive syndromes include the Shah-Waardenburg, the Bardet-Biedl and Cartilage-hair hypoplasia, Goldberg-Shprintzen syndromes and other syndromes related to cholesterol and fat metabolism among others. The genetics of Hirschsprung's disease are highly complex with the majority of known genetic sites relating to the main susceptibility pathways (RET an EDNRB). Non-syndromic non-familial, short-segment HSCR appears to represent a non-Mendelian condition with variable expression and sex-dependent penetrance. Syndromic and familial forms, on the other hand, have complex patterns of inheritance and being reported as autosomal dominant, recessive and polygenic patterns of inheritance. The phenotypic variability and incomplete penetrance observed in Hirschsprung's disease could also be explained by the involvement of modifier genes, especially in its syndromic forms. In this review, we look at the chromosomal and Mendelian associations and their underlying signalling pathways

  4. Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

  5. Relational and Physical Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Peer Relations: Gender Moderation and Bidirectional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Geiger, Tasha C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2005-01-01

    In this 3-year prospective study (N = 458) spanning a transition to middle school, bidirectional associations between children's relations with schoolmates (social preference and impact) and behaviors (physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior) were examined using structural equation modeling. Gender moderation of all estimated paths…

  6. Can DRYAD explain age-related associative memory deficits?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrea C; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    A recent interesting theoretical account of aging and memory judgments, the DRYAD (density of representations yields age-related deficits; Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes the extensive findings of disproportional age-related deficits in memory for source, context, and associations, to a global decline in memory fidelity. It is suggested that this global deficit, possibly due to a decline in attentional processes, is moderated by weak representation of contextual information to result in disproportional age-related declines. In the current article, we evaluate the DRYAD model, comparing it to specific age-related deficits theories, in particular, the ADH (associative deficit hypothesis, Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). We question some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD in light of data reported in the literature, and we directly assess the role of attention in age-related deficits by manipulations of divided attention and of the instructions regarding what to pay attention to in 2 experiments (one from the literature and a new one). The results of these experiments fit the predictions of the ADH and do not support the main assumption/hypotheses of DRYAD. PMID:25961878

  7. Revised associative inference paradigm confirms relational memory impairment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Kristan; Williams, Lisa E.; Heckers, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patients with schizophrenia have widespread cognitive impairments, with selective deficits in relational memory. We previously reported a differential relational memory deficit in schizophrenia using the Associative Inference Paradigm (AIP), a task suggested by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative to examine relational memory. However, the AIP had limited feasibility for testing in schizophrenia due to high attrition of schizophrenia patients during training. Here we developed and tested a revised version of the AIP to improve feasibility. Method 30 healthy control and 37 schizophrenia subjects received 3 study-test sessions on 3 sets of paired associates: H-F1 (house paired with face), H-F2 (same house paired with new face), and F3-F4 (two novel faces). After training, subjects were tested on the trained, non-inferential Face-Face pairs (F3-F4) and novel, inferential Face-Face pairs (F1-F2), constructed from the faces of the trained House-Face pairs. Results Schizophrenia patients were significantly more impaired on the inferential F1-F2 pairs than the non-inferential F3-F4 pairs, providing evidence for a differential relational memory deficit. Only 8 percent of schizophrenia patients were excluded from testing due to poor training performance. Conclusions The revised AIP confirmed the previous finding of a relational memory deficit in a larger and more representative sample of schizophrenia patients. PMID:22612578

  8. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  9. Integrative and semantic relations equally alleviate age-related associative memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Estes, Zachary; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments compared effects of integrative and semantic relations between pairs of words on lexical and memory processes in old age. Integrative relations occur when two dissimilar and unassociated words are linked together to form a coherent phrase (e.g., horse-doctor). In Experiment 1, older adults completed a lexical-decision task where prime and target words were related either integratively or semantically. The two types of relation both facilitated responses compared to a baseline condition, demonstrating that priming can occur in older adults with minimal preexisting associations between primes and targets. In Experiment 2, young and older adults completed a cued recall task with integrative, semantic, and unrelated word pairs. Both integrative and semantic pairs showed significantly smaller age differences in associative memory compared to unrelated pairs. Integrative relations facilitated older adults' memory to a similar extent as semantic relations despite having few preexisting associations in memory. Integratability of stimuli is therefore a new factor that reduces associative deficits in older adults, most likely by supporting encoding and retrieval mechanisms. PMID:21639644

  10. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  11. Association of Lifestyle-Related Comorbidities With Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association of periodontitis with lifestyle-related comorbidities (LCs) using data in the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2002 to 2013. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Using this precisely extracted database, the correlations between LCs (cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, and obesity) and periodontitis were investigated while adjusting for confounding bias. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate differences in variable factors. Among a total of 1,025,340 samples, 321,103 (31.3%) cases were diagnosed with periodontitis. Statistically significant associations were found between all LCs except myocardial infarction and periodontitis (P < 0.005). Periodontitis is significantly and positively correlated with LCs (except for myocardial infarction) after adjusting for confounding bias. In particular, lifestyle-related diseases, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis seem to be intimately related to periodontitis. PMID:26376407

  12. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  13. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  14. The association between gender, coping style and whiplash related symptoms in sufferers of whiplash associated disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allan; Elklit, Ask

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine specifically whether the relationship between coping style and symptoms of whiplash injury change as a function of gender. A total of 1709 sufferers of whiplash associated disorder (1349 women, 360 men) belonging to the Danish Society for Polio, Traffic and Accident Victims completed questionnaires measuring demographic and psychological factors (including coping style), and symptoms of whiplash trauma (including pain). Men and women were not found to differ significantly in their use of coping strategies, however emotion focused coping strategies were related significantly more strongly to whiplash related symptoms in men compared to women. Women were found to display more symptoms related to whiplash injury compared to men. Possible reasons for the present findings are discussed in light of related research indicating mood as a potential moderating variable in the relationship between maladaptive coping style and degree of symptoms related to injury in men. PMID:17257372

  15. Prevention of Device-Related Healthcare-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Septimus, Edward J.; Moody, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Up to 15% of patients develop an infection while hospitalized in the United States, which accounts for approximately 1.7 million HAIs, 99,000 deaths annually and over 10 billion dollars in costs per year. A significant percentage of HAIs are preventable using evidenced-based strategies. In terms of device-related HAIs it is estimated that 65-70% of catheter-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are preventable. To prevent CLABSIs a bundle which includes hand hygiene prior to insertion and catheter manipulation, use of chlorhexidene alcohol for site preparation and maintenance, use of maximum barrier for catheter insertion, site selection, removing nonessential lines, disinfect catheter hubs before assessing line, and dressing changes are essential elements of basic practices. To prevent CAUTIs a bundle that includes hand hygiene for insertion and catheter or bag manipulation, inserting catheters for appropriate indications, insert using aseptic technique, remove catheters when no longer needed, maintain a close system keeping bag and tubing below the bladder are the key components of basic practices. PMID:26918162

  16. Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Lars G; Chen, Wei; Schu, Matthew; Yaspan, Brian L; Yu, Yi; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zack, Donald J; Arakawa, Satoshi; Cipriani, Valentina; Ripke, Stephan; Igo, Robert P; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Sim, Xueling; Weeks, Daniel E; Guymer, Robyn H; Merriam, Joanna E; Francis, Peter J; Hannum, Gregory; Agarwal, Anita; Armbrecht, Ana Maria; Audo, Isabelle; Aung, Tin; Barile, Gaetano R; Benchaboune, Mustapha; Bird, Alan C; Bishop, Paul N; Branham, Kari E; Brooks, Matthew; Brucker, Alexander J; Cade, William H; Cain, Melinda S; Campochiaro, Peter A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chew, Emily Y; Chin, Kimberly A; Chowers, Itay; Clayton, David G; Cojocaru, Radu; Conley, Yvette P; Cornes, Belinda K; Daly, Mark J; Dhillon, Baljean; Edwards, Albert O; Evangelou, Evangelos; Fagerness, Jesen; Ferreyra, Henry A; Friedman, James S; Geirsdottir, Asbjorg; George, Ronnie J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Neel; Hagstrom, Stephanie A; Harding, Simon P; Haritoglou, Christos; Heckenlively, John R; Holz, Frank G; Hughes, Guy; Ioannidis, John P A; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Joseph, Peronne; Jun, Gyungah; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Katsanis, Nicholas; N Keilhauer, Claudia; Khan, Jane C; Kim, Ivana K; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Kozak, Igor; Lee, Clara J; Lee, Kristine E; Lichtner, Peter; Lotery, Andrew J; Meitinger, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Moore, Anthony T; Morgan, Denise J; Morrison, Margaux A; Myers, Chelsea E; Naj, Adam C; Nakamura, Yusuke; Okada, Yukinori; Orlin, Anton; Ortube, M Carolina; Othman, Mohammad I; Pappas, Chris; Park, Kyu Hyung; Pauer, Gayle J T; Peachey, Neal S; Poch, Olivier; Priya, Rinki Ratna; Reynolds, Robyn; Richardson, Andrea J; Ripp, Raymond; Rudolph, Guenther; Ryu, Euijung; Sahel, José-Alain; Schaumberg, Debra A; Scholl, Hendrik P N; Schwartz, Stephen G; Scott, William K; Shahid, Humma; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Silvestri, Giuliana; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Smith, R Theodore; Sobrin, Lucia; Souied, Eric H; Stambolian, Dwight E; Stefansson, Hreinn; Sturgill-Short, Gwen M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Truitt, Barbara J; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vijaya, Lingam; Vingerling, Johannes R; Vithana, Eranga N; Webster, Andrew R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Winkler, Thomas W; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Alan F; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Kang; Klein, Michael L; Hageman, Gregory S; Lathrop, G Mark; Stefansson, Kari; Allikmets, Rando; Baird, Paul N; Gorin, Michael B; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Seddon, Johanna M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Yates, John R W; Swaroop, Anand; Weber, Bernhard H F; Kubo, Michiaki; Deangelis, Margaret M; Léveillard, Thierry; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Heid, Iris M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10(-8). These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10(-8) for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  17. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  18. Denture-Related Stomatitis Is Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Osmenda, Grzegorz; Nowakowski, Daniel; Wilk, Grzegorz; Maciąg, Anna; Mikołajczyk, Tomasz; Sagan, Agnieszka; Filip, Magdalena; Dróżdż, Mirosław; Guzik, Tomasz J.

    2014-01-01

    Oral inflammation, such as periodontitis, can lead to endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis, and vascular dysfunction. The relationship between vascular dysfunction and other common forms of oral infections such as denture-related stomatitis (DRS) is unknown. Similar risk factors predispose to both conditions including smoking, diabetes, age, and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate endothelial function and major vascular disease risk factors in 44 consecutive patients with dentures with clinical and microbiological features of DRS (n = 20) and without DRS (n = 24). While there was a tendency for higher occurrence of diabetes and smoking, groups did not differ significantly in respect to major vascular disease risk factors. Groups did not differ in main ambulatory blood pressure, total cholesterol, or even CRP. Importantly, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) was significantly lower in DRS than in non-DRS subjects, while nitroglycerin induced vasorelaxation (NMD) or intima-media thickness (IMT) was similar. Interestingly, while triglyceride levels were normal in both groups, they were higher in DRS subjects, although they did not correlate with either FMD or NMD. Conclusions. Denture related stomatitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in elderly patients with dentures. This is in part related to the fact that diabetes and smoking increase risk of both DRS and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25045683

  19. Seven New Loci Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genomewide association study, examining >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 genomic loci associated with AMD with p<5×10−8 and enriched for genes involved in regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include 7 loci reaching p<5×10−8 for the first time, near the genes COL8A1/FILIP1L, IER3/DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9/MIR548A2, and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNPs from all loci displayed similar good ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD. PMID:23455636

  20. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option☆

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

  1. Association of a transglutaminase-related antigen with intermediate filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Skalli, A V; Velasco, P T; Murthy, S N; Lorand, L; Goldman, R D

    1995-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody, G92.1.2, raised against guinea pig liver transglutaminase (TGase) recognizes an antigen present in primary mouse dermal fibroblasts. A filamentous pattern, bearing remarkable similarity to the vimentin intermediate filament (IF) network, is seen when these cells are fixed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence with the antibody. Double-label immunofluorescence reveals that the antigen reacting with the antibody colocalizes precisely with vimentin IF and that this colocalization is retained after the treatment of fibroblasts with colchicine, which induces a redistribution of the majority of IFs into perinuclear aggregates. These morphological observations are further supported by the finding that the protein reacting with G92.1.2 is retained in IF-enriched cytoskeletal preparations made by using nonionic detergent-containing high ionic strength solutions. Western blots of the IF fraction show that G92.1.2 recognizes a major band of approximately 280 kDa and does not cross react with vimentin. Furthermore, when the antibody is microinjected into live dermal fibroblasts, it causes a collapse of the vimentin IF network in the majority of injected cells. The results suggest that a form of TGase, or a TGase-related antigen, is closely associated with the vimentin IF network of primary cultures of mouse dermal fibroblasts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7568048

  2. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment.

    PubMed

    Nolan, John M; Stack, Jim; O' Donovan, Orla; Loane, Edward; Beatty, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Macular pigment (MP) is composed of the two dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and is believed to protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate MP optical density with respect to risk factors for ARM, in 828 healthy subjects from an Irish population. MP optical density was measured psychophysically using heterochromatic flicker photometry, serum L and Z were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of L and Z was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Clinical and personal details were also recorded, with particular attention directed towards risk factors for ARM. We report a statistically significant age-related decline in MP optical density (r2=0.082, p<0.01). Current and past smokers had lower average MP optical density than never smokers and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Subjects with a confirmed family history of ARM had significantly lower levels of MP optical density than subjects with no known family history of disease (p<0.01). For each of these established risk factors, their statistically significant negative association with MP persisted after controlling for the other two, and also after controlling for other potentially confounding variables such as sex, cholesterol, dietary and serum L (p<0.01). In the absence of retinal pathology, and in advance of disease onset, the relative lack of MP seen in association with increasing age, tobacco use and family history of ARM supports the hypothesis that the enhanced risk that these variables represent for ARM may be attributable, at least in part, to a parallel deficiency of macular carotenoids. PMID:17083932

  3. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  4. Whiplash-associated disorder: musculoskeletal pain and related clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the physical and psychological processes associated with whiplash-associated disorders. There is now much scientific data available to indicate the presence of disturbed nociceptive processing, stress system responses, muscle and motor changes as well as psychological factors in both acute and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Some of these factors seem to be associated with the transition from acute to chronic pain and have demonstrated prognostic capacity. Further investigation is required to determine if these processes can be modified and if modification will lead to improved outcomes for this condition. The burden of whiplash injuries, the high rate of transition to chronicity, and evidence of limited effects of current management on transition rates demand new directions in evaluation and management. The understanding of processes underlying this condition is improving and this lays the foundation for the development of more effective management approaches. PMID:23115472

  5. Association between activities related to routes of infection and clinical manifestations of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, C; Peacock, S J; Limmathurotsakul, D

    2016-01-01

    We sought associations between route of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and clinical manifestations in 330 cases of melioidosis in northeast Thailand using bivariate multivariable logistic regression models. Activities related to skin inoculation were negatively associated with bacteraemia, activities related to ingestion were associated with bacteraemia, and activities related to inhalation were associated with pneumonia. Our study suggests that route of infection is one of the factors related to clinical manifestations of melioidosis. PMID:26417852

  6. Association between activities related to routes of infection and clinical manifestations of melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C.; Peacock, S.J.; Limmathurotsakul, D.

    2016-01-01

    We sought associations between route of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and clinical manifestations in 330 cases of melioidosis in northeast Thailand using bivariate multivariable logistic regression models. Activities related to skin inoculation were negatively associated with bacteraemia, activities related to ingestion were associated with bacteraemia, and activities related to inhalation were associated with pneumonia. Our study suggests that route of infection is one of the factors related to clinical manifestations of melioidosis. PMID:26417852

  7. Aggression in toddlers: associations with parenting and marital relations.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Zheng, L; Whiteman, M; Brook, D W

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the relation among parenting factors, marital relations, and toddler aggression. A structured questionnaire was administered to both parents of 254 2-year-olds. The authors used correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which certain personality traits, drug use, parenting style, and marital conflicts were related to the toddlers' aggressive behavior. Results showed that the maternal child-rearing and parental aggression domains had a direct effect on toddler aggression. The domain of maternal child rearing also served as a mediator for the domains of marital relations, paternal child rearing, parental aggression, and parental drug use. The findings indicated that maternal child-rearing practices, personality attributes, and drug use were more important than paternal attributes in relation to toddler aggression. Implications for prevention among families at risk are discussed. PMID:11432607

  8. Association Analysis of Dyslipidemia-Related Genes in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Gareth J.; Savage, David A.; Patterson, Christopher C.; Lewis, Gareth; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Maxwell, Alexander P.

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) increases risk of the development of microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dyslipidemia is a common risk factor in the pathogenesis of both CVD and diabetic nephropathy (DN), with CVD identified as the primary cause of death in patients with DN. In light of this commonality, we assessed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thirty-seven key genetic loci previously associated with dyslipidemia in a T1D cohort using a case-control design. SNPs (n = 53) were genotyped using Sequenom in 1467 individuals with T1D (718 cases with proteinuric nephropathy and 749 controls without nephropathy i.e. normal albumin excretion). Cases and controls were white and recruited from the UK and Ireland. Association analyses were performed using PLINK to compare allele frequencies in cases and controls. In a sensitivity analysis, samples from control individuals with reduced renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were excluded. Correction for multiple testing was performed by permutation testing. A total of 1394 samples passed quality control filters. Following regression analysis adjusted by collection center, gender, duration of diabetes, and average HbA1c, two SNPs were significantly associated with DN. rs4420638 in the APOC1 region (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.51; confidence intervals [CI]: 1.19–1.91; P = 0.001) and rs1532624 in CETP (OR = 0.82; CI: 0.69–0.99; P = 0.034); rs4420638 was also significantly associated in a sensitivity analysis (P = 0.016) together with rs7679 (P = 0.027). However, no association was significant following correction for multiple testing. Subgroup analysis of end-stage renal disease status failed to reveal any association. Our results suggest common variants associated with dyslipidemia are not strongly associated with DN in T1D among white individuals. Our findings, cannot entirely exclude these key genes which are central to the process of

  9. Child Development Associate. Parent/Teacher Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    One of a series of 18, this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module provides a guide to establishing effective working relationships among parents, teachers and community members. Upon completion of the module the CDA trainee is expected to be able to communicate with parents through telephone, letters, home visits, conferences, bulletin…

  10. Associations between Parental Control and Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…

  11. Dispersion Relation and the Associated Instabilities Occurring in the Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhi, S.; Suess, S. T.

    2000-05-01

    The velocity shear which exists between three layers in an ideal plasma is studied. This configuration is very similar to a polar plume embedded in solar wind and can be modelled as a jet (or, strictly speaking a wake) using a MHD code developed for astrophysical jet simulations. Weak and strong magnetic fields are considered both inside and outside the jet with varying shear Mach numbers of the jet. The shear can be Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable and evolve into a new less sheared pattern as observed in plumes down a few solar radii. This numerical result is compared with the recently derived analytical result obtained from the dispersion relations which govern the MHD shear instabilities. These analytical results suggest that there exist two more dispersion relations apart from the two known relations which have been used over the past few years for compressible fluid or plasma studies. These dispersion relations in their incompressible limit exactly reduce to the relations studied elsewhere. The necessary condition for stability is now that both the Alfven Mach number of the jet and of the ambient should be less than unity, in contrast to the earlier observation that only one of them should be less than unity. This clearly elucidates the competition between plasma and magnetic shear confirming our numerical observations and is a consequence of finding the two extra modes.

  12. Grey relational clustering associated with CAPRI applied to FPGA placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jan-Ou; Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wang, San-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Grey relational clustering is used to minimise wire length during field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) placement and routing. The proposed Grey Relational Clustering Apply to Placement (GRAP) algorithm combines grey relational clustering and convex assigned placement for regular ICs method to construct a placement netlist, which was successfully used to solve the problem of minimising wire length in an FPGA placement. Upon calculating the grey relational grade, GRAP can rank the sequence and analyse the minimal distance in configuration logic blocks based on the grey relational sequence and combined connection-based approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that the GRAP effectively compares the Hibert, Z and Snake with bounding box (BB) cost function in the space-filling curve. The GRAP improved BB cost by 0.753%, 0.324% and 0.096% for the Hilbert, Z and Snake, respectively. This study also compares the critical path with the space-filling curve. The GRAP approach improved the critical path for Snake by 1.3% in the space-filling curve; however, the GRAP increased critical path wire by 1.38% and 0.03% over that of the Hilbert and Z of space-filling curve, respectively.

  13. Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

  14. Functional associations among trauma, PTSD, and substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S H; Pihl, R O; Conrod, P J; Dongier, M

    1998-01-01

    This review article presents several potential functional pathways which may explain the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and substance abuse disorders in traumatized individuals. Emerging empirical studies which have examined these potential pathways are reviewed, including studies on relative order of onset, PTSD patients' perceptions of various drug effects, comparisons of PTSD patients with and without comorbid substance use disorders, and correlational studies examining the relations between severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters and substance disorder symptoms. Research on the acute and chronic effects of alcohol and other drugs on cognitive and physiological variables relevant to PTSD intrusion and arousal symptoms is reviewed to highlight ways in which these two sets of PTSD symptoms might be functionally interrelated with substance abuse. Finally, based on these findings, recommendations are made for the treatment of individuals with comorbid PTSD-substance use disorders. PMID:9801717

  15. Effects of Fronto-Temporal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Left Temporo-Parietal Junction in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mondino, Marine; Jardri, Renaud; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise; Saoud, Mohamed; Poulet, Emmanuel; Brunelin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia are associated with abnormal hyperactivity in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and abnormal connectivity between frontal and temporal areas. Recent findings suggest that fronto-temporal transcranial Direct Current stimulation (tDCS) with the cathode placed over the left TPJ and the anode over the left prefrontal cortex can alleviate treatment-resistant AVH in patients with schizophrenia. However, brain correlates of the AVH reduction are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of tDCS on the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the left TPJ. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and treatment-resistant AVH were randomly allocated to receive 10 sessions of active (2 mA, 20min) or sham tDCS (2 sessions/d for 5 d). We compared the rs-FC of the left TPJ between patients before and after they received active or sham tDCS. Relative to sham tDCS, active tDCS significantly reduced AVH as well as the negative symptoms. Active tDCS also reduced rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left anterior insula and the right inferior frontal gyrus and increased rs-FC of the left TPJ with the left angular gyrus, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. The reduction of AVH severity was correlated with the reduction of the rs-FC between the left TPJ and the left anterior insula. These findings suggest that the reduction of AVH induced by tDCS is associated with a modulation of the rs-FC within an AVH-related brain network, including brain areas involved in inner speech production and monitoring. PMID:26303936

  16. Could Histoplasma capsulatum Be Related to Healthcare-Associated Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Damasceno, Lisandra Serra; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are described in diverse settings. The main etiologic agents of HAI are bacteria (85%) and fungi (13%). Some factors increase the risk for HAI, particularly the use of medical devices; patients with severe cuts, wounds, and burns; stays in the intensive care unit, surgery, and hospital reconstruction works. Several fungal HAI are caused by Candida spp., usually from an endogenous source; however, cross-transmission via the hands of healthcare workers or contaminated devices can occur. Although other medically important fungi, such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, have never been considered nosocomial pathogens, there are some factors that point out the pros and cons for this possibility. Among these fungi, H. capsulatum infection has been linked to different medical devices and surgery implants. The filamentous form of H. capsulatum may be present in hospital settings, as this fungus adapts to different types of climates and has great dispersion ability. Although conventional pathogen identification techniques have never identified H. capsulatum in the hospital environment, molecular biology procedures could be useful in this setting. More research on H. capsulatum as a HAI etiologic agent is needed, since it causes a severe and often fatal disease in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26106622

  17. Electrophysiological CNS-processes related to associative learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Gert R J; Schachtman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiology of human associative memory has been studied with electroencephalographic techniques since the 1930s. This research has revealed that different types of electrophysiological processes in the human brain can be modified by conditioning: sensory evoked potentials, sensory induced gamma-band activity, periods of frequency-specific waves (alpha and beta waves, the sensorimotor rhythm and the mu-rhythm) and slow cortical potentials. Conditioning of these processes has been studied in experiments that either use operant conditioning or repeated contingent pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (classical conditioning). In operant conditioning, the appearance of a specific brain process is paired with an external stimulus (neurofeedback) and the feedback enables subjects to obtain varying degrees of control of the CNS-process. Such acquired self-regulation of brain activity has found practical uses for instance in the amelioration of epileptic seizures, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It has also provided communicative means of assistance for tetraplegic patients through the use of brain computer interfaces. Both extra and intracortically recorded signals have been coupled with contingent external feedback. It is the aim for this review to summarize essential results on all types of electromagnetic brain processes that have been modified by classical or operant conditioning. The results are organized according to type of conditioned EEG-process, type of conditioning, and sensory modalities of the conditioning stimuli. PMID:26367470

  18. Seismic, structural, and individual factors associated with earthquake related injury

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Ramirez, M; Seligson, H; Shoaf, K

    2003-01-01

    Background: Earthquakes cause thousands of deaths worldwide every year, and systematic study of the causes of these deaths can lead to their prevention. Few studies have examined how multiple types of risk factors are related to physical injury during an earthquake. Methods: A population based case-control study was conducted to examine how individual characteristics, building characteristics, and seismic features of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake contributed to physical injury. Cases included fatal and hospital-admitted injuries caused by the earthquake. Controls were drawn from a population based phone survey of county residents. Cases were individually matched to two sets of controls: one matched by age and gender and one matched by location at the time of the earthquake. Results: Individuals over age 65 had 2.9 times the risk of injury as younger people (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 7.4) and women had a 2.4 times greater risk than men (95% CI 1.2 to 5.1). Location in multiple unit residential and commercial structures each led to increased injury risk compared with single unit residential structures, but the exact estimate varied depending on the control group used. With every increase in ground motion of 10%g, injury risk increased 2.2 times (95% CI 1.6 to 3.3). Conclusions: Controlling for other factors, it was found that individual, building, and seismic characteristics were independently predictive of increased injury risk. Prevention and preparedness efforts should focus on each of these as potential points of intervention. PMID:12642562

  19. Butyrylcholinesterase Genetic Variants: Association with Cocaine Dependence and Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Negrão, André Brooking; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Guindalini, Camila; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Messas, Guilherme Peres; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Vallada, Homero

    2013-01-01

    Objective The search for genetic vulnerability factors in cocaine dependence has focused on the role that neuroplasticity plays in addiction. However, like many other drugs, the ability of an individual to metabolize cocaine can also influence susceptibility to dependence. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) metabolizes cocaine, and genetic variants of the BChE gene (BCHE) alter its catalytic activity. Therefore, we hypothesize that cocaine users with polymorphisms in BCHE can show diverse addictive behaviors due to differences in effective plasma concentrations of cocaine. Those polymorphisms might also influence users to prefer one of the two main preparations (crack or powder cocaine), despite having equal access to both. The present work investigates polymorphisms in BCHE and if those genetic variants constitute risk factors for cocaine dependence and for crack cocaine use. Methods A total of 1,436 individuals (698 cocaine-dependent patients and 738 controls) were genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BCHE: rs1803274, rs4263329, and rs4680662. Results For rs4263329, a nominal difference was found between cases and controls. For rs1803274 (the functional SNP), a statistically significant difference was found between patients who used crack cocaine exclusively and those who used only powder cocaine (P = 0.027; OR = 4.36; 95% CI = 1.18–16.04). Allele frequencies and genotypes related to other markers did not differ between cases and controls or between the two cocaine subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the AA genotype of rs1803274 is a risk factor for crack cocaine use, which is more addictive than powder cocaine use. Further studies are needed in order to confirm this preliminary result and clarify the role of BCHE and its variants in cocaine dependence. PMID:24312228

  20. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Brain Dysconnectivity in the Perisylvian Language Network: A Multimodal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steven; Barsaglini, Alessio; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M.; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that the development of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) is associated with altered structural and functional connectivity within the perisylvian language network. However, these studies focussed mainly on either structural or functional alterations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Therefore, they were unable to examine the relationship between the 2 types of measures and could not establish whether the observed alterations would be expressed in the early stage of the illness. We used diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine white matter integrity and functional connectivity within the left perisylvian language network of 46 individuals with an at risk mental state for psychosis or a first episode of the illness, including 28 who had developed AVH group and 18 who had not (nonauditory verbal hallucination [nAVH] group), and 22 healthy controls. Inferences were made at P < .05 (corrected). The nAVH group relative to healthy controls showed a reduction of both white matter integrity and functional connectivity as well as a disruption of the normal structure−function relationship along the fronto-temporal pathway. For all measures, the AVH group showed intermediate values between healthy controls and the nAVH group. These findings seem to suggest that, in the early stage of the disorder, a significant impairment of fronto-temporal connectivity is evident in patients who do not experience AVHs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that, whilst mild disruption of connectivity might still enable the emergence of AVHs, more severe alterations may prevent the occurrence of the hallucinatory experience. PMID:24361862

  1. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  2. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. PMID:26575605

  3. Relatives׳ illness attributions mediate the association of expressed emotion with early psychosis symptoms and functioning.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martínez, Tecelli; Medina-Pradas, Cristina; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2014-08-15

    The mechanisms underlying the association between expressed emotion (EE) and the prognosis in early psychosis are still not well understood. Based on the attributional model, this study investigated the association of criticism and Emotional Over-Involvement (EOI) with symptoms and functioning in At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) and First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients, and whether these associations were mediated by relatives׳ attributions of control and blame. Forty-four patients (20 ARMS and 24 FEP) and their relatives were included. Findings indicated that relatives׳ criticism was associated with positive, negative, and general symptoms. EOI was related to negative and general symptoms. Both indices were related with impaired functioning. Most of the relations between EE indices and illness severity were mediated by relatives׳ attributions of blame toward the patient. Relatives׳ self-blaming attributions and attributions of control over the disorder by either relatives or patients were not associated with patients׳ variables or EE. Findings highlight the importance of family emotional environment in the early stages of psychosis, as well as the mediating role that relatives׳ beliefs can exert in those relationships. Family interventions aimed to assist relatives to change attributions that blame patient should be included in clinical protocols in order to prevent the entrenchment of high-EE. PMID:24768246

  4. Associations between Relational Aggression, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…

  5. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation is associated with autophagy-related signalling in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, S; Zhang, Y; Yin, S-W; Gao, X-J; Shi, W-W; Wang, Y; Huang, X; Wang, L; Zou, L-Y; Zhao, J-H; Huang, Y-J; Shan, L-Y; Gounni, A S; Wu, Y-Z; Zhang, J-B

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that aberrant neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation could contribute to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Recent research has provided evidence that a novel type of ANCA autoantibody, anti-lysosomal membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) antibody, may have a pathogenic role in AAV. We have shown previously that anti-LAMP-2 antibody-stimulated NET formation contains autoantigens and anti-microbial peptides. The current study sought to determine whether LAMP-2, as a novel antigen of ANCA, was present on NETs in AAV patients, the influence of the anti-LAMP-2 antibody on the neutrophil apoptosis rate and the role of autophagy in anti-LAMP-2 antibody-induced NET formation. NET formation was assessed using immunofluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy or live cell imaging. The neutrophil apoptosis rate was analysed using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Autophagy was detected using LC3B accumulation and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that enhanced NET formation, which contains LAMP-2, was observed in kidney biopsies and neutrophils from AAV patients. The apoptosis rate decreased significantly in human neutrophils stimulated with anti-LAMP-2 antibody, and this effect was attenuated by the inhibitors of autophagy 3-methyladenine (3MA) and 2-morpholin-4-yl-8-phenylchromen-4-one (LY294002). The anti-LAMP-2 antibody-stimulated NET formation was unaffected by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val- Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), which are inhibitors of apoptosis and necrosis, respectively, but was inhibited by 3MA and LY294002. Moreover, the proportion of LC3BI that was converted to LC3BII increased significantly (P = 0·0057), and massive vacuolizations that exhibited characteristics typical of autophagy were detected in neutrophils stimulated with anti-LAMP-2 antibody. Our results provide further evidence that

  6. Association Mapping in Turkish Olive Cultivars Revealed Significant Markers Related to Some Important Agronomic Traits.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya Sozer; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important fruit trees especially in the Mediterranean countries due to high consumption of table olive and olive oil. In olive breeding, the phenotypic traits associated to fruit are the key factors that determine productivity. Association mapping has been used in some tree species and a lot of crop plant species, and here, we perform an initial effort to detect marker-trait associations in olive tree. In the current study, a total of 96 olive genotypes, including both oil and table olive genotypes from Turkish Olive GenBank Resources, were used to examine marker-trait associations. For olive genotyping, SNP, AFLP, and SSR marker data were selected from previously published study and association analysis was performed between these markers and 5 yield-related traits. Three different approaches were used to check for false-positive results in association tests, and association results obtained from these models were compared. Using the model utilizing both population structure and relative kinship, eleven associations were significant with FDR ≤ 0.05. The largest number of significant associations was detected for fruit weight and stone weight. Our results suggested that association mapping could be an effective approach for identifying marker-trait associations in olive genotypes, without the development of mapping populations. This study shows for the first time the use of association mapping for identifying molecular markers linked to important traits in olive tree. PMID:27209034

  7. Temperament Traits and Chronic Pain: The Association of Harm Avoidance and Pain-Related Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Objective Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. Methods One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. Results The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Conclusion Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients. PMID:23133510

  8. Associations between urban greenspace and health-related quality of life in children.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Deborah S; Allen, Deonie A; Gow, Alan J

    2016-06-01

    With research to suggest that urban greenspace use can affect the health and wellbeing of adults, it is important to investigate this association in children. Compared with factors such as physical activity, research considering greenspace and its association with the health and wellbeing of children from urban areas is relatively rare. This study examined the health-related quality of life of 276 children residing in the city of Edinburgh in relation to quantity and use of greenspace. As much of the existing research has employed parental reports of children's health, the current study assessed health-related quality of life via self-report, measured using the Kid-KINDL questionnaire (Ravens-Sieberer & Bullinger, 1998). Spatial analysis of greenspace quantity and typology was undertaken using mapping software, ArcGIS (Esri, 2011). In regression analysis, higher greenspace use and having fewer siblings were significantly associated with better health-related quality of life. Further analysis revealed that these variables were also associated with the 'friends' sub-scale score of the Kid-KINDL. Higher greenspace use was positively associated with 'self-esteem' sub-scale scores. However, the quantity of residential greenspace was not associated with the health-related quality of life of children. This study suggests that increased use of greenspace in urban areas might have a small but positive impact on child health-related quality of life, though future longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm these causal assumptions. PMID:27419017

  9. Association of HDL-Related Loci with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Plasma Lutein and Zeaxanthin: the Alienor Study

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Maubaret, Cécilia; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Malet, Florence; Le Goff, Mélanie; Dartigues, Jean-François; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Background Several genes implicated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism have been reported to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, HDL transport the two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, which are highly suspected to play a key-role in the protection against AMD. The objective is to confirm the associations of HDL-related loci with AMD and to assess their associations with plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Methods Alienor study is a prospective population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 elderly residents of Bordeaux, France. AMD was graded according to the international classification, from non-mydriatic colour retinal photographs. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin were determined by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The following polymorphisms were studied: rs493258 and rs10468017 (LIPC), rs3764261 (CETP), rs12678919 (LPL) and rs1883025 (ABCA1). Results After multivariate adjustment, the TT genotype of the LIPC rs493258 variant was significantly associated with a reduced risk for early and late AMD (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.41-0.99; p=0.049 and OR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.08-0.85; p=0.03, respectively), and with higher plasma zeaxanthin concentrations (p=0.03), while plasma lipids were not significantly different according to this SNP. Besides, the LPL variant was associated with early AMD (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.45-1.00; p=0.05) and both with plasma lipids and plasma lutein (p=0.047). Associations of LIPC rs10468017, CETP and ABCA1 polymorphisms with AMD did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion These findings suggest that LIPC and LPL genes could both modify the risk for AMD and the metabolism of lutein and zeaxanthin. PMID:24223199

  10. Associations between Neuroticism and Depression in Relation to Catastrophizing and Pain-Related Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kadimpati, Sandeep; Zale, Emily L.; Hooten, Michael W.; Ditre, Joseph W.; Warner, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive-affective constructs, including pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, have been implicated in the onset and progression of chronic pain, and both constructs have been identified as key targets for multidisciplinary pain treatment. Both neuroticism and depression have been linked to these constructs (and to each other), but how each may contribute to the pain experience is unknown. This study tested associations between neuroticism, depression, and indices of catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety among persons seeking treatment for chronic non-malignant pain. We hypothesized, as a higher-order personality trait, neuroticism would remain uniquely associated with both pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, even after accounting for current symptoms of depression. A retrospective study design assessed depression (as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale), neuroticism (measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Anxiety Symptom Score in a consecutive series of patients (n=595) admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain treatment program from March 2009 through January 2011. Hierarchical regression indicated that neuroticism was independently associated with greater pain catastrophizing and pain-related anxiety, above-and-beyond the contributions of sociodemographic characteristics, pain severity, and depression. A depression by neuroticism interaction was not observed, suggesting that associations between neuroticism and cognitive-affective pain constructs remained stable across varying levels of current depression. These findings represent an early but important step towards the clarification of complex associations between trait neuroticism, current depression, and tendencies toward catastrophic and anxiety-provoking appraisals of pain among persons seeking treatment for chronic pain. PMID:25902153

  11. Voice Disorders in Teachers and Their Associations with Work-Related Factors: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. Method: A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and their associations with…

  12. Decreased Parahippocampal Activity in Associative Priming: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Meckingler, Axel; Xu, Mingwei; Zhao, Yanbing; Weng, Xuchu

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been intense debate on the neural basis of associative priming, particularly on the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in retrieving associative information without awareness. In this study, event-related fMRI was used while healthy subjects performed a perceptual identification task on briefly presented unrelated…

  13. Raising Awareness of HIV-Related Stigma and Its Associated Prejudice and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, D.; Francis, E.

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS will remain a problem for a long time. Many people with HIV/AIDS still live in fear of discovery because of the prevalent stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination. This article examines how HIV-related stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination can be addressed in a classroom--in the field of education. (Contains…

  14. Stress-related anhedonia is associated with ventral striatum reactivity to reward and transdiagnostic psychiatric symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Frías, Nadia S.; Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Michalski, Lindsay J.; Baranger, David A.A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) is consistently associated with increased risk for subsequent psychopathology. Individual differences in neural response to reward may confer vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Using data from the ongoing Duke Neurogenetics Study, the present study examined whether reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity moderates the relationship between retrospectively reported ELS and anhedonic symptomatology. We further assessed whether individual differences in reward-related VS reactivity were associated with other depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use via stress-related anhedonic symptoms and substance use-associated coping. Method Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was collected while participants (n = 906) completed a card-guessing task, which robustly elicits VS reactivity. ELS, anhedonic symptoms, other depressive symptoms, coping behavior, and alcohol use behavior were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Linear regressions were run to examine whether VS reactivity moderated the relationship between ELS and anhedonic symptoms. Structural equation models examined whether this moderation was indirectly associated with other depression symptoms and problematic alcohol use through its association with anhedonia. Results Analyses of data from 820 participants passing quality control procedures revealed that the VS × ELS interaction was associated with anhedonic symptoms (p = 0.011). Moreover, structural equation models indirectly linked this interaction to non-anhedonic depression symptoms and problematic alcohol use through anhedonic symptoms and substance-related coping. Conclusions These findings suggest that reduced VS reactivity to reward is associated with increased risk for anhedonia in individuals exposed to ELS. Such stress-related anhedonia is further associated with other depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use through substance-related coping

  15. Using epigenome-wide association scans of DNA methylation in age-related complex human traits.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Spector, Tim D; Bell, Jordana T

    2012-10-01

    With rapid technological advancements emerging epigenetic studies of complex traits have shifted from candidate gene analyses towards epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). EWAS aim to systematically identify epigenetic variants across the genome that associate with complex phenotypes. Recent EWAS using case-control and disease-discordant identical twin designs have identified phenotype-associated differentially methylated regions for several traits. However, EWAS still face many challenges related to methodology, design and interpretation, owing to the dynamic nature of epigenetic variants over time. This article reviews analytical considerations in conducting EWAS and recent applications of this approach to human aging and age-related complex traits. PMID:23130833

  16. The Associative Memory Deficit in Aging Is Related to Reduced Selectivity of Brain Activity during Encoding.

    PubMed

    Saverino, Cristina; Fatima, Zainab; Sarraf, Saman; Oder, Anita; Strother, Stephen C; Grady, Cheryl L

    2016-09-01

    Human aging is characterized by reductions in the ability to remember associations between items, despite intact memory for single items. Older adults also show less selectivity in task-related brain activity, such that patterns of activation become less distinct across multiple experimental tasks. This reduced selectivity or dedifferentiation has been found for episodic memory, which is often reduced in older adults, but not for semantic memory, which is maintained with age. We used fMRI to investigate whether there is a specific reduction in selectivity of brain activity during associative encoding in older adults, but not during item encoding, and whether this reduction predicts associative memory performance. Healthy young and older adults were scanned while performing an incidental encoding task for pictures of objects and houses under item or associative instructions. An old/new recognition test was administered outside the scanner. We used agnostic canonical variates analysis and split-half resampling to detect whole-brain patterns of activation that predicted item versus associative encoding for stimuli that were later correctly recognized. Older adults had poorer memory for associations than did younger adults, whereas item memory was comparable across groups. Associative encoding trials, but not item encoding trials, were predicted less successfully in older compared with young adults, indicating less distinct patterns of associative-related activity in the older group. Importantly, higher probability of predicting associative encoding trials was related to better associative memory after accounting for age and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. These results provide evidence that neural distinctiveness at encoding supports associative memory and that a specific reduction of selectivity in neural recruitment underlies age differences in associative memory. PMID:27082043

  17. Diet-related practices and BMI are associated with diet quality in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged $74 years. Design: Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regres...

  18. Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, Cornelius B.; Wright, Davene R.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed. PMID:25734992

  19. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

  20. School Factors Associated with School Refusal- and Truancy-Related Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate how students' perceptions of relationships with peers at school and teachers' classroom management are associated with school refusal-related reasons and truancy-related reasons for school non-attendance. The study included controls for emotional stability and relevant parental variables. A student…

  1. Associations of Religiousness with 12-Month Prevalence of Drug Use and Drug-Related Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Loren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that religious affiliation, attendance at religious services, and religious importance would be negatively associated with substance use and sexual behavior related to substance use. An additional hypothesis was tested to determine if age-related differences in the magnitude of these…

  2. Direct assessment of multiple testing correction in case-control association studies with related individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoheng

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies typically test large numbers of genetic variants in association with trait values. It is well known that linkage disequilibrium (LD) between nearby markers tends to introduce correlation among association tests. Failure to properly adjust for multiple comparisons can lead to false-positive results or missing true-positive signals. The Bonferroni correction is generally conservative in the presence of LD. The permutation procedure, although has been widely employed to adjust for correlated tests, is not applicable when related individuals are included in case-control samples. With related individuals, the dependence among relatives' genotypes can also contribute to the correlation between tests. We present a new method P(norm) to correct for multiple hypothesis testing in case-control association studies in which some individuals are related. The adjustment with P(norm) simultaneously accounts for two sources of correlations of the test statistics: (1) LD among genetic markers (2) dependence among genotypes across related individuals. Using simulated data based on the International HapMap Project, we demonstrate that it has better control of type I error and is more powerful than some of the recently developed methods. We apply the method to a genome-wide association study of alcoholism in the GAW 14 COGA data set and detect genome-wide significant association. PMID:21181898

  3. Associations of Workplace Aggression With Work-Related Well-Being Among Nurses in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether workplace aggression was associated with self-rated health and work-related injury and illness among nurses in the Philippines. Methods. Our data came from a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n = 687) in the Philippines. We assessed the associations of self-reported physical assault and verbal abuse with self-rated health, work-related injury and illness, and missed workdays with Poisson regression. Control variables included demographic and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked, work setting, shift). Results. Verbal abuse was associated with poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 3.45). Both physical assault and verbal abuse were associated with work-related injury (PR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.20; PR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.23, respectively) and work-related illness (PR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.15; PR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.32, 2.14, respectively) after demographic and work characteristics were accounted for in the model. In addition, physical assault was associated with missed workdays (PR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.33). Conclusions. Workplace aggression was associated with increased risks of poor general health and adverse work-related health outcomes among nurses in the Philippines. PMID:21088262

  4. Association Mapping for Fiber-Related Traits and Digestibility in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zan; Qiang, Haiping; Zhao, Haiming; Xu, Ruixuan; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin; Liu, Guibo; Zhang, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular genetic basis of complex quantitative traits. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa) association panel comprised of 336 genotypes from 75 alfalfa accessions represented by four to eight genotypes for each accession. Each genotype was genotyped using 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotyped for five fiber-related traits in four different environments. A model-based structure analysis was used to group all genotypes into two groups. Most of the genotypes have a low relative kinship (<0.3), suggesting population stratification not be an issue for association analysis. Generally, the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives. In total, 124 marker-trait associations were predicted (p < 0.005). Among these, eight associations were predicted in two environments repeatedly and 20 markers were predicted to be associated with multiple traits. These trait-associated markers will greatly help marker-assisted breeding programs to improve fiber-related quality traits in alfalfa. PMID:27047512

  5. Association Mapping for Fiber-Related Traits and Digestibility in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zan; Qiang, Haiping; Zhao, Haiming; Xu, Ruixuan; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin; Liu, Guibo; Zhang, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular genetic basis of complex quantitative traits. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa) association panel comprised of 336 genotypes from 75 alfalfa accessions represented by four to eight genotypes for each accession. Each genotype was genotyped using 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotyped for five fiber-related traits in four different environments. A model-based structure analysis was used to group all genotypes into two groups. Most of the genotypes have a low relative kinship (<0.3), suggesting population stratification not be an issue for association analysis. Generally, the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives. In total, 124 marker-trait associations were predicted (p < 0.005). Among these, eight associations were predicted in two environments repeatedly and 20 markers were predicted to be associated with multiple traits. These trait-associated markers will greatly help marker-assisted breeding programs to improve fiber-related quality traits in alfalfa. PMID:27047512

  6. I owe you: age-related similarities and differences in associative memory for gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Flores, Cynthia C; Murayama, Kou; Kerr, Tyson; Drolet, Aimee

    2016-09-01

    Older adults often experience associative memory impairments but can sometimes remember important information. The current experiments investigate potential age-related similarities and differences associate memory for gains and losses. Younger and older participants were presented with faces and associated dollar amounts, which indicated how much money the person "owed" the participant, and were later given a cued recall test for the dollar amount. Experiment 1 examined face-dollar amount pairs while Experiment 2 included negative dollar amounts to examine both gains and losses. While younger adults recalled more information relative to older adults, both groups were more accurate in recalling the correct value associated with high-value faces compared to lower-value faces and remembered gist-information about the values. However, negative values (losses) did not have a strong impact on recall among older adults versus younger adults, illustrating important associative memory differences between younger and older adults. PMID:26847137

  7. Association between firearm ownership, firearm-related risk and risk reduction behaviours and alcohol-related risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol use and firearm ownership are risk factors for violent injury and death. To determine whether firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours, the author conducted a cross-sectional study using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for eight states in the USA from 1996 to 1997 (the most recent data available). Altogether, 15 474 respondents provided information on firearm exposure. After adjustment for demographics and state of residence, firearm owners were more likely than those with no firearms at home to have ≥5 drinks on one occasion (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.50), to drink and drive (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.39) and to have ≥60 drinks per month (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.83). Heavy alcohol use was most common among firearm owners who also engaged in behaviours such as carrying a firearm for protection against other people and keeping a firearm at home that was both loaded and not locked away. The author concludes that firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours. PMID:21670071

  8. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  9. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  10. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  11. Genetic Loci Associated With Atrial Fibrillation: Relation to Left Atrial Structure in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Yin, Xiaoyan; McManus, David D.; Chuang, Michael L.; Cheng, Susan; Lubitz, Steven A.; Arora, Garima; Manning, Warren J.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) results in significant morbidity and mortality. Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with AF. Whether genetic variants associated with AF are also associated with atrial structure, an intermediate phenotype for AF, has had limited investigation. We sought to investigate associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and atrial structure obtained by cardiovascular imaging in the Framingham Heart Study. Methods and Results We selected 11 SNPs that have been associated with AF in GWAS. We examined the SNPs' relations to cross‐sectional left atrial (LA) dimensions (determined by transthoracic echocardiography) and LA volume (determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance [CMR]) employing linear regression. The total sample included 1555 participants with CMR LA volume (age 60±9 years, 53% women) and 6861 participants with echocardiographic LA diameter (age 48±13 years, 52% women) measured. We employed a significance threshold of P<0.0023 to account for multiple testing of the 11 SNPs and 2 LA measures. In a primary analysis, no SNPs were significantly related to the LA measures. Likewise, in secondary analyses excluding individuals with prevalent AF (n=77, CMR sample; n=105, echocardiography sample) no SNPs were related to LA volume or diameter. Conclusion In a community‐based cohort, we did not identify a statistically significant association between selected SNPs associated with AF and measures of LA anatomy. Further investigations with larger longitudinally assessed samples and a broader array of SNPs may be necessary to determine the relation between genetic loci associated with AF and atrial structure. PMID:24695651

  12. Factors associated with distress in relatives of a family member experiencing recent-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, Christine; Gooding, Patricia; Hartley, Samantha; Lee, Gary; Lobban, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis are unclear, but subjective appraisals of the illness seem to be implicated. We aimed to identify the contribution of illness perceptions to predicting distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis. The relatives were assessed on measures including distress and illness perceptions, and these were repeated 6 months later. Almost half of the relatives had significant distress that persisted at 6 months. Where symptoms of the service users were more severe, and for the older relatives, distress showed less improvement. Perceptions of greater perceived future negative consequences and a more chronic timeline predicted greater distress at 6 months, whereas increased perceived coping efficacy of the relatives predicted a reduction in distress. Distress in relatives is evident early on in psychosis, but assessment of appraisals of relatives may help identify those at risk for enduring problems and offers opportunity for clinical intervention. PMID:24375211

  13. Species associations and redundancy in relation to biological hotspots within the northern California Current ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Douglas C.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic nature of biological hotspots, while well recognized, is not well understood. We hypothesize that the persistence of hotspots in the northern California Current System (CCS), despite seasonal and annual changes in the nekton community species composition, is related to associations among species and their functional redundancy. To address this hypothesis, sampling was conducted during June and August of 2000 and 2002 within two hotspots occurring between Newport, Oregon and Crescent City, California in the coastal CCS. Associations were examined to identify potentially complementary and redundant species. The strongest negative associations were between jellyfish and fish species, with strong positive associations evident among several fish species. Dominant species varied seasonally and annually, although evidence indicated replacement of dominant species by other similar species with respect to functional group and preferred habitat. This finding suggests that the persistence of these biological hotspots is related to species redundancy and is an important attribute contributing to stability within this highly variable system.

  14. Dietary lipids are differentially associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory in prepubescent children1234

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A; Monti, Jim M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Moore, R Davis; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies in rodents and older humans have shown that the hippocampus—a brain structure critical to relational/associative memory—has remarkable plasticity as a result of lifestyle factors (eg, exercise). However, the effect of dietary intake on hippocampal-dependent memory during childhood has remained unexamined. Objective: We investigated the cross-sectional relation of dietary components characteristic of the Western diet, including saturated fatty acids (SFAs), omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids, and refined sugar, with hippocampal-dependent relational memory in prepubescent children. Design: Participants aged 7–9 y (n = 52) reported their dietary intake by using the Youth-Adolescent Food-Frequency Questionnaire and completed memory tasks designed to assess relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory. Performance on the memory tasks was assessed with both direct (accuracy) and indirect (eye movement) measures. Results: Partial correlations adjusted for body mass index showed a positive relation between relational memory accuracy and intake of omega-3 fatty acids and a negative relation of both relational and item memory accuracy with intake of SFAs. Potential confounding factors of age, sex, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, pubertal timing, and aerobic fitness (maximal oxygen volume) were not significantly related to any of the dietary intake measures. Eye movement measures of relational memory (preferential viewing to the target stimulus) showed a negative relation with intake of added sugar. Conclusions: SFA intake was negatively associated with both forms of memory, whereas omega-3 fatty acid intake was selectively positively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory. These findings are among the first to show a link between habitual dietary intake and cognitive health as pertaining to hippocampal function in childhood. The Fitness Improves Thinking Kids (FITKids) and FITKids2 trials were

  15. Parent- and child-reported parenting. Associations with child weight-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate associations of both parent-reported and child-perceived parenting styles and parent-reported parenting practices with child weight and weight-related behaviours. Participants were 175 children (56% female) aged between 7 and 11, and their primary caregivers (91% female), recruited through South Australian primary schools. Children completed measures of parenting style, attitude toward fruit, vegetables, and non-core food, and attraction to physical activity. Parents completed measures of parenting style and domain-specific parenting practices (feeding and activity-related practices) and reported on child dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour. Objective height and weight measurements were taken from children, from which body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Child-reported parenting style and parent-reported parenting practices were uniquely associated with child weight-related outcomes, but styles and practices did not interact in their association with child outcomes. Child-reported parenting style was associated with child food and activity attitudes, whereas parent-reported parenting style was not associated with child outcomes. The findings of the present study generally support the recommendation of a parenting style high in demandingness and responsiveness for supporting healthy child weight-related behaviours, along with appropriate domain-specific practices. The child's perspective should be incorporated into research involving child outcomes wherever possible. PMID:21896297

  16. Pharmacogenetics of leptin in antipsychotic-associated weight gain and obesity-related complications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amy K; Bishop, Jefrey R

    2013-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics can greatly improve symptoms of psychosis-spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, these drugs are associated with weight gain, which increases a patient’s risk for developing chronic diseases including Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or other obesity-related complications. There are interindividual differences in weight gain resulting from antipsychotic drug use that may be explained by pharmacodynamic characteristics of these agents as well as clinical factors. In addition, genetic variations in pathways associated with satiety are increasingly recognized as potential contributors to antipsychotic-associated weight gain. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene, as well as the leptin receptor gene, are potential pharmacogenetic markers associated with these outcomes. This article summarizes evidence for the associations of the leptin gene and the leptin receptor gene polymorphisms with antipsychotic-induced weight gain, potential mechanisms underlying these relationships, and discusses areas for future pharmacogenetic investigation. PMID:21787190

  17. RISK OF ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS IN RELATIVES OF SUBJECTS WITH INTERSTIAL CYSTITIS

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Brady, Kristina; Norton, Peggy; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), a chronic, bladder pain condition of unknown etiology. IC/PBS can co-occur with a number of associated conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study is to estimate the heritability of approximately 20 associated conditions in first-, and if appropriate second-, and third-degree relatives of IC/PBS cases to identify shared genetic contributions for the disease combinations. Methods We used the Utah Population Database (UPDB), a unique population-based genealogical database that has been linked to electronic health records for the University of Utah Health Science Center back to 1994. IC/PBS probands were identified by ICD-9 code for chronic interstitial cystitis and had genealogy information for 12 of their 14 immediate ancestors. We calculated excess risk of an associated condition in relatives of IC/PBS cases using relative risk estimates. Results We identified 248 IC/PBS probands. We found that two associated conditions, myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and constipation, were in significant excess in IC/PBS cases themselves, their first-degree relatives and their second-degree relatives. The excess risk among relatives between IC/PBS and these associated conditions also held in the converse direction. Excess risk of IC/PBS was observed in first-and second-degree relatives in probands with myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and in probands with constipation. Conclusion These results suggest myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and constipation are likely to share underlying genetic factors with IC/PBS. PMID:25349937

  18. Error-related electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii is associated with neural performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Elkins-Brown, Nathaniel; Saunders, Blair; Inzlicht, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Emerging research in social and affective neuroscience has implicated a role for affect and motivation in performance monitoring and cognitive control. No study, however, has investigated whether facial electromyography (EMG) over the corrugator supercilii-a measure associated with negative affect and the exertion of effort-is related to neural performance monitoring. Here, we explored these potential relationships by simultaneously measuring the error-related negativity, error positivity (Pe), and facial EMG over the corrugator supercilii muscle during a punished, inhibitory control task. We found evidence for increased facial EMG activity over the corrugator immediately following error responses, and this activity was related to the Pe for both between- and within-subject analyses. These results are consistent with the idea that early, avoidance-motivated processes are associated with performance monitoring, and that such processes may also be related to orienting toward errors, the emergence of error awareness, or both. PMID:26470645

  19. Gender-related Differences in the Associations between Sexual Impulsivity and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Galit; Pilver, Corey E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual impulsivity (SI) has been associated with conditions that have substantial public health costs, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. However, SI has not been examined systematically with respect to its relationships to psychopathology. We aimed to investigate associations between SI and psychopathology, including gender-related differences. Method We performed a secondary data analysis of Wave-2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national sample of 34,653 adults in the United States. DSM-IV-based diagnoses of mood, anxiety, drug and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Scheduled DSM-IV Version. Results The prevalence of SI was considerable (14.7%), with greater acknowledgment by men than women (18.9% versus 10.9%; p<0.0001). For both women and men, SI was positively associated with most Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders (OR range: Women, Axis-I:1.89-6.14, Axis-II:2.10-10.02; Men, Axis-I:1.92-6.21, Axis-II:1.63-6.05). Significant gender-related differences were observed. Among women as compared to men, SI was more strongly associated with social phobia, alcohol abuse/dependence, and paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Conclusion The robust associations between SI and psychopathology across genders suggest the need for screening and interventions related to SI for individuals with psychiatric concerns. The stronger associations between SI and psychopathology among women as compared to men emphasize the importance of a gender-oriented perspective in targeting SI. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to SI predates, postdates or co-occurs with specific psychiatric conditions. PMID:24793538

  20. The Gel'fand-Kirillov dimension of relatively free associative algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A Ya

    2004-12-31

    In this paper the Gel'fand-Kirillov dimension GKdim(A) is calculated for a relatively free associative algebra A over an arbitrary ground field. This dimension is determined by the complexity type of the algebra A or by the set of semidirect products of matrix algebras over a polynomial ring contained in the variety Var(A). The proof is comparatively elementary and does not use the local representability of relatively free algebras.

  1. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. Methods A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. Results The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Conclusion Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout. PMID:26508955

  2. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Zou, Guangyong; Campbell, Craig

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated clinical and family characteristics associated with health-related quality of life in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Families of 176 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were identified and mailed questionnaires via the Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry. Multiple linear regressions analyses were used to examine the relationship between clinical and family characteristics and child-self and parent-proxy reported health-related quality of life. Greater fatigue and use of wheelchairs were consistently associated with worse health-related quality of life independent of other factors. Higher household income and parent having a postsecondary degree were associated with better health-related quality of life in some of the measures. A greater clinical focus on and efforts to reduce fatigue could lead to improvement of health-related quality of life in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy population. This study also sets the ground for longitudinal studies where changes in health-related quality of life can be monitored over time. PMID:26863997

  3. Association of novelty-related behaviors and intravenous cocaine self-administration in Diversity Outbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Price E.; Ndukum, Juliet; Wilcox, Troy; Clark, James; Roy, Brittany; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting; Chesler, Elissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Preference for and reaction to novelty are strongly associated with addiction to cocaine and other drugs. However, the genetic variants and molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain largely unknown. Although the relationship between novelty- and addiction-related traits has been observed in rats, studies in mice have failed to demonstrate this association. New, genetically diverse, high-precision mouse populations including Diversity Outbred (DO) mice provide an opportunity to assess an expanded range of behavioral variation enabling detection of associations of novelty- and addiction-related traits in mice. Methods To examine the relationship between novelty- and addiction-related traits, male and female DO mice were tested on open field exploration, hole board exploration, and novelty preference followed by intravenous cocaine self-administration (IVSA; ten 2-hour sessions of fixed-ratio 1 and one 6-hour session of progressive ratio). Results We observed high variation of cocaine IVSA in DO mice with 43% reaching and 57% not reaching conventional acquisition criteria. As a group, mice that did not reach these criteria still demonstrated significant lever discrimination. Mice experiencing catheter occlusion or other technical issues (n = 17) were excluded from analysis. Novelty-related behaviors were positively associated with cocaine IVSA. Multivariate analysis of associations among novelty- and addiction-related traits revealed a large degree of shared variance (45%). Conclusions Covariation among cocaine IVSA and novelty-related phenotypes in DO mice indicates that this relationship is amenable to genetic dissection. The high genetic precision and phenotypic diversity in the DO may facilitate discovery of previously undetectable mechanisms underlying predisposition to develop addiction disorders. PMID:25238945

  4. The relation between navigation strategy and associative memory: An individual differences approach.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Chi T; Weisberg, Steven M; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-04-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent response strategy (Bohbot, Gupta, Banner, & Dahmani, 2011), but not all studies suggest such an effect (Woollett & Maguire, 2009, 2012). Here we tested nonexpert young adults and found that preference for a place strategy positively correlated with spatial (object-location) associative memory performance but did not correlate with nonspatial (face-name) associative memory performance. Importantly, these correlations differed from each other, indicating that the relation between navigation strategy and associative memory is specific to the spatial domain. In addition, the 2 associative memory tasks significantly correlated, suggesting that object-location memory taps into processes relevant to both hippocampal-dependent navigation and nonspatial associative memory. Our findings also suggest that individual differences in spatial associative memory may account for some of the variance in navigation strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26501930

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with age-related decline in hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Heo, Susie; McLaren, Molly; Pence, Brandt D; Martin, Stephen A; Vieira, Victoria J; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-04-14

    Hippocampal volume shrinks in late adulthood, but the neuromolecular factors that trigger hippocampal decay in aging humans remains a matter of speculation. In rodents, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the growth and proliferation of cells in the hippocampus and is important in long-term potentiation and memory formation. In humans, circulating levels of BDNF decline with advancing age, and a genetic polymorphism for BDNF has been related to gray matter volume loss in old age. In this study, we tested whether age-related reductions in serum levels of BDNF would be related to shrinkage of the hippocampus and memory deficits in older adults. Hippocampal volume was acquired by automated segmentation of magnetic resonance images in 142 older adults without dementia. The caudate nucleus was also segmented and examined in relation to levels of serum BDNF. Spatial memory was tested using a paradigm in which memory load was parametrically increased. We found that increasing age was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, reduced levels of serum BDNF, and poorer memory performance. Lower levels of BDNF were associated with smaller hippocampi and poorer memory, even when controlling for the variation related to age. In an exploratory mediation analysis, hippocampal volume mediated the age-related decline in spatial memory and BDNF mediated the age-related decline in hippocampal volume. Caudate nucleus volume was unrelated to BDNF levels or spatial memory performance. Our results identify serum BDNF as a significant factor related to hippocampal shrinkage and memory decline in late adulthood. PMID:20392958

  6. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10−6). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10−5). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  7. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10(-6)). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10(-5)). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  8. Common Variants in Left/Right Asymmetry Genes and Pathways Are Associated with Relative Hand Skill

    PubMed Central

    Brandler, William M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Evans, David M.; Scerri, Thomas S.; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; St Pourcain, Beate; Smith, George Davey; Ring, Susan M.; Stein, John; Monaco, Anthony P.; Talcott, Joel B.; Fisher, Simon E.; Webber, Caleb; Paracchini, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD)] (n = 728). The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68×10−9), is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666). As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR) asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR≤5%). We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR≤5%). Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development. PMID:24068947

  9. Association of Genetic Variation in ENPP1 With Obesity-related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hu, Shirley L.; Fourcaudot, Marcel J.; Rodriguez, Lenore M.; Schneider, Jennifer; Arya, Rector; Stern, Michael P.; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DeFronzo, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase (ENPP1) is a positional candidate gene at chromosome 6q23 where we previously detected strong linkage with fasting-specific plasma insulin and obesity in Mexican Americans from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). We genotyped 106 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ENPP1 in all 439 subjects from the linkage study, and measured association with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS)-related traits. Of 72 polymorphic SNPs, 24 were associated, using an additive model, with at least one of eight key metabolic traits. Three traits were associated with at least four SNPs. They were high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), leptin, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). HDL-C was associated with seven SNPs, of which the two most significant P values were 0.0068 and 0.0096. All SNPs and SNP combinations were analyzed for functional contribution to the traits using the Bayesian quantitative-trait nucleotide (BQTN) approach. With this SNP-prioritization analysis, HDL-C was the most strongly associated trait in a four-SNP model (P = 0.00008). After accounting for multiple testing, we conclude that ENPP1 is not a major contributor to our previous linkage peak with MS-related traits in Mexican Americans. However, these results indicate that ENPP1 is a genetic determinant of these traits in this population, and are consistent with multiple positive association findings in independent studies in diverse human populations. PMID:18464750

  10. Patterns of Nonverbal Behavior and Perceived Relational Messages Associated with Communication Reticence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Koper, Randall J.

    Two experiments examined nonverbal behavior patterns and relational communication perceptions associated with communication reticence. In the first experiment, pairs of friends and pairs of strangers engaged in nine-minute discussions. Subjects were rated by their interaction partners and by trained observers. Results showed that as their level of…

  11. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  12. Competing Contingencies over Derived Relational Responding: A Behavioral Model of the Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Amanda; Roche, Bryan; Ruiz, Maria R.

    2008-01-01

    Subjects were exposed to a word-picture association training phase in which each of 2 arbitrary nonsense syllables printed in blue and red font, respectively, were paired with either sexual or aversive photographic images. Subjects were then exposed to an equivalence training procedure that led to the formation of 2 3-member equivalence relations,…

  13. ADHD Related Behaviors Are Associated with Brain Activation in the Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, R.; Bauer, E.; Merz, C. J.; Zimmermann, M.; Reuter, M.; Plichta, M. M.; Kirsch, P.; Lesch, K. P.; Fallgatter, A. J.; Vaitl, D.; Herrmann, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest dysfunctional reward processing, with hypo-responsiveness during reward anticipation in the reward system including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In this study, we investigated the association between ADHD related behaviors and the reward system using functional…

  14. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  15. Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents' perceptions of, and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to…

  16. Learning Processes Associated with Panic-Related Symptoms in Families with and without Panic Disordered Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Munsch, Simone; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared learning processes associated with panic-related symptoms in families with and without panic disordered mothers. Using a multi-informant approach, 86 mothers [of whom 58 had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD)], their partners and teenage children (mean age, 16.67 years) reported about parents' behavior (modeling…

  17. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  18. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  19. Cognitive Association Formation in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alice S. N.; Vallesi, Antonino; Picton, Terence W.; Tulving, Endel

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the processes underlying cognitive association formation by investigating subsequent memory effects. Event-related potentials were recorded as participants studied pairs of words, presented one word at a time, for later recall. The findings showed that a frontal-positive late wave (LW), which occurred 1-1.6 s after the…

  20. Peer Relations and the Understanding of Faux Pas: Longitudinal Evidence for Bidirectional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Robin; Watling, Dawn; Caputi, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Research connecting children's understanding of mental states to their peer relations at school remains scarce. Previous work by the authors demonstrated that children's understanding of mental states in the context of a faux pas--a social blunder involving unintentional insult--is associated with concurrent peer rejection. The present report…

  1. Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noguchi, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

  2. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  4. Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits Associated with Collegiate Football Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…

  5. Transactional Associations between Classroom Engagement and Relations with Teachers from First through Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archambault, I.; Pagani, L. S.; Fitzpatrick, C.

    2013-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling with a population-based cohort of French-speaking children from Quebec (Canada), prospective associations were made between two previously established factors underlying student performance--classroom engagement and the teacher-student relations. Our results show developmental continuity in classroom engagement…

  6. Children's History of Speech-Language Difficulties: Genetic Influences and Associations with Reading-Related Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; Schatschneider, Chris; Davison, Megan Dunn

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined (a) the extent of genetic and environmental influences on children's articulation and language difficulties and (b) the phenotypic associations between such difficulties and direct assessments of reading-related skills during early school-age years. Method: Behavioral genetic analyses focused on parent-report data…

  7. The uncertainty of errors: Intolerance of uncertainty is associated with error-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Felicia; Nelson, Brady D; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Errors are unpredictable events that have the potential to cause harm. The error-related negativity (ERN) is the electrophysiological index of errors and has been posited to reflect sensitivity to threat. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to perceive uncertain events as threatening. In the present study, 61 participants completed a self-report measure of IU and a flanker task designed to elicit the ERN. Results indicated that IU subscales were associated with the ERN in opposite directions. Cognitive distress in the face of uncertainty (Prospective IU) was associated with a larger ERN and slower reaction time. Inhibition in response to uncertainty (Inhibitory IU) was associated with a smaller ERN and faster reaction time. This study suggests that sensitivity to the uncertainty of errors contributes to the magnitude of the ERN. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of considering the heterogeneity of anxiety phenotypes in relation to measures of threat sensitivity. PMID:26607441

  8. Factors Associated With Problems for Adolescents Returning to the Classroom After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    Baker, John G; Leddy, John J; Darling, Scott R; Rieger, Brian P; Mashtare, Terry L; Sharma, Tania; Willer, Barry S

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine factors in the clinic setting associated with concussion-related problems in the school setting. A total of 91 student athletes, 13 to 19 years old, completed the SCAT2 and computerized testing during their initial visit to the clinic. During a follow-up telephone interview, one-third reported problems with return to school. The presence of problems reported in school was associated with severity of concussion as represented by recovery time and the overall number of symptoms at the first clinic visit. Gender, age, and previous concussions were not associated with school problems. Athletes with computerized test scores below the ninth percentile were more likely to report school problems. The current study offers some descriptive information for clinicians and ideas for future research related to adolescent athletes with concussion and problems with return to the classroom. PMID:26084537

  9. Fluid mechanics simulation of fog formation associated with polluted atmosphere produced by energy related fuel combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that large quantities of atmospheric aerosols with composition SO4(-2), NO3(-1), and NH4(+1) have been detected in highly industrialized areas. Most aerosol products come from energy-related fuel combustion. Fluid mechanics simulation of both microphysical and macrophysical processes is considered in studying the time dependent evolution of the saturation spectra of condensation nuclei associated with polluted and clean atmospheres during the time periods of advection fog formation. The results demonstrate that the condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere provide more favorable conditions than condensation nuclei associated with a clean atmosphere to produce dense advection fog, and that attaining a certain degree of supersaturation is not necessarily required for the formation of advection fog having condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere.

  10. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  11. Are food-related perceptions associated with meal portion size decisions? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Michelle; Stancu, Violeta; Dean, Moira; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Gibney, Eileen R; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a comprehensive model of meal portion size determinants consisting of sociodemographic, psychological and food-related variables, whilst controlling for hunger and thirst. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data collected in 2075 participants from the Island of Ireland (IoI) and Denmark (DK), eight separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between food-related variables and meal portion size (i.e. pizza, vegetable soup, chicken salad and a pork meal) within each country. Stepwise regressions were run with physiological control measures (hunger and thirst) entered in the first step, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, body mass index (BMI)) in the second step; psychological variables (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, general health interest (GHI)) in the third step and food-related variables (expected fillingness, liking, expected healthfulness, food familiarity) in the fourth step. Sociodemographic variables accounted for 2-19% of the variance in meal portion sizes; psychological variables explained an additional 3-8%; and food-related variables explained an additional 2-12%. When all four variable groups were included in the regression models, liking and sometimes expected healthfulness was positively associated with meal portion size. The strongest association was for liking, which was statistically significant in both countries for all meal types. Whilst expected healthfulness was not associated with pizza portion size in either country, it was positively associated with meals that have a healthier image (vegetable soup; chicken salad and in IoI, the pork meal). In conclusion, after considering sociodemographic and psychological variables, and the food-related variables of liking and expected healthfulness, there may be little merit in manipulating the satiating power, at least of these type of meals, to maintain or promote weight

  12. Hospitalizations Related To Opioid Abuse/Dependence And Associated Serious Infections Increased Sharply, 2002-12.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Matthew V; Herzig, Shoshana J

    2016-05-01

    Serious infection is a recognized complication of intravenous drug abuse and a major cause of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users. Trends in rates of serious infection and the associated costs related to opioid abuse/dependence have not been previously investigated in the context of the US opioid use epidemic. Our study, using a nationally representative sample of US inpatient hospitalizations, showed that hospitalizations related to opioid abuse/dependence both with and without associated serious infection significantly increased from 2002 to 2012, respectively, from 301,707 to 520,275 and from 3,421 to 6,535. Additionally, inpatient charges for both types of hospitalizations almost quadrupled over the same time period, reaching almost $15 billion for hospitalizations related to opioid abuse/dependence and more than $700 million for those related to associated infection in 2012. Medicaid was the most common primary payer for both types of hospitalizations. Our results characterize the financial burden on the health care system related to opioid abuse/dependence and one of the more serious downstream complications of this epidemic: serious infection. These findings have important implications for the hospitals and government agencies that disproportionately shoulder these costs and for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers interested in estimating the potential impact of targeted public health interventions on a national level. PMID:27140989

  13. Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Böger, Carsten A.; Gorski, Mathias; Li, Man; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Huang, Chunmei; Yang, Qiong; Teumer, Alexander; Krane, Vera; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Haak, Thomas; Boes, Eva; Coassin, Stefan; Coresh, Josef; Kollerits, Barbara; Haun, Margot; Paulweber, Bernhard; Köttgen, Anna; Li, Guo; Shlipak, Michael G.; Powe, Neil; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Dehghan, Abbas; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André; Hofman, Albert; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Witteman, Jacqueline; Bochud, Murielle; Siscovick, David; Rettig, Rainer; Kronenberg, Florian; Wanner, Christoph; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Heid, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 at follow-up) and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR) were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p = 4.1e-9 in UMOD to p = 0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1). SNPs in UMOD (OR = 0.92, p = 0.04) and GCKR (OR = 0.93, p = 0.03) were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression. PMID:21980298

  14. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  15. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26518628

  16. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. PMID:25478566

  17. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Yun, Byung-Wook; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between "Cheongcheong" and "Nagdong" to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. PMID:25478566

  18. Relational closeness moderates the association between maternal overcontrol and children's depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sichko, Stassja; Borelli, Jessica L; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Smiley, Patricia A

    2016-03-01

    Though numerous studies have examined the relationship between parental overcontrol (OC) and child anxiety, few have examined the association between OC and children's depressive symptoms. However, there are conceptual reasons to believe that overcontrolling parenting may also be relevant to depressive symptomatology, as well as to anticipate that other aspects of the parent-child relationship may moderate the association between the two. In this study we examine the association between self-reported maternal OC and child depressive symptoms, as moderated by multiple indicators of closeness within the parent-child relationship. An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (N = 106, M(age) = 10.27 years) and their mothers participated in this cross-sectional study. Mothers reported on their overcontrolling parenting and children reported on their depressive symptoms. Children and mothers participated in structured interviews that were analyzed for we-talk, a behavioral measure of closeness; they also self-reported their closeness. Results indicated that child we-talk, child self-reported closeness, and maternal we-talk moderated the association between maternal OC and child depressive symptoms, such that OC and depressive symptoms were positively associated only at low levels of relational closeness. The results provide initial evidence for an association between parental OC and child depressive symptoms, and point to the need for more research on the role of children's perceptions in moderating the association between parenting and child depressive symptoms. PMID:26437142

  19. On discrete three-dimensional equations associated with the local Yang-Baxter relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashaev, R. M.

    1996-12-01

    The local Yang-Baxter equation (YBE), introduced by Maillet and Nijhoff, is a proper generalization to three dimensions of the zero curvature relation. Recently, Korepanov has constructed an infinite set of integrable three-dimensional lattice models, and has related them to solutions to the local YBE. The simplest Korepanov model is related to the star-triangle relation in the Ising model. In this Letter the corresponding discrete equation is derived. In the continuous limit it leads to a differential three-dimensional equation, which is symmetric with respect to all permutations of the three coordinates. A similar analysis of the star-triangle transformation in electric networks leads to the discrete bilinear equation of Miwa, associated with the BKP hierarchy. Some related operator solutions to the tetrahedron equation are also constructed.

  20. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Kirsten, Holger; Liu, Jingyu; Priebe, Lutz; Wolf, Christiane; Karbalai, Nazanin; Gollub, Randy; White, Tonya; Roessner, Veit; Müller, Kathrin U; Paus, Tomas; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Scholz, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328). A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170) on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10) had p-values between 6.75×10(-6) and 8.3×10(-7). Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings. Identification of

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Kirsten, Holger; Liu, Jingyu; Priebe, Lutz; Wolf, Christiane; Karbalai, Nazanin; Gollub, Randy; White, Tonya; Roessner, Veit; Müller, Kathrin U.; Paus, Tomas; Smolka, Michael N.; Schumann, Gunter; Scholz, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328). A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170) on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10) had p-values between 6.75×10−6 and 8.3×10−7. Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings. Identification of

  2. Association between kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and macroscopic indicators of semen analysis: their relation to sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Emami, Nashmil; Scorilas, Andreas; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Earle, Tammy; Mullen, Brendan; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2009-09-01

    Human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of proteases, the majority of which are found in seminal plasma and have been implicated in semen liquefaction. Here, we examined the clinical value of seminal KLKs in the evaluation of semen quality and differential diagnosis and etiology of abnormal liquefaction and/or viscosity. KLK1-3, 5-8, 10, 11, 13, and 14 were analyzed, using highly specific ELISA assays. Samples were categorized into four clinical groups, according to their state of liquefaction and viscosity. Data were compared between the clinical groups and in association with other parameters of sperm quality, including number of motile sperms, straight line speed, sperm concentration, volume, pH, and patient age. Seminal KLKs were found to be differentially expressed in the four clinical groups. Combination of KLK2, 3, 13, and 14 and KLK1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, and 14 showed very strong discriminatory potential for semen liquefaction and viscosity, respectively. Liquefaction state was associated with several parameters of sperm motility. Finally, KLK14 was differentially expressed in asthenospermic cases. In conclusion, the expression level of several seminal plasma KLKs correlates with liquefaction and viscosity indicators of semen quality and may aid in their differential diagnosis and etiology. PMID:19558318

  3. The association between self-esteem and happiness differs in relationally mobile vs. stable interpersonal contexts

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Does a change in the nature of surrounding social context affect the strength of association between self-esteem and happiness? This paper aims to answer this question from a socio-ecological perspective, focusing on the role of relational mobility. Recent research has shown that this association is stronger in societies that are higher in relational mobility, where there is a greater freedom of choice in interpersonal relationships and group memberships. In this study, we tested if this hypothesis could be applied to situational differences within the same physical setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested if the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for first-year students at a Japanese university who had just entered the college and thus were in a relatively higher mobility context, than the second-year students at the same university whose relationships tended to be more stable and long-standing. The results showed, as predicted, that the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for the first-year students than for the second-year students. Implications for the theory and research on social change are discussed. PMID:25346704

  4. The association between self-esteem and happiness differs in relationally mobile vs. stable interpersonal contexts.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Does a change in the nature of surrounding social context affect the strength of association between self-esteem and happiness? This paper aims to answer this question from a socio-ecological perspective, focusing on the role of relational mobility. Recent research has shown that this association is stronger in societies that are higher in relational mobility, where there is a greater freedom of choice in interpersonal relationships and group memberships. In this study, we tested if this hypothesis could be applied to situational differences within the same physical setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested if the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for first-year students at a Japanese university who had just entered the college and thus were in a relatively higher mobility context, than the second-year students at the same university whose relationships tended to be more stable and long-standing. The results showed, as predicted, that the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger for the first-year students than for the second-year students. Implications for the theory and research on social change are discussed. PMID:25346704

  5. The association between chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Finkelstein, Murray; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Brook, Jeffrey R; Arain, M Altaf; Sears, Malcolm R; Stieb, David; Balmes, John; Chapman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence links air pollution to the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], fine particulate matter [PM₂.₅], and ozone [O₃]) in a population of susceptible subjects in Toronto. Local (NO₂) exposures were modeled using land use regression based on extensive field monitoring. Regional exposures (PM₂.₅, O₃) were modeled as confounders using inverse distance weighted interpolation based on government monitoring data. The study sample consisted of 2360 patients referred during 1992 to 1999 to a pulmonary clinic at the Toronto Western Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to diagnose or manage a respiratory complaint. IHD status was determined by clinical database linkages (ICD-9-CM 412-414). The association between IHD and air pollutants was assessed with a modified Poisson regression resulting in relative risk estimates. Confounding was controlled with individual and neighborhood-level covariates. After adjusting for multiple covariates, NO₂ was significantly associated with increased IHD risk, relative risk (RR) = 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 1.47). Subjects living near major roads and highways had a trend toward an elevated risk of IHD, RR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.18). Regional PM₂.₅ and O₃ were not associated with risk of IHD. PMID:22524595

  6. The association between greenness and traffic-related air pollution at schools.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Rivas, Ioar; Basagaña, Xavier; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Su, Jason; De Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Amato, Fulvio; Jerret, Michael; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Greenness has been reported to improve mental and physical health. Reduction in exposure to air pollution has been suggested to underlie the health benefits of greenness; however, the available evidence on the mitigating effect of greenness on air pollution remains limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and monitored indoor and outdoor levels of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) including NO2, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and traffic-related PM2.5 at 39 schools across Barcelona, Spain, in 2012. TRAP levels at schools were measured twice during two one-week campaigns separated by 6months. Greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was measured as the average of satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within boundaries of school and a 50m buffer around the school, respectively. Mixed effects models were used to quantify the associations between school greenness and TRAP levels, adjusted for relevant covariates. Higher greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was consistently associated with lower indoor and outdoor TRAP levels. Reduction in indoor TRAP levels was partly mediated by the reduction in outdoor TRAP levels. We also observed some suggestions for stronger associations between school surrounding greenness and outdoor TRAP levels for schools with higher number of trees around them. Our observed reduction of TRAP levels at schools associated with school greenness can be of public importance, considering the burden of health effects of exposure to TRAPs in schoolchildren. PMID:25862991

  7. Coaches' implicit associations between size and giftedness: implications for the relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-established phenomenon in education and sports. Coaches have been assumed to be important social agents of RAE via biased selection decisions in favour of children with maturation advantages. In the present research, we used the Implicit Association Test to investigate automatic associations between body size and a player's domain-specific giftedness amongst youth baseball (N = 18) and youth soccer coaches (N = 34). We found medium to strong automatic associations between body size and player giftedness (baseball: MD = 0.62; soccer: MD = 0.51). Specifically, taller players were associated with positive performance-related attributes, whereas smaller players were associated with negative attributes. The results are in line with theories of grounded cognition by showing that the abstract concept of "sport giftedness" is partly grounded in the perception of physical height amongst youth sports coaches. We argue that this grounded cognition has the potential to influence coaches' selection decisions and in turn account for RAE as coaches are biased towards physically more matured players, even when no apparent performance advantage is evident. PMID:26096053

  8. Examining Associations between Psychosis Risk, Social Anhedonia, and Performance of Striatum-Related Behavioral Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, Nicole R.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Both psychosis and anhedonia have been associated to some extent with striatal functioning. The current study examined whether either psychosis risk or social anhedonia was associated with performance on three tasks related to striatal functioning. Psychosis risk participants had extremely elevated Perceptual Aberration/Magical Ideation (PerMag) scores (n=69), with 43% of psychosis risk participants also having semi-structured interview-assessed psychotic-like experiences which further heightens their risk of psychotic disorder (Chapman, Chapman, Kwapil, Eckblad, & Zinser, 1994). Compared to both extremely elevated Social Anhedonia (n=60) and control (n=68) groups, the PerMag group exhibited poorer performance on two of the striatum-related tasks, the Weather Prediction Task (WPT) and the Learned Irrelevance Paradigm, but not on Finger Tapping. In addition, PerMag participants with psychotic-like experiences were especially impaired on the WPT. Overall, this study arguably provides the first evidence that psychosis risk but not social anhedonia is associated with performance on the WPT, a task thought to be strongly associated with activation in the associative striatum, and also suggests that the WPT might be especially useful as a behavioral measure of psychosis risk. PMID:26075968

  9. Factors Associated with Caregiver Readiness to Use Nonpharmacologic Strategies to Manage Dementia-related Behavioral Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms depend upon caregiver implementation. Caregivers may vary in readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness, extent readiness changed during intervention, and predictors of change in readiness. Methods Data from a randomized trial involving 119 caregivers in a nonpharmacologic intervention for managing behavioral symptoms. Baseline measures included caregiver, patient, and treatment-related factors. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (16-weeks) intervention sessions, interventionists rated caregiver readiness as pre-action (precontemplation=1; contemplation=2; preparation=3) or action (=4). Ordinal logistic regression identified baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness. Mc Nemar-Bowker test of symmetry described change in readiness; binary logistic regression identified baseline predictors of change in readiness (initial-to-final session). One-way MANOVA identified treatment factors (dose/intensity, number of strategies used, perceived benefits, therapeutic engagement) associated with change in readiness. Results At initial intervention session, 67.2% (N=80) of caregivers were in pre-action, 32.8% (N=39) in action. Initial high readiness was associated with better caregiver mood, less financial difficulty, lower patient cognition and more behavioral symptoms. By final session, 72% (N=79) were in action, 28% (N=31) in pre-action; caregivers with less financial difficulty improved in readiness (B =−.70, p=.017); those in action were more therapeutically engaged (F (2,107)=3.61, p=.030) and perceived greater intervention benefits (F (2, 88)=6.06, p=.003). Conclusion Whereas patient and caregiver-related factors were associated with initial readiness, financial stability, therapeutic engagement and perceived benefits enhanced probability of change. Understanding caregiver readiness and factors associated with its change

  10. Variants in melanogenesis-related genes associate with skin cancer risk among Japanese populations.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Junko; Abe, Yuko; Oiso, Naoki; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Hozumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Narita, Tomohiko; Motokawa, Tomonori; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Kawada, Akira; Tamiya, Gen; Suzuki, Tamio

    2014-04-01

    Human skin color is known to be associated with the risk of cutaneous cancer. Some reports indicated that pigmentation-related gene variants were associated with cutaneous cancer risk in Caucasian populations, but there are no similar reports in East Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between pigmentation-related genes and the risk of skin cancer in Japanese populations. We studied the associations between 12 variants of four pigmentation-related genes and melanin index variations in 198 Japanese patients with skin cancer and compared these findings to those of 500 Japanese controls by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed an independent sample of 107 Japanese patients with skin cancer. A non-synonymous variant, H615R in the oculocutaneous albinism 2 gene (OCA2), was associated with the risk of malignant melanoma in the Yamagata group (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.86; P = 0.020). Another non-synonymous variant, A481T in OCA2, was associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis in the Osaka group (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.41-7.04; P = 0.005). In malignant melanoma cases, the minor allele in OCA2 H615R might have induced the development of lesions in sun-exposed skin (OR, 26.32; 95% CI, 1.96-333; P = 0.014). Our results suggest that some OCA2 variants are definite risk factors for the onset of cutaneous cancer in Japanese populations. PMID:24617981

  11. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants' degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain's intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  12. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants’ degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants’ degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain’s intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  13. Relative entropy: Free energy associated with equilibrium fluctuations and nonequilibrium deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong

    2001-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional macromolecule in aqueous solution as an illustration, we demonstrate that the relative entropy from information theory, ∑kpk ln(pk/p*k), has a natural role in the energetics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium conformational fluctuations of the single molecule. It is identified as the free energy difference associated with a fluctuating density in equilibrium, and is associated with the distribution deviate from the equilibrium in nonequilibrium relaxation. This result can be generalized to any other isothermal macromolecular system using the mathematical theories of large deviations and Markov processes, and at the same time provides the well-known mathematical results with interesting physical interpretations.

  14. Associations between Extreme Precipitation and Gastrointestinal-Related Hospital Admissions in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Marie S.; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Ghosh, Santu; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the potential links between extreme weather events and human health in India is important in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Research exploring such linkages in India is sparse. Objectives: We evaluated the association between extreme precipitation and gastrointestinal (GI) illness-related hospital admissions in Chennai, India, from 2004 to 2007. Methods: Daily hospital admissions were extracted from two government hospitals in Chennai, India, and meteorological data were retrieved from the Chennai International Airport. We evaluated the association between extreme precipitation (≥ 90th percentile) and hospital admissions using generalized additive models. Both single-day and distributed lag models were explored over a 15-day period, controlling for apparent temperature, day of week, and long-term time trends. We used a stratified analysis to explore the association across age and season. Results: Extreme precipitation was consistently associated with GI-related hospital admissions. The cumulative summary of risk ratios estimated for a 15-day period corresponding to an extreme event (relative to no precipitation) was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.98) among all ages, 2.72 (95% CI: 1.25, 5.92) among the young (≤ 5 years of age), and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.70) among the old (≥ 65 years of age). The association was stronger during the pre-monsoon season (March–May), with a cumulative risk ratio of 6.50 (95% CI: 2.22, 19.04) for all ages combined compared with other seasons. Conclusions: Hospital admissions related to GI illness were positively associated with extreme precipitation in Chennai, India, with positive cumulative risk ratios for a 15-day period following an extreme event in all age groups. Projected changes in precipitation and extreme weather events suggest that climate change will have important implications for human health in India, where health disparities already exist. Citation: Bush KF, O

  15. Associations between a Polymorphism in the Pleiotropic GCKR and Age-Related Phenotypes: The HALCyon Programme

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Deary, Ian J.; Elliott, Jane; Harris, Sarah E.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Power, Chris; Starr, John M.; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian N. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The glucokinase regulatory protein encoded by GCKR plays an important role in glucose metabolism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1260326 (P446L) in the gene has been associated with several age-related biomarkers, including triglycerides, glucose, insulin and apolipoproteins. However, associations between SNPs in the gene and other ageing phenotypes such as cognitive and physical capability have not been reported. Methods As part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme, men and women from five UK cohorts aged between 44 and 90+ years were genotyped for rs1260326. Meta-analysis was used to pool within-study genotypic associations between the SNP and several age-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI), blood lipid levels, lung function, and cognitive and physical capability. Results We confirm the associations between the minor allele of the SNP and higher triglycerides and lower glucose levels. We also observed a triglyceride-independent association between the minor allele and lower BMI (pooled beta on z-score = −0.04, p-value = 0.0001, n = 16,251). Furthermore, there was some evidence for gene-environment interactions, including physical activity attenuating the effects on triglycerides. However, no associations were observed with measures of cognitive and physical capability. Conclusion Findings from middle-aged to older adults confirm associations between rs1260326 GCKR and triglycerides and glucose, suggest possible gene-environment interactions, but do not provide evidence that its relevance extends to cognitive and physical capability. PMID:23894584

  16. Violence associated with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: The importance of anger.

    PubMed

    Novaco, Raymond W; Chemtob, Claude M

    2015-09-01

    The importance of anger with regard to violence among veterans with combat-related PTSD has received little attention. We previously proposed that in PTSD the activation of threat-related cognitive networks strongly potentiates anger in a positive feedback loop and that inhibitory controls on aggression can be overridden when PTSD and anger activation are conjoined. We predicted that violence would be intensified when combat-related PTSD was conjoined with anger. We used the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) public use data set, selecting the male combat theater veterans, which entailed 1,200 from the main survey (Study 1) and 259 from the clinical interview component (Study 2). Anger indices were constructed from NVVRS variables. PTSD was assessed by continuous symptom scores and by clinical diagnostic measures. Conjoined anger and PTSD was associated with greatly increased violence. PTSD was not associated with violence in the absence of anger. This result was obtained using alternative measures of PTSD and of anger in both the main survey and the clinical interview component. These findings call for reconceptualizing the association of PTSD and violence. Concerted attention should be given to anger as a risk factor for violence in the assessment and treatment of combat-related PTSD, and as an important portal of entry for treatment. PMID:26147447

  17. Rickettsial relative associated with male killing in the ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata).

    PubMed Central

    Werren, J H; Hurst, G D; Zhang, W; Breeuwer, J A; Stouthamer, R; Majerus, M E

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmically inherited microorganism associated with male killing in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, is shown to be closely related to bacteria in the genus Rickettsia. Sequencing of a PCR-amplified product of the 16S genes coding for rRNA (16S rDNA) shows the organism associated with male killing in ladybirds to share a common ancestry with the Rickettsias relative to other genera (e.g., Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Cowdria). The rickettsial 16S rDNA product is found in four strains of ladybird beetle showing male embryo lethality and is absent from two uninfected strains and an antibiotic-cured strain. In addition, a revertant strain that had naturally lost the male-killing trait failed to amplify the rickettsial 16S rDNA product. Use of PCR primers for a 17-kDa protein antigen which is found only in rickettsias also resulted in an amplified product from infected strains. Uninfected, cured, and revertant strains and insect species infected with related bacteria (cytoplasmic-incompatibility bacteria from Nasonia wasps) failed to amplify the product. Discovery of a close relative of rickettsias associated with sex ratio distortion in insects has implications for the evolution and population dynamics of this bacterial genus. Images PMID:8288533

  18. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Klatt, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r2 >0.6–0.8) with leaf water potential (ψleaf) across a broad range of values (–2.0 to –4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (ψsoil) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision phenotyping

  19. Prioritization of Cancer-Related Genomic Variants by SNP Association Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changning; Xuan, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a general framework to construct an association network of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (SNP association network, SAN) based on the functional interactions of genes located in the flanking regions of SNPs. SAN, which was constructed based on protein–protein interactions in the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD), showed significantly enriched signals in both linkage disequilibrium (LD) and long-range chromatin interaction (Hi-C). We used this network to further develop two methods for predicting and prioritizing disease-associated genes from genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We found that random walk with restart (RWR) using SAN (RWR-SAN) can greatly improve the prediction of lung-cancer-associated genes by comparing RWR with the use of network in HPRD (AUC 0.81 vs 0.66). In a reanalysis of the GWAS dataset of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), SAN could identify more potential AMD-associated genes that were previously ranked lower in the GWAS study. The interactions in SAN could facilitate the study of complex diseases. PMID:25995611

  20. Factors Related to HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment Differ With Age

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Gary B.; Lamers, Susanna L.; Levine, Andrew J.; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; McGrath, Michael S.; Shapshak, Paul; Singer, Elyse J.

    2014-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are expected to be over age 50 by 2015. The pathogenic effects of HIV, particularly in cases of long-term infection, may intersect with those of age-related illnesses and prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). One potential outcome is an increased prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in older HIV+ individuals, as well as an altered presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). METHODS In this study, we employed stepwise regression to examine 24 features sometimes associated with HAND in forty older (55–73 years of age) and thirty younger (32–50 years of age) HIV+, cART-treated participants without significant central nervous system confounds. RESULTS The features most effective in generating a true assessment of the likelihood of HAND diagnosis differed between older and younger cohorts, with the younger cohort containing features associated with drug abuse that were correlated to HAND, and the older cohort containing features that were associated with lipid disorders mildly associated with HAND. CONCLUSION As the HIV-infected population grows and the demographics of the epidemic change, it is increasingly important to re-evaluate features associated with neurocognitive impairment. Here we have identified features, routinely collected in primary care settings that provide more accurate diagnostic value than a neurocognitive screening measure among younger and older HIV-individuals. PMID:25404233

  1. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism—antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  2. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  3. Genotype relative risks: methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies.

    PubMed Central

    Schaid, D J; Sommer, S S

    1993-01-01

    Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternative design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these two groups. We present analysis methods which are based on two genetic relative risks: (1) the relative risk of disease for homozygotes with two copies of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene and (2) the relative risk for heterozygotes with one copy of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene. In addition to estimating the magnitude of these relative risks, likelihood methods allow specific hypotheses to be tested, namely, a test for overall association of the candidate gene with disease, as well as specific genetic hypotheses, such as dominant or recessive inheritance. Two likelihood methods are presented: (1) a likelihood method appropriate when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and (2) a likelihood method in which we condition on parental genotype data when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold. The results for the relative efficiency of these two methods suggest that the conditional approach may at times be preferable, even when equilibrium holds. Sample-size and power calculations are presented for a multitiered design. The purpose of tier 1 is to detect the presence of an abnormal sequence for a postulated candidate gene among a small group of cases. The purpose of tier 2 is to test for association of the abnormal variant with disease, such as by the likelihood methods presented. The purpose of tier 3 is to confirm positive results from tier 2. Results indicate that required sample sizes are smaller when expression of disease is recessive, rather than dominant, and that, for recessive disease and large relative risks, necessary sample sizes may be

  4. Genotype relative risks: Methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-11-01

    Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternating design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these two groups. The authors present analysis methods which are based on two genetic relative risks: (1) the relative risk of disease for homozygotes with two copies of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene and (2) the relative risk for heterozygotes with one copy of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene. In addition to estimating the magnitude of these relative risks, likelihood methods allow specific hypotheses to be tested, namely, a test for overall association of the candidate gene with disease, as well as specific genetic hypotheses, such as dominant or recessive inheritance. Two likelihood methods are presented: (1) a likelihood method appropriate when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and (2) a likelihood method in which the authors condition on parental genotype data when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold. The results for the relative efficiency of these two methods suggest that the conditional approach may at times be preferable, even when equilibrium holds. Sample-size and power calculations are presented for a multitiered design. Tier 1 detects the presence of an abnormal sequence for a postulated candidate gene among a small group of cases. Tier 2 tests for association of the abnormal variant with disease, such as by the likelihood methods presented. Tier 3 confirms positive results from tier 2. Results indicate that required sample sizes are smaller when expression of disease is recessive, rather than dominant, and that, for recessive disease and large relative risks, necessary sample sizes may be feasible. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Challenges associated with projecting urbanization-induced heat-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Hondula, David M; Georgescu, Matei; Balling, Robert C

    2014-08-15

    Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of mortality. Continued urbanization in the region will impact atmospheric temperatures and, as a result, potentially affect human health. We aimed to quantify the number of excess deaths attributable to heat in Maricopa County based on three future urbanization and adaptation scenarios and multiple exposure variables. Two scenarios (low and high growth projections) represent the maximum possible uncertainty range associated with urbanization in central Arizona, and a third represents the adaptation of high-albedo cool roof technology. Using a Poisson regression model, we related temperature to mortality using data spanning 1983-2007. Regional climate model simulations based on 2050-projected urbanization scenarios for Maricopa County generated distributions of temperature change, and from these predicted changes future excess heat-related mortality was estimated. Subject to urbanization scenario and exposure variable utilized, projections of heat-related mortality ranged from a decrease of 46 deaths per year (-95%) to an increase of 339 deaths per year (+359%). Projections based on minimum temperature showed the greatest increase for all expansion and adaptation scenarios and were substantially higher than those for daily mean temperature. Projections based on maximum temperature were largely associated with declining mortality. Low-growth and adaptation scenarios led to the smallest increase in predicted heat-related mortality based on mean temperature projections. Use of only one exposure variable to project future heat-related deaths may therefore be misrepresentative in terms of direction of change and magnitude of effects. Because urbanization-induced impacts can vary across the diurnal cycle, projections of heat-related health outcomes that do not consider place

  6. Genome-wide association analysis of canine atopic dermatitis and identification of disease related SNPs.

    PubMed

    Wood, Shona Hiedi; Ke, Xiayi; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Ollier, William E; Carter, Stuart D

    2009-12-01

    In humans, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been shown to be an effective and thorough approach for identifying polymorphisms associated with disease phenotypes. Here, we describe the first study to perform a genome-wide association study in canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) using the Illumina Canine SNP20 array, containing 22,362 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The aim of the study was to identify SNPs associated with cAD using affected and unaffected Golden Retrievers. Further validation studies were performed for potentially associated SNPs using Sequenom genotyping of larger numbers of cases and controls across eight breeds (Boxer, German Shepherd Dog, Labrador, Golden Retriever, Shiba Inu, Shih Tzu, Pit Bull, and West Highland White Terriers). Using meta-analysis, two SNPs were associated with cAD in all breeds tested. RS22114085 was identified as a susceptibility locus (p=0.00014, odds ratio=2) and RS23472497 as a protective locus (p=0.0015, odds ratio=0.6). Both of these SNPs were located in intergenic regions, and their effects have been demonstrated to be independent of each other, highlighting that further fine mapping and resequencing is required of these areas. Further, 12 SNPs were validated by Sequenom genotyping as associated with cAD, but these were not associated with all breeds. This study suggests that GWAS will be a useful approach for identifying genetic risk factors for cAD. Given the clinical heterogeneity within this condition and the likelihood that the relative genetic effect sizes are small, greater sample sizes and further studies will be required. PMID:19838693

  7. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  8. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  9. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  10. Association between diet, social resources and oral health related quality of life in edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, P F

    2005-09-01

    To assess whether there was an association between diet, oral health related quality of life and social resources in a population of older edentulous adults, and, to assess the impact of provision of new complete replacement dentures. This study was carried out at Cork University Dental Hospital in Ireland. In this prospective clinical study, 35 edentulous adults who requested new complete dentures completed pre-treatment questionnaires which included validated oral health status, social resources and nutritional assessment questionnaires. New dentures were provided and the impact of treatment on oral health related quality of life, diet and ability to chew food was assessed. Satisfaction with dentures and oral health related quality of life improved following provision of new dentures. However, food choice remained similar to pre-treatment choice, and subjects were rated as medium risk for poor nutritional status on the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Oral health related quality of life and diet were not correlated. Three quarters of the sample felt they had no nutritional problems. However, approximately 70% reported that they had changed their food choices because of dental problems and that financial cost was a barrier to dental treatment. Food selection among the group studied was not ideal, and not improved by the provision of new dentures. There was no association between diet and oral health related quality of life. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between oral health and diet. PMID:16102073

  11. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

  12. Association with positive outcome induces early effects in event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Adler, Nele; Chen, Peiyao; Guo, Taomei; Sommer, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Emotional pictures, faces, or words elicit an early posterior negativity (EPN) in the event-related potential, starting around 200-400 ms, followed by a late positive complex (LPC). Occasionally, also very early effects of emotion (VEEEs) are seen prior to 200 ms. The present study examined whether VEEEs can be due to direct links established by reinforcement learning. In the learning session, participants learned to associate previously unknown Chinese words with monetary gain, loss, or neither. In the test session, they were required to distinguish the learned stimuli from novel distracters. Specific to stimuli associated with positive outcome a VEEE, consisting of a posterior positivity, appeared around 150 ms and an LPC between 550 and 700 ms, whereas an EPN was absent. These results show that previous association with reward can induce VEEEs, indicating that emotion effects in ERPs may arise in the absence of biologically preparedness and semantic meaning. PMID:22027086

  13. Worsening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associated with Catheter-Related Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jouvenot, Marie; Willoteaux, Serge; Meslier, Nicole; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that fluid accumulation in the neck contributes to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case of catheter-related superior v ena cava (SVC) thrombosis revealed by rapid onset of typical symptoms of OSA. A marked improvement in OSA severity was observed after central venous catheter removal, anticoagulant therapy, and SVC angioplasty Citation: Jouvenot M, Willoteaux S, Meslier N, Gagnadoux F. Worsening of obstructive sleep apnea associated with catheter-related superior vena cava syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):681–682. PMID:25766698

  14. Perception of race-related features modulates neural activity associated with action observation and imitation.

    PubMed

    Earls, Holly A; Englander, Zoë A; Morris, James P

    2013-05-29

    The present study examines whether race-specific features affect biological motion perception. Activation of the neural action observation and imitation network was measured using functional MRI. During scanning, individuals were asked to imitate and observe basic hand movements of own-race and other-race actors. Results indicate that three key areas often associated with action observation and imitation, the inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus, were more active when participants imitated and observed hand movements of own-race relative to other-race actors. These findings indicate that several regions associated with the neural imitation/observation network are sensitive to race-related features. PMID:23571693

  15. Association between Variants in Atopy-Related Immunologic Candidate Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Lowcock, Elizabeth; Bider-Canfield, Zoe; Lemire, Mathieu; Greenwood, Celia; Gallinger, Steven; Hudson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry), and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR) for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants. Results 18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA) were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted)=0.04). Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007). Conclusions Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25945796

  16. Genetic Association Analysis of 30 Genes Related to Obesity in a European American Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Lin, Wan-Yu; Allison, David B.; Chung, Wendy K.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity, which is frequently associated with diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, is primarily the result of a net excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. Human obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes mediating susceptibility in non-syndromic obesity remain unclear. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with body mass index (BMI). Methods We re-analyzed 355 common genetic variants of 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in 1,982 unrelated European Americans from the New York Health Project. Data were analyzed by using a Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear model. The BMIs were log-transformed and then adjusted for covariates including age, age2, gender, and diabetes status. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modeled as additive effects. Results With the stipulated adjustments, nine SNPs in eight genes were significantly associated with BMI: GHRL (rs35683), AGRP (rs5030980), CPE (rs1946816 and rs4481204), GLP1R (rs2268641), HTR2A (rs912127), NPY5R (Y5R1c52), SOCS3 (rs4969170), and STAT3 (rs4796793). We also found a gender-by-SNP interaction (rs1745837 in HTR2A), which indicated that variants in the gene HTR2A had a stronger association with BMI in males. In addition, NPY1R was detected as having a significant gene effect even though none of the SNPs in this gene was significant. Conclusion Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3, and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans. The pathways in which these genes participate regulate energy intake and thus these associations are mechanistically plausible in this context. PMID:23900445

  17. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  18. Genome-wide identification of microRNA-related variants associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Mohsen; Ikram, M Arfan; de Looper, Hans W J; Hofman, Albert; Erkeland, Stefan J; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Genetic variation in miRNAs and miRNA-binding sites may affect miRNA function and contribute to disease risk. Here, we investigated the extent to which variants within miRNA-related sequences could constitute a part of the functional variants involved in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), using the largest available genome-wide association study of AD. First, among 237 variants in miRNAs, we found rs2291418 in the miR-1229 precursor to be significantly associated with AD (p-value = 6.8 × 10(-5), OR = 1.2). Our in-silico analysis and in-vitro miRNA expression experiments demonstrated that the variant's mutant allele enhances the production of miR-1229-3p. Next, we found miR-1229-3p target genes that are associated with AD and might mediate the miRNA function. We demonstrated that miR-1229-3p directly controls the expression of its top AD-associated target gene (SORL1) using luciferase reporter assays. Additionally, we showed that miR-1229-3p and SORL1 are both expressed in the human brain. Second, among 42,855 variants in miRNA-binding sites, we identified 10 variants (in the 3' UTR of 9 genes) that are significantly associated with AD, including rs6857 that increases the miR-320e-mediated regulation of PVRL2. Collectively, this study shows that miRNA-related variants are associated with AD and suggests miRNA-dependent regulation of several AD genes. PMID:27328823

  19. The significance of caudate volume for age-related associative memory decline.

    PubMed

    Bauer, E; Toepper, M; Gebhardt, H; Gallhofer, B; Sammer, G

    2015-10-01

    Aging comes along with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in several cerebral areas and with cognitive performance decline in different cognitive domains. Moreover, regional GM volume is linked to specific cognitive sub processes in older adults. However, it remains unclear which regional changes in older individuals are directly associated with decreased cognitive performance. Moreover, most of the studies on this topic focused on hippocampal and prefrontal brain regions and their relation to memory and executive functioning. Interestingly, there are only a few studies that reported an association between striatal brain volume and cognitive performance. This is insofar surprising that striatal structures are (1) highly affected by age and (2) involved in different neural circuits that serve intact cognition. To address these issues, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze GM volume in 18 younger and 18 older adults. Moreover, several neuropsychological tests from different neuropsychological test batteries were applied to assess a broad range of cognitive domains. Older adults showed less GM volume than younger adults within frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions. In the group of older adults, significant correlations were found between striatal GM volume and memory performance and between prefrontal/temporal GM volume and executive functioning. The only direct overlap between brain regions associated with regional atrophy and cognitive performance in older adults was found for the right caudate: older adults showed reduced caudate volume relative to younger adults. Moreover, caudate volume was positively correlated with associative memory accuracy in older adults and older adults showed poorer performances than younger adults in the respective associative memory task. Taken together, the current findings indicate the relevance of the caudate for associative memory decline in the aging brain. PMID:26119913

  20. Association mapping of caffeine content with TCS1 in tea plant and its related species.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Liang

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine is the most abundant purine alkaloid in majority of tea plant and its related species. This purine alkaloid contributes to the important flavor and health attributes of tea. Tea caffeine synthase 1 (TCS1, EC 2.1.1.159/2.1.1.160) gene plays a crucial role in caffeine biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between the TCS1 and caffeine content of tea plant and its related species using association mapping. We identified 87 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, π = 0.00447) by resequencing the TCS1 locus of 44 tea accessions. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r(2) < 0.1, within 1000 bp). Two cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) markers were developed from sequence variations (SNP4318 and SNP6252). By association mapping, we identified SNP4318 associated with caffeine content in four environments, explaining 4.0%-7.7% of the phenotypic variance. We also validated the significant marker-trait associations in site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of caffeine biosynthesis. Moreover, the SNP marker identified in this study can potentially be applied for future marker-assisted selection to improve tea quality. PMID:27116373

  1. What Do We Know About the Association Between Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Injuries?

    PubMed

    Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Cerdá, Magdalena; Villaveces, Andrés; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Firearms account for a substantial proportion of external causes of death, injury, and disability across the world. Legislation to regulate firearms has often been passed with the intent of reducing problems related to their use. However, lack of clarity around which interventions are effective remains a major challenge for policy development. Aiming to meet this challenge, we systematically reviewed studies exploring the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries/deaths. We restricted our search to studies published from 1950 to 2014. Evidence from 130 studies in 10 countries suggests that in certain nations the simultaneous implementation of laws targeting multiple firearms restrictions is associated with reductions in firearm deaths. Laws restricting the purchase of (e.g., background checks) and access to (e.g., safer storage) firearms are also associated with lower rates of intimate partner homicides and firearm unintentional deaths in children, respectively. Limitations of studies include challenges inherent to their ecological design, their execution, and the lack of robustness of findings to model specifications. High quality research on the association between the implementation or repeal of firearm legislation (rather than the evaluation of existing laws) and firearm injuries would lead to a better understanding of what interventions are likely to work given local contexts. This information is key to move this field forward and for the development of effective policies that may counteract the burden that firearm injuries pose on populations. PMID:26905895

  2. The association between statin use and risk of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74–1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66–0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80–0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77–1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention. PMID:26658620

  3. Quantifying the underestimation of relative risks from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Chris; Hechter, Eliana; Vukcevic, Damjan; Donnelly, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of associated loci across many common diseases. Most risk variants identified by GWAS will merely be tags for as-yet-unknown causal variants. It is therefore possible that identification of the causal variant, by fine mapping, will identify alleles with larger effects on genetic risk than those currently estimated from GWAS replication studies. We show that under plausible assumptions, whilst the majority of the per-allele relative risks (RR) estimated from GWAS data will be close to the true risk at the causal variant, some could be considerable underestimates. For example, for an estimated RR in the range 1.2-1.3, there is approximately a 38% chance that it exceeds 1.4 and a 10% chance that it is over 2. We show how these probabilities can vary depending on the true effects associated with low-frequency variants and on the minor allele frequency (MAF) of the most associated SNP. We investigate the consequences of the underestimation of effect sizes for predictions of an individual's disease risk and interpret our results for the design of fine mapping experiments. Although these effects mean that the amount of heritability explained by known GWAS loci is expected to be larger than current projections, this increase is likely to explain a relatively small amount of the so-called "missing" heritability. PMID:21437273

  4. Weakened Cholinergic Blockade of Inflammation Associates with Diabetes-Related Depression

    PubMed Central

    Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Toker, Sharon; Shapira, Itzhak; Rogowski, Ori; Berliner, Shlomo; Ritov, Yaacov; Soreq, Hermona

    2016-01-01

    —Melancholia: Fears and despondencies, if they last a long time.” —Hippocrates, Aphorisms, Section 6.23 Emerging evidence demonstrates association of depression with both immune malfunctioning and worsened course of diverse aging-related diseases, but there is no explanation for the pathway(s) controlling this dual association. Here, we report that in post-reproductive and evolutionarily –blind” years, depression may weaken pathogen–host defense, compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis. In 15,532 healthy volunteers, depression scores associated with both inflammatory parameters and with increased circulation cholinesterase activities, implicating debilitated cholinergic blockade of inflammation as an underlying mechanism; furthermore, depression, inflammation and cholinesterase activities all increased with aging. In the entire cohort, combined increases in inflammation and the diabetic biomarker hemoglobin A1c associated with elevated depression. Moreover, metabolic syndrome patients with higher risk of diabetes showed increased cholinesterase levels and pulse values, and diabetic patients presented simultaneous increases in depression, inflammation and circulation cholinesterase activities, suggesting that cholinergic impairment precedes depression. Our findings indicate that dysfunctioning cholinergic regulation weakens the otherwise protective link between depression and pathogen–host defense, with global implications for aging-related diseases. PMID:27257683

  5. Association of hair iron levels with creativity and psychological variables related to creativity

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state)], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years). Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects. PMID:24385960

  6. Elevated plasma levels of Th17-related cytokines are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Na; Xu, Bin; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Xinghua; Tang, He; Wu, Long; Xiang, Ying; Zhang, Mengxuan; Shu, Maoqing; Song, Zhiyuan; Li, Yafei; Zhong, Li

    2016-01-01

    We performed a matched case-control study using a propensity score matching, to assess the association of Th17-related cytokines, including interleukin (IL) 17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6, along with interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4, with the risk of AF. A total of 336 patients with AF were matched 1:1 with patients without AF. Plasma levels of cytokines were measured using Luminex xMAP assays. The plasma levels of all examined cytokines were significantly higher in AF patients than controls (P < 0.05), and these cytokines were highly correlated with each other (P < 0.01). A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that elevated plasma levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-9 and IL-6 were significantly associated with AF risk independently of potential confounders. There were no significant differences in plasma levels of examined cytokines between paroxysmal and chronic AF patients. IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10 and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with left atrial diameter; IL-17F level was negatively correlated with left ventricle ejection fraction among AF patients (P < 0.05). Elevated plasma levels of Th17-related cytokines were independently associated with increased an risk of AF; hence, Th17-related cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of AF. PMID:27198976

  7. Hippocampal dysregulation of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins with age-related cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    VanGuilder, Heather D.; Farley, Julie A.; Yan, Han; Van Kirk, Colleen A.; Mitschelen, Matthew; Sonntag, William E.; Freeman, Willard M.

    2011-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline occurs without frank neurodegeneration and is the most common cause of memory impairment in aging individuals. With increasing longevity, cognitive deficits, especially in hippocampus-dependent memory processes, are increasing in prevalence. Nevertheless, the neurobiological basis of age-related cognitive decline remains unknown. While concerted efforts have led to the identification of neurobiological changes with aging, few age-related alterations have been definitively correlated to behavioral measures of cognitive decline. In this work, adult (12 Months) and aged (28 months) rats were categorized by Morris water maze performance as Adult cognitively Intact, Aged cognitively Intact or Aged cognitively Impaired, and protein expression was examined in hippocampal synaptosome preparations. Previously described differences in synaptic expression of neurotransmission-associated proteins (Dnm1, Hpca, Stx1, Syn1, Syn2, Syp, SNAP25, VAMP2 and 14-3-3 eta, gamma, and zeta) were confirmed between Adult and Aged rats, with no further dysregulation associated with cognitive impairment. Proteins related to synaptic structural stability (MAP2, drebrin, Nogo-A) and activity-dependent signaling (PSD-95, 14-3-3θ, CaMKIIα) were up- and down-regulated, respectively, with cognitive impairment but were not altered with increasing age. Localization of MAP2, PSD-95, and CaMKIIα demonstrated protein expression alterations throughout the hippocampus. The altered expression of activity- and structural stability-associated proteins suggests that impaired synaptic plasticity is a distinct phenomenon that occurs with age-related cognitive decline, and demonstrates that cognitive decline is not simply an exacerbation of the aging phenotype. PMID:21440628

  8. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  9. Relational coordination and organisational social capital association with characteristics of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Reventlow, Susanne; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  10. Myelination-related genes are associated with decreased white matter integrity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chavarria-Siles, Ivan; White, Tonya; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Lips, Esther; Ehrlich, Stefan; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D; Gollub, Randy L; Magnotta, Vincent A; Ho, Beng-Choon; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle

    2016-03-01

    Disruptions in white matter (WM) tract structures have been implicated consistently in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Global WM integrity--as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA)--is highly heritable and may provide a good endophenotype for genetic studies of schizophrenia. WM abnormalities in schizophrenia are not localized to one specific brain region but instead reflect global low-level decreases in FA coupled with focal abnormalities. In this study, we sought to investigate whether functional gene sets associated with schizophrenia are also associated with WM integrity. We analyzed FA and genetic data from the Mind Research Network Clinical Imaging Consortium to study the effect of multiple oligodendrocyte gene sets on schizophrenia and WM integrity using a functional gene set analysis in 77 subjects with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls. We found that a gene set involved in myelination was significantly associated with schizophrenia and FA. This gene set includes 17 genes that are expressed in oligodendrocytes and one neuronal gene (NRG1) that is known to regulate myelination. None of the genes within the gene set were associated with schizophrenia or FA individually, suggesting that no single gene was driving the association of the gene set. Our findings support the hypothesis that multiple genetic variants in myelination-related genes contribute to the observed correlation between schizophrenia and decreased WM integrity as measured by FA. PMID:26014434

  11. Novel Associations between FAAH Genetic Variants and Postoperative Central Opioid related Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Zhang, Xue; Chidambaran, Vidya; Mavi, Jagroop; Pilipenko, Valentina; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Meller, Jaroslaw; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Martin, Lisa J.; McAuliffe, John

    2014-01-01

    Opioid effects are potentiated by cannabinoid agonists including anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Inter-individual variability in responses to opioids is a major clinical problem. Multiple deaths and anoxic brain injuries occur every year in due to opioid induced respiratory depression in surgical patients and drug abusers of opioids and cannabinoids. This study aimed to determine specific associations between genetic variants of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and postoperative central opioid adverse effects in children undergoing tonsillectomy. This is a prospective genotype blinded observational study 259 healthy children between 6 and 15 years that received standard perioperative care with a standard anesthetic and an intraoperative dose of morphine were enrolled. Associations between frequent polymorphisms of FAAH and central postoperative opioid adverse effects including, respiratory depression (RD), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and prolonged stay in Post Anesthesia Recovery Room (PACU) due to RD and PONV were analyzed. Five specific FAAH SNPs had significant associations with more than 2 fold increased risk for refractory PONV (adjusted p<0.0018), and nominal associations (p<0.05) with RD and prolonged PACU stay in white children undergoing tonsillectomy. FAAH SNP, rs324420 is a missense mutation with altered FAAH function and it is linked with other FAAH SNPs associated with PONV and RD in our cohort; association between PONV and rs324420 was confirmed in our extended cohort with additional 66 white children. Specific FAAH polymorphisms are associated with refractory PONV, opioid-related respiratory depression, and prolonged PACU stay due to opioid adverse effects in white children undergoing tonsillectomy. PMID:25558980

  12. Novel associations between FAAH genetic variants and postoperative central opioid-related adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sadhasivam, S; Zhang, X; Chidambaran, V; Mavi, J; Pilipenko, V; Mersha, T B; Meller, J; Kaufman, K M; Martin, L J; McAuliffe, J

    2015-10-01

    Opioid effects are potentiated by cannabinoid agonists including anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Inter-individual variability in responses to opioids is a major clinical problem. Multiple deaths and anoxic brain injuries occur every year because of opioid-induced respiratory depression (RD) in surgical patients and drug abusers of opioids and cannabinoids. This study aimed to determine specific associations between genetic variants of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and postoperative central opioid adverse effects in children undergoing tonsillectomy. This is a prospective genotype-blinded observational study in which 259 healthy children between 6 and 15 years of age who received standard perioperative care with a standard anesthetic and an intraoperative dose of morphine were enrolled. Associations between frequent polymorphisms of FAAH and central postoperative opioid adverse effects including, RD, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and prolonged stay in Post Anesthesia Recovery Room (postoperative anesthesia care unit, PACU) due to RD and PONV were analyzed. Five specific FAAH single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had significant associations with more than twofold increased risk for refractory PONV (adjusted P<0.0018), and nominal associations (P<0.05) with RD and prolonged PACU stay in white children undergoing tonsillectomy. The FAAH SNP, rs324420, is a missense mutation with altered FAAH function and it is linked with other FAAH SNPs associated with PONV and RD in our cohort; association between PONV and rs324420 was confirmed in our extended cohort with additional 66 white children. Specific FAAH polymorphisms are associated with refractory PONV, opioid-related RD, and prolonged PACU stay due to opioid adverse effects in white children undergoing tonsillectomy. PMID:25558980

  13. Using Semantic Association to Extend and Infer Literature-Oriented Relativity Between Terms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Jie; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Yongzhuang; Chu, Yanshuo; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Relative terms often appear together in the literature. Methods have been presented for weighting relativity of pairwise terms by their co-occurring literature and inferring new relationship. Terms in the literature are also in the directed acyclic graph of ontologies, such as Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology. Therefore, semantic association between terms may help for establishing relativities between terms in literature. However, current methods do not use these associations. In this paper, an adjusted R-scaled score (ARSS) based on information content (ARSSIC) method is introduced to infer new relationship between terms. First, set inclusion relationship between terms of ontology was exploited to extend relationships between these terms and literature. Next, the ARSS method was presented to measure relativity between terms across ontologies according to these extensional relationships. Then, the ARSSIC method using ratios of information shared of term's ancestors was designed to infer new relationship between terms across ontologies. The result of the experiment shows that ARSS identified more pairs of statistically significant terms based on corresponding gene sets than other methods. And the high average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.9293) shows that ARSSIC achieved a high true positive rate and a low false positive rate. Data is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/ARSSIC/. PMID:26684460

  14. Risk factors associated with asbestos-related diseases: a community-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asbestos is a first level carcinogen. However, few epidemiological studies analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and follow up these conditions in the general population. Pleural mesothelioma, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, is the most representative asbestos-related disease. The objectives of this study are to analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and to investigate the incidence of new clinical manifestations in patients already diagnosed with some form of ARD. Methods/Design We have designed a matched case–control study with follow up of both cohorts from a population of a health district of the Barcelona province that has been exposed to asbestos for a period of 90 years. Discussion A better understanding of asbestos-related diseases should improve i) the clinical and epidemiological follow up of patients with this condition; ii) the design of new treatment strategies; iii) and the development of preventive activities. At the end of the study, the two cohorts created in this study (affected cases and healthy controls) will constitute the basis for future research. PMID:23915043

  15. The Association between Valuing Popularity and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Effects of Actual Popularity and Physiological Reactivity to Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulberg, Erin K.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age=12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated…

  16. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Methodology/Principal findings Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Conclusions/significance Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future

  17. Association between interleukin-21 gene polymorphisms (rs12508721) and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q X; Li, S L; Yao, Y Q; Li, T J

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21), as a multifunctional cytokine, plays an important role in many diseases, such as cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of IL-21 gene and susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a Chinese population. Studied subjects were divided into three groups: 100 patients with HBV-related HCC, 115 patients with chronic HBV infection and 127 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method was used to genotype the SNPs (rs2221903, rs907715 and rs12508721) within IL-21 gene. Our results showed that IL-21 polymorphisms were associated with the risk of HCC and chronic HBV infection when compared with healthy controls. The rs2221903A/G AG genotype was associated with a higher risk of chronic HBV infection when compared with healthy controls [AG versus AA + GG, P = 0.036, OR = 1.898, 95%CI = 1.038-3.471]. The rs12508721C/T TT genotype was related with a lower risk of chronic HBV infection and HBV-related HCC than in healthy controls [TT versus CT + CC, P = 0.026, OR = 0.451, 95%CI = 0.221-0.920; P = 0.049, OR = 0.482, 95%CI = 0.231-1.005]. No significant difference in the genotype and allele distrubutions of rs907715G/A SNP was observed in the HBV-related HCC group, chronic HBV-infected group and the healthy control group when compared to each other. Our findings suggest that the rs12508721T/C and rs2221903A/G polymorphisms of IL-21 gene are associated with the susceptibility of HBV-related HCC and chronic HBV infection. The genetic variant may in fact cause protection against the HBV-related HCC. However, the function in these SNPs of IL-21 gene needs to clarify the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HBV-related HCC further. PMID:27122304

  18. Depression and anxiety in epilepsy: the association with demographic and seizure-related variables

    PubMed Central

    Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Kararizou, Eleni; Gatzonis, Stergios-Stylianos; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siatouni, Anna; Loucaidis, Panagiotis; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Vlaikidis, Nikolaos; Kaprinis, George S

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with epilepsy, exerting a profound negative effect on health-related quality of life. Several issues, however, pertaining to their association with psychosocial, seizure-related and medication factors, remain controversial. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the association of interictal mood disorders with various demographic and seizure-related variables in patients with newly-diagnosed and chronic epilepsy. Methods We investigated 201 patients with epilepsy (51.2% males, mean age 33.2 ± 10.0 years, range 16–60) with a mean disease duration of 13.9 ± 9.5 years. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the interictal state with the Beck Depression Inventory, 21-item version (BDI-21) and the state and trait subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T), respectively. The association of mood disorders with various variables was investigated with simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Results High seizure frequency and symptomatic focal epilepsy (SFE) were independent determinants of depression, together accounting for 12.4% of the variation of the BDI-21. The STAI-S index was significantly associated with the type of epilepsy syndrome (SFE). Finally, high seizure frequency, SFE and female gender were independent determinants of trait anxiety accounting for 14.7% of the variation of the STAI-T. Conclusion Our results confirm the prevailing view that depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders in epileptics. It is additionally concluded that female gender, high seizure frequency and a symptomatic epilepsy syndrome are independent risk factors for the development of anxiety and/or depression. PMID:17971199

  19. Dickkopf-related protein 3 is a potential Aβ-associated protein in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Kim A; Kuiperij, H Bea; Gloerich, Jolein; Otte-Höller, Irene; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Küsters, Benno; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is the most prominent protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) senile plaques. In addition, Aβ interacts with a variety of Aβ-associated proteins (AAPs), some of which can form complexes with Aβ and influence its clearance, aggregation or toxicity. Identification of novel AAPs may shed new light on the pathophysiology of AD and the metabolic fate of Aβ. In this study, we aimed to identify new AAPs by searching for proteins that may form soluble complexes with Aβ in CSF, using a proteomics approach. We identified the secreted Wnt pathway protein Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk-3) as a potential Aβ-associated protein. Using immunohistochemistry on human AD brain tissue, we observed that (i) Dkk-3 co-localizes with Aβ in the brain, both in diffuse and classic plaques. (ii) Dkk-3 is expressed in neurons and in blood vessel walls in the brain and (iii) is secreted by leptomeningeal smooth muscle cells in vitro. Finally, measurements using ELISA revealed that (iv) Dkk-3 protein is abundantly present in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, but its levels are similar in non-demented controls and patients with AD, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia. Our study demonstrates that Dkk-3 is a hitherto unidentified Aβ-associated protein which, given its relatively high cerebral concentrations and co-localization with Aβ, is potentially involved in AD pathology. In this study, we propose that Dickkopf-related protein-3 (Dkk-3) might be a novel Amyloid-β (Aβ) associated protein. We demonstrate that Dkk-3 is expressed in the brain, especially in vessel walls, and co-localizes with Aβ in senile plaques. Furthermore, Dkk-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid strongly correlate with Aβ40 levels, but were not suitable to discriminate non-demented controls and patients with dementia. PMID:26119087

  20. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Eating Disorder-Related Symptoms, Behaviors, and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver SP; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Pei-Chi Liao, Thomas; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P < 10−5. Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22911880

  1. Association between folate metabolism-related polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JONG WOO; JEON, YOUNG JOO; JANG, MOON JU; KIM, JUNG O; CHONG, SO YOUNG; KO, KWANG HYUN; HWANG, SEONG GYU; OH, DOYEUN; OH, JISU; KIM, NAM KEUN

    2015-01-01

    Folate has essential roles in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Folate metabolism-related gene variants may modulate the levels of this vitamin and affect the cancer risk. Thus, whether these polymorphisms play an important role in carcinogenesis, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC) development, has been a subject interest. The present study investigated the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thymidylate synthase (TS) and the reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) genes and CRC risk. Polymorphisms in MTHFR (677C>T and 1298A>C), TS [1494del6 and the TS enhancer region (TSER)] and RFC1 (−43T>C, 80G>A and 696C>T) were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 477 CRC cases and 514 controls. Although no polymorphisms were significantly associated with the CRC risk in the overall sample, significant associations between folate metabolism-related polymorphisms and CRC risk were identified in the stratified analyses. The MTHFR 677CT/1298AC and MTHFR 1298AC+CC/TSER 2R3R genotypes in the presence of plasma folate levels ≤4.12 ng/ml were associated with significantly increased CRC risk. In addition, individuals with the MTHFR 677TT/TSER 3R3R or MTHFR 677/TSER 3R3R/TS 1494 0bp6bp+6bp6bp genotypes and diabetes mellitus (DM) were at an increased risk for CRC. Therefore, the data suggest that i) MTHFR polymorphisms combined with low plasma folate levels and ii) polymorphisms in folate metabolism-related genes combined with metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension and DM) increase the odds of developing CRC. PMID:26137281

  2. SOD2 genetic variant associated with treatment-related ototoxicity in cisplatin-treated pediatric medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Austin L; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet Fatih; Lau, Ching C; Rednam, Surya; Scheurer, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), encoded by the SOD2 gene, is involved in the detoxification of superoxide anion. Superoxide is likely a source of oxidative stress in the cochlea following treatment with platinum agents and radiation. Therefore, we examined SOD2 variants in association with ototoxicity among cisplatin-treated childhood medulloblastoma patients. Blood samples were obtained from 71 eligible patients treated for pediatric medulloblastoma at Texas Children’s Cancer Center (1987–2010). Ototoxicity was defined as requiring the use of a hearing aid sometime after the initiation of therapy. DNA was genotyped on the Illumina HumanOmni-1 Quad BeadChip. A linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) selection strategy was used to identify a minimal set of informative variants. Associations between SNPs and ototoxicity were assessed using logistic regression. Of the 71 eligible patients, 26 (37%) suffered from cisplatin-related ototoxicity. Study participants were primarily male (73%) and non-Hispanic white (42%). Five SOD2 variants (rs7855, rs5746151, rs5746136, rs2758331, and rs4880) identified by the LD-based selection strategy were genotyped. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the C-allele of the rs4880 variant was significantly associated with ototoxicity (odds ratio = 3.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.30–7.20) in adjusted models. The rs4880 T > C substitution results in a Val > Ala amino acid change at position 16 of the MnSOD mitochondrial targeting sequence. The Ala variant, which has been associated with increased MnSOD activity, was associated with hearing damage in this study. Platinum-based therapies increase the expression of MnSOD, which may result in an abundance of hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species. Therefore, oxidative stress may be an important mechanism in therapy-related cochlear damage. PMID:26400460

  3. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Robinson, Gene E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization

  4. A New Methodology to Associate SNPs with Human Diseases According to Their Pathway Related Context

    PubMed Central

    Bakir-Gungor, Burcu; Sezerman, Osman Ugur

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with hundreds of żthousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are popular strategies to reveal the genetic basis of human complex diseases. Despite many successes of GWAS, it is well recognized that new analytical approaches have to be integrated to achieve their full potential. Starting with a list of SNPs, found to be associated with disease in GWAS, here we propose a novel methodology to devise functionally important KEGG pathways through the identification of genes within these pathways, where these genes are obtained from SNP analysis. Our methodology is based on functionalization of important SNPs to identify effected genes and disease related pathways. We have tested our methodology on WTCCC Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) dataset and identified: i) previously known RA related KEGG pathways (e.g., Toll-like receptor signaling, Jak-STAT signaling, Antigen processing, Leukocyte transendothelial migration and MAPK signaling pathways); ii) additional KEGG pathways (e.g., Pathways in cancer, Neurotrophin signaling, Chemokine signaling pathways) as associated with RA. Furthermore, these newly found pathways included genes which are targets of RA-specific drugs. Even though GWAS analysis identifies 14 out of 83 of those drug target genes; newly found functionally important KEGG pathways led to the discovery of 25 out of 83 genes, known to be used as drug targets for the treatment of RA. Among the previously known pathways, we identified additional genes associated with RA (e.g. Antigen processing and presentation, Tight junction). Importantly, within these pathways, the associations between some of these additionally found genes, such as HLA-C, HLA-G, PRKCQ, PRKCZ, TAP1, TAP2 and RA were verified by either OMIM database or by literature retrieved from the NCBI PubMed module. With the whole-genome sequencing on the horizon, we show that the full potential of GWAS can be achieved by integrating pathway and network

  5. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gene E.; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization

  6. Associations between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–Related Exposures and p53 Mutations in Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Santella, Regina; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Long, Chang-Min; Garbowski, Gail; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Gaudet, Mia M.; Steck, Susan E.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Eng, Sybil M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Conway-Dorsey, Kathleen; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be associated with breast cancer. However, the carcinogenicity of PAHs on the human breast remains unclear. Certain carcinogens may be associated with specific mutation patterns in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, thereby contributing information about disease etiology. Objectives We hypothesized that associations of PAH-related exposures with breast cancer would differ according to tumor p53 mutation status, effect, type, and number. Methods We examined this possibility in a population-based case–control study using polytomous logistic regression. As previously reported, 151 p53 mutations among 859 tumors were identified using Surveyor nuclease and confirmed by sequencing. Results We found that participants with p53 mutations were less likely to be exposed to PAHs (assessed by smoking status in 859 cases and 1,556 controls, grilled/smoked meat intake in 822 cases and 1,475 controls, and PAH–DNA adducts in peripheral mononuclear cells in 487 cases and 941 controls) than participants without p53 mutations. For example, active and passive smoking was associated with p53 mutation–negative [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–2.15] but not p53 mutation–positive (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.43–1.38) cancer (ratio of the ORs = 0.50, p < 0.05). However, frameshift mutations, mutation number, G:C→A:T transitions at CpG sites, and insertions/deletions were consistently elevated among exposed subjects. Conclusions These findings suggest that PAHs may be associated with specific breast tumor p53 mutation subgroups rather than with overall p53 mutations and may also be related to breast cancer through mechanisms other than p53 mutation. PMID:20064791

  7. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all). Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all). In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05). Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05) and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05) was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05). Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05). NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05). Conclusion Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  8. Gagging and Associations with Dental Care-Related Fear, Fear of Pain, and Beliefs about Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Cameron L.; Shulman, Grant P.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gagging is a behavioral response that interferes with oral health care and has been suggested to relate to dental care-related fear. Little is known, however, about the epidemiology of gagging during dental treatment. Methods To explore this phenomenon, 478 participants were recruited from the waiting area of an oral diagnosis clinic. Participants completed the Dental Fear Survey, the Short Form-Fear of Pain Questionnaire, Dental Beliefs Scale, and a demographics questionnaire that included items about problems with gagging. Results Over half of the participants reported gagging on at least one occasion during dental visits, with 7.5% almost always, or always gagging. With higher frequency of problems with gagging, patients were more likely to have greater levels of dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and more negative beliefs of dental professionals and dental treatment. Further, participants who gagged more readily had greater dental care-related fear than other gaggers. Conclusion Gagging in the dental clinic is a prevalent problem, and dental care-related fear and fear of pain are associated with more frequent gagging. Clinical Implications Given the prevalence of patients reporting problem gagging, it may be helpful for providers to assess for this barrier to treatment. By targeting dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and negative beliefs about dental care in patients who often gag in the clinic, gagging may be reduced in frequency or intensity, potentially making treatment more comfortable for patients and easier for dental care providers. PMID:24789238

  9. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  10. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  11. Relational victimization, loneliness and depressive symptoms: indirect associations via self and peer reports of rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Trevaskis, Sarah; Nesdale, Drew; Downey, Geraldine A

    2014-04-01

    Theory suggests that aversive social experiences generate emotional maladjustment because they prompt the development of a hypersensitivity to perceiving and overreacting to rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test hypothesized direct and indirect (via rejection sensitivity) links of overt/relational victimization and friendship conflict with early adolescents' loneliness and depressive symptoms. Participants were 366 Australian early adolescents age 10-14 years (50.5 % girls). Using both a self-report and peer-report measure of rejection sensitivity, no difference was found when comparing the significant correlations of each measure with loneliness and depressive symptoms. Tests of direct and indirect associations with structural equation modeling showed that adolescents higher in relational victimization reported more loneliness and depressive symptoms and part of this association was by way of their greater self-reports of rejection sensitivity and their peers' identification that they were higher in rejection sensitivity. Additionally, relational victimization was the only unique correlate of emotional maladjustment, and adolescents who reported more overt victimization were identified by their peers as higher in rejection sensitivity. Finally, gender and rejection sensitivity were tested as moderators. No gender moderation was found, but friendship conflict was associated more strongly with emotional maladjustment for adolescents low, rather than high, in rejection sensitivity. These findings identify relational victimization as particularly salient for emotional maladjustment both directly and indirectly via links with elevated rejection sensitivity. They show how rejection sensitivity and aversive experiences may contribute independently and jointly to emotional maladjustment for both boys and girls. PMID:23955324

  12. Genetic variants primarily associated with type 2 diabetes are related to coronary artery disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Henning; Loley, Christina; Lieb, Wolfgang; Pencina, Michael J; Nelson, Christopher P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peloso, Gina M; Voight, Benjamin F; Reilly, Muredach P; Assimes, Themistocles L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hengstenberg, Christian; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Roberts, Robert; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Thompson, John R; König, Inke R; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk are unclear. We aimed to assess this association by studying genetic variants that have been shown to associate with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). If the association between diabetes and CAD is causal, we expected to observe an association of these variants with CAD as well. Methods and Results We studied all genetic variants currently known to be associated with T2DM at a genome-wide significant level (p<5*10−8) in CARDIoGRAM, a genome-wide data-set of CAD including 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. Out of the 44 published T2DM SNPs 10 were significantly associated with CAD in CARDIoGRAM (OR>1, p<0.05), more than expected by chance (p=5.0*10−5). Considering all 44 SNPs, the average CAD risk observed per individual T2DM risk allele was 1.0076 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9973–1.0180). Such average risk increase was significantly lower than the increase expected based on i) the published effects of the SNPs on T2DM risk and ii) the effect of T2DM on CAD risk as observed in the Framingham Heart Study, which suggested a risk of 1.067 per allele (p=7.2*10−10 vs. the observed effect). Studying two risk scores based on risk alleles of the diabetes SNPs, one score using individual level data in 9856 subjects, and the second score on average effects of reported beta-coefficients from the entire CARDIoGRAM data-set, we again observed a significant - yet smaller than expected - association with CAD. Conclusions Our data indicate that an association between type 2 diabetes related SNPs and CAD exists. However, the effects on CAD risk appear to be by far lower than what would be expected based on the effects of risk alleles on T2DM and the effect of T2DM on CAD in the epidemiological setting. PMID:26074316

  13. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Josep M.; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Barberá, Maria Jesús; Humet, Victoria; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Josep M.; Ribera, Esteve; Gurguí, Mercè; Marco, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013. Materials and Methods We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models. Mortality Results 182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py); 95% confidence interval (CI):12.0–16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7–6.1/1000 py), external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0–2.4/1000 py)]. Survival Results Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU) and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM). Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR):3.2; CI:1.5–7.0) and <200 CD4 at diagnosis (sHR:2.7; CI:1.3–5.7) versus ≥500 CD4. Factors associated with non-HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4–1.7) and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1–7.3) versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7–123.2) and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5–56.4) versus MSM. Conclusion and Recommendation There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males. PMID:26716982

  14. Associations between health-related quality of life and mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derek S; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; Arnold, Sarah E; Barile, John P

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the use and relative importance of different measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as predictors of mortality in a large sample of older US adults. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the association between general self-reported health and three "healthy days" (HDs) measures of HRQOL and mortality at short-term (90-day) and long-term (2.5 years) follow-up. The data were from Cohorts 6 through 8 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey, a national sample of older adults who completed baseline surveys in 2003-2005. At the long term, reduced HRQOL in general health and all categories of the HDs were separately and significantly associated with greater mortality (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis of long-term mortality, at least one HD category remained significant for each measure, but the associations between mental health and mortality were inconsistent. For short-term mortality, the physical health measures had larger hazard ratios, but fewer categories were significant. Hazard ratios decreased over time for all measures of HRQOL except mental health. In conclusion, HRQOL measures were shown to be significant predictors of short- and long-term mortality, further supporting their value in health surveillance and as markers of risk for targeted prevention efforts. Although all four measures of HRQOL significantly predicted mortality, general self-rated health and age were more important predictors than the HDs. PMID:24189743

  15. Associations of immunity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms with overall survival among prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Fayth L; Rao, Jian-Yu; Eckhert, Curtis; Chang, Shen-Chih; Pantuck, Allan; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The progression of prostate cancer is influenced by systemic inflammation, and may be attributed, in part, to genetic predisposition. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the immune response may help mediate prostate cancer progression. We analyzed data from a hospital-based case-control study of 164 prostate cancer patients and 157 healthy male controls from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We evaluated associations between six immunity-related polymorphisms (CRP rs1205 and rs1800947, FGFR2 rs1219648 and rs2981582, IFNGR1 rs11914, and IL10 rs1800871) and overall survival among prostate cancer patients, calculating adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. FGFR2 rs1219648 (GG vs. AA) and rs2981582 (TT vs. CC) polymorphisms were associated with more favorable overall survival (HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.62 and HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.53, respectively) in patients with primary prostate cancer. These observations highlight the need to validate and identify these and other immunity-related polymorphisms in larger studies examining survival of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26379965

  16. School-related risk and protective factors associated with truancy among urban youth placed at risk.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L; Huizinga, David H

    2007-11-01

    Truancy is a serious concern in the United States. Its negative effects are so pervasive that in 2003 the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention named truancy prevention a national priority. Effective prevention of truancy requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics that describe truant youth as well as factors that may put them at risk for truancy. Unfortunately, surprisingly little is known about the correlates and/or causes of truancy. In this paper we explore associations between truancy and several salient school-related risk and protective factors among a sample of youth who grew up in socially disorganized neighborhoods of Denver, CO. We demonstrate that several school-related risk and protective factors are associated with truancy. Perhaps most importantly, we identify that the two most robust predictors are school performance and involvement with delinquent peers, and that these two variables form a synergistic relationship in which the relationship between delinquent peer association and truancy is mitigated among students who perform well in school. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors use data from a large probability sample drawn from neighborhoods with high crime rates to identify key correlates of truancy. They also draw attention to the dearth of efficacious truancy prevention efforts in spite of the magnitude of the problem. PMID:18004658

  17. No Observed Association for Mitochondrial SNPs with Preterm Delivery and Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Brandon W.; Myking, Solveig; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Myhre, Ronny; Feingold, Eleanor; Feenstra, Bjarke; Geller, Frank; Boyd, Heather A.; Shaffer, John R.; Zhang, Qi; Begum, Ferdouse; Crosslin, David; Doheny, Kim; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pay, Aase Serine Devold; Østensen, Ingrid H.G.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Magnus, Per; Marazita, Mary L.; Jacobsson, Bo; Melbye, Mads; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Epidemiologic studies indicate recurrence of PTD is maternally inherited creating a strong possibility that mitochondrial variants contribute to its etiology. This study examines the association between mitochondrial genotypes with PTD and related outcomes. Methods This study combined, through meta-analysis, two case-control, genome-wide association studies (GWAS); one from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) Study and one from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The outcomes of PTD (≤36 weeks), very PTD (≤32 weeks) and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) were examined. 135 individual SNP associations were tested using the combined genome from mothers and neonates (case vs. control) in each population and then pooled via meta-analysis. Results After meta-analysis there were four SNPs for the outcome of PTD below p≤0.10, and two below p≤0.05. For the additional outcomes of very PTD and PPROM there were three and four SNPs respectively below p≤0.10. Conclusion Given the number of tests no single SNP reached study wide significance (p=0.0006). Our study does not support the hypothesis that mitochondrial genetics contributes to the maternal transmission of PTD and related outcomes. PMID:22902432

  18. Somatosensory Event-Related Potentials and Association with Tactile Behavioral Responsiveness Patterns in Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Carissa J; Gu, Chang; Schauder, Kimberly B; Key, Alexandra P; Yoder, Paul

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to explore neural response to touch in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Patterns of reduced (hypo-responsiveness) and enhanced (hyper-responsiveness) behavioral reaction to sensory input are prevalent in ASD, but their neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We measured event-related potentials (ERP) to a puff of air on the fingertip and collected parent report of tactile hypo- and hyper-responsiveness in children with ASD (n = 21, mean (SD) age 11.25 (3.09), 2 female), and an age-matched typically developing comparison group (n = 28, mean (SD) age 10.1 (3.08, 2 female). A global measure of ERP response strength approximately 220-270 ms post-stimulus was associated with tactile hypo-responsiveness in ASD, while tactile hyper-responsiveness was associated with earlier neural response (approximately 120-220 ms post-stimulus) in both groups. These neural responses also related to autism severity. These results suggest that, in ASD, tactile hypo- and hyper-responsiveness may reflect different waypoints in the neural processing stream of sensory input. The timing of the relationship for hyper-responsiveness is consistent with somatosensory association cortical response, while that for hypo-responsiveness is more consistent with later processes that may involve allocation of attention or emotional valence to the stimulus. PMID:26016951

  19. A multicenter study confirms CD226 gene association with systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CD226 genetic variants have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases and recently with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to test the influence of CD226 loci in SSc susceptibility, clinical phenotypes and autoantibody status in a large multicenter European population. Methods A total of seven European populations of Caucasian ancestry were included, comprising 2,131 patients with SSc and 3,966 healthy controls. Three CD226 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs763361, rs3479968 and rs727088, were genotyped using Taqman 5'allelic discrimination assays. Results Pooled analyses showed no evidence of association of the three SNPs, neither with the global disease nor with the analyzed subphenotypes. However, haplotype block analysis revealed a significant association for the TCG haplotype (SNP order: rs763361, rs34794968, rs727088) with lung fibrosis positive patients (PBonf = 3.18E-02 OR 1.27 (1.05 to 1.54)). Conclusion Our data suggest that the tested genetic variants do not individually influence SSc susceptibility but a CD226 three-variant haplotype is related with genetic predisposition to SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:22531499

  20. Association of autophagy related gene polymorphisms with neutrophilic airway inflammation in adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duy Le; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Losol, Purevsuren; Yang, Eun-Mi; Shin, Yoo Seob; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Role of autophagy in neutrophil function and the association of autophagy and autophagy related (ATG) gene polymorphisms with asthma susceptibility were suggested. In this study, we investigated the genetic association of ATG5 and ATG7 polymorphisms with asthma risk, severity and neutrophilic airway inflammation. Methods: We recruited 408 asthma patients and 201 healthy controls. Sputum neutrophil counts were determined by H&E staining. Serum interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genetic polymorphisms of ATG5 (–769T>C, –335G>A, and 8830C>T) and ATG7 (–100A>G and 25108G>C) were genotyped. The functional activities of ATG5 –769T>C and –335G>A variants were investigated by luciferase reporter assays. Results: No associations of ATG5 and ATG7 polymorphisms with asthma susceptibility and severity were found. ATG5 –769T>C and –335G>A were in complete linkage disequilibrium. In the asthma group, GA/AA genotypes at ATG5 –335G>A were associated with higher neutrophil counts in sputum (p < 0.05); CC/TT genotype at ATG5 8830C>T associated with lower FEV1% predicted value (p < 0.05). DNA fragments containing ATG5 –769T and –335G alleles had higher promoter activities compared to those with –769C and –335A in both human airway epithelial cells (A549, p < 0.01) and human mast cell (HMC-1, p < 0.001). GG and CC genotype at ATG7 –100A>G and 25108G>C were significantly associated with high serum levels of IL-8 (p < 0.05 for both variants). Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms of ATG5 and ATG7 could contribute to neutrophilic airway inflammation in the pathogenesis of adult asthma. PMID:26701229

  1. Associations between Nitric Oxide Synthase Genes and Exhaled NO-Related Phenotypes according to Asthma Status

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Monier, Florent; Boussaha, Mekki; Le Moual, Nicole; Huyvaert, Hélène; Matran, Régis; Letort, Sébastien; Bousquet, Jean; Pin, Isabelle; Lathrop, Mark; Kauffmann, Francine; Demenais, Florence; Nadif, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background The nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in asthma, and eosinophils participate in the regulation of the NO pool in pulmonary tissues. We investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NO synthase genes (NOS) and biological NO-related phenotypes measured in two compartments (exhaled breath condensate and plasma) and blood eosinophil counts. Methodology SNPs (N = 121) belonging to NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 genes were genotyped in 1277 adults from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Association analyses were conducted on four quantitative phenotypes: the exhaled fraction of NO (FeNO), plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) nitrite-nitrate levels (NO2–NO3) and blood eosinophils in asthmatics and non-asthmatics separately. Genetic heterogeneity of these phenotypes between asthmatics and non-asthmatics was also investigated. Principal Findings In non-asthmatics, after correction for multiple comparisons, we found significant associations of FeNO levels with three SNPs in NOS3 and NOS2 (P≤0.002), and of EBC NO2–NO3 level with NOS2 (P = 0.002). In asthmatics, a single significant association was detected between FeNO levels and one SNP in NOS3 (P = 0.004). Moreover, there was significant heterogeneity of NOS3 SNP effect on FeNO between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (P = 0.0002 to 0.005). No significant association was found between any SNP and NO2–NO3 plasma levels or blood eosinophil counts. Conclusions Variants in NO synthase genes influence FeNO and EBC NO2–NO3 levels in adults. These genetic determinants differ according to asthma status. Significant associations were only detected for exhaled phenotypes, highlighting the critical relevance to have access to specific phenotypes measured in relevant biological fluid. PMID:22590587

  2. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, William; Doherty, Leanne; Watson, Gene; Armstrong, David; Ball, Elisabeth; Magee, Pamela; Allsopp, Philip; Bell, Aubrey; Strain, J. J.; McSorley, Emeir

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish. PMID:26703710

  3. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity with Exercise Capacity and Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Katrina L; Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Miller, Larry E; Zedalis, Donald; Herbert, William G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea (n = 43) or as having mild (n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL. PMID:23923110

  4. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Breast Cancer Screening Among American Muslims

    PubMed Central

    Padela, Aasim I.; Murrar, Sohad; Adviento, Brigid; Liao, Chuanhong; Hosseinian, Zahra; Peek, Monica; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims have low rates of mammography utilization, and research suggests that religious values influence their health-seeking behaviors. We assessed associations between religion-related factors and breast cancer screening in this population. A diverse group of Muslim women were recruited from mosques and Muslim organization sites in Greater Chicago to self-administer a survey incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, discrimination, and Islamic modesty. 254 surveys were collected of which 240 met age inclusion criteria (40 years of age or older). Of the 240, 72 respondents were Arab, 71 South Asian, 59 African American, and 38 identified with another ethnicity. 77 % of respondents had at least one mammogram in their lifetime, yet 37 % had not obtained mammography within the past 2 years. In multivariate models, positive religious coping, and perceived religious discrimination in healthcare were negatively associated with having a mammogram in the past 2 years, while having a PCP was positively associated. Ever having a mammogram was positively associated with increasing age and years of US residency, and knowing someone with breast cancer. Promoting biennial mammography among American Muslims may require addressing ideas about religious coping and combating perceived religious discrimination through tailored interventions. PMID:24700026

  5. Migration-related phenotypic divergence is associated with epigenetic modifications in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Baerwald, Melinda R; Meek, Mariah H; Stephens, Molly R; Nagarajan, Raman P; Goodbla, Alisha M; Tomalty, Katharine M H; Thorgaard, Gary H; May, Bernie; Nichols, Krista M

    2016-04-01

    Migration is essential for the reproduction and survival of many animals, yet little is understood about its underlying molecular mechanisms. We used the salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss to gain mechanistic insight into smoltification, which is a morphological, physiological and behavioural transition undertaken by juveniles in preparation for seaward migration. O. mykiss is experimentally tractable and displays intra- and interpopulation variation in migration propensity. Migratory individuals can produce nonmigratory progeny and vice versa, indicating a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. One potential way that phenotypic plasticity might be linked to variation in migration-related life history tactics is through epigenetic regulation of gene expression. To explore this, we quantitatively measured genome-scale DNA methylation in fin tissue using reduced representation bisulphite sequencing of F2 siblings produced from a cross between steelhead (migratory) and rainbow trout (nonmigratory) lines. We identified 57 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between smolt and resident O. mykiss juveniles. DMRs were high in magnitude, with up to 62% differential methylation between life history types, and over half of the gene-associated DMRs were in transcriptional regulatory regions. Many of the DMRs encode proteins with activity relevant to migration-related transitions (e.g. circadian rhythm pathway, nervous system development, protein kinase activity). This study provides the first evidence of a relationship between epigenetic variation and life history divergence associated with migration-related traits in any species. PMID:25958780

  6. Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Philip J. Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid; Tal, Michael G.

    2011-02-15

    Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.

  7. Association of Lifestyle-Related Comorbidities With Periodontitis: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of periodontitis with lifestyle-related comorbidities (LCs) using data in the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2002 to 2013. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Using this precisely extracted database, the correlations between LCs (cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, and obesity) and periodontitis were investigated while adjusting for confounding bias. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate differences in variable factors. Among a total of 1,025,340 samples, 321,103 (31.3%) cases were diagnosed with periodontitis. Statistically significant associations were found between all LCs except myocardial infarction and periodontitis (P < 0.005). Periodontitis is significantly and positively correlated with LCs (except for myocardial infarction) after adjusting for confounding bias. In particular, lifestyle-related diseases, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis seem to be intimately related to periodontitis. PMID:26376407

  8. Diet-related practices and BMI are associated with diet quality in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Dara W; Hartman, Terryl J; Still, Christopher; Wood, Craig; Mitchell, Diane; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Bailey, Regan; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Coffman, Donna L; Jensen, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged ≥74 years. Design Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations of DST scores with BMI and diet-related practices after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking and self- v. proxy reporting. Setting Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) in Pennsylvania, USA. Subjects A total of 4009 (1722 males, 2287 females; mean age 81·5 years) participants aged ≥74 years. Results Individuals with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 had a significantly lower DST score (mean 55·8, 95 % CI 52·9, 58·7) than those individuals with BMI = 18·5–24·9 kg/m2 (mean 60·7, 95 % CI 60·1, 61·5; P = 0.001). Older adults with higher, more favourable DST scores were significantly more likely to be food sufficient, report eating breakfast, have no chewing difficulties and report no decline in intake in the previous 6 months. Conclusions The DST may identify potential targets for improving diet quality in older adults including promotion of healthy BMI, breakfast consumption, improving dentition and identifying strategies to decrease concern about food sufficiency. PMID:23816283

  9. Public Relations Accreditation. Proceedings of the Forum of the Commission on Public Relations-Speech Communication Association (2nd, San Francisco, November 18-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal, Ed.

    The first of five articles contained in these public relations accreditation proceedings is a guide for institutions entitled "Accreditation May or May Not Be For You: A Review of Accreditation in Public Relations" (Bonita Dostal Neff). Appended to this article are: International Communication Association's (ICA's) Public Relations Interest Group…

  10. Heterotopic nephrogenic rests in the colon and multiple congenital anomalies: possibly related association.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dhanpat; Martel, Maritza; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel; Parkash, Vinita

    2002-01-01

    Heterotopic renal tissue (HRT) in the wall of the colon is a very rare occurrence, with only five cases published. Our patient is only the second patient reported to have this abnormality in the absence of sirenomelia. We describe colonic HRT in a child, associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The congenital abnormalities were of the VACTERL type, accompanied by valvular cardiac anomalies that were clinically diagnosed as Shone syndrome. The HRT was not apparent clinically or grossly. Microscopically, multifocal islands of renal tissue consisting of glomeruli, cystically dilated tubules, and blastema were seen in all layers of the bowel, and simulated "cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma." Our case provides further support to the belief that VACTERL association and sirenomelia represent related entities. PMID:12375130

  11. Situational and Relational Factors Associated With Coitus During Vaginal Bleeding Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Orr, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal, developmental event anchored in contradictory value systems. Although it demarcates a transition to womanhood, it is often associated with negative sentiments such as shame, camouflage, and discomfort. Certain behavioral expectations, including avoiding sexual intercourse, also accompany menstruation. Research generally has suggested that sex does decrease during menstruation. However, not all sexual activity is suppressed during menses; both individual and relationship factors provide influence. Accordingly, this study investigated situational and relational factors associated with the day-to-day likelihood of sex and vaginal bleeding among 387 (aged 14–17 at enrollment) adolescent women. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression, in SUDAAN 9.0, was used. Predictors of coitus and bleeding included recent sexual activity; past coitus/bleeding; marijuana use before intercourse; and higher partner support, higher sexual interest, and lower feelings of being in love. The findings highlight appropriate areas of focus for information, education, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention counseling. PMID:17879170

  12. Factors associated with work-related fatigue and recovery in hospital nurses working 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne

    2014-10-01

    Nurse fatigue threatens both nurse and patient safety; fatigue affects nurses' neurocognitive functioning and hinders their work performance. The authors assessed the association of work and non-work factors with acute and chronic fatigue and intershift recovery among hospital nurses working 12-hour shifts. This study used survey data from 80 nurses who provided full-time direct patient care on medical-surgical and critical care units in a large teaching hospital. Psychological job demands (e.g., work load and social support from supervisor or coworker) were significantly associated with acute and chronic fatigue and intershift recovery. Rotating shifts were significantly related to acute fatigue. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to fatigue management, including organizational support to provide healthful work schedules and favorable nursing work environments, fewer psychological and physical demands, and assistance to improve nurses' sleep quality and quantity. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):409-414.]. PMID:25199168

  13. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress. PMID:18799323

  14. Association between Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Methylation and Relative Telomere Length in Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Bo; Zou, Ji-Zhen; He, Cai; Zeng, Rui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Fei-Fei; Liu, Zhuo; Ye, Hui; Wu, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: DNA hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINEs-1) occurs during carcinogenesis, whereas information addressing LINE-1 methylation in Wilms tumor (WT) is limited. The main purpose of our study was to quantify LINE-1 methylation levels and evaluate their relationship with relative telomere length (TL) in WT. Methods: We investigated LINE-1 methylation and relative TL using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 20 WT tissues, 10 normal kidney tissues and a WT cell line. Significant changes were analyzed by t-tests. Results: LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and relative TLs were significantly shorter (P < 0.05) in WT compared with normal kidney. There was a significant positive relationship between LINE-1 methylation and relative TL in WT (r = 0.671, P = 0.001). LINE-1 Methylation levels were significantly associated with global DNA methylation (r = 0.332, P < 0.01). In addition, relative TL was shortened and LINE-1 methylation was decreased in a WT cell line treated with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine compared with untreated WT cell line. Conclusion: These results suggest that LINE-1 hypomethylation is common and may be linked to telomere shortening in WT. PMID:26608986

  15. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline. PMID:25866202

  16. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-01-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline. PMID:25866202

  17. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    PubMed

    Todd, Henry; Galea, Gabriel L; Meakin, Lee B; Delisser, Peter J; Lanyon, Lance E; Windahl, Sara H; Price, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse) mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an obligatory contributor to

  18. Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Asthma Related Outcomes in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Hofman, Albert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Few studies have analyzed the association of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with asthma related outcomes in early childhood, including Fraction of exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) and airway resistance (Rint). We examined the association of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with wheezing, asthma, FeNO and Rint at age 6 years. Additionally, the role of potential mediating factors was studied. Methods The study included 6717 children participating in The Generation R Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Data on socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, wheezing and asthma were obtained by questionnaires. FeNO and Rint were measured at the research center. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression models. Results At age 6 years, 9% (456/5084) of the children had wheezing symptoms and 7% (328/4953) had asthma. Children from parents with financial difficulties had an increased risk of wheezing (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.18–2.24). Parental low education, paternal unemployment and child's male sex were associated with asthma, independent of other socioeconomic or sociodemographic factors (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.24–2.15, aOR = 1.85, 95% CI:1.11–3.09, aOR = 1.58, 95% CI:1.24–2.01, respectively). No socioeconomic or gender differences in FeNO were found. The risks of wheezing, asthma, FeNO and Rint measurements differed between ethnic groups (p<0.05). Associations between paternal unemployment, child's sex, ethnicity and asthma related outcomes remained largely unexplained. Conclusions This study showed differences between the socioeconomic and sociodemographic correlates of wheezing and asthma compared to the correlates of FeNO and Rint at age 6 years. Several socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with wheezing and asthma. Child's ethnicity was the only factor independently associated with FeNO. We

  19. Associations between neighbourhood environmental characteristics and obesity and related behaviours among adult New Zealanders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adult obesity is escalating in most wealthy and middle income countries. Due to the magnitude of this issue, research and interventions at the individual-level abound. However, the limited success and high costs of such interventions has led to a growing recognition of the potential role of environmental factors in reducing obesity and promoting physical activity and healthy diets. Methods This study utilised individual-level data from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey on obesity, physical activity, diet and socio-economic variables linked to geographic information from other sources on potentially aetiologically-relevant environmental factors, based on the respondent’s residential address. We fitted logistic regression models for eight binary measures of weight or weight-related behaviours: 1) overweight; 2) obesity; 3) overweight + obesity; 4) active at least 30 minutes a day for 5+ days per week; 5) active <30 minutes per week; 6) walk 150 minutes + per week; 7) walk <30 minutes per week; and 8) consumption of 5+ fruits and vegetables per day. We included a range of independent environmental characteristics of interest in separate models. Results We found that increased neighbourhood deprivation and decreased access to neighbourhood greenspace were both significantly associated with increased odds of overweight and/or obesity. The results for weight-related behaviours indicate that meeting the recommended level of physical activity per week was associated with urban/rural status, with higher activity in the more rural areas and a surprising tendency for less activity among those living in areas with higher levels of active travel to work. Increased access to greenspace was associated with high levels of walking, while decreased access to greenspace was associated with low levels of walking. There was also a significant trend for low levels of walking to be positively associated with neighbourhood deprivation. Results

  20. Detached binary system MQ Centauri and its relation with Crux OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Efecan; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the astrophysical characteristics of eclipsing binary system MQ Cen and its relation with Crux OB1 association has been investigated by means of analysing high resolution (R ˜48000) spectra and light curves in Strömgren bands. Analysis of the available data yielded high precision parameters of the system which allowed us to derive reliable age and distance. The Fourier disentangling method was applied to the composite spectra of MQ Cen for reconstructing the component spectra. The modeling of the high resolution spectra revealed that the secondary component of MQ Cen rotates slower than the synchronous rotation velocity unlike the primary star which is in synchronous rotation. The photometric distance of the binary was found to be consistent with the distance given for Crux OB1 associaton (2.7 kpc) by Kaltcheva and Georgiev (1993). Space velocity of the system also supports the membership of MQ Cen to the Crux OB1 association. Age estimation was made by comparing the positions of components on HR diagram with isochrones. Conclusion shows that MQ Cen is older than the age determined for Crux OB1 association in the literature. This result implies that MQ Cen may belong to one of the older subgroups in the Crux OB1 association complex and the stellar formation in the complex started long ago than previously predicted. The evolutionary status of the component stars suggest that both components have reached the final stage of their Main Sequence lifetime and proceed to the Giant Branch. KEYWORDS: Absolute parameters, Cru OB1, eclipsing binaries, MQ Cen, OB associations, spectral disentangling.

  1. Insomnia Disorder is Associated with Increased Amygdala Reactivity to Insomnia-Related Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Lombardo, Caterina; Violani, Cristiano; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Alterations in emotional reactivity may play a key role in the pathophysiology of insomnia disorder (ID). However, only few supporting experimental data are currently available. We evaluated in a hypothesis-driven design whether patients with ID present altered amygdala responses to emotional stimuli related and unrelated to the experience of insomnia and, because of chronic hyperarousal, less habituation of amygdala responses. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Departments of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and of Radiology of the University of Freiburg Medical Center. Participants: There were 22 patients with ID (15 females; 7 males; age 40.7 ± 12.6 y) and 38 healthy good sleepers (HGS, 21 females; 17 males; age 39.6 ± 8.9 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In a functional magnetic resonance imaging session, five different blocks of pictures with varying emotional arousal, valence, and content (insomnia-relatedness) were presented. Pictures were presented twice to test for habituation processes. Results showed that patients with ID, compared to HGS, presented heightened amygdala responses to insomnia-related stimuli. Moreover, habituation of amygdala responses was observed only in HGS, but not in patients with ID who showed a mixed pattern of amygdala responses to the second presentation of the stimuli. Conclusions: The results provide evidence for an insomnia-related emotional bias in patients with insomnia disorder. Cognitive behavior treatment for the disorder could benefit from strategies dealing with the emotional charge associated with the disorder. Further studies should clarify the role of insomnia disorder with respect to habituation of amygdala responses. Citation: Baglioni C, Spiegelhalder K, Regen W, Feige B, Nissen C, Lombardo C, Violani C, Hennig J, Riemann D. Insomnia disorder is associated with increased amygdala reactivity to insomnia-related stimuli. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1907-1917. PMID:25325493

  2. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the U.S. and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; calendar, 2002-2009; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  3. Delusions related to infant and their association with mother-infant interactions in postpartum psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P S; Bhargavaraman, R P; Raghunandan, V N G P; Shaligram, D

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between mother infant interactions and psychopathology in postpartum psychotic disorders has been recognised as being clinically important, however data in the field is sparse. The current study had two aims--firstly, to study the prevalence and nature of delusions towards the infant among mothers with postpartum onset severe mental illness and secondly, to study the association between delusional symptoms towards the infant and mother infant interactions. 108 consecutive women with onset of severe mental illness in the postpartum, who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit in South India over a two-year period, were systematically assessed for presence of delusions related to the infant, using the Kannada version of the Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health. Fifty-three percent of subjects reported delusions related to the infant, with 34% reporting more than one delusion. Mothers with infant related persecutory delusions were more likely to show affectionate behaviour and had normal competence and caring for baby's basic needs; however, they were more likely to get disturbed and agitated if separated from the baby. Mothers who had delusions that the baby was a devil or ill fated or someone else's baby, were more likely to have significant abusive incidents towards the baby. Overall, the mothers who had delusions related to the infant were seen to have more significant abusive incidents and were more likely to be considered unsafe in looking after the baby alone. The study emphasises the need for systematic clinical assessment of psychopathology in mothers with postpartum psychosis. PMID:16937315

  4. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker

    PubMed Central

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O.; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie; Jacklin, Elizabeth; Riddick, Kate; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Rolfs, Arndt; Rimmele, Florian; Wright, Naomi; Taylor, Clare; Ramaswami, Uma; Cox, Timothy M.; Hastings, Caroline; Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Ory, Daniel S.; Arias, Begona; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Sillence, Daniel J.; Wraith, James E.; Porter, Forbes D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Platt, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international study of NPC patients. Pediatric NPC subjects had elevated acidic compartment volume that correlated with age-adjusted clinical severity and was reduced in response to therapy with miglustat, a European Medicines Agency–approved drug that has been shown to reduce NPC1-associated neuropathology. Measurement of relative acidic compartment volume was also useful for monitoring therapeutic responses of an NPC2 patient after bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, this metric identified a potential adverse event in NPC1 patients receiving i.v. cyclodextrin therapy. Our data indicate that relative acidic compartment volume may be a useful biomarker to aid diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and evaluation of therapeutic responses in patients with lysosomal disorders. PMID:24487591

  5. Association of CYP3A4 genotype with treatment-related leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Carolyn A.; Walker, Amy H.; Lange, Beverly J.; Williams, Terence M.; Winick, Naomi J.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Lovett, Brian D.; Nowell, Peter C.; Blair, Ian A.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    Epipodophyllotoxins are associated with leukemias characterized by translocations of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 and other translocations. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A metabolizes epipodophyllotoxins and other chemotherapeutic agents. CYP3A metabolism generates epipodophyllotoxin catechol and quinone metabolites, which could damage DNA. There is a polymorphism in the 5′ promoter region of the CYP3A4 gene (CYP3A4-V) that might alter the metabolism of anticancer drugs. We examined 99 de novo and 30 treatment-related leukemias with a conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis assay for the presence of the CYP3A4-V. In all treatment-related cases, there was prior exposure to one or more anticancer drugs metabolized by CYP3A. Nineteen of 99 de novo (19%) and 1 of 30 treatment-related (3%) leukemias carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0.026; Fisher’s Exact Test, FET). Nine of 42 de novo leukemias with MLL gene translocations (21%), and 0 of 22 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0.016, FET). This relationship remained significant when 19 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations that followed epipodophyllotoxin exposure were compared with the same 42 de novo cases (P = 0.026, FET). These data suggest that individuals with CYP3A4-W genotype may be at increased risk for treatment-related leukemia and that epipodophyllotoxin metabolism by CYP3A4 may contribute to the secondary cancer risk. The CYP3A4-W genotype may increase production of potentially DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. The variant may decrease production of the epipodophyllotoxin catechol metabolite, which is the precursor of the potentially DNA-damaging quinone. PMID:9789061

  6. Association of CYP3A4 genotype with treatment-related leukemia.

    PubMed

    Felix, C A; Walker, A H; Lange, B J; Williams, T M; Winick, N J; Cheung, N K; Lovett, B D; Nowell, P C; Blair, I A; Rebbeck, T R

    1998-10-27

    Epipodophyllotoxins are associated with leukemias characterized by translocations of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 and other translocations. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A metabolizes epipodophyllotoxins and other chemotherapeutic agents. CYP3A metabolism generates epipodophyllotoxin catechol and quinone metabolites, which could damage DNA. There is a polymorphism in the 5' promoter region of the CYP3A4 gene (CYP3A4-V) that might alter the metabolism of anticancer drugs. We examined 99 de novo and 30 treatment-related leukemias with a conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis assay for the presence of the CYP3A4-V. In all treatment-related cases, there was prior exposure to one or more anticancer drugs metabolized by CYP3A. Nineteen of 99 de novo (19%) and 1 of 30 treatment-related (3%) leukemias carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0.026; Fisher's Exact Test, FET). Nine of 42 de novo leukemias with MLL gene translocations (21%), and 0 of 22 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations carried the CYP3A4-V (P = 0. 016, FET). This relationship remained significant when 19 treatment-related leukemias with MLL gene translocations that followed epipodophyllotoxin exposure were compared with the same 42 de novo cases (P = 0.026, FET). These data suggest that individuals with CYP3A4-W genotype may be at increased risk for treatment-related leukemia and that epipodophyllotoxin metabolism by CYP3A4 may contribute to the secondary cancer risk. The CYP3A4-W genotype may increase production of potentially DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. The variant may decrease production of the epipodophyllotoxin catechol metabolite, which is the precursor of the potentially DNA-damaging quinone. PMID:9789061

  7. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  8. Aging and associative recognition: A view from the DRYAD model of age-related memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    How do we best characterize the memory deficits that accompany aging? A popular hypothesis, articulated originally by Naveh-Benjamin (2000) and reviewed in the accompanying article by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016), suggests that older adults are selectively deficient in establishing associations between to-be-learned memoranda and as a result have deficits in memory for sources or contexts. An alternative proposal, called density of representations yields age-related deficits (DRYAD) and outlined in recent articles by Benjamin (2010) and colleagues (Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes disproportionate deficits in memory to a global, rather than a selective, deficit of memory. In an attempt to adjudicate between these competing positions, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) discussed 2 sets of experimental data that they claim speak against the global deficit model. Here I review some general principles of how the global-deficit view is applied to experimental paradigms and demonstrate that even a simplified form of DRYAD can comfortably accommodate the critical findings cited by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin. I also evaluate aspects of their results that may be problematic for DRYAD and describe ways in which DRYAD's account of associative recognition can be falsified. I end with a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the 2 approaches and consider ways in which the associative deficit hypothesis and DRYAD might work more profitably together than apart. PMID:26866587

  9. The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites.

    PubMed

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Gruntjes, Thijs; Otani, Saria; Estevez, James; da Costa, Rafael R; Plunkett, Guy; Perna, Nicole T; Poulsen, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients. Their fungal cultivar, Termitomyces, is the main plant degrader and food source for the termites, while gut bacteria complement Termitomyces in the degradation of foodstuffs, fixation of nitrogen, and metabolism of amino acids and sugars. Due to the community complexity and because these typically anaerobic bacteria can rarely be cultured, little is known about the physiological capabilities of individual bacterial members of the gut communities and their associations with the termite host. The bacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis is associated with fungus-growing termites, but this genus is generally understudied, with only two described species. Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions. Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts. PMID:26162887

  10. Work-Related Activities Associated with Injury in Occupational and Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Marc; King, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine work activities associated with work-related injury (WRI) in occupational and physical therapy. Participants 1,158 occupational and physical therapists in Wisconsin responded to a mailed survey, from a total of 3,297 OTs and PTs randomly selected from the State licensure list. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, survey design. Participants reported information about WRI they sustained between 2004 and 2006, including the activities they were performing when injured. Investigators analyzed 248 injury incidents using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results Data were examined across OT and PT practice in general, and also by practice area. Manual therapy and transfers/lifts were associated with 54% of all injuries. Other activities associated with injury were distinct to practice area, for example: floor work in pediatrics; functional activities in acute care; patient falls in skilled nursing facilities; and motor vehicle activities in home care. Conclusions Injury prevention activities must address transfers and manual therapy, but also must examine setting-specific activities influenced by environment and patient population. PMID:22523031

  11. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes are associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin levels

    PubMed Central

    Setoh, Kazuya; Terao, Chikashi; Muro, Shigeo; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) encoded by SERPINA1 is an acute-phase inflammation marker, and AAT deficiency (AATD) is known as one of the common genetic disorders in European populations. However, no genetic determinants to AAT levels apart from the SERPINA gene clusters have been identified to date. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of serum AAT levels followed by a two-staged replication study recruiting a total of 9,359 Japanese community-dwelling population. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes, namely, rs671 in ALDH2, rs1169288 in HNF1A and rs1260326 in GCKR, significantly associate with AAT levels (P≤1.5 × 10−12). Previous reports have shown the functional relevance of ALDH2 and HNF1A to AAT. We observe a significant interaction of rs671 and alcohol consumption on AAT levels. We confirm the association between AAT and rs2896268 in SERPINA1, which is independent of known causative variants of AATD. These findings would support various AAT functions including metabolic processes. PMID:26174136

  12. Insights into transport velocity of colloid-associated plutonium relative to tritium in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lu, Jiachun; Lin, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xiaohua; Xu, Qichu; Li, Mei; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Although faster transport velocities of colloid-associated actinides, bacteria, and virus than nonreactive solutes have been observed in laboratory and field experiments, some questions still need to be answered. To accurately determine the relative velocity (UPu/UT) of 239Pu and tritium representative of the bulk water, a conceptual model of electrostatic interactions coupled with the parabolic water velocity profile in pore channels is developed. Based on the expression for UPu/UT derived from this model, we study the effects of water flow rates and ionic strengths on the UPu/UT. Also, the velocity relationship between Pu, tritium and Sr2+ is explored. The results show that UPu/UT increased fairly linearly with decreasing water flow rates; UPu/UT declined approximately exponentially with increasing Na+ concentrations; the charge properties of colloid-associated Pu (negative), tritium (neutral) and Sr2+ (positive) had a close association with their transport velocities as UPu : UT : USr2+ = 1.41 : 1 : 0.579. PMID:24849695

  13. Disease-association analysis of an inflammation-related feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masaaki; Harada, Masaya; Kamimura, Daisuke; Ogura, Hideki; Okuyama, Yuko; Kumai, Noriko; Okuyama, Azusa; Singh, Rajeev; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Atsumi, Toru; Shiraya, Sayaka; Nakatsuji, Yuji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Nishida, Makoto; Sakoda, Saburo; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko; Yamaguchi-Takihara, Keiko; Hirano, Toshio

    2013-03-28

    The IL-6-triggered positive feedback loop for NFκB signaling (or the IL-6 amplifier/Inflammation amplifier) was originally discovered as a synergistic-activation signal that follows IL-17/IL-6 stimulation in nonimmune cells. Subsequent results from animal models have shown that the amplifier is activated by stimulation of NFκB and STAT3 and induces chemokines and inflammation via an NFκB loop. However, its role in human diseases is unclear. Here, we combined two genome-wide mouse screens with SNP-based disease association studies, revealing 1,700 genes related to the IL-6 amplifier, 202 of which showed 492 indications of association with ailments beyond autoimmune diseases. We followed up on ErbB1 from our list. Blocking ErbB1 signaling suppressed the IL-6 amplifier, whereas the expression of epiregulin, an ErbB1 ligand, was higher in patients with inflammatory diseases. These results indicate that the IL-6 amplifier is indeed associated with human diseases and disorders and that the identified genes may make for potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23434511

  14. The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites

    PubMed Central

    Gruntjes, Thijs; Otani, Saria; Estevez, James; da Costa, Rafael R.; Plunkett, Guy; Perna, Nicole T.; Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients. Their fungal cultivar, Termitomyces, is the main plant degrader and food source for the termites, while gut bacteria complement Termitomyces in the degradation of foodstuffs, fixation of nitrogen, and metabolism of amino acids and sugars. Due to the community complexity and because these typically anaerobic bacteria can rarely be cultured, little is known about the physiological capabilities of individual bacterial members of the gut communities and their associations with the termite host. The bacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis is associated with fungus-growing termites, but this genus is generally understudied, with only two described species. Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions. Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts. PMID:26162887

  15. The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    PubMed Central

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: −0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  16. The association between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

    PubMed

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  17. Genome-wide association study of drought-related resistance traits in Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-07-01

    The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27392238

  18. Initiation of CMEs associated with filament eruption, and the nature of CME related shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainshtein, V. G.; Egorov, Ya. I.

    2015-02-01

    Using data from SDO, PROBA2 and other spacecraft, Fainshtein and Egorov (2013) have discovered processes accompanying initiation of six limb CMEs and have studied features of their motion. The said CMEs occurred after eruption of prominence or hot emission loop and were associated with X-ray flares. The follow-up study of the CMEs, associated with the prominence eruption, showed that the formation of such mass ejections and the initial stage of their motion may be characterised by special features. In this work, we give examples of CMEs with such features. We have revealed a positive correlation between the height of the CME-related eruptive prominence and the height of the frontal structure of CMEs measured before they began to move. By analysing two of the CMEs, using SDO data, we found out that the kinematics of CME body and its related shock differs considerably. We have established that the time dependence of shock position and velocity obtained from SDO data is in agreement with theoretical dependencies of variation in these motion parameters with time in the context of self-similar motion of an explosion shock. We have concluded that the shock are not piston-like with the CME body acting as a piston.

  19. Drinking Reductions following Alcohol-related Sanctions are associated with Social Norms among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.; Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of post-sanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N=658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that post-sanction drinking was significantly lower than pre-sanction drinking across four outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all four drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy. PMID:24274435

  20. [Genome-Wide Association Studies for life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shiro

    2016-03-01

    After the completion of human genome project, development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing technology and collation of information regarding linkage disequilibrium in the human genome have facilitated genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for investigating genes associated with disease susceptibility across the entire human genome. In case of type 2 diabetes, approximately 100 genetic loci have been identified and confirmed as susceptibility to the disease through GWAS in different ethnic groups, including Japanese, European, East Asian and South Asian populations. However, integration of these information accounts for less than 20% of the disease heritability, and thus most of the heritability of type 2 diabetes remain to be identified. Since the rationale of GWAS is based on the hypothesis that common variants contribute to the susceptibility to common diseases, common disease-common variant hypothesis, GWAS have selectively identified common susceptibility variants (allele frequency>=0.05) with lower effect size (odds ratio<1.5), that is a limitation of the GWAS approach. Although GWAS have brought a significant breakthrough in the field of genetic study for life-style related diseases, new approaches other than GWAS, such as whole genome sequencing to identify rare variants with greater effect size or integration of genetic and environmental information, will be required to elucidate a heritability of life-style related diseases completely. PMID:26923980

  1. Genome-wide association study of drought-related resistance traits in Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27560650

  2. Association between FBP1 and hypoxia-related gene expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    NING, XIANG-HUI; LI, TENG; GONG, YAN-QING; HE, QUN; SHEN, QI; PENG, SHUANG-HE; WANG, JIANG-YI; CHEN, JIN-CHAO; GUO, YING-LU; GONG, KAN

    2016-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Recently, the catalytic activity-independent function of FBP1, hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) repression in the nucleus, was identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between FBP1 and hypoxia-related gene expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The protein expression levels of FBP1, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, erythropoietin (EPO) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) were assessed by immunohistochemical staining of ccRCC paraffin blocks from 123 patients using the tissue microarray technique. The expression level of FBP1 was then correlated with various clinicopathological factors, and the protein expression levels of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, EPO and CA9. Clinicopathological factors, including age, gender, T stage and Fuhrman grade, were not significantly different between patients with low and high FBP1 expression in ccRCC (P>0.05). FBP1 protein expression level was significantly correlated with the expression levels of HIF-1α (P=0.005) and EPO (P=0.010), but not significantly correlated with the expression levels of HIF-2α (P=0.123) and CA9 (P=0.513) in ccRCC tissues. The current findings confirm the association between FBP1 and hypoxia-related gene expression, and may facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of ccRCC tumorigenesis. PMID:27313747

  3. Genome-wide association study of drought-related resistance traits in Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-01-01

    The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27560650

  4. Abnormal liver function and central obesity associate with work-related fatigue among the Taiwanese workers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Jong-Dar; Chen, Chao-Jen

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the associations between objective health indicators and high need for recovery (NFR) after work, one of the subjective presentations of work related-fatigue, among apparently healthy workers in modern workplaces. METHODS: From October to December, 2007, an annual health examination was performed for the workers from an electronics manufacturing factory in Taiwan. Health records of 1216 workers with a relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status were used for analysis. The health checkups included personal and NFR scale questionnaires, physical examinations, blood tests for biochemistry and hematology. The workers within the top tertile NFR score were defined as high-NFR workers. RESULTS: After adjusted for potential confounders, the workers with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and central obesity had a significantly higher NFR after work, with increased risks of 1.4-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-2.0] and 1.8-fold (95% CI = 1.2-2.7), respectively. Shiftworkers had a 2.0-fold (95% CI = 1.5-2.6) increased risk for high-NFR. The associations between high-NFR and lipid profiles, blood sugar, hematology indexes or blood pressure were insignificant after controlling for confounders. CONCLUSION: For apparently healthy workers, high NFR after work is not simply a subjective experience. Objective health measures, such as elevated ALT and increased waist circumference, should be carefully evaluated for the apparently healthy workers having a higher NFR after work. PMID:19030209

  5. Natalizumab-related anaphylactoid reactions in MS patients are associated with HLA class II alleles

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, Belén; Urcelay, Elena; Brassat, David; Chan, Andrew; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Salmen, Anke; Villar, Luisa Maria; Álvarez-Cermeño, José Carlos; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Fernández, Oscar; Oliver, Begoña; Saiz, Albert; Ara, Jose Ramón; Vigo, Ana G.; Arroyo, Rafael; Meca, Virginia; Malhotra, Sunny; Fissolo, Nicolás; Horga, Alejandro; Montalban, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate potential associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles and the development of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab. Methods: HLA class I and II genotyping was performed in patients with MS who experienced anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and in patients who did not develop infusion-related allergic reactions following natalizumab administration. Results: A total of 119 patients with MS from 3 different cohorts were included in the study: 54 with natalizumab-related anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and 65 without allergic reactions. HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-DRB1*14 alleles were significantly increased in patients who developed anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (pM-H = 3 × 10−7; odds ratio [OR]M-H = 8.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.40–23.64), with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 82%. In contrast, the HLA-DRB1*15 allele was significantly more represented in patients who did not develop anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions to natalizumab (pM-H = 6 × 10−4; ORM-H = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.08–0.50), with a PPV of 81%. Conclusions: HLA-DRB1 genotyping before natalizumab treatment may help neurologists to identify patients with MS at risk for developing serious systemic hypersensitivity reactions associated with natalizumab administration. PMID:25520955

  6. Factors Associated with Myelosuppression Related to Low-Dose Methotrexate Therapy for Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shunsuke; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawakita, Toshiro; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshitama, Tamami; Migita, Kiyoshi; Ueki, Yukitaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe myelosuppression is a serious concern in the management of rheumatic disease patients receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This study was intended to explore factors associated with the development of MTX-related myelosuppression and its disease severity. Methods We retrospectively examined a total of 40 cases of MTX-related myelosuppression that had been filed in the registries of participating rheumatology and hematology divisions. Data before onset were compared with those of 120 controls matched for age and sex. Cytopenia was graded according to the National Cancer Institute criteria for adverse events. Data before and at onset were compared between the severe and non-severe groups. Results Non-use of folic acid supplements, concurrent medications, and low renal function were significantly associated with the development of myelosuppression (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, significantly lower MTX dosages, higher blood cell counts, and lower hemoglobin levels were seen in the myelosuppression group (p < 0.001). No patients exhibited leukocytopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia in routine blood monitoring taken within the past month. One-fourth developed myelosuppression within the first two months (an early-onset period). Myelosuppression was severe in approximately 40% of patients. Hypoalbuminemia and non-use of folic acid supplements were significantly associated with the severity of pancytopenia (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Besides these two factors, early onset and the use of lower doses of MTX were significantly associated with the severity of neutropenia (p = 0.003, 0.007, 0.003, and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Myelosuppression can occur abruptly at any time during low-dose MTX therapy, but severe neutropenia is more likely to occur in the early-onset period of this therapy. Contrary to our expectations, disease severity was not dependent on MTX doses. Serum albumin levels and folic acid

  7. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    PubMed

    Beecham, Gary W; Hamilton, Kara; Naj, Adam C; Martin, Eden R; Huentelman, Matt; Myers, Amanda J; Corneveaux, Jason J; Hardy, John; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Younkin, Steven G; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Kofler, Julia K; Mash, Deborah C; Duque, Linda; Gilbert, John R; Gwirtsman, Harry; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Kramer, Patricia; Dickson, Dennis W; Farrer, Lindsay A; Frosch, Matthew P; Ghetti, Bernardino; Haines, Jonathan L; Hyman, Bradley T; Kukull, Walter A; Mayeux, Richard P; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schneider, Julie A; Trojanowski, John Q; Reiman, Eric M; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Montine, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are a major public health challenge and present a therapeutic imperative for which we need additional insight into molecular pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study and analysis of known genetic risk loci for AD dementia using neuropathologic data from 4,914 brain autopsies. Neuropathologic data were used to define clinico-pathologic AD dementia or controls, assess core neuropathologic features of AD (neuritic plaques, NPs; neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs), and evaluate commonly co-morbid neuropathologic changes: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Lewy body disease (LBD), hippocampal sclerosis of the elderly (HS), and vascular brain injury (VBI). Genome-wide significance was observed for clinico-pathologic AD dementia, NPs, NFTs, CAA, and LBD with a number of variants in and around the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). GalNAc transferase 7 (GALNT7), ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 1 (ABCG1), and an intergenic region on chromosome 9 were associated with NP score; and Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, Beta Member 2 (KCNMB2) was strongly associated with HS. Twelve of the 21 non-APOE genetic risk loci for clinically-defined AD dementia were confirmed in our clinico-pathologic sample: CR1, BIN1, CLU, MS4A6A, PICALM, ABCA7, CD33, PTK2B, SORL1, MEF2C, ZCWPW1, and CASS4 with 9 of these 12 loci showing larger odds ratio in the clinico-pathologic sample. Correlation of effect sizes for risk of AD dementia with effect size for NFTs or NPs showed positive correlation, while those for risk of VBI showed a moderate negative correlation. The other co-morbid neuropathologic features showed only nominal association with the known AD loci. Our results discovered new genetic associations with specific neuropathologic features and aligned known genetic risk for AD dementia with specific neuropathologic changes in the largest brain autopsy study of AD and related dementias

  8. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of

  9. Association of Relatives of Hemodialysis Patients with Metabolic Syndrome, Albuminuria and Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiun-Chi; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Metabolic syndrome (MetS), albuminuria, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) are significant predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship and clinical significance of these CVD predictors in individuals with a family history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are unclear. We investigated the association of relatives of hemodialysis (HD) patients with MetS, albuminuria, and the FRS. Methods One hundred and sixty-six relatives of HD patients and 374 age- and sex- matched community controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. CVD risk was evaluated by the FRS. Results A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (19.9% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.026), albuminuria (12.7% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.002) and high FRS risk ≥10% of 10-year risk (15.7% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.013) was found in relatives of HD patients compared to their counterpart controls. In multivariate analysis, being relatives of HD patients (vs. controls) was an independent determinant for MetS (odds ratio [OR], 1.785; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.045 to 3.050), albuminuria (OR, 2.891; 95% CI, 1.431 to 5.841), and high FRS risk (OR, 1.863; 95% CI, 1.015 to 3.418). Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.034; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.052) and betel nut chewing (OR, 13.994; 95% CI, 3.384 to 57.871) were independent determinants for having a high FRS risk in relatives of HD patients. Conclusions Being relatives of HD patients was independently associated with MetS, albuminuria and high FRS risk, suggesting family members of ESRD patients may have higher CVD risks through the interactions of renal risk factors. Proactive surveillance of these CVD predictors and preventive strategies should be targeted to this high-risk population. PMID:24804770

  10. Age and intrusive relations of the Lamarck granodiorite and associated mafic plutons, Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Joye, J.L.; Bachl, C.A.; Miller, J.S.; Glazner, A.F. . Dept. of Geology); Frost, T.P. ); Coleman, D.S. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The compositionally zoned Late Cretaceous Lamarck granodiorite, west of Bishop, hosts numerous mafic intrusions ranging from hornblende gabbro to mafic granodiorite. Frost and Mahood (1987) suggested from field relations that the Lamarck and the associated mafic plutons were co-intrusive. Contact relations between the Lamarck host and the mafic intrusions are variable (sharp to diffuse) and in places suggest commingling. In order to constrain the intrusive relationships between the Lamarck and its associated mafic plutons, the authors have analyzed feldspars from the Mt. Gilbert pluton and the Lamarck granodiorite to see if feldspar compositions in the Mt. Gilbert overlap those in the Lamarck host and determined U-Pb zircon ages for the Mt. Gilbert and Lake Sabrina plutons to see if they have the same age as the Lamarck granodiorite. Feldspars from the Lamarck granodiorite are normally zoned and range compositionally from An[sub 38--32]; those in the Mt. Gilbert diorite are also normally zoned but range compositionally from An[sub 49--41] and do not overlap the Lamarck host. Four to five zircon fractions from each pluton were handpicked and dated using U-Pb methods. The Mt. Gilbert mafic diorite has a concordant age of 92.5 Ma and the Lake Sabrina diorite has a concordant age of 91.5 Ma. Ages for the two plutons overlap within error, but multiple fractions from each suggest that the Lake Sabrina pluton is slightly younger than the Mt. Gilbert pluton. These data and field relationships indicate: (1) plagioclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Gilbert pluton were not derived from the Lamarck granodiorite despite their textural similarity; but (2) the Lamarck granodiorite and its associated mafic plutons are co-intrusive as supported by the close agreement of the ages with the crystallization age obtained by Stern and others for the Lamarck granodiorite.

  11. Climate sensitivity of allergenic taxa in Central Europe associated with new climate change related forces.

    PubMed

    Deák, Aron József; Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Muladi, Beáta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse trends of the pollen season with its duration, start and end dates, as well as trends of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covered an 11-year period (1997-2007) that included eight taxa and seven daily climate variables. Trend analysis was performed on both annual and daily bases. Trend analysis on a daily basis is a new approach that provides information on the annual cycles of the trends. To quantify the strength of the relationship between the annual cycle of the slope of a pollen concentration trend and the annual cycles of the slopes of the climate variable trends, an association measure and a multiple association measure are introduced. Individual taxa were sorted into three categories according to their climate sensitivities. These were compared with two novel climate change-related forces, namely risk potential and expansion potential due to the climate change. The total annual pollen counts indicated significant trends for 4 taxa and 3 of these 4 trends increased on a daily basis. At the same time, significant changes were detected for the pollen season characteristics of three taxa. The association measures performed well when compared to the climate change-related forces. Significant changes in pollen season characteristics were also in accordance with the risk potential and expansion potential due to the climate change. A novel procedure was applied to separate the effects of the past and current weather conditions that influence the current Ambrosia pollen concentrations. The potential effect of land use changes on pollen release of the given taxa was also discussed using the CORINE Land Cover Database. PMID:23178762

  12. HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH RELATIVELY LOWER LEAN BODY MASS IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    KALYANI, RITA R.; TRA, Y.; EGAN, J.M.; FERRUCCI, L.; BRANCATI, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults with known diabetes are vulnerable to accelerated loss of lean body mass. However, the relationship of hyperglycemia per se with lean body mass is not fully understood. We sought to examine the independent relationship of hyperglycemia with relative lean body mass in older persons without a reported history of diabetes. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting United States. Participants We studied U.S. adults >50 years without known diabetes (n=5434) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Measurements In linear regression models, we studied the relationship of measured HbA1c (<5.0%, 5.0–5.4%, 5.5–5.9%, 6.0–6.4%, ≥6.5%) with percent lean body mass, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, after accounting for potential confounders. Results Among older U.S. men and women, progressively higher HbA1c was associated with relatively lower total, appendicular, and trunk percent lean mass, independent of demographics and height (all p<0.05). Accounting for physical activity, C-reactive protein, and diabetes-related comorbidities (heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, arthritis, neuropathy, hip fracture, amputation, cancer, pulmonary disease), undiagnosed diabetes (i.e. HbA1c ≥6.5%) versus reference (<5.0%) in both men and women was associated with lower total (−3.5±0.8% and −2.9±0.8%), appendicular (−1.8±0.5% and −1.2±0.4%), and trunk percent lean mass (−1.2±0.4% and −1.3±0.5%), respectively (all p<0.05). Persons at increased risk for diabetes (i.e. HbA1c 6.0–6.4%) also had significant decrements at these sites versus reference. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is associated with relatively lower lean mass in a nationally representative population of older adults without history of diabetes. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of hyperglycemia with the accelerated decline of skeletal muscle mass in older persons

  13. Peers’ Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported gender nonconformity were associated with higher self- and peer-reports of overt and relational victimization and aggression among males and females. The association between peer-reported gender nonconformity and peer-reported overt aggression was moderated by participant sex, such that the association was stronger for females compared to males. Results suggest that perceived gender nonconformity is associated with problematic peer relations, especially among females, in early adolescence and implications of these associations are discussed. PMID:26236066

  14. Association of Vision Loss in Glaucoma and Age-Related Macular Degeneration with IADL Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Chad; Maul, Eugenio; Chan, Emilie S.; Van Landingham, Suzanne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if glaucoma and/or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are associated with disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Methods. Glaucoma subjects (n = 84) with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and AMD subjects (n = 47) with bilateral or severe unilateral visual acuity (VA) loss were compared with 60 subjects with normal vision (controls). Subjects completed a standard IADL disability questionnaire, with disability defined as an inability to perform one or more IADLs unassisted. Results. Disability in one or more IADLs was present in 18.3% of controls as compared with 25.0% of glaucoma subjects (P = 0.34) and 44.7% of AMD subjects (P = 0.003). The specific IADL disabilities occurring more frequently in both AMD and glaucoma subjects were preparing meals, grocery shopping, and out-of-home travelling (P < 0.05 for both). In multivariate logistic regression models run adjusting for age, sex, mental status, comorbidity, and years of education, AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, P = 0.02) but not glaucoma (OR = 1.4, P = 0.45) was associated with IADL disability. However, among glaucoma and control patients, the odds of IADL disability increased 1.6-fold with every 5 dB of VF loss in the better-seeing eye (P = 0.001). Additionally, severe glaucoma subjects (better-eye MD worse than −13.5 dB) had higher odds of IADL disability (OR = 4.2, P = 0.02). Among AMD and control subjects, every Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study line of worse acuity was associated with a greater likelihood of IADL disability (OR = 1.3). Conclusions. VA loss in AMD and severe VF loss in glaucoma are associated with self-reported difficulties with IADLs. These limitations become more likely with increasing magnitude of VA or VF loss. PMID:22491415

  15. Rare Complement Factor H Variant Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Amish

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; CookeBailey, Jessica N.; D'Aoust, Laura; Cade, William; Ayala-Haedo, Juan; Fuzzell, Denise; Laux, Renee; Adams, Larry D.; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Caywood, Laura; Whitehead-Gay, Patrice; Agarwal, Anita; Wang, Gaofeng; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness among the adult population in the developed world. To further the understanding of this disease, we have studied the genetically isolated Amish population of Ohio and Indiana. Methods. Cumulative genetic risk scores were calculated using the 19 known allelic associations. Exome sequencing was performed in three members of a small Amish family with AMD who lacked the common risk alleles in complement factor H (CFH) and ARMS2/HTRA1. Follow-up genotyping and association analysis was performed in a cohort of 973 Amish individuals, including 95 with self-reported AMD. Results. The cumulative genetic risk score analysis generated a mean genetic risk score of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.13) in the Amish controls and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.22) in the Amish cases. This mean difference in genetic risk scores is statistically significant (P = 0.0042). Exome sequencing identified a rare variant (P503A) in CFH. Association analysis in the remainder of the Amish sample revealed that the P503A variant is significantly associated with AMD (P = 9.27 × 10−13). Variant P503A was absent when evaluated in a cohort of 791 elderly non-Amish controls, and 1456 non-Amish cases. Conclusions. Data from the cumulative genetic risk score analysis suggests that the variants reported by the AMDGene consortium account for a smaller genetic burden of disease in the Amish compared with the non-Amish Caucasian population. Using exome sequencing data, we identified a novel missense mutation that is shared among a densely affected nuclear Amish family and located in a gene that has been previously implicated in AMD risk. PMID:24906858

  16. CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, M; García-Giralt, N; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Servitja, S; Balcells, S; Pecorelli, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Tusquets, I; Nogués, X

    2015-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (P<0.005) with FN AIBL at 2 years of treatment. Next, CYP11A1 expression in human fresh bone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss. PMID:26108486

  17. Parents' experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Michael F; Mitnick, Danielle M; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2016-06-01

    In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member's behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the relative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother-toddler dyads. Mothers then rated the extent to which they experienced flooding in response to their children's behavior and emotion displays during the immediately preceding discipline encounters. Mothers' experience of negative emotion was assessed via video-mediated recall. Flooding was positively associated with both overreactive and lax discipline; this association did not reflect confounding by mothers' experience of negative emotion. Flooding was further associated with mothers' experienced negative emotion and heart rate reactivity, as well as child misbehavior and negative emotion displays. The flooding-overreactive discipline association was concentrated in those mothers who exhibited greater increases in heart rate and greater vagal withdrawal, and whose children misbehaved more during the discipline encounter. The present results suggest the incremental validity of flooding in predicting discipline practices, as well as the strong fit of flooding in its nomological network. Parents' self-recognition of flooding may ultimately prove useful in parenting interventions as a signal to trigger compensatory techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26690330

  18. Age-Related Impairments in Object-Place Associations Are Not Due to Hippocampal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Abigail R.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Reasor, Jordan E.; Turner, Sean M.; Barthle, Sarah E.; Johnson, Sarah A.; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline can reduce an individual’s quality of life. As no single neurobiological deficit can account for the wide spectrum of behavioral impairments observed in old age, it is critical to develop an understanding of how interactions between different brain regions change over the life span. The performance of young and aged animals on behaviors that require the hippocampus and cortical regions to interact, however, has not been well characterized. Specifically, the ability to link a spatial location with specific features of a stimulus, such as object identity, relies on the hippocampus, perirhinal and prefrontal cortices. Although aging is associated with dysfunction in each of these brain regions, behavioral measures of functional change within the hippocampus, perirhinal and prefrontal cortices in individual animals are often not correlated. Thus, how dysfunction of a single brain region within this circuit, such as the hippocampus, impacts behaviors that require communication with the perirhinal and prefrontal cortices remains unknown. To address this question, young and aged rats were tested on the interregion dependent object-place paired association task, as well as a hippocampal-dependent test of spatial reference memory. This particular cohort of aged rats did not show deficits on the hippocampal-dependent task, but were significantly impaired at acquiring object-place associations relative to young. These data suggest that behaviors requiring functional connectivity across different regions of the memory network may be particularly sensitive to aging, and can be used to develop models that will clarify the impact of systems-level dysfunction in the elderly. PMID:26413723

  19. Associations between DNA methylation and schizophrenia-related intermediate phenotypes a gene set enrichment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Wright, Carrie; Beyer, Andreas; Scholz, Markus; Turner, Jessica; Liu, Jingyu; Smolka, Michael N.; Roessner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R.; Gollub, Randy L.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple genetic approaches have identified microRNAs as key effectors in psychiatric disorders as they post-transcriptionally regulate expression of thousands of target genes. However, their role in specific psychiatric diseases remains poorly understood. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, which affect the expression of both microRNAs and coding genes, are critical for our understanding of molecular mechanisms in schizophrenia. Using clinical, imaging, genetic, and epigenetic data of 103 patients with schizophrenia and 111 healthy controls of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia, we conducted gene set enrichment analysis to identify markers for schizophrenia-associated intermediate phenotypes. Genes were ranked based on the correlation between DNA methylation patterns and each phenotype, and then searched for enrichment in 221 predicted microRNA target gene sets. We found the predicted hsa-miR-219a-5p target gene set to be significantly enriched for genes (EPHA4, PKNOX1, ESR1, amongst others) whose methylation status is correlated with hippocampal volume independent of disease status. Our results were strengthened by significant associations between hsa-miR-219a-5p target gene methylation patterns and hippocampus-related neuropsychological variables. IPA pathway analysis of the respective predicted hsa-miR-219a-5p target genes revealed associated network functions in behaviour and developmental disorders. Altered methylation patterns of predicted hsa-miR-219a-5p target genes are associated with a structural aberration of the brain that has been proposed as a possible biomarker for schizophrenia. The (dys)regulation of microRNA target genes by epigenetic mechanisms may confer additional risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Further study is needed to understand possible interactions between microRNAs and epigenetic changes and their impact on risk for brain-based disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID

  20. Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases is still poorly understood. Determining the variations in the transcriptome in the early phases of the disease might clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of the prion-induced pathology and allow for the development of new biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. This study is the first to focus on the identification of genes regulated during the preclinical phases of natural scrapie in the ovine medulla oblongata (MO) and the association of these genes with prion deposition, astrocytosis and spongiosis. Results A custom microarray platform revealed that 86 significant probes had expression changes greater than 2-fold. From these probes, we identified 32 genes with known function; the highest number of regulated genes was included in the phosphoprotein-encoding group. Genes encoding extracellular marker proteins and those involved in the immune response and apoptosis were also differentially expressed. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the gene expression profiles and the appearance of the main scrapie-associated brain lesions. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to validate the expression of some of the regulated genes, thus showing the reliability of the microarray hybridization technology. Conclusions Genes involved in protein and metal binding and oxidoreductase activity were associated with prion deposition. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding proteins with oxidoreductase and phosphatase activity, and the expression of spongiosis was related to genes encoding extracellular matrix components or transmembrane transporters. This is the first genome-wide expression study performed in naturally infected sheep with preclinical scrapie. As in previous studies, our findings confirm the close relationship between scrapie and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22897917

  1. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23349696

  2. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. Methods In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results According to parents’ rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study revealed that children's family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child's potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies. PMID:24454423

  3. Associations between KCNJ6 (GIRK2) gene polymorphisms and pain-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen; Denton, Jerod S; Lonergan, Daniel; Koran, Mary Ellen; Chont, Melissa; Sobey, Christopher; Fernando, Shanik; Bush, William S; Mishra, Puneet; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2013-12-01

    G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are effectors determining degree of analgesia experienced upon opioid receptor activation by endogenous and exogenous opioids. The impact of GIRK-related genetic variation on human pain responses has received little research attention. We used a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach to comprehensively examine pain-related effects of KCNJ3 (GIRK1) and KCNJ6 (GIRK2) gene variation. Forty-one KCNJ3 and 69 KCNJ6 tag SNPs were selected, capturing the known variability in each gene. The primary sample included 311 white patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty in whom postsurgical oral opioid analgesic medication order data were available. Primary sample findings were then replicated in an independent white sample of 63 healthy pain-free individuals and 75 individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who provided data regarding laboratory acute pain responsiveness (ischemic task) and chronic pain intensity and unpleasantness (CLBP only). Univariate quantitative trait analyses in the primary sample revealed that 8 KCNJ6 SNPs were significantly associated with the medication order phenotype (P < .05); overall effects of the KCNJ6 gene (gene set-based analysis) just failed to reach significance (P = .054). No significant KCNJ3 effects were observed. A continuous GIRK Related Risk Score (GRRS) was derived in the primary sample to summarize each individual's number of KCNJ6 "pain risk" alleles. This GRRS was applied to the replication sample, which revealed significant associations (P < .05) between higher GRRS values and lower acute pain tolerance and higher CLBP intensity and unpleasantness. Results suggest further exploration of the impact of KCNJ6 genetic variation on pain outcomes is warranted. PMID:23994450

  4. Associations Between KCNJ6 (GIRK2) Gene Polymorphisms and Pain-Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bruehl, Stephen; Denton, Jerod S.; Lonergan, Daniel; Koran, Mary Ellen; Chont, Melissa; Sobey, Christopher; Fernando, Shanik; Bush, William S.; Mishra, Puneet; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Variations in the KCNJ6 gene appear to influence both acute and chronic pain phenotypes. G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are effectors determining degree of analgesia experienced upon opioid receptor activation by endogenous and exogenous opioids. The impact of GIRK-related genetic variation on human pain responses has received little research attention. We used a tag SNP approach to comprehensively examine pain-related effects of KCNJ3 (GIRK1) and KCNJ6 (GIRK2) gene variation. Forty-one KCNJ3 and 69 KCNJ6 tag SNPs were selected, capturing the known variability in each gene. The primary sample included 311 Caucasian patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty in whom post-surgical oral opioid analgesic medication order data were available. Primary sample findings were then replicated in an independent Caucasian sample of 63 healthy pain-free individuals and 75 individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who provided data regarding laboratory acute pain responsiveness (ischemic task) and chronic pain intensity and unpleasantness (CLBP Only). Univariate quantitative trait analyses in the primary sample revealed that 8 KCNJ6 SNPs were significantly associated with the medication order phenotype (p < 0.05); overall effects of the KCNJ6 gene (gene set-based analysis) just failed to reach significance (p=.054). No significant KCNJ3 effects were observed. A continuous GIRK Related Risk Score (GRRS) was derived in the primary sample to summarize each individual's number of KCNJ6 “pain risk” alleles. This GRRS was applied to the replication sample, which revealed significant associations (p<.05) between higher GRRS values and lower acute pain tolerance and higher CLBP intensity and unpleasantness. Results suggest further exploration of the impact of KCNJ6 genetic variation on pain outcomes is warranted. PMID:23994450

  5. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  6. Factors associated with pilot fatality in work-related aircraft crashes, Alaska, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Bensyl, D M; Moran, K; Conway, G A

    2001-12-01

    Work-related aircraft crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatality in Alaska, with civilian pilots having the highest fatality rate (410/100,000/year). To identify factors affecting survivability, the authors examined work-related aircraft crashes that occurred in Alaska in the 1990s (1990-1999), comparing crashes with pilot fatalities to crashes in which the pilot survived. Using data from National Transportation Safety Board reports, the authors carried out logistic regression analysis with the following variables: age, flight experience, use of a shoulder restraint, weather conditions (visual flight vs. instrument flight), light conditions (daylight vs. darkness), type of aircraft (airplane vs. helicopter), postcrash fire, crash location (airport vs. elsewhere), and state of residence. In the main-effects model, significant associations were found between fatality and postcrash fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38, 17.37), poor weather (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.15, 7.87), and non-Alaska resident status (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.20). Protective effects were seen for shoulder restraint use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77) and daylight versus darkness (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.99). The finding that state of residence was associated with survivability offers new information on pilot survivability in work-related aircraft crashes in Alaska. These results may be useful in targeting safety interventions for pilots who fly occupationally in Alaska or in similar environments. PMID:11724720

  7. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T.; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P. Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B.; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J. Grover; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  8. Cell Phone-Related Near Accidents Among Young Drivers: Associations With Mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Terry, Christopher P; Terry, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use while driving (CPWD) has been shown to significantly reduce driver safety. This is a particular concern among young drivers who possess less driving experience and tend to engage in high rates of cell phone use. The present study identified psychological predictors of near accidents related to CPWD among a sample of 385 college student drivers. Participants answered a series of questions regarding their use of a cell phone while driving and completed measures of mindfulness, polychronicity, and intrusive thinking. Students who reported talking on their phone or texting more frequently while driving reported a higher incidence of near accidents related to each behavior. However, after controlling for CPWD, multiple regression analysis indicated that those who reported experiencing more cell phone-related intrusive thoughts also experienced more near accidents. Furthermore, two facets of mindfulness--acting with awareness and nonjudging of inner experience--were negatively associated with near accidents. These findings suggest that individuals who are more aware of the present moment and accepting of their affective responses may better regulate their attention while using a cell phone behind the wheel. PMID:25365542

  9. Implementation Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs Associated With Reductions In Opioid-Related Death Rates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Fry, Carrie E; Jones, Timothy F; Buntin, Melinda B

    2016-07-01

    Over the past two decades the number of opioid pain relievers sold in the United States rose dramatically. This rise in sales was accompanied by an increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. In response, forty-nine states (all but Missouri) created prescription drug monitoring programs to detect high-risk prescribing and patient behaviors. Our objectives were to determine whether the implementation or particular characteristics of the programs were effective in reducing opioid-related overdose deaths. In adjusted analyses we found that a state's implementation of a program was associated with an average reduction of 1.12 opioid-related overdose deaths per 100,000 population in the year after implementation. Additionally, states whose programs had robust characteristics-including monitoring greater numbers of drugs with abuse potential and updating their data at least weekly-had greater reductions in deaths, compared to states whose programs did not have these characteristics. We estimate that if Missouri adopted a prescription drug monitoring program and other states enhanced their programs with robust features, there would be more than 600 fewer overdose deaths nationwide in 2016, preventing approximately two deaths each day. PMID:27335101

  10. Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

  11. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  12. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  13. Sport-related structural brain injury associated with arachnoid cysts: a systematic review and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Prather, Colin T; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital lesions bordered by an arachnoid membrane. Researchers have postulated that individuals with an AC demonstrate a higher rate of structural brain injury after trauma. Given the potential neurological consequences of a structural brain injury requiring neurosurgical intervention, the authors sought to perform a systematic review of sport-related structural-brain injury associated with ACs with a corresponding quantitative analysis. METHODS Titles and abstracts were searched systematically across the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed case reports, case series, or observational studies that reported a structural brain injury due to a sport or recreational activity (hereafter referred to as sport-related) with an associated AC were included. Patients were excluded if they did not have an AC, suffered a concussion without structural brain injury, or sustained the injury during a non-sport-related activity (e.g., fall, motor vehicle collision). Descriptive statistical analysis and time to presentation data were summarized. Univariate logistic regression models to assess predictors of neurological deficit, open craniotomy, and cystoperitoneal shunt were completed. RESULTS After an initial search of 994 original articles, 52 studies were found that reported 65 cases of sport-related structural brain injury associated with an AC. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 4-75 years). Headache was the most common presenting symptom (98%), followed by nausea and vomiting in 49%. Thirteen patients (21%) presented with a neurological deficit, most commonly hemiparesis. Open craniotomy was the most common form of treatment (49%). Bur holes and cyst fenestration were performed in 29 (45%) and 31 (48%) patients, respectively. Seven patients (11%) received

  14. Dietary Factors Impact on the Association between CTSS Variants and Obesity Related Traits

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Claus; Hager, Jorg; Rousseau, Francis; Hansen, Rikke D.; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; van der A, Daphne L.; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Saris, Wim H. M.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Wareham, Nicolas J.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Langin, Dominique; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Clément, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Cathepsin S, a protein coded by the CTSS gene, is implicated in adipose tissue biology–this protein enhances adipose tissue development. Our hypothesis is that common variants in CTSS play a role in body weight regulation and in the development of obesity and that these effects are influenced by dietary factors–increased by high protein, glycemic index and energy diets. Methods Four tag SNPs (rs7511673, rs11576175, rs10888390 and rs1136774) were selected to capture all common variation in the CTSS region. Association between these four SNPs and several adiposity measurements (BMI, waist circumference, waist for given BMI and being a weight gainer–experiencing the greatest degree of unexplained annual weight gain during follow-up or not) given, where applicable, both as baseline values and gain during the study period (6–8 years) were tested in 11,091 European individuals (linear or logistic regression models). We also examined the interaction between the CTSS variants and dietary factors–energy density, protein content (in grams or in % of total energy intake) and glycemic index–on these four adiposity phenotypes. Results We found several associations between CTSS polymorphisms and anthropometric traits including baseline BMI (rs11576175 (SNP N°2), p = 0.02, β = −0.2446), and waist change over time (rs7511673 (SNP N°1), p = 0.01, β = −0.0433 and rs10888390 (SNP N°3), p = 0.04, β = −0.0342). In interaction with the percentage of proteins contained in the diet, rs11576175 (SNP N°2) was also associated with the risk of being a weight gainer (pinteraction = 0.01, OR = 1.0526)–the risk of being a weight gainer increased with the percentage of proteins contained in the diet. Conclusion CTSS variants seem to be nominally associated to obesity related traits and this association may be modified by dietary protein intake. PMID:22844403

  15. Genome-wide association study of neocortical Lewy-related pathology

    PubMed Central

    Peuralinna, Terhi; Myllykangas, Liisa; Oinas, Minna; Nalls, Mike A; Keage, Hannah A D; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Valori, Miko; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Paetau, Anders; Sulkava, Raimo; Ince, Paul G; Zaccai, Julia; Brayne, Carol; Traynor, Bryan J; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B; Tienari, Pentti J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies is an α-synucleinopathy characterized by neocortical Lewy-related pathology (LRP). We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on neocortical LRP in a population-based sample of subjects aged 85 or over. Methods LRP was analyzed in 304 subjects in the Vantaa 85+ sample from Southern Finland. The GWAS included 41 cases with midbrain, hippocampal, and neocortical LRP and 177 controls without midbrain and hippocampal LRP. The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) material was used for replication (51 cases and 131 controls). Results By analyzing 327,010 markers the top signal was obtained at the HLA-DPA1/DPB1 locus (P = 1.29 × 10−7); five other loci on chromosomes 15q14, 2p21, 2q31, 18p11, and 5q23 were associated with neocortical LRP at P < 10−5. Two loci were marked by multiple markers, 2p21 (P = 3.9 × 10−6, upstream of the SPTBN1 gene), and HLA-DPA1/DPB1; these were tested in the CFAS material. Single marker (P = 0.0035) and haplotype (P = 0.04) associations on 2p21 were replicated in CFAS, whereas HLA-DPA1/DPB1 association was not. Bioinformatic analyses suggest functional effects for the HLA-DPA1/DPB1 markers as well as the 15q14 marker rs8037309. Interpretation We identified suggestive novel risk factors for neocortical LRP. SPTBN1 is the candidate on 2p21, it encodes beta-spectrin, an α-synuclein binding protein and a component of Lewy bodies. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 association suggests a role for antigen presentation or alternatively, cis-regulatory effects, one of the regulated neighboring genes identified here (vacuolar protein sorting 52) plays a role in vesicular trafficking and has been shown to interact with α-synuclein in a yeast model. PMID:26401513

  16. Meaning-Related and Print-Related Interactions between Preschoolers and Parents during Shared Book Reading and Their Associations with Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interactions between preschool children and parents during shared book reading by analyzing parental self-report data. Using confirmatory factor analytic procedures and structural equation modeling, this study developed a scale measuring meaning-related and print-related reading interactions and examined their associations with…

  17. Heterogeneity of Relational Backgrounds is Associated With Variation in Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a self-destructive behavior of common prevalence in adolescence and young adulthood. Engagement in NSSI has been consistently linked in the literature with perceptions of one's parent-child relationships as negative or invalidating. However, the potential for multiple combinations of such relational characteristics to be associated with varying cognitive and behavioral manifestations of NSSI remains uninvestigated. In the current study, a person-centered approach to studying perceived parent-child relationship quality and NSSI was adopted; functions and behavioral severity of NSSI were then compared across the different relational profiles created. A latent profile analysis in a sample of 264 self-injuring university students (205 females; m(age) = 19.37 years, sd = 1.50) revealed four distinct profiles, two characterized by negative parent-child perceptions and two by positive parent-child perceptions. The perceived relational dimensions of these profiles were unique compared to a parallel group of 264 non-self-injurers (207 females; m(age) = 19.27 years, sd = 1.33). Participants reporting negative parent-child relationships endorsed more severe NSSI, and engaged in NSSI to regulate aggressive emotions. In contrast, individuals reporting positive parent-child relationships engaged in less extreme manifestations of NSSI overall, suggesting lower psychological deficits. Findings suggest that, although not all self-injurers perceive their relationships with parents negatively, variation in the perception of relational quality is implicated in behavioral and cognitive variation in NSSI engagement. PMID:26133094

  18. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  19. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  20. Passive relative ranging applied to sensor-to-sensor data association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, James L., II; Brahm, Steven J.; Zounes, Randolph S.; Whitt, Ellis

    2002-08-01

    Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) effectiveness depends on a system's capability to acquire, track, identify, and engage threat missiles. The probability of a successful engagement can be improved by performing multiple-sensor data fusion, especially if the participating sensor systems are based on both radar frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) phenomenology. In this paper, we apply this observation to the Target Object Map (TOM) correlation problem for the standard configuration of a kill vehicle (with a single or multicolor IR seeker) receiving uplinks from a ground based radar. Specifically, we examine the application of a relative ranging technique that augments the angles-only track information of a passive IR sensor with non-parametric range-ranking of the threat complex. Since data association performance is significantly better for three-dimensional (3-D) matching that for two-dimensional (2-D) matching, the idea is to take advantage of relative range-ranking information of the threat complex to potentially improve performance. Numerous techniques that attempt to extract absolute range estimates from a passive IR sensor have been investigated by researchers in the BMD community and it is understood that range information allows for improved threat tracking, radiant intensity estimates, and data association performance. However, extracting absolute target range estimates from irradiance measurements is extremely difficult because of the presence of data uncertainties/ambiguities, environment and sensor noises, and small angular rates of tracked objects. Passive Relative Ranging (PRR) is distinct in that it focuses on the relative range-ranking of objects; knowledge that one object is closer than a second object, while not relevant for improving track or intensity estimation performance, can possibly improve the performance of sensor-to-sensor object assignment. The proposed PRR technique is based on the physical range-squared relationship between intensity and

  1. Magnetic Fluids Have Ability to Decrease Amyloid Aggregation Associated with Amyloid-Related Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antosova, Andrea; Koneracka, Martina; Siposova, Katarina; Zavisova, Vlasta; Daxnerova, Zuzana; Vavra, Ivo; Fabian, Martin; Kopcansky, Peter; Gazova, Zuzana

    2010-12-01

    At least twenty human proteins can fold abnormally to form pathological deposits that are associated with several amyloid-related diseases. We have investigated the effect of four magnetic fluids (MFs)—electrostatically stabilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MF1) and sterically stabilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by sodium oleate (MF2, MF3 and MF4) with adsorbed BSA (MF2) or dextran (MF4)—on amyloid aggregation of two proteins, human insulin and chicken egg lysozyme. The morphology, particle size and size distribution of the prepared magnetic fluids were characterized. We have found that MFs are able to decrease amyloid aggregation of both studied proteins and the extent of depolymerization depended on the MF properties. The most effective reduction was observed for MF4 as 90% decrease of amyloids was detected for insulin and lysozyme amyloid aggregates. Our findings indicate that MFs have potential to be used for treatment of amyloid diseases.

  2. Handle with care: The American Nurses Association's Campaign to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B

    2004-09-01

    In response to the significant number and severity of work-related back injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders among nurses, the American Nurses Association (ANA) has launched the Handle With Care campaign. The campaign seeks to build a health care industry-wide effort to prevent back and other musculoskeletal injuries. This is being done through developing partnerships and coalitions, education and training, increasing use of assistive equipment and patient-handling devices, reshaping nursing education to incorporate safe patient handling, and pursuing federal and state ergonomics policy by highlighting technology-oriented safe-patient handling benefits for patients and nurses. In the absence of ergonomics regulations at national or state levels that protect health care workers, ANA has taken on alternative approaches to encourage a movement to control ergonomic hazards in the health care workplace and prevent back injuries among the nation's nursing workforce. PMID:15482089

  3. Identification of a Rare Coding Variant in Complement 3 Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaowei; Larson, David E.; Wang, Chaolong; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Fronick, Catrina C.; Branham, Kari E.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Jun, Goo; Hu, Youna; Kang, Hyun Min; Liu, Dajiang; Othman, Mohammad; Brooks, Matthew; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Boleda, Alexis; Grassmann, Felix; von Strachwitz, Claudia; Olson, Lana M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H.S.; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Cipriani, Valentina; Moore, Anthony T.; Shahid, Humma; Jiang, Yingda; Conley, Yvette P.; Morgan, Denise J.; Kim, Ivana K.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Cantsilieris, Stuart; Richardson, Andrea J.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Luo, Hongrong; Ouyang, Hong; Licht, Christoph; Pluthero, Fred G.; Zhang, Mindy M.; Zhang, Kang; Baird, Paul N.; Blangero, John; Klein, Michael L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Gorin, Michael B.; Yates, John R.W.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Wilson, Richard K.; Heckenlively, John R.; Chew, Emily Y.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mardis, Elaine R.; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Goncalo R.

    2013-01-01

    Macular degeneration is a common cause of blindness in the elderly. To identify rare coding variants associated with a large increase in risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced 2,335 cases and 789 controls in 10 candidate loci (57 genes). To increase power, we augmented our control set with ancestry-matched exome sequenced controls. An analysis of coding variation in 2,268 AMD cases and 2,268 ancestry matched controls revealed two large-effect rare variants; previously described R1210C in the CFH gene (fcase = 0.51%, fcontrol = 0.02%, OR = 23.11), and newly identified K155Q in the C3 gene (fcase = 1.06%, fcontrol = 0.39%, OR = 2.68). The variants suggest decreased inhibition of C3 by Factor H, resulting in increased activation of the alternative complement pathway, as a key component of disease biology. PMID:24036949

  4. Work-Related Psychological Injury Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Components in Apparently Healthy Workers

    PubMed Central

    Magnavita, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychological damage caused by common occupational trauma and metabolic syndrome (MES). Method 571 workers from 20 small Italian companies were invited to fill in the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI) during their routine medical examination at the workplace. Results Compared to workers with no psychological injury, workers with a high PIRI score had a significantly increased risk of having at least one metabolic syndrome component (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6). There was a significant increase in the risk of hypertriglyceridemia in male workers (OR 2.53 CI95% 1.03-6.22), and of hypertension in female workers (OR 2.45 CI95% 1.29-4.66). Conclusion Psychological injury related to common occupational trauma may be a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome. PMID:26086387

  5. Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations

    PubMed Central

    Herzig, Daniela A.; Nutt, David J.; Mohr, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis users (35) and non-using controls (48), accounting for the potential additional influence of both schizotypy and licit drug use (alcohol, nicotine). Cognitive attenuations commonly seen in psychosis were associated with cannabis and alcohol use, but not schizotypy. Future studies should therefore consider (i) non-excessive licit substance use (e.g., alcohol) in studies investigating the effect of cannabis use on cognition and (ii) both enhanced illicit and licit substance use in studies investigating cognition in schizotypal populations. PMID:25324787

  6. Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Cait M.; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression. PMID:27540359

  7. Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Cait M; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression. PMID:27540359

  8. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  9. Slower walking speed is associated with incident knee osteoarthritis-related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Jama L.; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Feng, Qiushi; Helmick, Charles G.; Renner, Jordan B.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether slower walking speed was associated with increased risk of incident hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related outcomes. Methods After providing informed consent, community-dwelling participants in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project completed two home-based interviews and an additional clinic visit for radiographic and physical evaluation. One thousand eight hundred fifty eight non-institutionalized residents age 45 years or older living for at least one year in one of six townships in Johnston County, North Carolina completed the study’s questionnaires and clinical examinations at baseline and at follow-up testing. Walking time was assessed using a manual stopwatch in 2 trials over an 8 foot distance, and walking speed was calculated as the average of both trials. For the hip and knee, we examined 3 outcomes per joint site: radiographic OA (weight-bearing anteroposterior knee radiographs, supine anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of the hip); chronic joint symptoms; and symptomatic OA. Covariates included age, gender, race, education, marital status, body mass index, number of self-reported, health care provider-diagnosed chronic conditions, number of prescriptions, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, number of lower-body functional limitations, smoking, and physical activity. Results Faster walking speed was consistently associated with lower incidence of radiographic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.79–0.97) and symptomatic knee OA (aOR=0.84, 95% CI=0.75–0.95); slower walking speed was associated with greater incidence of these outcomes across a broad range of different clinical and radiographic OA outcomes. Conclusion Slower walking speed may be a marker for incident knee OA, but other studies must confirm this finding. PMID:22392700

  10. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslims in Greater Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Padela, Aasim I.; Peek, Monica; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E.; Hosseinian, Zahra; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing and associations between religion-related factors and these rates among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of American Muslim women. Materials and Methods A community-based participatory research design was used in partnering with the Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago to recruit Muslim women attending mosque and community events. These participants self-administered surveys incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, perceived discrimination, Islamic modesty, and a marker of Pap test use. Results A total of 254 survey respondents were collected with nearly equal numbers of Arabs, South Asians, and African American respondents. Of these respondents, 84% had obtained a Pap test in their lifetime, with individuals who interpret disease as a manifestation of God’s punishment having a lower odds of having had Pap testing after controlling for sociodemographic factors (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77–1.0). In multivariate models, living in the United States for more than 20 years (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.4–16) and having a primary care physician (OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.5–23.4) were positive predictors of having had a Pap test. Ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, perceived discrimination, and modesty levels were not significantly associated with Pap testing rates. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess Pap testing behaviors among a diverse sample of American Muslim women and to observe that negative religious coping (e.g., viewing health problems as a punishment from God) is associated with a lower odds of obtaining a Pap test. The relationship between religious coping and cancer screening behaviors deserves further study so that religious values can be appropriately addressed through cancer screening programs. PMID:24914883

  11. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  12. The association between sex-related interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and the risk for cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between genetic factors and the development of cerebral palsy (CP) has recently attracted much attention. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to perinatal brain injury and development of CP. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in neonatal brain injury, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CP. The purpose of this study was to analyze IL-6 gene polymorphisms and protein expression and to explore the role of IL-6 in the Chinese CP population. Methods A total of 753 healthy controls and 713 CP patients were studied to detect the presence of five SNPs (rs1800796, rs2069837, rs2066992, rs2069840, and rs10242595) in the IL-6 locus. Of these, 77 healthy controls and 87 CP patients were selected for measurement of plasma IL-6 by Luminex assay. The SHEsis program was used to analyze the genotyping data. For all comparisons; multiple testing on each individual SNP was corrected by the SNPSpD program. Results There were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies between the overall CP patients and controls among the five genetic polymorphisms. However, subgroup analysis found significant sex-related differences in allele and genotype frequencies. Differences were found between spastic CP and controls in males for rs2069837; between CP with periventricular leukomalacia and controls in males for rs1800796 and rs2066992; and between term CP and controls in males for rs2069837. Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in CP patients than in the controls, and this difference was more robust in full-term male spastic CP patients. Furthermore, the genotype has an effect on IL-6 synthesis. Conclusions The influence of IL-6 gene polymorphisms on IL-6 synthesis and the susceptibility to CP is related to sex and gestational age. PMID:24903966

  13. The Association between Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life among Urban Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Karolyn A.; Kovarik, Carrie L.; Shuman, Sara; Whitaker, Robert C.; Foster, Gary D.; O’Brien, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine differences in health-related quality of life (HRQL) by obesity status in a community-based sample of urban Latinos. To determine if sex moderates the relationship between HRQL and obesity status in this cohort. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study of 202 foreign-born Latinos with low levels of acculturation, living in an urban setting. Main outcome measure Health-related quality of life by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods Including the entire study cohort, t-tests were used to determine the unadjusted difference between obese and non-obese participants on SF-12 physical and mental functioning scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). Linear regression was used to estimate the adjusted difference in SF-12 scores between obese and non-obese participants after adjusting for potential confounders. The association between obesity status and HRQL summary scores were then assessed separately in men and women both with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Results There was a small but statistically significant unadjusted difference between obese and non-obese participants in the physical functioning domain of HRQL (−22.2, 95% CI −4.0, −.4), which was no longer significant in multivariate analysis (difference −1.5, 95% CI −3.3, .3). There were no significant differences in mental functioning scores in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Sex did not moderate the relationship between obesity status and HRQL scores in stratified analyses. Conclusions Our results in an under-studied population suggest that obesity may have little impact on HRQL in urban Latinos. Future studies with larger and more diverse Latino populations are needed to further investigate the relationship between obesity and HRQL, and explore how acculturation impacts the association between these two factors. PMID:24620443

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema in the WHEL Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; Madlensky, Lisa; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is a significant health problem faced by a large percentage of breast cancer survivors. The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study has a unique data set collected after the completion of breast cancer treatment, which allowed a focused analysis of risk factors for breast cancer-related lymphedema. Methods Participant characteristics, treatment modalities, and health behaviors were examined as potential predictors of lymphedema among breast cancer survivors with univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. Results Lymphedema status was assessed for 83% of the study cohort (2431 of the 2917 WHEL participants). Among these respondents, 692 (28.5%) women reported yes to either a physician’s diagnosis of lymphedema or a question on arm/hand swelling. When compared to other participants, women with lymphedema were diagnosed at a younger age, more likely to have a higher body mass index, had a larger tumor size, had more lymph nodes removed, more likely to have a mastectomy with radiation therapy, and more likely to have chemotherapy. In the final multivariate-adjusted model, body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 (p<0.01), the removal of 11 or more lymph nodes (p<0.01), and breast cancer surgery plus radiation therapy (p<0.01) showed a strong independent association with developing breast cancer-related lymphedema. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the importance of educating breast cancer survivors about the modifiable risk factors (e.g., body mass index) associated with the development of lymphedema. Implications for Cancer Survivors Breast cancer survivors at risk for lymphedema may benefit from interventions aimed at achieving or maintaining a healthy body weight. PMID:23212606

  15. Plasticity for axolotl lens regeneration is associated with age‐related changes in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Athippozhy, Antony T.; Voss, S. Randal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mexican axolotls lose potential for lens regeneration 2 weeks after hatching. We used microarrays to identify differently expressed genes before and after this critical time, using RNA isolated from iris. Over 3700 genes were identified as differentially expressed in response to lentectomy between young (7 days post‐hatching) and old (3 months post‐hatching) axolotl larvae. Strikingly, many of the genes were only expressed in the early or late iris. Genes that were highly expressed in young iris significantly enriched electron transport chain, transcription, metabolism, and cell cycle gene ontologies, all of which are associated with lens regeneration. In contrast, genes associated with cellular differentiation and tissue maturation were uniquely expressed in old iris. Many of these expression differences strongly suggest that young and old iris samples were collected before and after the spleen became developmentally competent to produce and secrete cells with humoral and innate immunity functions. Our study establishes the axolotl as a powerful model to investigate age‐related cellular differentiation and immune system ontogeny within the context of tissue regeneration. PMID:27499863

  16. The association of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw with Actinomyces spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Russmueller, Guenter; Seemann, Rudolf; Weiss, Kathrin; Stadler, Victoria; Speiss, Manuel; Perisanidis, Christos; Fuereder, Thorsten; Willinger, Birgit; Sulzbacher, Irene; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) represents a complication of bisphosphonate treatment that responds poorly to standard treatment. In a retrospective cohort study we investigated a possible role of Actinomyces spp. in the pathogenesis of MRONJ. Deep biopsies of necrotic bone were collected during surgical treatment of MRONJ and evaluated by histology and microbiology for the presence of Actinomyces spp. Microbiological, demographic and clinicpathological data were analyzed for risk of Actinomyces-associated MRONJ. Between 2005 and 2014, 111 patients suffering from histologically-confirmed MRONJ were identified. Actinomyces spp. were detected in 99 cases (89%) by histology and in six further patients by microbiological culture. A diverse microbial flora was found in all specimens without association with Actinomyces spp. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics did not separate significantly Actinomyces-positive from Actinomyces-negative cases. Our observations confirm previous reports of a high prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in MRONJ in the single largest cohort available up to now. The high prevalence of Actinomyces spp. and the lack of clinicopathological risk factors underline the prominent role of Actinomyces spp. in MRONJ and may change the current understanding of MRONJ. Established prolonged antimicrobial treatment regimens against Actinomyces spp. infection could therefore be a mainstay of future MRONJ management. PMID:27530150

  17. Anger is associated with reward-related electrocortical activity: Evidence from the reward positivity.

    PubMed

    Angus, Douglas J; Kemkes, Kevin; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-10-01

    Previous research indicates that the reward positivity (RewP), an electrophysiological correlate of sensitivity and biases towards rewarding stimuli, is modulated by affective and motivational variables. Studies have provided evidence that states and traits associated with negative affect and reduced approach motivation are correlated with smaller RewP amplitudes. However, the possible confound of affective valence and motivational direction was not addressed in these studies. In the present study, we examined if anger, an emotion associated with negative affect and increased approach motivation, would affect RewP amplitude. We also investigated if RewP amplitude was related to the motivational properties of reward stimuli. One hundred male participants completed two emotion inductions intended to elicit feelings of either neutrality or anger. Each was followed by a simple gambling task, in which correct choices were followed by images of women in lingerie or swimwear. Although the RewP was elicited following each induction, there was no difference in amplitude between the neutral and anger induction. However, RewP amplitude was positively correlated with how much participants liked the reward stimuli, and this correlation was statistically larger following the anger induction. These results support a motivational interpretation for the differences in RewP amplitude reported in previous studies, suggesting that motivational direction and intensity, rather than affective valence, underlie differences in RewP amplitude. Moreover, the RewP appears to be affected by interactions between motivational state and the motivational value of reward stimuli. PMID:26084980

  18. Genetic factors associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sergejeva, Olga; Botov, Roman; Liutkevičienė, Rasa; Kriaučiūnienė, Loresa

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects the macula and is the leading cause of significant and irreversible central visual loss. It is the most common cause of visual loss in people aged more than 60 years. This disease affects 2.5 million individuals in Europe. AMD is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Numerous risk factors have been reported, but the pathogenesis of AMD is complex and fairly understood. Age, female gender, obesity, race, education status, family history, hyperopia, iris color, cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, sunlight exposure and many other factors have been shown to be associated with AMD development. Scientific evidence shows that genes may play a role in the development of nearly 3 out of 4 cases of this devastating eye disease. The genes that have been shown to be associated with AMD are genes encoding complement system components such as CFH, C2, C3, CFB, and other. PMID:27170480

  19. The association of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw with Actinomyces spp. infection

    PubMed Central

    Russmueller, Guenter; Seemann, Rudolf; Weiss, Kathrin; Stadler, Victoria; Speiss, Manuel; Perisanidis, Christos; Fuereder, Thorsten; Willinger, Birgit; Sulzbacher, Irene; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) represents a complication of bisphosphonate treatment that responds poorly to standard treatment. In a retrospective cohort study we investigated a possible role of Actinomyces spp. in the pathogenesis of MRONJ. Deep biopsies of necrotic bone were collected during surgical treatment of MRONJ and evaluated by histology and microbiology for the presence of Actinomyces spp. Microbiological, demographic and clinicpathological data were analyzed for risk of Actinomyces-associated MRONJ. Between 2005 and 2014, 111 patients suffering from histologically-confirmed MRONJ were identified. Actinomyces spp. were detected in 99 cases (89%) by histology and in six further patients by microbiological culture. A diverse microbial flora was found in all specimens without association with Actinomyces spp. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics did not separate significantly Actinomyces-positive from Actinomyces-negative cases. Our observations confirm previous reports of a high prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in MRONJ in the single largest cohort available up to now. The high prevalence of Actinomyces spp. and the lack of clinicopathological risk factors underline the prominent role of Actinomyces spp. in MRONJ and may change the current understanding of MRONJ. Established prolonged antimicrobial treatment regimens against Actinomyces spp. infection could therefore be a mainstay of future MRONJ management. PMID:27530150

  20. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  1. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication. PMID:23947178

  2. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Engelman, Corinne D; Wallace, Robert B; LeBlanc, Erin S; Tinker, Lesley F.; Iyengar, Sudha K; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Importance Deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with increased odds of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objective We examined 1) whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD and 2) if there is an association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in vitamin D transport, metabolism and genomic function. Design, Setting and Participants Women were postmenopausal and participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) (54 to <75 years) with available serum 25(OH)D concentrations (assessed from 1994–1998), genetic data, and measures of AMD (n=142) assessed at CAREDS baseline from 2001–2004 (n=913). Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent early or late AMD was determined from graded, stereoscopic fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD by the joint effects of 25(OH)D (<30, ≥30 to <50, ≥50 to <75, and ≥75 nmol/L) and risk genotype (noncarrier, one, or two risk alleles). The referent group was noncarriers with adequate vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L). Joint effect ORs were adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, self-reported cardiovascular disease, self-reported diabetes status, and hormone use. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed using the Synergy Index (SI) and an interaction term, respectively. Results We observed a 6.7-fold increased odds of AMD (95% CI=1.6, 28.2) among women with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D<30 nmol/L) and two risk alleles for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (SI for additive interaction=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7; p for multiplicative interaction=0.25,. A significant additive (SI=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7) and multiplicative interaction (p=0.02) was observed for deficient women with two high risk complement factor I (CFI) (rs10033900) alleles (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.6, 24.2). The odds of AMD did not differ by genotype of candidate

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Genes Related to Renal Mercury Concentrations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkaissi, Hammoudi; Ekstrand, Jimmy; Jawad, Aksa; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Havarinasab, Said; Soderkvist, Peter; Hultman, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background: Following human mercury (Hg) exposure, the metal accumulates in considerable concentrations in kidney, liver, and brain. Although the toxicokinetics of Hg have been studied extensively, factors responsible for interindividual variation in humans are largely unknown. Differences in accumulation of renal Hg between inbred mouse strains suggest a genetic interstrain variation regulating retention or/and excretion of Hg. A.SW, DBA/2 and BALB/C mouse strains accumulate higher amounts of Hg than B10.S. Objectives: We aimed to find candidate genes associated with regulation of renal Hg concentrations. Methods: A.SW, B10.S and their F1 and F2 offspring were exposed for 6 weeks to 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water. Genotyping with microsatellites was conducted on 84 F2 mice for genome-wide scanning with ion pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP RP HPLC). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were established. Denaturing HPLC was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for haplotyping and fine mapping in 184 and 32 F2 mice, respectively. Candidate genes (Pprc1, Btrc and Nfkb2) verified by fine mapping and QTL were further investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genes enhanced by Pprc1 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) were included for gene expression analysis. Results: Renal Hg concentrations differed significantly between A.SW and B10.S mice and between males and females within each strain. QTL analysis showed a peak logarithm of odds ratio score 5.78 on chromosome 19 (p = 0.002). Haplotype and fine mapping associated the Hg accumulation with Pprc1, which encodes PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC), a coactivator for proteins involved in detoxification. Pprc1 and two genes coactivated by Pprc1 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) had significantly lower gene expression in the A.SW strain than in the B10.S strain. Conclusions: This study supports Pprc1 as a key regulator for renal Hg excretion. Citation: Alkaissi H, Ekstrand J, Jawad A, Nielsen JB, Havarinasab S, Soderkvist P

  4. What does the implicit association test measure? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudice-related IATs.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Bertram

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on recent criticism of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the present study tested the convergent and discriminant validity of two prejudice-related IATs to corresponding explicit prejudice measures in a German student sample (N = 61). Confirming convergent validity, (a) an IAT designed to assess negative associations related to Turkish people was significantly related to the explicit endorsement of prejudiced beliefs about Turkish people, and (b) an IAT designed to assess negative associations related to East Asians was significantly related to explicit prejudice against East Asians. Moreover, confirming discriminant validity, (c) the Asian IAT was unrelated to the explicit endorsement of prejudiced beliefs about Turkish people, and (d) the Turkish IAT was unrelated to explicit prejudice against Asian people. These results further corroborate the assumption that the IAT is a valid method to assess the strength of evaluative associations in the domain of prejudice and stereotypes. PMID:12152361

  5. Age-related changes in functional network connectivity associated with high levels of verbal fluency performance.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Yannick; Perlbarg, Vincent; Benali, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2014-09-01

    The relative preservation of receptive language abilities in older adults has been associated with adaptive changes in cerebral activation patterns, which have been suggested to be task-load dependent. However, the effects of aging and task demands on the functional integration of neural networks contributing to speech production abilities remain largely unexplored. In the present functional neuroimaging study, data-driven spatial independent component analysis and hierarchical measures of integration were used to explore age-related changes in functional connectivity among cortical areas contributing to semantic, orthographic, and automated word fluency tasks in healthy young and older adults, as well as to assess the effect of age and task demands on the functional integration of a verbal fluency network. The results showed that the functional integration of speech production networks decreases with age, while at the same time this has a marginal effect on behavioral outcomes in high-performing older adults. Moreover, a significant task demand/age interaction was found in functional connectivity within the anterior and posterior subnetworks of the verbal fluency network. These results suggest that local changes in functional integration among cortical areas supporting lexical speech production are modulated by age and task demands. PMID:25014614

  6. Morphologic factors of biliary trees are associated with gallstone-related biliary events

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Jeong, Seok; Jeon, Young Sun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors for gallstone-related biliary events. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography images from 141 symptomatic and 39 asymptomatic gallstone patients who presented at a single tertiary hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with gallstones in relation to the number of gallstones, the angle between the long axis of the gallbladder and the cystic duct, and the cystic duct diameter. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of gallstones (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.03-1.57; P = 0.026), the angle between the long axis of the gallbladder and the cystic duct (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.03; P = 0.015), and the diameter of the cystic duct (OR = 0.819, 95%CI: 0.69-0.97; P = 0.018) were significantly associated with biliary events. The incidence of biliary events was significantly elevated in patients who had the presence of more than two gallstones, an angle of > 92° between the gallbladder and the cystic duct, and a cystic duct diameter < 6 mm. CONCLUSION: These findings will help guide the treatment of patients with asymptomatic gallstones. Clinicians should closely monitor patients with asymptomatic gallstones who exhibit these characteristics. PMID:25574102

  7. MHC class I-related molecule, MR1, and mucosal-associated invariant T cells.

    PubMed

    Franciszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Salou, Marion; Legoux, Francois; Zhou, Qian; Cui, Yue; Bessoles, Stéphanie; Lantz, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    The MHC-related 1, MR1, molecule presents a new class of microbial antigens (derivatives of the riboflavin [Vitamin B2] biosynthesis pathway) to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. This raises many questions regarding antigens loading and intracellular trafficking of the MR1/ligand complexes. The MR1/MAIT field is also important because MAIT cells are very abundant in humans and their frequency is modified in many infectious and non-infectious diseases. Both MR1 and the invariant TCRα chain expressed by MAIT cells are strikingly conserved among species, indicating important functions. Riboflavin is synthesized by plants and most bacteria and yeasts but not animals, and its precursor derivatives activating MAIT cells are short-lived unless bound to MR1. The recognition of MR1 loaded with these compounds is therefore an exquisite manner to detect invasive bacteria. Herein, we provide an historical perspective of the field before describing the main characteristics of MR1, its ligands, and the few available data regarding its cellular biology. We then summarize the current knowledge of MAIT cell differentiation and discuss the definition of MAIT cells in comparison to related subsets. Finally, we describe the phenotype and effector activities of MAIT cells. PMID:27319347

  8. Auditory event-related potentials associated with perceptual reversals of bistable pitch motion

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Gray D.; Pitts, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) experiments have consistently identified two components associated with perceptual transitions of bistable visual stimuli, the “reversal negativity” (RN) and the “late positive complex” (LPC). The RN (~200 ms post-stimulus, bilateral occipital-parietal distribution) is thought to reflect transitions between neural representations that form the moment-to-moment contents of conscious perception, while the LPC (~400 ms, central-parietal) is considered an index of post-perceptual processing related to accessing and reporting one’s percept. To explore the generality of these components across sensory modalities, the present experiment utilized a novel bistable auditory stimulus. Pairs of complex tones with ambiguous pitch relationships were presented sequentially while subjects reported whether they perceived the tone pairs as ascending or descending in pitch. ERPs elicited by the tones were compared according to whether perceived pitch motion changed direction or remained the same across successive trials. An auditory reversal negativity (aRN) component was evident at ~170 ms post-stimulus over bilateral fronto-central scalp locations. An auditory LPC component (aLPC) was evident at subsequent latencies (~350 ms, fronto-central distribution). These two components may be auditory analogs of the visual RN and LPC, suggesting functionally equivalent but anatomically distinct processes in auditory vs. visual bistable perception. PMID:25152722

  9. HIV-Related Risk Factors Associated with Commercial Sex Among Female Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; CHEN, XINGUANG; LIU, HONGJIE; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; MAO, RONG

    2006-01-01

    Data from 633 sexually experienced female migrants were analyzed to examine the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behaviors associated with involvement in commercial sex. Six percent (40/633) of the participants reported having had sex for money. Compared with women who had not engaged in commercialsex, women who had sold sex were younger, less educated, and more likely to be unmarried. They were more likely to have engaged in HIV-related risk behaviors, such as becoming intoxicated with alcohol and using drugs. Among women who engaged in commercialsex, only 28% of them consistently used condoms during the last three episodes of sexualintercourse. Women who had ever engaged in commercialsex demonstrated greater depressive symptoms than those without such a history (p<.01). Female migrants, especially those engaging in commercial sex, were vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Sexualrisk reduction and condom promotion are urgently needed among this population. Further studies are needed to examine the causal relationship between depression and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:15804913

  10. Evolution of migraine-associated symptoms in menstrually related migraine following symptomatic treatment with almotriptan.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Acuto, Giancarlo; Benedetto, Chiara; D'Andrea, Giovanni; Grazzi, Licia; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Moschiano, Franca; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Valguarnera, Fabio; Bussone, Gennaro

    2010-06-01

    In addition to headache, migraine is characterized by a series of symptoms that negatively affects the quality of life of patients. Generally, these are represented by nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia and osmophobia, with a cumulative percentage of the onset in about 90% of the patients. From this point of view, menstrually related migraine--a particularly difficult-to-treat form of primary headache--is no different from other forms of migraine. Symptomatic treatment should therefore be evaluated not only in terms of headache relief, but also by considering its effect on these migraine-associated symptoms (MAS). Starting from the data collected in a recently completed multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with almotriptan in menstrually related migraine, an analysis of the effect of this drug on the evolution of MAS was performed. Data suggest that almotriptan shows excellent efficacy on MAS in comparison to the placebo, with a significant reduction in the percentages of suffering patients over a 2-h period of time. PMID:20464599

  11. Radiologic presentations in relation to curve severity in scoliosis associated with syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to further explore the radiological presentations of scoliosis associated with syringomyelia in relation to curve severity. 87 children and adolescents were divided into three groups: Group I (10 degrees 60 degrees). Curves were classified into typical and atypical patterns in the coronal plane and the sagittal profile measured. Cerebellar tonsillar descent or syrinx patterns in relation to curve severity and the frequency of atypical curves were also investigated. The frequency of atypical curve patterns from Group 1 to 2 was 46.2%, 45.2%, and 40.7% respectively. 65.3% patients with typical curve patterns had atypical features in all of the three groups. There was a significant difference of kyphotic angle among the three groups. Both the degree of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syrinx patterns had no correlation with the curve severity or the frequency of atypical curves. These results show that radiographic presentations, including atypical curve patterns, atypical features in typical curve patterns, and a normal to hyperkyphotic thoracic spine may suggest the need for preoperative MRI. There is no evidence to suggest that the degree of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syrinx patterns have an effect on the progress of scoliosis and the frequency of atypical curves. PMID:17108484

  12. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence: Associations with Prediabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Related Microinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Elisa; Liguori, Maria Livia; Marigliano, Benedetta; Saliola, Mirella; Ettorre, Evaristo; Andreozzi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (Med Diet) seems to reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to explore whether the adherence to the overall Med Diet pattern and to specific Med Diet items is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), insulin resistance (IR), and microinflammation in subjects free of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements Each patient underwent clinical assessment. Adherence to the Med Diet was measured by a previously validated 14-item questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria; IR was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); inflammation was assessed through a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assay. Results A total of 120 subjects (64.2% women, mean age 59.8±10.2 years) were enrolled at this study. Subjects with lower Med Diet pattern adherence exhibited higher occurrence of metabolic syndrome and all its components and higher HOMA-IR and hsCRP values (P for all <0.0001). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were less likely to consume olive oil (P=0.002) and vegetables (P=0.023). By multivariable analyses, the overall Med Diet score was found to be strongly and inversely associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome [B=−0.066; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.105 to −0.028; P=0.001], IFG (B=−0.076; 95% CI −0.114 to −0.038; p<0.0001), high HOMA-IR (B=−0.071; 95% CI −0.108 to −0.034; P<0.0001) and high hsCRP (B=−0.082; 95% CI −0.125 to −0.045; P<0.0001). None of specific Med Diet items independently predicted metabolic syndrome, IFG, and high HOMA-IR. Instead, the consumption of white meat over red meat (B=−0.324; 95% CI −0.467 to −0.178; P<0.0001) was found to be inversely associated with increased hsCRP. Conclusions The inverse associations between adherence to Med Diet

  13. Plantar pressure measurements and running-related injury: A systematic review of methods and possible associations.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Meijer, Kenneth; Theisen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Pressure-sensitive measuring devices have been identified as appropriate tools for measuring an array of parameters during running. It is unclear which biomechanical characteristics relate to running-related injury (RRI) and which data-processing techniques are most promising to detect this relationship. This systematic review aims to identify pertinent methodologies and characteristics measured using plantar pressure devices, and to summarise their associations with RRI. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect and Scopus were searched up until March 2015. Retrospective and prospective, biomechanical studies on running using any kind of pressure-sensitive device with RRI as an outcome were included. All studies involving regular or recreational runners were considered. The study quality was assessed and the measured parameters were summarised. One low quality, two moderate quality and five high quality studies were included. Five different subdivisions of plantar area were identified, as well as five instants and four phases of measurement during foot-ground contact. Overall many parameters were collated and subdivided as plantar pressure and force, plantar pressure and force location, contact area, timing and stride parameters. Differences between the injured and control group were found for mediolateral and anteroposterior displacement of force, contact area, velocity of force displacement, relative force-time integral, mediolateral force ratio, time to peak force and inter-stride correlative patterns. However, no consistent results were found between studies and no biomechanical risk patterns were apparent. Additionally, conflicting findings were reported for peak force in three studies. Based on these observations, we provide suggestions for improved methodology measurement of pertinent parameters for future studies. PMID:27264395

  14. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems. PMID:26512425

  15. Glutamatergic mechanisms associated with stress-induced amygdala excitability and anxiety-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Masneuf, Sophie; Lowery-Gionta, Emily; Colacicco, Giovanni; Pleil, Kristen E; Li, Chia; Crowley, Nicole; Flynn, Shaun; Holmes, Andrew; Kash, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The neural factors underlying individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies demonstrate that mouse strains vary greatly in anxiety-related responses to chronic stress in a manner paralleled by differential stress-induced changes in glutamatergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Previous work has also shown that alterations in the amygdala gene expression of the GluN1 NMDA and the GluK1 kainate receptors are associated with stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the C57BL/6J mouse strain. Using in vivo behavioral pharmacological and ex vivo physiological approaches, the aim of the current study was to further elucidate changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the BLA caused by stress and to test the functional roles of GluN1 and GluK1 in mediating stress-related changes in behavior. Results showed that stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior (light/dark exploration test) were absent following bilateral infusion of the GluK1 agonist ATPA into the BLA. Intra-BLA infusion of the competitive NMDA antagonist AP5 produced a generalized behavioral disinhibition/locomotor hyperactivity, irrespective of stress. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that ATPA augmented BLA GABAergic neurotransmission and that stress increased the amplitude of network-dependent spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and amplitude of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in BLA. These findings could indicate stress-induced BLA glutamatergic neuronal network hyperexcitability and a compensatory increase in GABAergic neurotransmission, suggesting that GluK1 agonism augmented GABAergic inhibition to prevent behavioral sequelae of stress. Current data could have implications for developing novel therapeutic approaches, including GluK1 agonists, for stress-related anxiety disorders. PMID:24796255

  16. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    deployment into military conflicts are substantial, and likelihood of war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long-term health conditions among veterans. PMID:25768060

  17. Electrophysiological Activity Generated during the Implicit Association Test: A Study Using Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Catriona; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) examines the differential association of 2 target concepts with 2 attribute concepts. Responding is predicted to be faster on consistent trials, when concepts that are associated in memory share a response key, than on inconsistent trials, when less associated items share a key. In the current study,…

  18. Oscillatory Cortical Network Involved in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Hillebrand, Arjan; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Daalman, Kirstin; Kahn, René S.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), a prominent symptom of schizophrenia, are often highly distressing for patients. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of hallucinations could increase therapeutic options. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides direct measures of neuronal activity and has an excellent temporal resolution, offering a unique opportunity to study AVH pathophysiology. Methods Twelve patients (10 paranoid schizophrenia, 2 psychosis not otherwise specified) indicated the presence of AVH by button-press while lying in a MEG scanner. As a control condition, patients performed a self-paced button-press task. AVH-state and non-AVH state were contrasted in a region-of-interest (ROI) approach. In addition, the two seconds before AVH onset were contrasted with the two seconds after AVH onset to elucidate a possible triggering mechanism. Results AVH correlated with a decrease in beta-band power in the left temporal cortex. A decrease in alpha-band power was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus. AVH onset was related to a decrease in theta-band power in the right hippocampus. Conclusions These results suggest that AVH are triggered by a short aberration in the theta band in a memory-related structure, followed by activity in language areas accompanying the experience of AVH itself. PMID:22844436

  19. Self-reported and measured stress related responses associated with exposure to wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; Villeneuve, Paul J; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    The current study was the first to assess stress reactions associated with wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure using self-reported and objective measures. Randomly selected participants, aged 18-79 yr (606 males; 632 females), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines, were exposed to outdoor calculated WTN levels up to 46 dBA (response rate 78.9%). Multiple regression modeling left the great majority (77%-89%) of the variance in perceived stress scale (PSS) scores, hair cortisol concentrations, resting blood pressure, and heart rate unaccounted for, and WTN exposure had no apparent influence on any of these endpoints. PSS scores were positively, but weakly, related to cortisol concentrations and resting heart rate (Pearson r = 0.13 and r = 0.08, respectively). Across WTN categories, modeled mean PSS scores ranged from 13.15 to 13.84 (p = 0.8614). Modeled geometric means for hair cortisol concentrations, resting mean systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were 150.54-191.12 ng/g (p = 0.5416), 113.38-116.82 mmHg (p = 0.4990), 67.98-70.34 mmHg (p = 0.5006), and 68.24-70.71 bpm (p = 0.5223), respectively. Irrespective of WTN levels, diastolic blood pressure appeared to be slightly (2.90 mmHg 95% CI: 0.75,5.05) higher among participants highly annoyed by blinking lights on turbines (p = 0.0081). Collectively, the findings do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and elevated self-reported and objectively defined measures of stress. PMID:27036285

  20. The association of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss with polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunlei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Xu, Jianhua; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jian; Huang, Xianliang; Shen, Yueping; Du, Jing

    2013-11-10

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a complex, multifactorial condition. Inherited thrombophilia is the leading cause of thromboembolism and is associated with an increased risk of RPL. The aims of the current study were to investigate the effects of polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes antithrombin (SERPINC1), thrombomodulin (THBD), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), factor V, factor II and annexin A5 (ANXA5), involved in reproductive failure in 94 RPL cases with two or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20weeks of pregnancy and 169 healthy controls who had at least one term delivery and no history of pregnancy loss. The genotypes of SERPINC1 G786A, THBD C1418T, TFPI T-33C, factor V G1628A, factor II A19911G and ANXA5 G76A were assayed by the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Genotype and allele frequencies for SERPINC1 (rs2227589), TFPI (rs8176592), factor V (rs6020), factor II (rs3136516) and ANXA5 (rs113588187) in cases and controls were similar. The distribution of THBD C1418T allele showed significant differences between RPL cases and healthy controls (odds ratio (OR): 1.58, 95%, confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.39, P=0.027). In univariate logistic regression analyses, carriers of THBD 1418T allele (CT+TT) had an increased risk of RPL (OR: 1.83, 95%, CI: 1.10-3.06, P=0.020). This indicated that THBD 1418T allele was associated with increasing the risk of RPL. PMID:23954867

  1. Triangulation of sprites, associated halos and their possible relation to causative lightning and micrometeors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Sentman, D. D.; Heavner, M. J.; Moudry, D. R.; Sabbas, F. T. São

    2001-06-01

    Sprite halos were recently identified as an impulsive but spatially diffuse phenomenon that sometimes occurs just prior to, but distinct from, sprites. The lack of discernible spatial structure and the temporal development sequence in halos differs markedly from the highly structured bodies and tendrils and the complex development sequences of sprites. However, both phenomena are thought to result from an electric field due to charge moment changes usually associated with large positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning but also following negative CG flashes. Three-dimensional triangulations of sprites and sprite halos were made between stations in South Dakota and Wyoming in August 1999 during the NASA Sprites99 balloon campaign. Halos were found to have a Gaussian 1/e diameter of ~66 km and 1/e thickness of ~4 km. Comparison with the location of the underlying lightning strokes, as recorded by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), confirms that the horizontal position of sprites may be laterally offset by as much as 50 km from the underlying parent lightning discharge, as has been previously reported. The point of maximum apparent brightness for sprite halos occurs at an altitude of ~78 km, similar to that of sprites. However, unlike sprites, this point tends to be centered directly above the underlying parent lightning discharge, 4.6+/-2.7km mean distance from the center of the halo to the NLDN location. This difference in spatial location relative to the underlying lightning suggests that the electrical breakdown associated with discrete sprites may require a random ionizing event such as a micrometeor. In contrast, sprite halos do not appear to require such a random component.

  2. Is Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Upper and Lower Airway Inflammation in Asthmatics?

    PubMed Central

    Scichilone, Nicola; Taormina, Salvatore; Pozzecco, Elena; Paternò, Alessandra; Baiardini, Ilaria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Bellia, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Allergic diseases impair health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). However, the relationship between airway inflammation and HR-QoL in patients with asthma and rhinitis has not been fully investigated. We explored whether the inflammation of upper and lower airways is associated with HR-QoL. Methods. Twenty-two mild allergic asthmatics with concomitant rhinitis (10 males, 38 ± 17 years) were recruited. The Rhinasthma was used to identify HR-QoL, and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control. Subjects underwent lung function and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) test, collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and nasal wash. Results. The Rhinasthma Global Summary score (GS) was 25 ± 11. No relationships were found between GS and markers of nasal allergic inflammation (% eosinophils: r = 0.34, P = 0.24; ECP: r = 0.06, P = 0.87) or bronchial inflammation (pH of the EBC: r = 0.12, P = 0.44; bronchial NO: r = 0.27, P = 0.22; alveolar NO: r = 0.38, P = 0.10). The mean ACT score was 18. When subjects were divided into controlled (ACT ≥ 20) and uncontrolled (ACT < 20), the alveolar NO significantly correlated with GS in uncontrolled asthmatics (r = 0.60, P = 0.04). Conclusions. Upper and lower airways inflammation appears unrelated to HR-QoL associated with respiratory symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest that, in uncontrolled asthma, peripheral airway inflammation could be responsible for impaired HR-QoL. PMID:24073408

  3. Factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aircraft crashes--Alaska, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    2002-04-26

    Despite its large geographic area, Alaska has only 12,200 miles of public roads, and 90% of the state's communities are not connected to a highway system. Commuter and air-taxi flights are essential for transportation of passengers and delivery of goods, services, and mail to outlying communities (Figure 1). Because of the substantial progress in decreasing fatalities in the fishing and logging industries, aviation crashes are the leading cause of occupational death in Alaska. During 1990-1999, aircraft crashes in Alaska caused 107 deaths among workers classified as civilian pilots. This is equivalent to 410 fatalities per 100,000 pilots each year, approximately five times the death rate for all U.S. pilots and approximately 100 times the death rate for all U.S. workers. As part of a collaborative aviation safety initiative that CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is implementing with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and the National Weather Service, CDC analyzed data from NTSB crash reports to determine factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aviation crashes in Alaska. This report summarizes the result of this analysis, which found that the following factors were associated with pilot fatalities: crashes involving a post-crash fire, flights in darkness or weather conditions requiring instrument use, crashes occurring away from an airport, and crashes in which the pilot was not using a shoulder restraint. Additional pilot training, improved fuel systems that are less likely to ignite in crashes, and company policies that discourage flying in poor weather conditions might help decrease pilot fatalities. More detailed analyses of crash data, collaborations with aircraft operators to improve safety, and evaluation of new technologies are needed. PMID:12004985

  4. Time-frequency analysis of the event-related potentials associated with the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Mehmet; Saban, Sara; Kirmizi-Alsan, Elif; Uslu, Atilla; Keskin-Ergen, Yasemin; Demiralp, Tamer

    2014-12-01

    Multiple executive processes are suggested to be engaged at Stroop test, and time-frequency analysis is acknowledged to improve the informative utility of EEG in cognitive brain research. We aimed to investigate event-related oscillations associated with the Stroop test. EEG data was collected from 23 healthy volunteers while they performed a computer version of Stroop test. Both evoked (phase-locked) and total (phase-locked+non-phase-locked) oscillatory responses in the EEG were analyzed by wavelet transform. Data from the congruent (color-word matching) and incongruent stimuli (color-word non-matching) conditions are compared. In the incongruent condition, N450 wave was more negative and amplitude of the late slow wave was more positive. In the time-frequency plane, the fronto-central total theta amplitude (300-700 ms) was larger in the incongruent condition. The evoked delta (250-600 ms) was larger in the congruent condition particularly over parieto-occipital regions. The larger frontal theta response in the incongruent condition was associated with the detection of interference and inhibition of the response to task-irrelevant features, while the larger evoked delta in the congruent condition was suggestive of the easier decision process owing to congruency between the physical attribute and the verbal meaning of the stimuli. Furthermore, in the incongruent condition, amplitude of the occipital total alpha in the very late phase (700-900 ms) was smaller. This prolonged desynchronization in the alpha band could be reflecting augmentation of attentional filters in visual modality for the next stimulus. These multiple findings on EEG time-frequency plane provide improved description of the overlapping processes in Stroop test. PMID:25135670

  5. Relating Diseases by Integrating Gene Associations and Information Flow through Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Hamaneh, Mehdi Bagheri; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying similar diseases could potentially provide deeper understanding of their underlying causes, and may even hint at possible treatments. For this purpose, it is necessary to have a similarity measure that reflects the underpinning molecular interactions and biological pathways. We have thus devised a network-based measure that can partially fulfill this goal. Our method assigns weights to all proteins (and consequently their encoding genes) by using information flow from a disease to the protein interaction network and back. Similarity between two diseases is then defined as the cosine of the angle between their corresponding weight vectors. The proposed method also provides a way to suggest disease-pathway associations by using the weights assigned to the genes to perform enrichment analysis for each disease. By calculating pairwise similarities between 2534 diseases, we show that our disease similarity measure is strongly correlated with the probability of finding the diseases in the same disease family and, more importantly, sharing biological pathways. We have also compared our results to those of MimMiner, a text-mining method that assigns pairwise similarity scores to diseases. We find the results of the two methods to be complementary. It is also shown that clustering diseases based on their similarities and performing enrichment analysis for the cluster centers significantly increases the term association rate, suggesting that the cluster centers are better representatives for biological pathways than the diseases themselves. This lends support to the view that our similarity measure is a good indicator of relatedness of biological processes involved in causing the diseases. Although not needed for understanding this paper, the raw results are available for download for further study at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/qmbpmn/DiseaseRelations/. PMID:25360770

  6. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p < 0.05). The ordinal logistic regression

  7. Association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related factors among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Haleh; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Ghaemian, Ali; Darani Zad, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the association of dietary patterns with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics among coronary artery disease patients. In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 250 patients coronary artery disease aged ≥ 40 years old. Data collection was done using questionnaires related to sociodemographics, health-related factors, and food-frequency intake information. Three dietary patterns (traditional, western, and healthy) were obtained using principal component analysis. The result showed that dietary patterns were associated with sociodemographic and health-related factors. According to the result, all the factors were taken very seriously when planning a promotional program for healthy lifestyle in prevention of CAD. PMID:25347717

  8. THE ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS WITH SPECIFIC HEALTH EFFECTS IN HEALTHY HIGHWAY PATROL OFFICERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimated exposures to ambient respirable particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants have been statistically associated with mortality and morbidity in epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world. Although some subpopulations (e.g., asthmatics; elderly, pulmonar...

  9. Associative intrusions in the verbal behavior of the first-degree relatives of adult schizophrenics. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, L A; Saccuzzo, D P

    1986-04-01

    The first-degree blood relatives of schizophrenics were compared to a matched control group on a psychometrically matched test of responsiveness to associative intrusions. The groups differed on the subtest containing an associative alternative but not on the equally difficult subtest free of associative distractors. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that an overresponsiveness to associative distractors, well documented in schizophrenics, may also be a characteristic of their nondisturbed first degree blood relatives. The possible existence of cognitive markers in the relatives of schizophrenic patients that might indicate familial psychopathology was supported. Limitations of the present preliminary findings, as well as the case for additional investigation of the cognitive behavior of the first-degree relatives of schizophrenics, are discussed. PMID:3958705

  10. Seismic imaging of deformation zones associated with normal fault-related folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapadat, Alexandru; Imber, Jonathan; Iacopini, David; Hobbs, Richard

    2016-04-01

    bed rotation, affect, presumably, the acoustic properties of the rocks. We calculate the strains associated with fault displacement (using elastic dislocation models) and generate a synthetic seismic section of the model, taking into account the strain-related changes in the acoustic properties of the deformed rocks. Finally, we investigate whether variations in the magnitudes of volumetric strain correlate with the magnitudes of seismic amplitude variations near the analysed faults.

  11. Fish Oil Diet Associated with Acute Reperfusion Related Hemorrhage, and with Reduced Stroke-Related Sickness Behaviors and Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C.; Howells, David W.; Crewther, David P.; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M.; Rewell, Sarah S.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  12. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related hemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviors and motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M; Rewell, Sarah S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  13. Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…

  14. An Analysis of National Surveys: Associate Degree Programs in Manufacturing Engineering and Related Programs. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Elizabeth A.

    In 1993, a study was conducted to investigate the responses of associate degree programs in manufacturing and related technical programs to current technical education initiatives. The study focused on the relationships of associate degree programs to secondary and postsecondary education and industry, curricular trends, familiarity with the…

  15. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  16. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD. PMID:26052139

  17. Identification of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp) related gene in red mullet (Mullus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, Roberta; Polancec, Darija Stupin; Zaja, Roko; Smital, Tvrtko

    2004-01-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) in aquatic organisms is mediated by the activity of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter that binds and actively effluxes different chemicals out of cell. In addition to the Pgp, several other, non-Pgp transport proteins have been recently identified in different human and animal tissues. Given their characteristics and tissue distribution we hypothesized that members of the so-called multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family may be expressed in aquatic organisms. This study attempted to identify MRP related genes in different tissues of several marine and freshwater bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Dreissena polymorpha, Anodonta cygnea) and fish species (Mullus barbatus, Cyprinus carpio, Salmo trutta). Following an alignment of known MRP1 and MRP2 human sequences, as well as the GenBank available mrp2 sequences from different animals, we determined highly conserved regions and used them to design three pairs of consensus primers. Total RNA was isolated, reverse transcribed to cDNA and the obtained cDNAs were PCR amplified with the corresponding primers. The amplified PCR products were sequenced and their homology compared with Pgp and MRP protein sequences from different species. The expression of MRP related mRNA was clearly identified only in liver tissue isolated from red mullet, with homologies at the protein level ranging from 75% to 76%. Described results clearly pointed at the possibility that at least in the red mullet MXR as a general defense mechanism may be mediated by the activities of at least two different types of transport proteins. PMID:15178032

  18. Metabolic endophenotype and related genotypes are associated with oxidative stress in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    James, S. Jill; Melnyk, Stepan; Jernigan, Stefanie; Cleves, Mario A.; Halsted, Charles H.; Wong, Donna H.; Cutler, Paul; Bock, Kenneth; Boris, Marvin; Bradstreet, J. Jeffrey; Baker, Sidney M.; Gaylor, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a behaviorally-defined neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed in early childhood that is characterized by impairment in reciprocal communication and speech, repetitive behaviors, and social withdrawal. Although both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be involved, none have been reproducibly identified. The metabolic phenotype of an individual reflects the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors on genotype. As such, it provides a window through which the interactive impact of genes and environment may be viewed and relevant susceptibility factors identified. Although abnormal methionine metabolism has been associated with other neurologic disorders, these pathways and related polymorphisms have not been evaluated in autistic children. Plasma levels of metabolites in methionine transmethylation and transsulfuration pathways were measured in 80 autistic and 73 control children. In addition, common polymorphic variants known to modulate these metabolic pathways were evaluated in 360 autistic children and 205 controls. The metabolic results indicated that plasma methionine and the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), an indicator of methylation capacity, were significantly decreased in the autistic children relative to age-matched controls. In addition, plasma levels of cysteine, glutathione, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, an indication of antioxidant capacity and redox homeostasis, were significantly decreased. Differences in allele frequency and/or significant gene-gene interactions were found for relevant genes encoding the reduced folate carrier (RFC 80G>A), transcobalamin II (TCN2 776G>C), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT 472G>A), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C), and GST M1. We propose that an increased vulnerability to oxidative stress (endogenous or environmental) may contribute to the development and clinical manifestations of autism. PMID

  19. Metabolic endophenotype and related genotypes are associated with oxidative stress in children with autism.

    PubMed

    James, S Jill; Melnyk, Stepan; Jernigan, Stefanie; Cleves, Mario A; Halsted, Charles H; Wong, Donna H; Cutler, Paul; Bock, Kenneth; Boris, Marvin; Bradstreet, J Jeffrey; Baker, Sidney M; Gaylor, David W

    2006-12-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed in early childhood that is characterized by impairment in reciprocal communication and speech, repetitive behaviors, and social withdrawal. Although both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be involved, none have been reproducibly identified. The metabolic phenotype of an individual reflects the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors on genotype. As such, it provides a window through which the interactive impact of genes and environment may be viewed and relevant susceptibility factors identified. Although abnormal methionine metabolism has been associated with other neurologic disorders, these pathways and related polymorphisms have not been evaluated in autistic children. Plasma levels of metabolites in methionine transmethylation and transsulfuration pathways were measured in 80 autistic and 73 control children. In addition, common polymorphic variants known to modulate these metabolic pathways were evaluated in 360 autistic children and 205 controls. The metabolic results indicated that plasma methionine and the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), an indicator of methylation capacity, were significantly decreased in the autistic children relative to age-matched controls. In addition, plasma levels of cysteine, glutathione, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, an indication of antioxidant capacity and redox homeostasis, were significantly decreased. Differences in allele frequency and/or significant gene-gene interactions were found for relevant genes encoding the reduced folate carrier (RFC 80G > A), transcobalamin II (TCN2 776G > C), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT 472G > A), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C > T and 1298A > C), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST M1). We propose that an increased vulnerability to oxidative stress (endogenous or environmental) may contribute to the development and

  20. Increased Event-Related Potentials and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Activity Associated with Intentional Actions

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Susanne; Loy, Fabian; Krause, Daniela; Schwarz, Sandra; Kiesewetter, Jan; Segmiller, Felix; Chrobok, Agnieszka I.; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Internally guided actions are defined as being purposeful, self-generated and offering choices between alternatives. Intentional actions are essential to reach individual goals. In previous empirical studies, internally guided actions were predominantly related to functional responses in frontal and parietal areas. The aim of the present study was to distinguish event-related potentials and oscillatory responses of intentional actions and externally guided actions. In addition, we compared neurobiological findings of the decision which action to perform with those referring to the decision whether or not to perform an action. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects participated in adapted go/nogo paradigms, including a voluntary selection condition allowing participants to (1) freely decide whether to press the response button or (2) to decide whether they wanted to press the response button with the right index finger or the left index finger. Results: The reaction times were increased when participants freely decided whether and how they wanted to respond compared to the go condition. Intentional processes were associated with a fronto-centrally located N2 and P3 potential. N2 and P3 amplitudes were increased during intentional actions compared to instructed responses (go). In addition, increased activity in the alpha-, beta- and gamma-frequency range was shown during voluntary behavior rather than during externally guided responses. Conclusion: These results may indicate that an additional cognitive process is needed for intentional actions compared to instructed behavior. However, the neural responses were comparatively independent of the kind of decision that was made (1) decision which action to perform; (2) decision whether or not to perform an action). Significance: The study demonstrates the importance of fronto-central alpha-, beta-, and gamma oscillations for voluntary behavior. PMID:26834680

  1. Association between CFH Y402H Polymorphism and Age Related Macular Degeneration in North Indian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amod; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Singh, Ramandeep; Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine serum complement factor H (CFH) levels in patients of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and examine its association with CFH Y402H polymorphism. 115 AMD patients and 61 normal controls were recruited in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism was assayed by real time PCR and serum CFH levels were measured by ELISA and standardized to total serum protein. Chi-square test was applied to polymorphism analysis while Mann Whitney U-statistic for CFH-levels. Mendelian randomization approach was used for determining causal relationship. The genotype frequency differed between the AMD patients (TT- 18.3%, TC-41.3% and CC-40.4%) and controls (TT-76.3%, TC-13.6%, and CC-10.1%) (p = 0001). The frequency of alleles was also significantly different when AMD (T-39% and C-61%) was compared to controls (T-83% and C-17%) (p = 0.0001). Level of serum CFH was significantly lower in AMD patients as compared to normal controls (p = 0.001). Our data showed that the CFH Y402H polymorphism is a risk factor for AMD in the North Indian population. Mendelian randomization approach revealed that CFH Y402H polymorphism affects AMD risk through the modification of CFH serum levels. PMID:23922956

  2. Age-related macular degeneration: genome-wide association studies to translation

    PubMed Central

    Black, James R. M.; Clark, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to analyze the contribution to disease of genetic variations that are common within a population, have attracted considerable investment. Despite identifying genetic variants for many conditions, they have been criticized for yielding data with minimal clinical utility. However, in this regard, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of blindness in the Western world, is a striking exception. Through GWAS, common genetic variants at a number of loci have been discovered. Two loci in particular, including genes of the complement cascade on chromosome 1 and the ARMS2/HTRA1 genes on chromosome 10, have been shown to convey significantly increased susceptibility to developing AMD. Today, although it is possible to screen individuals for a genetic predisposition to the disease, effective interventional strategies for those at risk of developing AMD are scarce. Ongoing research in this area is nonetheless promising. After providing brief overviews of AMD and common disease genetics, we outline the main recent advances in the understanding of AMD, particularly those made through GWAS. Finally, the true merit of these findings and their current and potential translational value is examined. Genet Med 18 4, 283–289. PMID:26020418

  3. Age-related macular degeneration: genome-wide association studies to translation.

    PubMed

    Black, James R M; Clark, Simon J

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to analyze the contribution to disease of genetic variations that are common within a population, have attracted considerable investment. Despite identifying genetic variants for many conditions, they have been criticized for yielding data with minimal clinical utility. However, in this regard, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of blindness in the Western world, is a striking exception. Through GWAS, common genetic variants at a number of loci have been discovered. Two loci in particular, including genes of the complement cascade on chromosome 1 and the ARMS2/HTRA1 genes on chromosome 10, have been shown to convey significantly increased susceptibility to developing AMD. Today, although it is possible to screen individuals for a genetic predisposition to the disease, effective interventional strategies for those at risk of developing AMD are scarce. Ongoing research in this area is nonetheless promising. After providing brief overviews of AMD and common disease genetics, we outline the main recent advances in the understanding of AMD, particularly those made through GWAS. Finally, the true merit of these findings and their current and potential translational value is examined.Genet Med 18 4, 283-289. PMID:26020418

  4. Geographical variation in relative risks associated with heat: Update of Spain's Heat Wave Prevention Plan.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J; Carmona, R; Mirón, I J; Ortiz, C; León, I; Linares, C

    2015-12-01

    A decade after the implementation of prevention plans designed to minimise the impact of high temperatures on health, some countries have decided to update these plans in order to improve the weakness detected in these ten years of operation. In the case of Spain, this update has fundamentally consisted of changing the so-called "threshold" or "trigger" temperatures used to activate the plan, by switching from temperature values based on climatological criteria to others obtained by epidemiological studies conducted on a provincial scale. This study reports the results of these "trigger" temperatures for each of Spain's 52 provincial capitals, as well as the impact of heat on mortality by reference to the relative risks (RRs) and attributable risks (ARs) calculated for natural as well as circulatory and respiratory causes. The results obtained for threshold temperatures and RRs show a more uniform behaviour pattern than those obtained using temperature values based on climatological criteria; plus a clear decrease in RRs of heat-associated mortality due to the three causes considered, at both a provincial and regional level as well as for Spain as a whole. The updating of prevention plans is regarded as crucial for optimising the operation of these plans in terms of reducing the effect of high temperatures on population health. PMID:26433629

  5. A case of adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Yao, Mayumi; Takebe, Yuichiro; Ono, Yuko; Obata, Kyoichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Yoshioka, Norie; Kishimoto, Koji; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an inflammatory condition associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels and tissue infiltration by IgG4-expressing plasma cells. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the submandibular gland with possible involvement of IgG4-RD. Presentation of case The patient was a 59-year-old man presenting with a swollen right submandibular gland. Laboratory tests revealed IgG4 levels of 176 mg/dl (reference range: 4.8–105). An initial open biopsy for histological diagnosis showed chronic sialadenitis. The region was monitored on an outpatient basis, and finally the right submandibular was totally resected because malignant tumor could not be excluded. Histological examination of the submandibular gland showed an ACC with lymphocytic infiltration containing many IgG4-positive plasma cells in the tumor stroma. Discussion We have described a case that indicated a possible involvement of ACC with IgG4-RD. This allows us to speculate that longstanding IgG4-RD may progress to malignancy or infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells through the signals of tumor stimuli. Further investigations are required to determine the potential pathogenic mechanism underlying this unique tumor. Conclusion This case underscores that caution is needed in the diagnosis of masses with high serum IgG4 levels, as the differential diagnosis includes malignancy. PMID:25781921

  6. Harmonisation of standards related to limiting chemical risk associated with work processes.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Ionel

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper tackles the issue of risk factors specific to work processes that involve the presence of chemicals. The reason that supports the present approach is the fact that the risks most likely to affect health in the workplace have been lately associated with the exposure of workers engaged in industrial activities to aggressive chemical agents. In order to tackle this problem, we shall resort to the normative regulations that have been adjusted upon Romania's inclusion in the European Union. The harmonization and alignment of the national standards--applied to the work systems that make use of various chemical substances likely to affect the health of the human resource--to the European guidelines and regulations has brought about a significant improvement in workplace security practices. Consequently, the arguments and demonstrations in the presented study are based on elements of the European acquis and the Romanian regulations which are all related to the chemical risk factors generated by harmful chemicals, or the potentially accident-prone properties of the substances used in work processes. PMID:24069850

  7. A framework for assessing relative risks associated with multiple stressors in Port Valdez, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegers, J.K.; Landis, W.G.; Mortensen, L.S.; Wilson, V.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this assessment is to develop a versatile process that will provide a mechanism for evaluating both present and future risks to this environment. Much of the regulatory and environmental interest in the port has centered around a Ballast Water Treatment facility that treats and discharges up to 30 mgd of oily ballast water brought in by crude oil tankers. However, six point discharges and other potential sources of pollution exist in the area. The authors have delineated eleven subareas in the port in order to identify the potential anthropogenic stressors, as well as the receptors that could be exposed to these stressors. Potential effects were then characterized for each exposure. Each component is ranked and integrated, resulting in a relative risk estimate in each subarea. Both the discernible risks, based on available data, and the data gaps are presented. Uncertainty is expressed as a range of high and low risk associated with each component. Results of the ranking indicate that hydrocarbons released through discharges, contaminated runoff and spills pose the most discernible risk to sediment quality and wildlife in the port. Undetermined, but potentially severe, risks to all ecological components include possible future oil spills, shoreline development, and the introduction of nonindigenous species. The final assessment provides a tool for current and future ecological monitoring efforts in the Port Valdez area.

  8. Annual incidence of mortality related to hypertensive disease in Canada and associations with heliophysical parameters.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Joseph M; Carniello, Trevor N; Murugan, Nirosha J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing research into heliobiology and related fields has revealed a myriad of potential relationships between space weather factors and terrestrial biology. Additionally, many studies have indicated cyclicity in incidence of various diseases along with many aspects of cardiovascular function. The current study examined annual mortality associated with hypertensive diseases in Canada from 1979 to 2009 for periodicities and linear relationships with a range of heliophysical parameters. Analyses indicated a number of significant lagged correlations between space weather and hypertensive mortality, with solar wind plasma beta identified as the likely source of these relationships. Similar periodicities were observed for geomagnetic activity and hypertensive mortality. A significant rhythm was revealed for hypertensive mortality centered on a 9.6-year cycle length, while geomagnetic activity was fit with a 10.1-year cycle. Cross-correlograms of mortality with space weather demonstrated a 10.67-year periodicity coinciding with the average 10.6-year solar cycle length for the time period examined. Further quantification and potential implications are discussed. PMID:25913078

  9. Two Closely Related but Distinct Retroviruses Are Associated with Walleye Discrete Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    LaPierre, Lorie A.; Holzschu, Donald L.; Wooster, Greg A.; Bowser, Paul R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Walleye discrete epidermal hyperplasia (WEH) is a hyperproliferative skin disease that is prevalent on adult walleye fish throughout North America. We have identified two retroviruses associated with WEH, designated here as walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus type 1 and type 2 (WEHV1 and WEHV2), that are closely related to one another (77% identity) and to walleye dermal sarcoma virus (64% identity) within the polymerase region. WEHV1 and/or WEHV2 viral DNA was readily detected by PCR in hyperplastic tissue samples, but only low levels of viral DNA were detected in uninvolved skin. Southern blot analysis showed one to three copies of integrated WEHV2 viral DNA in lesions but did not detect WEHV2 viral DNA in uninvolved skin from the same fish. Northern blots detected abundant levels of WEHV1 and/or WEHV2 virion RNA transcripts of approximately 13 kb in hyperplastic tissue, but virion RNA was not observed in uninvolved skin and muscle. These results suggest that WEHV1 and WEHV2 are the causative agents of discrete epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:9525688

  10. Annual incidence of mortality related to hypertensive disease in Canada and associations with heliophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, Joseph M.; Carniello, Trevor N.; Murugan, Nirosha J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing research into heliobiology and related fields has revealed a myriad of potential relationships between space weather factors and terrestrial biology. Additionally, many studies have indicated cyclicity in incidence of various diseases along with many aspects of cardiovascular function. The current study examined annual mortality associated with hypertensive diseases in Canada from 1979 to 2009 for periodicities and linear relationships with a range of heliophysical parameters. Analyses indicated a number of significant lagged correlations between space weather and hypertensive mortality, with solar wind plasma beta identified as the likely source of these relationships. Similar periodicities were observed for geomagnetic activity and hypertensive mortality. A significant rhythm was revealed for hypertensive mortality centered on a 9.6-year cycle length, while geomagnetic activity was fit with a 10.1-year cycle. Cross-correlograms of mortality with space weather demonstrated a 10.67-year periodicity coinciding with the average 10.6-year solar cycle length for the time period examined. Further quantification and potential implications are discussed.

  11. Cervicovaginal microbiome dysbiosis is associated with proteome changes related to alterations of the cervicovaginal mucosal barrier.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, H; Gautam, R; Armstrong, S D; Xia, D; Ndayisaba, G F; van Teijlingen, N H; Geijtenbeek, T B H; Wastling, J M; van de Wijgert, J H H M

    2016-05-01

    Vaginal microbiome (VMB) dysbiosis is associated with increased acquisition of HIV. Cervicovaginal inflammation and other changes to the mucosal barrier are thought to have important roles but human data are scarce. We compared the human cervicovaginal proteome by mass spectrometry of 50 Rwandan female sex workers who had previously been clustered into four VMB groups using a 16S phylogenetic microarray; in order of increasing bacterial diversity: Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated VMB (group 1), Lactobacillus iners-dominated VMB (group 2), moderate dysbiosis (group 3), and severe dysbiosis (group 4). We compared relative protein abundances among these VMB groups using targeted (abundance of pre-defined mucosal barrier proteins) and untargeted (differentially abundant proteins among all human proteins identified) approaches. With increasing bacterial diversity, we found: mucus alterations (increasing mucin 5B and 5AC), cytoskeleton alterations (increasing actin-organizing proteins; decreasing keratins and cornified envelope proteins), increasing lactate dehydrogenase A/B as markers of cell death, increasing proteolytic activity (increasing proteasome core complex proteins/proteases; decreasing antiproteases), altered antimicrobial peptide balance (increasing psoriasin, calprotectin, and histones; decreasing lysozyme and ubiquitin), increasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing immunoglobulins immunoglobulin G1/2. Although temporal relationships cannot be derived, our findings support the hypothesis that dysbiosis causes cervicovaginal inflammation and other detrimental changes to the mucosal barrier. PMID:26349657

  12. Perceived Social Support and Its Association With Obesity-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele; Zeller, Meg H.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) describe type and source of social support perceived by obese youth and examine associations with sociodemographic/anthropometric characteristics, and (2) examine relationships between social support and obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Seventy-four obese youth and their primary caregivers participated. Youth completed the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale and an obesity-specific HRQOL measure, Sizing Me Up. Results Close friends and parents provided the most social support and were rated most important, except for teacher informational support. Classmates and schools provided the least social support. Body mass index z-score was correlated with teacher support frequency (r=−.26, p < .05) and minority youth reported more parent support (t(72)=−2.21, p < .05). Compared with other support providers, classmate support significantly predicted most HRQOL scales (p<.001). Conclusions Close friends, parents, and teachers are significant sources of support to youth with obesity; however, classmates play a unique role in the HRQOL of obese youth. PMID:21263350

  13. Three closely related herpesviruses are associated with fibropapillomatosis in marine turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Casey, R.N.; Rovnak, J.; Chaves, A.; duToit, L.; Baines, J.D.; Parrish, C.R.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Green turtle fibropapillomatosis is a neoplastic disease of increasingly significant threat to the survivability of this species. Degenerate PCR primers that target highly conserved regions of genes encoding herpesvirus DNA polymerases were used to amplify a DNA sequence from fibropapillomas and fibromas from Hawaiian and Florida green turtles. All of the tumors tested (n= 23) were found to harbor viral DNA, whereas no viral DNA was detected in skin biopsies from tumor-negative turtles. The tissue distribution of the green turtle herpesvirus appears to be generally limited to tumors where viral DNA was found to accumulate at approximately two to five copies per cell and is occasionally detected, only by PCR, in some tissues normally associated with tumor development. In addition, herpesviral DNA was detected in fibropapillomas from two loggerhead and four olive ridley turtles. Nucleotide sequencing of a 483-bp fragment of the turtle herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene determined that the Florida green turtle and loggerhead turtle sequences are identical and differ from the Hawaiian green turtle sequence by five nucleotide changes, which results in two amino acid substitutions. The olive ridley sequence differs from the Florida and Hawaiian green turtle sequences by 15 and 16 nucleotide changes, respectively, resulting in four amino acid substitutions, three of which are unique to the olive ridley sequence. Our data suggest that these closely related turtle herpesviruses are intimately involved in the genesis of fibropapillomatosis.

  14. Associations between work-related musculoskeletal disorders, quality of life, and workplace stress in physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    BAE, Young-Hyeon; MIN, Kyoung Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the associations between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), quality of life (QoL), and workplace stress among physical therapists (PTs) in South Korea. Self-reporting questionnaires were given to 855 PTs. Variables examined included general characteristics, WMSDs, QoL, and workplace stress. Of the 788 PTs who responded, 745 (94.5%) reported WMSDs affecting at least one body site. The most affected WMSDs site was the shoulder (23.3%), and the most reported number of body sites affected by WMSDs was one (50.9%). QoL was significantly improved (p<0.05) among PTs over 39 years old, who had 10–15 years of professional experience, worked in general/university hospitals, and had only one site affected by WMSDs. Factors influencing QoL included number of body sites affected by WMSDs, presence/absence of WMSDs, working venues, workplace stress, and age. Factors affecting workplace stress included number of body sites affected by WMSDs, QoL, work hours, and gender. The results showed a high prevalence of WMSDs among PTs in South Korea, and this negatively affected both QoL and workplace stress. PMID:26860785

  15. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  16. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  17. Trace Metal Associations in an Anoxic Lake: the Relative Roles of Organic Carbon and Reduced Sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulson Brucker, R.; McManus, J.; Severmann, S.; Owens, J.; Lyons, T.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the geochemistry of the trace elements Mo, U, and Re in sediments from a transect through the chemocline of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. In addition to these relatively shallow cores (70 to 330m), we present data from a longer core representing ~30,000 years of lake history, which was taken within the sulfidic waters that lie well below the chemocline (~900m water depth). Our goal is to establish a framework for trace metal deposition within the context of organic carbon and sulfur burial - two important carrier phases for these metals. Sediment organic carbon contents are high, generally between 5 and 10 wt% at the shallow sites, and up to 16 wt% in the deep basin. Despite the very low sulfate (~35 μM) and sulfide (~30 μM) concentrations in the lake water, sediment reduced sulfur contents are up to 1.5 wt% in the shallow sites and as high as 5 wt% in the deepest sediments. Sediment C:S ratios for all study sites are consistent with these sediments generally being sulfur limited. Sediment C:S ratios decrease from ~22, which agree well with previously published freshwater values, to ~6 with increasing site depth. The lower C:S ratios are more comparable to the marine value (2.8), and suggest that a considerable amount of organic carbon must be decomposing via sulfate reduction. C:S ratios in the deepest site are highly variable, with some even lower than the marine threshold. In light of the sedimentary organic carbon and sulfur data, trace metal distributions imply that U deposition is closely associated with organic carbon deposition and is independent of sulfur cycling. In contrast, Mo behavior suggests both an association with organic carbon as well as sulfur, but is subject to poor preservation where the sediment C:S ratios are highest. Rhenium accumulation only appears significant at the deepest most sulfur-rich site, and there is a close correspondence between Mo and Re distributions. These latter observations suggest that sulfur burial is

  18. ADHD Symptoms and Peer Relations of Children in a Community Sample: Examining Associated Problems, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2005-01-01

    This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and…

  19. Factors Associated with General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  1. Affective associations and cognitive beliefs relate to individuals' decisions to perform testicular or breast self-exams.

    PubMed

    Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2015-08-01

    Affective associations with behavioral practices play an important role in individuals' uptake of a variety of health behaviors. Most work has looked at individual behavioral practices with a direct impact on health; because screening behaviors are conceptually distinct from such behaviors, it is important to examine the interplay of affect and cognition in screening decision making. The current research explored affective and cognitive predictors of testicular and breast self-examination behavior. Young adult participants (N = 184) reported cognitive beliefs and affective associations with testicular self-exam behavior (male participants) and breast self-exam behavior (female participants) and reported their own current screening behavior. In univariable models, affective associations were related to screening behavior for both testicular self-exams and breast self-exams. When examining affective associations and cognitive beliefs as simultaneous predictors, affective associations (but not cognitive beliefs) predicted testicular self-exams, and neither affective associations nor cognitive beliefs were uniquely related to breast self-exams. Moreover, for testicular self-exams, affective associations mediated the relation between cognitive beliefs and screening behavior; no mediation was present for breast self-exam behavior. These findings suggest three potential outcomes: first, that greater consideration of affective associations in testicular self-exam screening decisions may be warranted; second, that breast and testicular self-exams may have different antecedents; and third, that incorporation of affective factors in intervention design might have merit for increasing engagement in some cancer screening behaviors. PMID:25851610

  2. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  3. Proactive interference and concurrent inhibitory processes do not differentially affect item and associative recognition: Implication for the age-related associative memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested an associative deficit hypothesis [Naveh-Benjamin, M. ( 2000 ). Adult age differences in memory performance: Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187] to explain age-related episodic memory declines. The hypothesis attributes part of the deficient episodic memory performance in older adults to a difficulty in creating and retrieving cohesive episodes. In this article, we further evaluate this hypothesis by testing two alternative processes that potentially mediate associative memory deficits in older adults. Four experiments are presented that assess whether failure of inhibitory processes (proactive interference in Experiments 1 and 2), and concurrent inhibition (in Experiments 3 and 4) are mediating factors in age-related associative deficits. The results suggest that creating conditions that require the operation of inhibitory processes, or that interfere with such processes, cannot simulate associative memory deficit in older adults. Instead, such results support the idea that associative memory deficits reflect a unique binding failure in older adults. This failure seems to be independent of other cognitive processes, including inhibitory and other resource-demanding processes. PMID:26230249

  4. Differential Gene Expression in Colon Tissue Associated With Diet, Lifestyle, and Related Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Pellatt, Daniel F; Mullany, Lila E; Wolff, Roger K

    2015-01-01

    Several diet and lifestyle factors may impact health by influencing oxidative stress levels. We hypothesize that level of cigarette smoking, alcohol, anti-inflammatory drugs, and diet alter gene expression. We analyzed RNA-seq data from 144 colon cancer patients who had information on recent cigarette smoking, recent alcohol consumption, diet, and recent aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory use. Using a false discovery rate of 0.1, we evaluated gene differential expression between high and low levels of exposure using DESeq2. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to determine networks associated with de-regulated genes in our data. We identified 46 deregulated genes associated with recent cigarette use; these genes enriched causal networks regulated by TEK and MAP2K3. Different differentially expressed genes were associated with type of alcohol intake; five genes were associated with total alcohol, six were associated with beer intake, six were associated with wine intake, and four were associated with liquor consumption. Recent use of aspirin and/or ibuprofen was associated with differential expression of TMC06, ST8SIA4, and STEAP3 while a summary oxidative balance score (OBS) was associated with SYCP3, HDX, and NRG4 (all up-regulated with greater oxidative balance). Of the dietary antioxidants and carotenoids evaluated only intake of beta carotene (1 gene), Lutein/Zeaxanthine (5 genes), and Vitamin E (4 genes) were associated with differential gene expression. There were similarities in biological function of de-regulated genes associated with various dietary and lifestyle factors. Our data support the hypothesis that diet and lifestyle factors associated with oxidative stress can alter gene expression. However genes altered were unique to type of alcohol and type of antioxidant. Because of potential differences in associations observed between platforms these findings need replication in other populations. PMID:26230583

  5. Association of a New Measure of Obesity with Hypertension and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wankyo; Park, Chun Gun; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite its shortcomings, body mass index (BMI) has traditionally been used to define obesity. Another recently introduced obesity measure, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), has been introduced to focus on abdominal obesity, but its applicability remains limited. We analyzed the statistical properties of the ABSI and propose a modified ABSI, the z-score of the log-transformed ABSI (LBSIZ), to improve its applicability. We also examined the sensitivity of the newly introduced index in diagnosing obesity based on the percentage of body fat and its ability to predict hypertension and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Results We transformed the ABSI to the LBSIZ in order to create a standard normalized obesity measure. All available data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (1998–2012) have shown BMI to be highly correlated with weight (r = 0.85 for women, r = 0.87 for men) and waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.86 for women, r = 0.85 for men), but the LBSIZ was found to be weakly correlated with weight (r = 0.001 for women, r = 0.0001 for men) and moderately correlated with WC (r = 0.51 for women, r = 0.52 for men). BMI showed an inverted U-shaped pattern when plotted against age, but a linear pattern was observed for the LBSIZ, indicating they are different kinds of obesity measures. Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio of obesity for the LBSIZ was 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73–2.00) for males and 1.32 (95% CI = 1.24–1.40) for females after adjusting for weight, height, age, and year of participation in the KNHANES. While both BMI and the LBSIZ were significantly related to hypertension, the LBSIZ alone was significantly associated with impaired HRQOL. Conclusions The LBSIZ is a standard normalized obesity measure independent of weight, height, and BMI. LBSIZ is a new measure of abdominal obesity with the ability to predict hypertension and impaired HRQOL, irrespective of BMI

  6. Composite synvolcanic intrusions associated with Precambrian VMS-related hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galley, Alan G.

    2003-06-01

    Large subvolcanic intrusions are recognized within most Precambrian VMS camps. Of these, 80% are quartz diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite composite intrusions. The VMS camps spatially associated with composite intrusions account for >90% of the aggregate sulfide tonnage of all the Precambrian, intrusion-related VMS camps. These low-alumina, low-K, and high-Na composite intrusions contain early phases of quartz diorite and tonalite, followed by more voluminous trondhjemite. They have a high proportion of high silica (>74% SiO2) trondhjemite which is compositionally similar to the VMS-hosting rhyolites within the volcanic host-rock successions. The quartz-diorite and possibly tonalite phases follow tholeiitic fractionation trends whereas the trondhjemites fall within the composition field for primitive crustal melts. These transitional M-I-type primitive intrusive suites are associated with extensional regimes within oceanic-arc environments. Subvolcanic composite intrusions related to the Archean Sturgeon Lake and Noranda, and Paleoproterozoic Snow Lake VMS camps range in volume from 300 to 1,000 km3. Three have a sill morphology with strike lengths between 15 and 22 km and an average thickness between 1,500 and 2,000 m. The fourth has a gross stock-like shape. The VMS deposits are principally restricted to the volcanic strata above the strike length of the intrusions, as are areally extensive, thin exhalite units. The composite intrusions contain numerous internal phases which are commonly clustered within certain parts of the composite intrusion. These clusters underlie eruptive centers surrounded by areas of hydrothermal alteration and which contain most of the VMS deposits. Early quartz-diorite and tonalite phases appear to have intruded in rapid succession. Evidence includes gradational contacts, magma mixing and disequilibrium textures. They appear to have been emplaced as sill-dike swarms. These early phases are present as pendants and xenoliths within later

  7. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus on promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:22399864

  8. Factors Associated With the Development of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema After Whole-Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Baschnagel, Andrew; Ghilezan, Mihai; Riutta, Justin; Dekhne, Nayana; Balaraman, Savitha; Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle; Vicini, Frank

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the rates of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) in patients undergoing whole-breast irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and to identify clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with its development. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,861 patients with breast cancer were treated at William Beaumont Hospital with whole-breast irradiation as part of their BCT from January 1980 to February 2006, with 1,497 patients available for analysis. Determination of BCRL was based on clinical assessment. Differences in clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics between patients with BCRL and those without BCRL were evaluated, and the actuarial rates of BCRL by regional irradiation technique were determined. Results: The actuarial rate of any BCRL was 7.4% for the entire cohort and 9.9%, 14.7%, and 8.3% for patients receiving a supraclavicular field, posterior axillary boost, and internal mammary irradiation, respectively. BCRL was more likely to develop in patients with advanced nodal status (11.4% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.001), those who had a greater number of lymph nodes removed (14 nodes) (9.5% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.01), those who had extracapsular extension (13.4% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.009), those with Grade II/III disease (10.8% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001), and those who received adjuvant chemotherapy (10.5% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.02). Regional irradiation showed small increases in the rates of BCRL (p = not significant). Conclusions: These results suggest that clinically detectable BCRL will develop after traditional BCT in up to 10% of patients. High-risk subgroups include patients with advanced nodal status, those with more nodes removed, and those who receive chemotherapy, with patients receiving regional irradiation showing a trend toward increased rates.

  9. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differences Associated With Feeding- and Activity-Related Behaviors in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Russell L.; Sanders, Lee M.; Skinner, Asheley C.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Throop, Elizabeth M.; Yin, H. Shonna

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine parental reports of feeding and activity behaviors in a cohort of parents of 2-month-olds and how they differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Parents participating in Greenlight, a cluster, randomized trial of obesity prevention at 4 health centers, were queried at enrollment about feeding and activity behaviors thought to increase obesity risk. Unadjusted associations between race/ethnicity and the outcomes of interest were performed by using Pearson χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Adjusted analyses were performed by using proportional odds logistic regressions. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-three parents (50% Hispanic, 27% black, 18% white; 86% Medicaid) were enrolled. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45%) as exclusive breastfeeding (19%); 12% had already introduced solid food; 43% put infants to bed with bottles; 23% propped bottles; 20% always fed when the infant cried; 38% always tried to get children to finish milk; 90% were exposed to television (mean, 346 minutes/day); 50% reported active television watching (mean, 25 minutes/day); and 66% did not meet “tummy time” recommendations. Compared with white parents, black parents were more likely to put children to bed with a bottle (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.97, P < .004; bottle propping, aOR = 3.1, P < .001), and report more television watching (aOR = 1.6, P = .034). Hispanic parents were more likely than white parents to encourage children to finish feeding (aOR = 1.9, P = .007), bottle propping (aOR = 2.5, P = .009), and report less tummy time (aOR = 0.6, P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors thought to relate to later obesity were highly prevalent in this large, diverse sample and varied by race/ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally-adapted interventions. PMID:24639273

  11. Parity-related mortality: shape of association among middle-aged and elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Neumark, Yehuda D; Eisenbach, Zvi; Manor, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Parity is associated with mortality among middle-aged women, while substantially less is known about this relationship for men and the elderly. Using the census-based Israel Longitudinal Mortality Study (ILMS) II (1995-2004) we sought to examine the parity-mortality relationship among men and women, middle-aged and elderly. In our study cohort of 71,733 married men and 62,822 married women ages 45-89 years at baseline, 19,437 deaths were reported. Mortality differentials by parity were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted stepwise for age, origin, education and number of rooms. Analyzes were carried out for middle-aged (45-64 years) and elderly (65-89 years) men and women separately. We observed a non-linear relationship between parity and mortality for all individuals even after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic variables. In fully adjusted models, for example, nulliparous middle-aged women experienced the highest mortality risks (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.24, 1.98) followed by those with one child (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10, 1.51). These results were attenuated somewhat for nulliparous older women (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.11, 1.41). The detrimental effects of low and high parity on mortality among both men and women suggest a non pregnancy-related pathway that is likely mediated by biological and psychosocial factors and other lifestyle characteristics that have long-term consequences into older ages. Further research is warranted to examine the effects of parity by specific cause of death. PMID:19145406

  12. Mediation by illness perceptions of the association between the doctor-patient relationship and diabetes-related distress.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Harriet A; Smith, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    The quality of the doctor-patient relationship has been shown to impact upon a number of health outcomes in diabetes, including psychological well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated illness perceptions as mediators of the association between the doctor-patient relationship and diabetes-related distress. Individuals with diabetes completed questionnaires which measured the perceptions of their relationship with their doctor, diabetes-related distress and illness perceptions. The association between doctor-patient relationship and diabetes-related distress was fully mediated by Personal Control, suggesting that the individuals' beliefs surrounding their capacity to control their diabetes mediate the association between the doctor-patient relationship and diabetes-related distress. PMID:25663128

  13. Proactive, Reactive, and Romantic Relational Aggression in Adulthood: Measurement, Predictive Validity, Gender Differences, and Association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Nelson, David A.; Crick, Nicki R.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently introduced adult self-report of relational aggression are presented. Specifically, the predictive utility of proactive and reactive peer-directed relational aggression, as well as romantic relational aggression, are explored in a large (N = 1387) study of adults. The measure had adequate reliability and validity and the subscales demonstrated unique predictive abilities for a number of dependent variables. In particular, reactive but not proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and feelings of distress regarding relational provocation situations. Reactive relational aggression was also more strongly related to anger and hostility than proactive aggression. In addition, relational aggression in the context of romantic relationships was uniquely related to anger, hostility, impulsivity, history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and emotional sensitivity to relational provocations, even when controlling for peer-directed relational aggression. Gender differences in overall levels of relational aggression were not observed; however, males were most likely to engage in peer-directed proactive and reactive relational aggression whereas females were most likely to engage in romantic relational aggression. In a second study (N = 150), relational aggression was higher in a sample of adults with Intermittent Explosive Disorder than in a sample of healthy controls or psychiatric controls. The findings highlight the importance of assessing subtypes of relational aggression in adult samples. Ways in which this measure may extend research in psychology and psychiatry are discussed. PMID:19822329

  14. Stasis and extinction of Silurian (Llandovery-Wenlock) trilobite associations related to oceanic cyclicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikulic, Donald G.; Kluessendorf, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    Silurian trilobites of the central United States belong to a series of temporally-successive associations which appeared abruptly, maintained taxonomic stasis for a time, and then disappeared abruptly. Their disappearance resulted from global perturbations of short-term duration and moderate magnitude, which caused substantial taxonomic replacement but no reorganization of major ecosystems. The most significant extinction and replacement in Silurian trilobite associations in the study area occurs near the Llandovery-Wenlock boundary. This turnover in trilobite associations appears to correspond to Jeppsson's Ireviken Event in his model of oceanic and climatic cyclicity. Major sea-level changes earlier in the Llandovery did not have a similar impact on trilobite associations.

  15. dbAARD & AGP: A computational pipeline for the prediction of genes associated with age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Gahlot, Lokesh Kumar; Khurana, Pooja; Hasija, Yasha

    2016-04-01

    The atrocious behavioral and physiological shift with aging accelerate occurrence of deleterious disorders. Contemporary research is focused at uncovering the role of genetic associations in age-related disorders (ARDs). While the completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap project has generated huge amount of data on genetic variations; Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations, essentially SNPs associated with several disorders including ARDs. However, a repository that houses all such ARD associations is lacking. The present work is aimed at filling this void. A database, dbAARD (database of Aging and Age Related Disorders) has been developed which hosts information on more than 3000 genetic variations significantly (p-value <0.05) associated with 51 ARDs. Furthermore, a machine learning based gene prediction tool AGP (Age Related Disorders Gene Prediction) has been constructed by employing rotation forest algorithm, to prioritize genes associated with ARDs. The tool achieved an overall accuracy in terms of precision 75%, recall 76%, F-measure 76% and AUC 0.85. Both the web resources have been made available online at http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/dbAARD/ and http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/AGP/ respectively for easy retrieval and usage by the scientific community. We believe that this work may facilitate the analysis of plethora of variants associated with ARDs and provide cues for deciphering the biology of aging. PMID:26836976

  16. CDKAL1-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in a Cross-Sectional Cohort of Greek Children

    PubMed Central

    Moschonis, George; Dedoussis, George; Manios, Yannis; Marcus, Claude; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    Five novel loci recently found to be associated with body mass in two GWAS of East Asian populations were evaluated in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children and adolescents. These loci are located within, or in the proximity of: CDKAL1, PCSK1, GP2, PAX6 and KLF9. No association with body mass has previously been reported for these loci in GWAS performed on European populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the strongest association at each loci in the East Asian GWAS were genotyped in two cohorts, one obesity case control cohort of Swedish children and adolescents consisting of 496 cases and 520 controls and one cross-sectional cohort of 2293 nine-to-thirteen year old Greek children and adolescents. SNPs were surveyed for association with body mass and other phenotypic traits commonly associated with obesity, including adipose tissue distribution, insulin resistance and daily caloric intake. No association with body mass was found in either cohort. However, among the Greek children, association with insulin resistance could be observed for the two CDKAL1-related SNPs: rs9356744 (β = 0.018, p = 0.014) and rs2206734 (β = 0.024, p = 0.001). CDKAL1-related variants have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin response. This study reports association of CDKAL1-related SNPs with insulin resistance, a clinical marker related to type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children and adolescents of European descent. PMID:24695378

  17. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Substance Use-Related Media Exposure and Alcohol Use During Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. Methods The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Results Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p=.02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p=.07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents’ exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. PMID:23770074

  18. The Associations between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Peer and Parent Relations in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Wallenius, Marjut; Holtto, Hanna; Nygard, Clas-Hakan; Rimpela, Arja

    2009-01-01

    The study aims were, first, to examine the associations between the type and intensity of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and peer and parent relationships. Second, the study explored gender- and age-specific ICT usage and their associations with peer and parent relationships. The participants were 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old…

  19. The Relation between Navigation Strategy and Associative Memory: An Individual Differences Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Chi T.; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent…

  20. Age-Related Variation in Health Service Use and Associated Expenditures among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cidav, Zuleyha; Lawer, Lindsay; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences by age in service use and associated expenditures during 2005 for Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders. Aging was associated with significantly higher use and costs for restrictive, institution-based care and lower use and costs for community-based therapeutic services. Total expenditures…

  1. Associations of Obesity Genes with Obesity-related Outcomes in Multiethnic Children

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Chen, Guo-Bo; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Harris, Jacqueline J.; Duarte, Christine W.; Fernández, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci that are associated with body mass index (BMI = kg/m2). However, little is known regarding whether the genetic basis of BMI differs among children of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, how the cumulative effect of these genes influences weight, or the contribution of these variants to body composition. This study examined the association between 17 GWAS-identified loci located in 16 genes and body-composition phenotypes in a multiethnic pediatric sample and evaluated the association of a composite genetic risk score with these phenotypes. Methods Anthropometric measures of BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were obtained in a sample of 298 children. Lean and fat mass were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Genotypes of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with the phenotypic measures, adjusted by standard covariates and estimates of genetic admixture. Results Both SNPs rs8050136 and rs9939609 in FTO were associated with BMI and waist circumference in a direction opposite to that observed among adults, and an inverse association was detected between the risk variant in MC4R and total lean body mass. Lean body mass mediated the association between TMEM18 and BMI. The association between the genetic risk score and body composition differed according to ethnic/racial classification. Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic associations with BMI among children are different from those in adults, that some loci may operate through lean body mass, and that genetic risk scores will not have universal applicability across ethnic/racial groups. PMID:22051089

  2. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress. PMID:26762376

  3. Plaque pH and associated parameters in relation to caries.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y M; Pearce, E I; Yue, L; Larsen, M J; Gao, X J; Wang, J D

    1999-01-01

    Intensified plaque acidogenicity in caries-prone subjects was reported many years ago, but emerging evidence has suggested that the relationship may not be as strong as once thought. We have now determined a range of acidogenicity variables in subjects having both caries prevalence and incidence data, and have included plaque mineral data in the analysis. pH measurements were made in 20 randomly selected subjects from a high-caries group (mean DMFS = 8. 95) and 20 from a caries-free group of Beijing children aged 12 years participating in a caries prediction study. Subgroups with a 12-month DMFS increment >/=2 or = 0 were also formed from the two groups, respectively. Measurements were made with an iridium oxide electrode inserted between teeth 13/14, 23/24, 34/35 and 44/45, before and every 5 min for 30 min after rinsing with 10% sucrose, and the 4 resulting 'Stephan curves' averaged using a plaque pH analysis program. Supragingival plaque was collected from buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of posterior and upper anterior teeth and its acid extract analysed for Ca, P and F. Caries-free subjects (based on past experience) had a significantly higher maximum plaque pH and pH value after 30 min (reflecting a faster return to resting pH), a lower minimum enamel dissolution capacity of plaque and recorded less time below pH 7.0 than did high-caries subjects. No other differences were significant, including those of the principal acidogenic parameters 'minimum pH attained after a sugar rinse', 'curve area below the critical pH of 5.5' and 'time below the critical pH'. Selection of the caries groups on the basis of both experience and incidence did not reveal significant differences in more parameters. Upper arch plaque was significantly more acidogenic than lower arch plaque, and there was a consistently strong association between upper and lower arch values in individuals. Ca, P and F in the subjects' plaque had little or no influence on the principal acidogenic

  4. MicroRNA Species in Follicular Fluid Associating With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Related Intermediary Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Anja E.; Wissing, Marie Louise; Englund, Anne Lis M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a largely unknown etiology and presents with a clinical heterogeneous patient group. Small noncoding microRNA (miRNA) might prove promising as biomarker candidates for PCOS patient stratification. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been observed in few studies. Objective: The aim was to assess the miRNA expression profile in follicular fluid from PCOS patients and healthy, regularly cycling, matched controls. Design and Setting: Experimental case-control study including 49 PCOS women (19 of which were hyperandrogenic and 30 normo-androgenic) and 21 healthy matched women all undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. Interventions and Main Outcome: Anthropometric and relevant clinical baseline measurements were obtained. Relative expression of miRNA levels were estimated using miRNA quantitative PCR arrays and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Correlation between miRNAs and clinical relevant measurements was estimated. Results: PCOS women, both normo-androgenic and hyperandrogenic, had decreased levels of miR-24-3p, -29a, -151-3p, and -574-3p compared with controls. Furthermore, miR-518f-3p was differentially expressed within the PCOS group with high levels observed in the hyperandrogenic group compared with the normo-androgenic PCOS patients. Serum levels of total and free T were positively correlated with miR-518f-3p in PCOS subjects (P = .001). Distinction between PCOS and controls could be made using miR-151-3p alone with an area under the curve of 0.91 or a combination of four selected miRNAs (area under the curve, 0.93). Bioinformatic target analysis points to an involvement of these miRNAs in biological pathways involving regulation of cell proliferation, extracellular matrix, and processes in intermediary metabolism. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the miRNA expression profile in follicular fluid is altered in PCOS and indicates that specific follicular fluid miRNAs are associated with

  5. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  6. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  7. Genetic associations of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity-related metabolic traits in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Y D; Moy, F M; Rampal, S; Bulgiba, A; Mohamed, Z

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study showed that the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7566605 in the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was associated with obesity. Attempts to replicate this result in different populations have produced inconsistent findings. We aimed to study the association between the rs7566605 SNP with obesity and other metabolic parameters in Malaysian Malays. Anthropometric and obesity-related metabolic parameters and DNA samples were collected. We genotyped the rs7566605 polymorphism in 672 subjects using real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant associations were found between the rs7566605 tagging SNP of INSIG2 with obesity or other metabolic parameters in the Malaysian Malay population. The INSIG2 rs7566605 SNP may not play a role in the development of obesity-related metabolic traits in Malaysian Malays. PMID:25062423

  8. Stress-Related Changes in Attentional Bias to Social Threat in Young Adults: Psychobiological Associations with the Early Family Environment

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa; Garrard, Paige; Venkatraman, Sneha L.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association of chronic childhood stress exposure with acute stress-related attentional alterations that have been previously linked to vulnerability to mental and physical illness in early adulthood. Participants were randomized in a crossover design to complete both a mild laboratory social stress task and a computerized task assessing attentional bias to socially threatening words. Salivary cortisol was measured throughout the study. Exposure to acute laboratory stress altered attentional processing, and this relationship was moderated by chronic childhood stress exposure. Also, a positive association between cortisol reactivity and attentional bias was observed, with cortisol reactivity negatively related to childhood chronic stress exposure. While previous work has supported a role for early chronic stress exposure in influencing acute stress reactivity, this work provides initial insight into how both prior chronic childhood stress and current acute stress together relate to the attentional gateway and may be associated with stress adaptation and psychological vulnerability into adulthood. PMID:26052167

  9. Psychosis-related matricide associated with a lesion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Gricel; Alvarado, Luis; Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; Ávila, Rodrigo; Méndez, Mario F; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Matricide, the killing of a mother by her biological child, is a rare event. We report a case of matricide associated with a woman who sustained a right ventromedial prefrontal lesion during surgery for nasal polyposis that was performed when she was 40 years old. After her surgery, she developed psychotic symptoms associated with the emergence of antisocial behavior. She committed matricide 22 years later. Neuropsychological evaluation showed decreased frontal-executive deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion in the right gyrus rectus area of the ventromedial prefrontal region. This case suggests that a secondary psychotic syndrome associated with a lesion in the frontal neural network, which is disturbed in psychopathy, could facilitate homicidal behavior. Furthermore, this case has legal implications for the prosecution of murder associated with a brain lesion. PMID:24051593

  10. Young Adults' Developmental Task-Related Goals Modify the Association between Self-Focused Goals and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Korhonen, Tellervo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2012-03-01

    Having self-focused goals is often a risk factor for a higher level of depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether developmental task-related personal goals could moderate the association between self-focused goals and depressive symptoms in young adulthood. A total of 1,276 Finnish twins aged 21-26 filled out a questionnaire on personal goals. The General Behavior Inventory for depressive symptoms at age 17 and 21-26 was applied. Longitudinal path analyses were carried out. Among those who had a goal related to their own family or life philosophy, self-focused goals were not associated with depressive symptoms, whereas among those who did not express these goals there was a strong association between self-focused goals and higher level of depressive symptoms. Among those who had a goal related to education, the association between self-focused goals and depressive symptoms was weaker compared to those who did not express these goals. These results suggest that goals related to one's own family, life philosophy, and education have the potential to decrease the association between self-focused goals and depressive symptoms. PMID:26286973

  11. Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Kuška, Martin; Trnka, Radek; Kuběna, Aleš A.; Růžička, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    People construe reality by using words as basic units of meaningful categorization. The present theory-driven study applied the method of a free association task to explore how people express the concepts of the world and the self in words. The respondents were asked to recall any five words relating with the word world. Afterward they were asked to recall any five words relating with the word self. The method of free association provided the respondents with absolute freedom to choose any words they wanted. Such free recall task is suggested as being a relatively direct approach to the respondents’ self- and world-related conceptual categories, without enormous rational processing. The results provide us, first, with associative ranges for constructs of the world and the self, where some associative dimensions are defined by semantic polarities in the meanings of peripheral categories (e.g., Nature vs. Culture). Second, our analysis showed that some groups of verbal categories that were associated with the words world and self are central, while others are peripheral with respect to the central position. Third, the analysis of category networks revealed that some categories play the role of a transmitter, mediating the pathway between other categories in the network. PMID:27445940

  12. ABO blood groups in relation to breast carcinoma incidence and associated prognostic factors in Moroccan women.

    PubMed

    Zouine, S; Marnissi, F; Otmani, N; Bennani Othmani, M; El Wafi, M; Kojok, K; Zaid, Y; Tahiri Jouti, N; Habti, N

    2016-07-01

    The association between blood groups ABO and different types of diseases was established in several previous studies. Our aim was to seek the possible association between the ABO blood group and breast cancer-associated prognostic factors. The Chi-squared analytic test was used to compare phenotypic ABO distribution among Moroccan blood donors and 442 cases of women suffering from breast carcinoma with archived files in Maternity Ward of University Hospital C.H.U Ibn Rochd between 2008 and 2011. High incidence of breast carcinoma was observed in blood type B patients (p < 0.05). Blood type B was associated with breast carcinomas overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 (p < 0.05) and high risk of cancer at age over 70 years (p < 0.001). Blood type A was associated with high risk of cancer among women younger than 35 years old. Blood type A and AB were associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis has shown correlation between O blood type and estrogen receptor-positive tumor. Patients with blood group A, B, and AB were more likely to develop aggressive breast carcinoma. Further follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the role of ABH antigens in the progression of breast carcinoma. PMID:27241035

  13. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  14. Associations between relational sexual behaviour, pornography use, and pornography acceptance among US college students.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Pornography use among emerging adults in the USA has increased in recent decades, as has the acceptance of such consumption. While previous research has linked pornography use to both positive and negative outcomes in emerging adult populations, few studies have investigated how attitudes toward pornography may alter these associations, or how examining pornography use together with other sexual behaviours may offer unique insights into the outcomes associated with pornography use. Using a sample of 792 emerging adults, the present study explored how the combined examination of pornography use, acceptance, and sexual behaviour within a relationship might offer insight into emerging adults' development. Results suggested clear gender differences in both pornography use and acceptance patterns. High male pornography use tended to be associated with high engagement in sex within a relationship and was associated with elevated risk-taking behaviours. High female pornography use was not associated with engagement in sexual behaviours within a relationship and was general associated with negative mental health outcomes. PMID:25023726

  15. Relational Associative Learning Induces Cross-Modal Plasticity in Early Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Headley, Drew B.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological theories of memory posit that the neocortex is a storage site of declarative memories, a hallmark of which is the association of two arbitrary neutral stimuli. Early sensory cortices, once assumed uninvolved in memory storage, recently have been implicated in associations between neutral stimuli and reward or punishment. We asked whether links between neutral stimuli also could be formed in early visual or auditory cortices. Rats were presented with a tone paired with a light using a sensory preconditioning paradigm that enabled later evaluation of successful association. Subjects that acquired this association developed enhanced sound evoked potentials in their primary and secondary visual cortices. Laminar recordings localized this potential to cortical Layers 5 and 6. A similar pattern of activation was elicited by microstimulation of primary auditory cortex in the same subjects, consistent with a cortico-cortical substrate of association. Thus, early sensory cortex has the capability to form neutral stimulus associations. This plasticity may constitute a declarative memory trace between sensory cortices. PMID:24275832

  16. Relational associative learning induces cross-modal plasticity in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Headley, Drew B; Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-05-01

    Neurobiological theories of memory posit that the neocortex is a storage site of declarative memories, a hallmark of which is the association of two arbitrary neutral stimuli. Early sensory cortices, once assumed uninvolved in memory storage, recently have been implicated in associations between neutral stimuli and reward or punishment. We asked whether links between neutral stimuli also could be formed in early visual or auditory cortices. Rats were presented with a tone paired with a light using a sensory preconditioning paradigm that enabled later evaluation of successful association. Subjects that acquired this association developed enhanced sound evoked potentials in their primary and secondary visual cortices. Laminar recordings localized this potential to cortical Layers 5 and 6. A similar pattern of activation was elicited by microstimulation of primary auditory cortex in the same subjects, consistent with a cortico-cortical substrate of association. Thus, early sensory cortex has the capability to form neutral stimulus associations. This plasticity may constitute a declarative memory trace between sensory cortices. PMID:24275832

  17. Protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and negative alcohol-related consequences: do race and gender moderate these associations?

    PubMed

    Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    White, non-Hispanic college students tend to drink more alcohol and experience more negative consequences than African American college students. However, racial differences have not been examined for protective behavioral strategies. This study examined whether race and gender moderated the associations that protective behavioral strategies had with alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. In general, the use of protective behavioral strategies were associated with greater deceases in consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences for White, non-Hispanic students than African American students, which suggests important racial differences related to protective strategy use. Research and clinical implications are provided. PMID:23967885

  18. Cross-Ontological Analytics: Combining Associative and Hierarchical Relations in the Gene Ontologies to Assess Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.

    2006-05-28

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the gene ontologies, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes/gene products is obtained by comparing gene ontology (GO) annotations associated with the gene/gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene ontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene ontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy.

  19. Associations between Dietary Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in relation to Urinary Estrogen DNA Adduct Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Zahid, Muhammad; Cavalieri, Ercole; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Raccor, Brianne S.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Yong, Mellissa; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Estrogen exposure plays a role in breast cancer (BC) development. A novel estrogen biomarker, the estrogen DNA adduct (EDA) ratio, was shown to be elevated in women at high-risk of BC and among BC cases. Modifiable factors may impact the EDA ratio, with studies demonstrating that resveratrol reduces EDA ratio in vitro. We sought to examine the hypothesis that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with EDA ratio. Methods This analysis was conducted in 53 pre-menopausal, healthy women aged 40–45 years from a cross-sectional study in which participants provided first-void urine samples and 3-day food records. Urine samples were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The EDA ratio was calculated as the estrogen-DNA adducts divided by estrogen metabolites and conjugates. A trend test was used to assess associations between tertiles of dietary intake using linear regression. Results After adjustment for age, total energy, percent adiposity, serum estradiol and estrone-sulfate, we observed inverse associations of EDA ratio with carbohydrate consumption (P=0.01) and vegetable intake (P =0.01). EDA ratio was inversely associated with 5 botanical groups (Chenopodiaceae: P=0.02; Umbelliferae: P=0.03; Compositae: P=0.01; Ericaceae: P=0.01; Musaceae: P=0.03) but not fruit intake overall. Conclusion Although these data require replication before conclusions are drawn, this report suggests an inverse association between vegetable and carbohydrate consumption and EDA ratio. Impact While more information is still needed, these findings suggest a link between dietary intake and a biomarker that is both associated with high-risk BC status and associated with modifiable factors. PMID:25431744

  20. Association of Lipid-Related Genetic Variants with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The AFGen Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Norby, Faye L.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Arking, Dan E.; Chasman, Daniel L.; Chen, Lin Y.; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Engström, Gunnar; Franco, Oscar H.; Heeringa, Jan; Hindy, George; Hofman, Albert; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Magnani, Jared W.; McManus, David D.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Pankow, James S.; Rukh, Gull; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Uitterlinden, André G.; Albert, Christine M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Smith, J. Gustav; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown associations between blood lipid levels and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). To test the potential effect of blood lipids with AF risk, we assessed whether previously developed lipid gene scores, used as instrumental variables, are associated with the incidence of AF in 7 large cohorts. Methods We analyzed 64,901 individuals of European ancestry without previous AF at baseline and with lipid gene scores. Lipid-specific gene scores, based on loci significantly associated with lipid levels, were calculated. Additionally, non-pleiotropic gene scores for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were calculated using SNPs that were only associated with the specific lipid fraction. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AF per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase of each lipid gene score. Results During a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 5434 (8.4%) incident AF cases were identified. After meta-analysis, the HDLc, LDLc, total cholesterol, and triglyceride gene scores were not associated with incidence of AF. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) were 1.01 (0.98–1.03); 0.98 (0.96–1.01); 0.98 (0.95–1.02); 0.99 (0.97–1.02), respectively. Similarly, non-pleiotropic HDLc and LDLc gene scores showed no association with incident AF: HR (95% CI) = 1.00 (0.97–1.03); 1.01 (0.99–1.04). Conclusions In this large cohort study of individuals of European ancestry, gene scores for lipid fractions were not associated with incident AF. PMID:26999784

  1. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. PMID:25903252

  2. Venous thromboembolism risk associated with protracted work- and computer-related seated immobility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Bridget; Cameron, Laird; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility. Design A case-control study. Participants and setting Cases were 200 patients attending venous thromboembolism clinics with a history of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism in the past six months, and controls were 200 patients treated in fracture clinic for an upper limb injury in the past six months. Main outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility in the 28 days before the index event. Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility was defined firstly as a categorical variable with at least 10 h seated in a 24-h period, including at least 2 h without getting up; and secondly as the actual time spent seated in a 24-h period. Results Prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility (categorical variable) was present in 36 (18%) cases and 31 (15.5%) controls. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism, odds ratio 1.18 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.48), P = 0.67. For the mean and maximum number of hours seated in a 24-h period, the odds ratios for the association per additional hour seated with venous thromboembolism were 1.08 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.6), P = 0.02 and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.09), P = 0.08, respectively. Conclusion This study found a weak association between venous thromboembolism and prolonged work- and computer-related seated immobility, with increasing mean hours seated associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:27540486

  3. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association. PMID:26987519

  4. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  5. Relational Victimization: The Association between Recalled Adolescent Social Experiences and Emotional Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…

  6. Are child anxiety and somatization associated with pain in pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated individual and incremental contributions of somatization and trait anxiety to pain report in children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. Eighty children (7-10 years) with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders completed the State-Trait Anxiet...

  7. East-West Relations in Europe. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 278.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Stanley R.

    This booklet is one of a series on world issues that investigates East-West relations in Europe by addressing important questions and dilemmas. These include: (1) What are the goals of the European countries in their relations with one another? (2) How do they view the division of Europe, its origins and its consequences? (3) To what extent are…

  8. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  9. Contact dermatitis and related dermatoses associated with petroleum recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    The author reviews the skin's structural and functional protections, and causal factors and clinical patterns of occupational skin disease. He then examines the literature concerning petroleum industry operations and petroleum-derived product use as they relate to skin disease. The chapter concludes with commentary on prevention and treatment of related skin disease. 22 references.

  10. Association of polyalanine and polyglutamine coiled coils mediates expansion disease-related protein aggregation and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pelassa, Ilaria; Corà, Davide; Cesano, Federico; Monje, Francisco J.; Montarolo, Pier Giorgio; Fiumara, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of homopolymeric glutamine (polyQ) or alanine (polyA) repeats in certain proteins owing to genetic mutations induces protein aggregation and toxicity, causing at least 18 human diseases. PolyQ and polyA repeats can also associate in the same proteins, but the general extent of their association in proteomes is unknown. Furthermore, the structural mechanisms by which their expansion causes disease are not well understood, and these repeats are generally thought to misfold upon expansion into aggregation-prone β-sheet structures like amyloids. However, recent evidence indicates a critical role for coiled-coil (CC) structures in triggering aggregation and toxicity of polyQ-expanded proteins, raising the possibility that polyA repeats may as well form these structures, by themselves or in association with polyQ. We found through bioinformatics screenings that polyA, polyQ and polyQA repeats have a phylogenetically graded association in human and non-human proteomes and associate/overlap with CC domains. Circular dichroism and cross-linking experiments revealed that polyA repeats can form—alone or with polyQ and polyQA—CC structures that increase in stability with polyA length, forming higher-order multimers and polymers in vitro. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we studied the relevance of polyA CCs to the in vivo aggregation and toxicity of RUNX2—a polyQ/polyA protein associated with cleidocranial dysplasia upon polyA expansion—and found that the stability of its polyQ/polyA CC controls its aggregation, localization and toxicity. These findings indicate that, like polyQ, polyA repeats form CC structures that can trigger protein aggregation and toxicity upon expansion in human genetic diseases. PMID:24497578

  11. Association of polyalanine and polyglutamine coiled coils mediates expansion disease-related protein aggregation and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pelassa, Ilaria; Corà, Davide; Cesano, Federico; Monje, Francisco J; Montarolo, Pier Giorgio; Fiumara, Ferdinando

    2014-07-01

    The expansion of homopolymeric glutamine (polyQ) or alanine (polyA) repeats in certain proteins owing to genetic mutations induces protein aggregation and toxicity, causing at least 18 human diseases. PolyQ and polyA repeats can also associate in the same proteins, but the general extent of their association in proteomes is unknown. Furthermore, the structural mechanisms by which their expansion causes disease are not well understood, and these repeats are generally thought to misfold upon expansion into aggregation-prone β-sheet structures like amyloids. However, recent evidence indicates a critical role for coiled-coil (CC) structures in triggering aggregation and toxicity of polyQ-expanded proteins, raising the possibility that polyA repeats may as well form these structures, by themselves or in association with polyQ. We found through bioinformatics screenings that polyA, polyQ and polyQA repeats have a phylogenetically graded association in human and non-human proteomes and associate/overlap with CC domains. Circular dichroism and cross-linking experiments revealed that polyA repeats can form--alone or with polyQ and polyQA--CC structures that increase in stability with polyA length, forming higher-order multimers and polymers in vitro. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we studied the relevance of polyA CCs to the in vivo aggregation and toxicity of RUNX2--a polyQ/polyA protein associated with cleidocranial dysplasia upon polyA expansion--and found that the stability of its polyQ/polyA CC controls its aggregation, localization and toxicity. These findings indicate that, like polyQ, polyA repeats form CC structures that can trigger protein aggregation and toxicity upon expansion in human genetic diseases. PMID:24497578

  12. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  13. Revisiting Mednick's Model on Creativity-Related Differences in Associative Hierarchies. Evidence for a Common Path to Uncommon Thought.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2013-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Mednick [Psychological Review, 69 (1962) 220] proposed an elaborate model that aimed to explain how creative ideas are generated and why creative people are more likely to have creative ideas. The model assumes that creative people have flatter associative hierarchies and as a consequence can more fluently retrieve remote associative elements, which can be combined to form creative ideas. This study aimed at revisiting Mednick's model and providing an extensive test of its hypotheses. A continuous free association task was employed and association performance was compared between groups high and low in creativity, as defined by divergent thinking ability and self-report measures. We found that associative hierarchies do not differ between low and high creative people, but creative people showed higher associative fluency and more uncommon responses. This suggests that creativity may not be related to a special organization of associative memory, but rather to a more effective way of accessing its contents. The findings add to the evidence associating creativity with highly adaptive executive functioning. PMID:24532853

  14. Associations between Traffic-Related Black Carbon Exposure and Attention in a Prospective Birth Cohort of Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, David C.; Coull, Brent A.; Anderson, Shawn; Barber, Rachel; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution may have neurotoxic effects in children. Data examining associations between traffic-related air pollution and attention domains remain sparse. Objectives: We examined associations between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic particles, and attention measures ascertained at 7–14 years of age among 174 children in a birth cohort based in the Boston, Massachusetts, area. Methods: We estimated BC levels using a validated spatial–temporal land-use regression model based on residence during children’s lifetime. Children completed the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measuring omission errors, commission errors, and hit reaction time (HRT), with higher scores indicating increased errors or slower reaction time. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between BC and each attention outcome. Results: Children were primarily Hispanic (56%) and Caucasian (41%); 53% were boys. We found a positive association between higher BC levels with increased commission errors and slower HRT, adjusting for child IQ, age, sex, blood lead level, maternal education, pre- and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure, and community-level social stress. Notably, the association was weaker, though still positive, for the highest BC quartile relative to the middle two quartiles. Sex-stratified analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations between BC and both commission errors and HRT in boys, but BC was not significantly associated with any of the CPT outcomes in girls. Conclusions: In this population of urban children, we found associations between BC exposure and higher commission errors and slower reaction time. These associations were overall more apparent in boys than girls. PMID:23665743

  15. Leukocyte telomere length is associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hong; Kan, Mengyuan; Ye, Junyi; Liu, Fatao; Wang, Ting; Deng, Jiaying; Tan, Yanfang; He, Lin; Liu, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Telomeres located at the ends of chromosomes are involved in genomic stability and play a key role in various cancers and age-related diseases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disease, which includes the geographic atrophy (GA) subtype and the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype. To better understand how leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is related to AMD, we conducted an association study in 197 AMD patients and 259 healthy controls using the established quantitative PCR technique. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of LTL and AMD with the age-adjusted ratio of the telomere length to the copy number of a single-copy gene (T/S). Notably, we found a significant association between AMD and LTL (OR=2.24; 95% CI=1.68-3.07; P=0.0001) after adjusting for age and sex. Furthermore, the results showed a strongly significant association between the GA subtype and the LTL (OR=4.81; 95% CI=3.15-7.82; P=0.0001) after adjusting for age and sex. Our findings provide evidence of the role that LTL plays in the pathological mechanisms of AMD, mainly in the GA subgroup but not the CNV subgroup. PMID:26049047

  16. Retroperitoneal disorders associated with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Noboru; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Takeda, Keisuke; Zen, Yoh

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently accompanied by relevant lesions in the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal organs, which cause various clinical problems, ranging from non-specific back pain or bladder outlet obstruction to renal failure. The diagnosis of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including serological tests, histological examination, imaging analysis, and susceptibility to steroid therapy. Radiological examinations are helpful to diagnose this condition, but surgical resection is occasionally unavoidable to exclude malignancy, particularly for patients with isolated retroperitoneal involvement. Steroid therapy is the treatment of choice for this condition, the same as for other manifestations of IgG4-related disease. For patients with severe ureteral obstruction, additional ureteral stenting needs to be considered prior to steroid therapy to preserve the renal function. Some papers have suggested that IgG4-related disease can affect male reproductive organs including the prostate and testis. IgG4-related prostatitis usually causes lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria and pollakisuria. Patients sometimes state that corticosteroids given for IgG4-related disease at other sites relieve their lower urinary tract symptoms, which leads us to suspect prostatic involvement in this condition. Because of the limited number of publications available, further studies are warranted to better characterize IgG4-related disease in male reproductive organs. PMID:25469023

  17. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

  18. Hypomethylation of smoking-related genes is associated with future lung cancer in four prospective cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Fasanelli, Francesca; Baglietto, Laura; Ponzi, Erica; Guida, Florence; Campanella, Gianluca; Johansson, Mattias; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Assumma, Manuela Bianca; Naccarati, Alessio; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Ala, Ugo; Faltus, Christian; Kaaks, Rudolf; Risch, Angela; De Stavola, Bianca; Hodge, Allison; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Relton, Caroline L.; Haycock, Philip C.; Lund, Eiliv; Polidoro, Silvia; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Severi, Gianluca; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    DNA hypomethylation in certain genes is associated with tobacco exposure but it is unknown whether these methylation changes translate into increased lung cancer risk. In an epigenome-wide study of DNA from pre-diagnostic blood samples from 132 case–control pairs in the NOWAC cohort, we observe that the most significant associations with lung cancer risk are for cg05575921 in AHRR (OR for 1 s.d.=0.37, 95% CI: 0.31–0.54, P-value=3.3 × 10−11) and cg03636183 in F2RL3 (OR for 1 s.d.=0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.56, P-value=3.9 × 10−10), previously shown to be strongly hypomethylated in smokers. These associations remain significant after adjustment for smoking and are confirmed in additional 664 case–control pairs tightly matched for smoking from the MCCS, NSHDS and EPIC HD cohorts. The replication and mediation analyses suggest that residual confounding is unlikely to explain the observed associations and that hypomethylation of these CpG sites may mediate the effect of tobacco on lung cancer risk. PMID:26667048

  19. Structural Changes after Videogame Practice Related to a Brain Network Associated with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Solana, Ana Beatriz; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Privado, Jesus; Escorial, Sergio; Martinez, Kenia; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Alfayate, Eva; Garcia, Felipe; Lepage, Claude; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Karama, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    Here gray and white matter changes after four weeks of videogame practice were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical surface and cortical thickness indices, and white matter integrity computed from several projection, commissural, and association tracts relevant to cognition. Beginning with a sample of one hundred young…

  20. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    PubMed

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists. PMID:25215624

  1. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  2. Hypomethylation of smoking-related genes is associated with future lung cancer in four prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fasanelli, Francesca; Baglietto, Laura; Ponzi, Erica; Guida, Florence; Campanella, Gianluca; Johansson, Mattias; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Assumma, Manuela Bianca; Naccarati, Alessio; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Ala, Ugo; Faltus, Christian; Kaaks, Rudolf; Risch, Angela; De Stavola, Bianca; Hodge, Allison; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Relton, Caroline L; Haycock, Philip C; Lund, Eiliv; Polidoro, Silvia; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Severi, Gianluca; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    DNA hypomethylation in certain genes is associated with tobacco exposure but it is unknown whether these methylation changes translate into increased lung cancer risk. In an epigenome-wide study of DNA from pre-diagnostic blood samples from 132 case-control pairs in the NOWAC cohort, we observe that the most significant associations with lung cancer risk are for cg05575921 in AHRR (OR for 1 s.d.=0.37, 95% CI: 0.31-0.54, P-value=3.3 × 10(-11)) and cg03636183 in F2RL3 (OR for 1 s.d.=0.40, 95% CI: 0.31-0.56, P-value=3.9 × 10(-10)), previously shown to be strongly hypomethylated in smokers. These associations remain significant after adjustment for smoking and are confirmed in additional 664 case-control pairs tightly matched for smoking from the MCCS, NSHDS and EPIC HD cohorts. The replication and mediation analyses suggest that residual confounding is unlikely to explain the observed associations and that hypomethylation of these CpG sites may mediate the effect of tobacco on lung cancer risk. PMID:26667048

  3. Association of MC4R variants with obesity-related traits in Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) has been implicated in the regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. In children, MC4R mutations have been associated with severe obesity. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional effects of variants in MC4R gene on the variatio...

  4. Brief Report: The Association of Graduated Driver Licensing with Nondriver Transport-related Injuries Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Songzhu; Long, D. Leann

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a phased approach to initiating driving, graduated driver licensing restricts driving by young drivers with the aim of reducing crashes. It might increase riding with parents or on buses, which might be safer, or walking or biking, which might be more dangerous. We examined whether it increases nondriver injuries, and whether it reduces total injuries combining drivers and nondrivers. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of 1995–2012 traffic injuries from 43 states. Using Poisson mixed regression, we estimated adjusted rate ratios for visible, incapacitating, and fatal injury. Results: Among 16 year olds, graduated driver licensing was associated with reduced passenger injuries (adjusted rate ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.97). It was not associated with increased injuries as bus riders, pedestrians, or bicyclists among 16- or 17-year olds. It was associated with a 10% reduction in total injuries among 16-year olds, but not 17-year olds. Conclusion: Graduated driver licensing was associated with reduced passenger injuries and total injuries. PMID:27153461

  5. Relational Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael J.; Lyons, Karen S.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression following stroke is a major problem for survivors and spouses, but few studies have focused on the experiences of couples. This study investigates associations between perceived relationship quality, communication and coping patterns, interpersonal misunderstandings and expectations, and survivors' and spouses' depressive symptoms after…

  6. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…

  7. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  8. GAIN OF FUNCTION STAT1 MUTATION-RELATED PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY IS ASSOCIATED WITH DISSEMINATED MUCORMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nilay; Hanks, Mary E.; Chandrasekaran, Prabha; Davis, Brian C.; Hsu, Amy P.; Van Wagoner, Nicholas J.; Merlin, Jessica S.; Spalding, Christine; La Hoz, Ricardo M.; Holland, Steven M.; Zerbe, Christa S.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We identified a novel gain of function mutation in STAT1 in a patient with disseminated Apophysomyces trapeziformis infection who had never had mucocutaneous candidiasis or autoimmunity. To our knowledge this is the first report of a genetic predisposition associated with mucormycosis. PMID:24709374

  9. Abstinence-Related Word Associations and Definitions of Abstinence and Virginity among Missouri High School Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…

  10. Inhibitory Control and Empathy-Related Personality Traits: Sex-Linked Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We here report two studies exploring associations between inhibitory control (measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task, SART) on the one hand, and self-reports of trait cooperativeness and empathy on the other. A coherent picture was obtained in women whose inhibitory control proficiency predicted higher scores on the Temperament and…

  11. Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

  12. The Association of Homocysteine and Related Factors to Brachial Artery Diameter and Flow-Mediated Dilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) has been proposed as a measurement of the degree and severity of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the associations between BAFMD and homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, (2) examine the influence of 5,10-me...

  13. Systemic lupus erythematosus in association with ulcerative colitis: related autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Stevens, H P; Ostlere, L S; Rustin, M H

    1994-03-01

    We report a patient who developed urticaria, angio-oedema and polyarthropathy secondary to the hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome, a year prior to the onset of ulcerative colitis. Ten years later, primary sclerosing cholangitis and the antiphospholipid syndrome developed concomitantly. We believe this patient represents only the second reported case of idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurring in association with ulcerative colitis. PMID:8148283

  14. Predictors of First Semester Attrition and Their Relation to Retention of Generic Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Janice R.; Jackson, D. Kathy

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model showing the relationship of academic, socioeconomic, and motivational variables to students' attrition in a community college nursing program, in order to determine the students who pass, or not pass, first semester, generic, and associate degree nursing courses. The theoretical framework used in the…

  15. Phenome-Wide Association Study to Explore Relationships between Immune System Related Genetic Loci and Complex Traits and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anurag; Basile, Anna O.; Bradford, Yuki; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard; Carey, David; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Crowe, James E.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) to identify interrelationships between the immune system genetic architecture and a wide array of phenotypes from two de-identified electronic health record (EHR) biorepositories. We selected variants within genes encoding critical factors in the immune system and variants with known associations with autoimmunity. To define case/control status for EHR diagnoses, we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes from 3,024 Geisinger Clinic MyCode® subjects (470 diagnoses) and 2,899 Vanderbilt University Medical Center BioVU biorepository subjects (380 diagnoses). A pooled-analysis was also carried out for the replicating results of the two data sets. We identified new associations with potential biological relevance including SNPs in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ankyrin-related genes associated with acute and chronic sinusitis and acute respiratory tract infection. The two most significant associations identified were for the C6orf10 SNP rs6910071 and “rheumatoid arthritis” (ICD-9 code category 714) (pMETAL = 2.58 x 10−9) and the ATN1 SNP rs2239167 and “diabetes mellitus, type 2” (ICD-9 code category 250) (pMETAL = 6.39 x 10−9). This study highlights the utility of using PheWAS in conjunction with EHRs to discover new genotypic-phenotypic associations for immune-system related genetic loci. PMID:27508393

  16. Phenome-Wide Association Study to Explore Relationships between Immune System Related Genetic Loci and Complex Traits and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anurag; Basile, Anna O; Bradford, Yuki; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard; Carey, David; Gerhard, Glenn S; Crowe, James E; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Pendergrass, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    We performed a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) to identify interrelationships between the immune system genetic architecture and a wide array of phenotypes from two de-identified electronic health record (EHR) biorepositories. We selected variants within genes encoding critical factors in the immune system and variants with known associations with autoimmunity. To define case/control status for EHR diagnoses, we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes from 3,024 Geisinger Clinic MyCode® subjects (470 diagnoses) and 2,899 Vanderbilt University Medical Center BioVU biorepository subjects (380 diagnoses). A pooled-analysis was also carried out for the replicating results of the two data sets. We identified new associations with potential biological relevance including SNPs in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ankyrin-related genes associated with acute and chronic sinusitis and acute respiratory tract infection. The two most significant associations identified were for the C6orf10 SNP rs6910071 and "rheumatoid arthritis" (ICD-9 code category 714) (pMETAL = 2.58 x 10-9) and the ATN1 SNP rs2239167 and "diabetes mellitus, type 2" (ICD-9 code category 250) (pMETAL = 6.39 x 10-9). This study highlights the utility of using PheWAS in conjunction with EHRs to discover new genotypic-phenotypic associations for immune-system related genetic loci. PMID:27508393

  17. Relationship Characteristics Associated with the Experience of Hurt in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2009-01-01

    We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…

  18. Associations between Sadness and Anger Regulation Coping, Emotional Expression, and Physical and Relational Aggression among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Goodman, Kimberly L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between self-reports of sadness and anger regulation coping, reluctance to express emotion, and physical and relational aggression between two cohorts of predominantly African-American fifth (N = 191; 93 boys and 98 girls) and eighth (N = 167; 73 boys and 94 girls) graders. Multiple regression analyses indicated…

  19. Markers on bovine chromosome 20 associated with fat related traits and incidence of contracting bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and fat related traits. Steers from the Cycle 7 of the Germplasm Evaluation Program (GPE7; n=565) were used. The GPE7 population comprises anim...

  20. Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions during Detoxification Treatment Are Associated with Drug Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marhe, Reshmi; Waters, Andrew J.; van de Wetering, Ben J. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with…

  1. Family Relations and the Adjustment of Young Children of Mexican Descent: Do Family Cultural Values Moderate These Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Modry-Mandell, Kerri

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of family cultural values as moderators of the association between family relations and the adjustment of young children. Fifty-five families of Mexican descent with young children enrolled in Head Start programs in the Southwest participated. Mothers provided information about closeness of the mother-child…

  2. Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkkinen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

  3. An Indirect Effects Model of the Association between Poverty and Child Functioning: The Role of Children's Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Reinhard, Christine; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model positing that poverty has an indirect effect on child and adolescent functioning through children's poverty-related stress. Path analyses with a multiethnic sample of 164 children aged 6 to 18 revealed that the stress associated with poverty, such as economic strain, family conflict, violence/trauma, and…

  4. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION ON THE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is the preface or editors note to the dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies," that was...

  6. Attenuated Auditory Event-Related Potentials and Associations with Atypical Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkers, Franc C. L.; Schipul, Sarah E.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cleary, Katherine M.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Evans, Anna M.; Bulluck, John C.; Lovmo, Jeanne E.; Belger, Aysenil

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological underpinnings of unusual sensory features in individuals with autism are unknown. Event-related potentials elicited by task-irrelevant sounds were used to elucidate neural correlates of auditory processing and associations with three common sensory response patterns (hyperresponsiveness; hyporesponsiveness; sensory seeking).…

  7. DIRAS2 is Associated with Adult ADHD, Related Traits, and Co-Morbid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Andreas; Nguyen, T Trang; Weißflog, Lena; Jacob, Christian P; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Buttenschon, Henriette N; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Gessner, Alexandra; Weber, Heike; Neuner, Maria; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Zamzow, Karin; Kreiker, Susanne; Walitza, Susanne; Meyer, Jobst; Freitag, Christine M; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Gómez, Nuria; Ribasès, Marta; Bayès, Mónica; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kooij, J J Sandra; Kan, Cees C; Hoogman, Martine; Johansson, Stefan; Jacobsen, Kaya K; Knappskog, Per M; Fasmer, Ole B; Asherson, Phil; Warnke, Andreas; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Mahler, Jessie; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Mors, Ole N; Schäfer, Helmut; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Cormand, Bru; Haavik, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Several linkage analyses implicated the chromosome 9q22 region in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disease with remarkable persistence into adulthood. This locus contains the brain-expressed GTP-binding RAS-like 2 gene (DIRAS2) thought to regulate neurogenesis. As DIRAS2 is a positional and functional ADHD candidate gene, we conducted an association study in 600 patients suffering from adult ADHD (aADHD) and 420 controls. Replication samples consisted of 1035 aADHD patients and 1381 controls, as well as 166 families with a child affected from childhood ADHD. Given the high degree of co-morbidity with ADHD, we also investigated patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) (n=336) or personality disorders (PDs) (n=622). Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the structural gene and the transcriptional control region of DIRAS2 were analyzed. Four SNPs and two haplotype blocks showed evidence of association with ADHD, with nominal p-values ranging from p=0.006 to p=0.05. In the adult replication samples, we obtained a consistent effe