Science.gov

Sample records for association international specialty

  1. Association of American Geographers, Remote Sensing Specialty Group Special Issue of Geocarto International

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Thomas R. (Editor); Emerson, Charles W. (Editor); Quattrochi, Dale A. (Editor); Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This special issue continues the precedence of the Association of American Geographers (AAG), Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) for publishing selected articles in Geocarto International as a by-product from the AAG annual meeting. As editors, we issued earlier this year, a solicitation for papers to be published in a special issue of Geocarto International that were presented in RSSG-sponsored sessions at the 2001 AAG annual meeting held in New York City on February 27-March 3. Although not an absolute requisite for publication, the vast majority of the papers in this special issue were presented at this year's AAG meeting in New York. Other articles in this issue that were not part of a paper or poster session at the 2001 AAG meeting are authored by RSSG members. Under the auspices of the RSSG, this special Geocarto International issue provides even more compelling evidence of the inextricable linkage between remote sensing and geography. The papers in this special issue fall into four general themes: 1) Urban Analysis and Techniques for Urban Analysis; 2) Land Use/Land Cover Analysis; 3) Fire Modeling Assessment; and 4) Techniques. The first four papers herein are concerned with the use of remote sensing for analysis of urban areas, and with use or development of techniques to better characterize urban areas using remote sensing data. As the lead paper in this grouping, Rashed et al., examine the usage of spectral mixture analysis (SMA) for analyzing satellite imagery of urban areas as opposed to more 'standard' methods of classification. Here SMA has been applied to IRS-1C satellite multispectral imagery to extract measures that better describe the 'anatomy' of the greater Cairo, Egypt region. Following this paper, Weng and Lo describe how Landsat TM data have been used to monitor land cover types and to estimate biomass parameters within an urban environment. The research reported in this paper applies an integrated GIS (Geographic Information System

  2. Endoscopist specialty is associated with colonoscopy quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown that endoscopist specialty is associated with colorectal cancers missed by colonoscopy. We sought to examine the relationship between endoscopist specialty and polypectomy rate, a colonoscopy quality indicator. Polypectomy rate is defined as the proportion of colonoscopies that result in the removal of one or more polyps. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of endoscopists and their patients from 7 Montreal and 2 Calgary endoscopy clinics. Eligible patients were aged 50–75 and covered by provincial health insurance. A patient questionnaire assessed family history of colorectal cancer, history of large bowel conditions and symptoms, and previous colonoscopy. The outcome, polypectomy status, was obtained from provincial health administrative databases. For each city, Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for polypectomy comparing surgeons to gastroenterologists. Model covariates included patient age, sex, family history of colorectal cancer, colonoscopy indication, and previous colonoscopy. Results In total, 2,113 and 538 colonoscopies were included from Montreal and Calgary, respectively. Colonoscopies were performed by 38 gastroenterologists and 6 surgeons in Montreal, and by 31 gastroenterologists and 5 surgeons in Calgary. The adjusted odds ratios comparing surgeons to gastroenterologists were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.32–0.71) in Montreal and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.43–1.21) in Calgary. Conclusions An association between endoscopist specialty and polypectomy was observed in both cities after adjusting for patient-level covariates. Results from Montreal suggest that surgeons are half as likely as gastroenterologists to remove polyps, while those from Calgary were associated with a wide, non-significant Bayesian credible interval. However, residual confounding from patient-level variables is possible, and further investigation is required. PMID:23638769

  3. Association of gender and specialty interest with video-gaming, three-dimensional spatial analysis, and entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Heather R; Towle Millard, Heather A; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students. PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants' entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills. RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills. PMID:27270065

  4. Longitudinal Association of Registered Nurse National Nursing Specialty Certification and Patient Falls in Acute Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Diane K.; Cramer, Emily; Potter, Catima; Staggs, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have studied inpatient falls in relation to aspects of nurse staffing, focusing primarily on staffing levels and proportion of nursing care hours provided by registered nurses (RNs). Less attention has been paid to other nursing characteristics, such as RN national nursing specialty certification. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship over time between changes in RN national nursing specialty certification rates and changes in total patient fall rates at the patient care unit level. Methods We used longitudinal data with standardized variable definitions across sites from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. The sample consisted of 7,583 units in 903 hospitals. Relationships over time were examined using multilevel (units nested in hospitals) latent growth curve modeling. Results The model indices indicated a good fit of the data to the model. At the unit level, there was a small statistically significant inverse relationship (r = −.08, p = .04) between RN national nursing specialty certification rates and total fall rates; increases in specialty certification rates over time tended to be associated with improvements in total fall rates over time. Discussion Our findings may be supportive of promoting national nursing specialty certification as a means of improving patient safety. Future study recommendations are (a) modeling organizational leadership, culture, and climate as mediating variables between national specialty certification rates and patient outcomes and (b) investigating the association of patient safety and specific national nursing specialty certifications which test plans include patient safety, quality improvement, and diffusion of innovation methods in their certifying examinations. PMID:26049719

  5. Association between use of specialty dietary supplements and C-reactive protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Elizabeth D; Lampe, Johanna W; Vaughan, Thomas L; Peters, Ulrike; Rehm, Colin D; White, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that certain specialty dietary supplements have antiinflammatory properties, though evidence in humans remains limited. Data on a nationally representative sample of 9,947 adults from the 1999-2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess the associations between specialty supplement use and inflammation, as measured by serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration. Using survey-weighted multivariate linear regression, significant reductions in hs-CRP concentrations were associated with regular use of glucosamine (17%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 26), chondroitin (22%, 95% CI: 8, 33), and fish oil (16%, 95% CI: 0.3, 29). No associations were observed between hs-CRP concentration and regular use of supplements containing methylsulfonylmethane, garlic, ginkgo biloba, saw palmetto, or pycnogenol. These results suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements are associated with reduced inflammation in humans and provide further evidence to support an inverse association between use of fish oil supplements and inflammation. It is important to further investigate the potential antiinflammatory role of these supplements, as there is a need to identify safe and effective ways to reduce inflammation and the burden of inflammation-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23139249

  6. Association Between Use of Specialty Dietary Supplements and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peters, Ulrike; Rehm, Colin D.; White, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that certain specialty dietary supplements have antiinflammatory properties, though evidence in humans remains limited. Data on a nationally representative sample of 9,947 adults from the 1999–2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess the associations between specialty supplement use and inflammation, as measured by serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration. Using survey-weighted multivariate linear regression, significant reductions in hs-CRP concentrations were associated with regular use of glucosamine (17%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 26), chondroitin (22%, 95% CI: 8, 33), and fish oil (16%, 95% CI: 0.3, 29). No associations were observed between hs-CRP concentration and regular use of supplements containing methylsulfonylmethane, garlic, ginkgo biloba, saw palmetto, or pycnogenol. These results suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements are associated with reduced inflammation in humans and provide further evidence to support an inverse association between use of fish oil supplements and inflammation. It is important to further investigate the potential antiinflammatory role of these supplements, as there is a need to identify safe and effective ways to reduce inflammation and the burden of inflammation-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23139249

  7. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. Conclusions The improved

  8. Physician career satisfaction within specialties

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel J; Kravitz, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Background Specialty-specific data on career satisfaction may be useful for understanding physician workforce trends and for counseling medical students about career options. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6,590 physicians (response rate, 53%) in Round 4 (2004-2005) of the Community Tracking Study Physician Survey. The dependent variable ranged from +1 to -1 and measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction with career. Forty-two specialties were analyzed with survey-adjusted linear regressions Results After adjusting for physician, practice, and community characteristics, the following specialties had significantly higher satisfaction levels than family medicine: pediatric emergency medicine (regression coefficient = 0.349); geriatric medicine (0.323); other pediatric subspecialties (0.270); neonatal/prenatal medicine (0.266); internal medicine and pediatrics (combined practice) (0.250); pediatrics (0.250); dermatology (0.249);and child and adolescent psychiatry (0.203). The following specialties had significantly lower satisfaction levels than family medicine: neurological surgery (-0.707); pulmonary critical care medicine (-0.273); nephrology (-0.206); and obstetrics and gynecology (-0.188). We also found satisfaction was significantly and positively related to income and employment in a medical school but negatively associated with more than 50 work-hours per-week, being a full-owner of the practice, greater reliance on managed care revenue, and uncontrollable lifestyle. We observed no statistically significant gender differences and no differences between African-Americans and whites. Conclusion Career satisfaction varied across specialties. A number of stakeholders will likely be interested in these findings including physicians in specialties that rank high and low and students contemplating specialty. Our findings regarding "less satisfied" specialties should elicit concern from residency directors and policy makers since they appear to be in

  9. Association between Physician Specialty and Risk of Prescribing Inappropriate Pill Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Chou, Chia-Lin; Wu, Min-Shan; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Han-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription errors that occur due to the process of pill splitting are a common medication problem; however, available prescription information involving inappropriate pill splitting and its associated factors is lacking. Methods We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of ambulatory prescriptions involving extended-release or enteric-coated formulations in a Taiwan medical center during a 5-month period in 2010. For this study, those pill splitting prescriptions involving special oral formulations were defined as inappropriate prescriptions. Information obtained included patient demographics, prescriber specialty and prescription details, which were assessed to identify factors associated with inappropriate pill splitting. Results There were 1,252 inappropriate prescriptions identified in this cohort study, representing a prescription frequency for inappropriate pill splitting of 1.0% among 124,300 prescriptions with special oral formulations. Among 35 drugs with special oral formulations in our study, 20 different drugs (57.1%, 20/35) had ever been prescribed to split. Anti-diabetic agents, cardiovascular agents and central nervous system agents were the most common drug classes involved in inappropriate splitting. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was higher in older (over 65 years of age) patients (1.1%, 832/75,387). Eighty-seven percent (1089/1252) of inappropriate prescriptions were prescribed by internists. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was highest from endocrinologists (3.4%, 429/12,477), nephrologists (1.3%, 81/6,028) and cardiologists (1.3%, 297/23,531). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest factor associated with individual specific drug of inappropriate splitting was particular physician specialties. Conclusion This study provides important insights into the inappropriate prescription of special oral formulation related to pill splitting, and helps to aggregate information that can assist

  10. Clays, specialty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the specialty clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. The specialty clays mined in the U.S. are ball clay, fuller's earth, bentonite, fire clay, and kaolin. Sales of specialty clays in the U.S. were around 17 Mt in 1997. Approximately 53 kt of specialty clays were imported.

  11. Opioid contract use is associated with physician training level and practice specialty.

    PubMed

    Touchet, Bryan Keith; Yates, William Robert; Coon, Kim Annette

    2005-01-01

    Opioid contracts are widely used to manage opioid prescribing in the treatment of pain conditions, but they are not well studied. A notable gap in our knowledge of opioid contracts involves the factors that determine their use. As an initial inquiry, this study evaluated the responses of a Web-based survey of trainees and faculty in an academic medical training context to determine correlates of opioid contract use. All paid faculty, third- and fourth-year medical students, and residents in The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine were invited via email to participate in a Web-based survey of their attitudes and prescribing practices related to controlled prescription drugs. Respondents composing a subgroup of those who replied to the survey were identified by their prescription of opioids and by their designation that pain was the most likely diagnosis for which they would prescribe a controlled drug. Chi-square analysis was used to determine any correlation between contract use and respondents' demographic variables and categorical survey responses. Analysis of variance was used to determine any correlation between contract use and survey responses that involved continuous variables. Our results showed that opioid contract use was significantly associated with resident status, primary care specialty, participant estimation of alcohol and illicit drug abuse by patients, and the participant's assessment of the risks in general of prescribing controlled drugs. A majority of contract users reported that the use of this tool increased their sense of mastery and comfort with prescribing controlled drugs. The factors associated with opioid contract use found in this study suggest there are significant prescriber-specific determinants of the use of the tool, including training level, medical specialty, and risk appraisals. Opioid contracts' effects on mastery and comfort of the physician with prescribing opioids suggest that they may play an important role in

  12. Gender Associated with the Intention to Choose a Medical Specialty in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in 11 Countries in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Ancalli, Felix; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco; Diaz-Velez, Cristian; Gutierrez-Quezada, Erick; Gomez-Alhach, Jennifer; Muñoz-Medina, Carlos E.; Sanchez-Pozo, Adriana; Vidal, Milisen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The selection of a medical specialty has been associated with multiple factors, such as personal preferences, academic exposure, motivational factors and sociodemographic factors, such as gender. The number of women in the medical field has increased in recent years. In Latin America, we have not found any studies that explore this relationship. Objective To determine whether there is an association between gender and the intention to choose a medical specialty in medical students from 11 countries in Latin America. Methods Secondary analysis of the Collaborative Working Group for the Research of Human Resources for Health (Red-LIRHUS) data; a multi-country project of students in their first year and fifth year of study, from 63 medical schools in 11 Latin American countries. All students who referred intention to choose a certain medical specialty were considered as participants. Results Of the 11073 surveyed students, 9235 indicated the name of a specific specialty. The specialties chosen most often in the fifth year were General Surgery (13.0%), Pediatrics (11.0%), Internal Medicine (10.3%) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (9.0%). For women, the top choices were Pediatrics (15.8%), Obstetrics/Gynecology (11.0%), Cardiology (8.7%), General Surgery (8.6%), and Oncology (6.4%). In the adjusted analysis, the female gender was associated with the choice of Obstetrics/Gynecology (RP: 2.75; IC95%: 2.24–3.39); Pediatric Surgery (RP: 2.19; IC95%: 1.19–4.00), Dermatology (RP: 1.91; IC95%:1.24–2.93), Pediatrics (RP: 1.83; IC95%: 1.56–2.17), and Oncology (RP: 1.37; IC95%: 1.10–1.71). Conclusions There is an association between the female gender and the intention to choose Obstetrics/Gynecology, Pediatrics, Pediatric Surgery, Dermatology, and Oncology. We recommend conducting studies that consider other factors that can influence the choice of a medical specialty. PMID:27519055

  13. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April–August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40–21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63–38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  14. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April-August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40-21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63-38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  15. Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study.

    PubMed

    Satia, Jessie A; Littman, Alyson; Slatore, Christopher G; Galanko, Joseph A; White, Emily

    2009-05-01

    Millions of Americans use dietary supplements with little knowledge about their benefits or risks. We examined associations of various herbal/specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk. Men and women, 50 to 76 years, in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort completed a 24-page baseline questionnaire that captured duration (years) and frequency (days per week) of use of commonly used herbal/specialty supplements. Dose was not assessed due to the lack of accurate potency information. Supplement exposure was categorized as "no use" or "any use" over the previous 10 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by multivariate Cox regression models. Incident lung (n = 665) and colorectal cancers (n = 428) were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Any use of glucosamine and chondroitin, which have anti-inflammatory properties, over the previous 10 years, was associated with significantly lower lung cancer risk: HR 0.74 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.58-0.94] and HR 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) and colorectal cancer risk: HR 0.73 (95% CI, 0.54-0.98) and HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.45-0.93), respectively. There were also statistically significantly inverse associations of fish oil: HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-0.99), methylsulfonylmethane: HR 0.46 (95% CI, 0.23-0.93), and St. John's wort: HR 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14-0.85) with colorectal cancer risk. In contrast, garlic pills were associated with a statistically significant 35% elevated colorectal cancer risk. These results suggest that some herbal/specialty supplements may be associated with lung and colorectal cancer risk; however, these products should be used with caution. Additional studies examining the effects of herbal/specialty supplements on risk for cancer and other diseases are needed. PMID:19423520

  16. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcus: Comparison of Diagnosis and Treatment in the Community and at a Specialty Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Coffey, Barbara J.; Babb, James S.; Meyer, Laura; Wachtel, Carly; Anam, Seeba; Rabinovitz, Beth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine whether pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus were appropriately diagnosed in the community and to determine subsequent rates of unwarranted use of antibiotic treatment for tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms without the identification of an infection. METHODS The design was a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 176 children and adolescents who were evaluated in a specialty program for tics, Tourette's disorder, and related problems. Previously published diagnostic criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in our clinic. RESULTS Subjects were significantly less likely to receive a diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus at the specialty clinic than in the community. In the community, subjects were significantly more likely to be treated with antibiotics or immunosuppressant medication if they received a diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus. Of the 27 subjects with a community diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus who were treated with antibiotics, 22 (82%) were treated without laboratory evidence of an infection; 2 were treated with immunomodulatory medications. CONCLUSIONS Our results support our hypothesis that pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus are frequently diagnosed in the community without the application of all working diagnostic criteria. This phenomenon has resulted in unwarranted use of antibiotic treatment for tics/obsessive-compulsive disorder without evidence of laboratory infection. PMID:18676543

  17. Surgical residency training and international volunteerism: a national survey of residents from 2 surgical specialties

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Wadih Y.; Trottier, Daniel C.; Balaa, Fady; Fairful-Smith, Robin; Moroz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack basic surgical resources, resulting in avoidable disability and mortality. Recently, residents in surgical training programs have shown increasing interest in overseas elective experiences to assist surgical programs in LMICs. The purpose of this study was to survey Canadian surgical residents about their interest in international volunteerism. Methods We sent a web-based survey to all general and orthopedic surgery residents enrolled in surgical training programs in Canada. The survey assessed residents’ interests, attitudes and motivations, and perceived barriers and aids with respect to international volunteerism. Results In all, 361 residents completed the survey for a response rate of 38.0%. Half of the respondents indicated that the availability of an international surgery elective would have positively influenced their selection of a residency program. Excluding the 18 residents who had volunteered during residency, 63.8% of the remaining residents confirmed an interest in international volunteering with “contributing to an important cause,” “teaching” and “tourism/cultural enhancement” as the leading reasons for their interest. Perceived barriers included “lack of financial support” and “lack of available organized opportunities.” All (100%) respondents who had done an international elective during residency confirmed that they would pursue such work in the future. Conclusion Administrators of Canadian surgical programs should be aware of strong resident interest in global health care and accordingly develop opportunities by encouraging faculty mentorships and resources for global health teaching. PMID:22854155

  18. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support and Information View ...

  19. Regional and physician specialty-associated variations in the medical management of atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Folt, David A; Evans, Kaleigh L; Brahmandam, Sravya; He, Wencan; Brewster, Pamela S; Yu, Shipeng; Murphy, Timothy P; Cutlip, Donald E; Dworkin, Lance D; Jamerson, Kenneth; Henrich, William; Kalra, Philip A; Tobe, Sheldon; Thomson, Ken; Holden, Andrew; Rayner, Brian L; Grinfeld, Liliana; Haller, Steven T; Cooper, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    For people enrolled in Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL), we sought to examine whether variation exists in the baseline medical therapy of different geographic regions and if any variations in prescribing patterns were associated with physician specialty. Patients were grouped by location within the United States (US) and outside the US (OUS), which includes Canada, South America, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. When comparing US to OUS, participants in the US took fewer anti-hypertensive medications (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 2.4 ± 1.4; P < .001) and were less likely to be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker (46% vs. 62%; P < .001), calcium channel antagonist (37% vs. 58%; P < .001), and statin (64% vs. 75%; P < .05). In CORAL, the identification of variations in baseline medical therapy suggests that substantial opportunities exist to improve the medical management of patients with atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis. PMID:26051926

  20. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  1. The association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Psychiatry as the specialty choice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, George; Durkin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents. Methods Forty-six American medical schools were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Data were collected and an aggregated list was compiled that included the following information: date of MBTI administration, academic year, MBTI form/version, residency match information and student demographic information. The data includes 835 American medical students who completed the MBTI survey and matched into a residency training program in the United States. All analyses were performed using R 3.1.2. Results The probability of an introvert matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of an extravert (p= 0.30). The probability of an intuitive individual matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a sensing type (p=0.20). The probability of a feeling type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a thinking type (p= 0.50). The probability of a perceiving type matching to a psychiatry residency is no different than that of a judging type (p= 0.60). Conclusions Further analyses may elicit more accurate information regarding the personality profile of prospective psychiatry residents. The improvement in communication, team dynamics, mentor-mentee relationships and reduction in workplace conflicts are possible with the awareness of MBTI personality profiles. PMID:26851600

  2. Trends in Dental Specialty Education and Practice, 1990-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Laura M.; Nix, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes findings from a comprehensive study of American Dental Association-recognized dental specialties, including specialty practice and the practice environment, membership in specialty organizations, requirements and trends in board certification, advances in research and technology, and trends in advanced specialty education. (EV)

  3. Specialty pharmaceuticals: developing a management plan.

    PubMed

    Willcutts, Dave

    2002-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles that address the complex issues associated with specialty pharmaceuticals in the development of a successful specialty pharmaceutical program, a critical component of managing this high-cost and highly fragmented sector. This article focuses on how to define specialty pharmaceuticals. Other articles in this series will explore such topics as the mechanics of developing and managing a specialty pharmaceutical program, how and when to establish clinical protocols and authorizations, the importance of data management, and the benefits from automated processes. PMID:12561391

  4. Social dominance theory and medical specialty choice.

    PubMed

    Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; van Meerbeeck, Philippe; Dory, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how medical students select their specialty is a fundamental issue for public health and educational policy makers. One of the factors that students take into account is a specialty's prestige which hinges partly on its focus on technique rather than whole person. We examine the potential of a psychological framework, social dominance theory, to explain why some students, and not others, are drawn to more prestigious, technique-oriented specialties, based on their desire for hierarchy. We conducted a cross-sectional study among medical students at Institution X (N = 359). We examined the link between medical students' characteristics i.e. social dominance orientation (SDO), gender, age, and their career intention. We also examined level of medical students' SDO at different stages of the curriculum. SDO scores were significantly associated with technique-oriented career intentions (OR 1.56; 95 % CI [1.18, 2.06]; p = 0.001). The effect was independent of gender. Medical students' SDO scores were significantly higher in later stages of the medical curriculum (F = 6.79; p = 0. 001). SDO is a significant predictor of medical students' career intention. SDO scores are higher in students during the clinical phase of the curriculum. Medical socialization, involving the internalization of implicit and explicit norms, particularly in hospital settings, is likely to underpin our findings. This theory illuminates consistent findings in the literature on specialty prestige and the influence of medical school on career choice. PMID:25991046

  5. Changes in U.S. Medical Students’ Specialty Interests over the Course of Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Erica; Elon, Lisa; Carrera, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies have examined factors affecting medical students’ specialty choice, but little research exists on stability of these specialty interests. Objective To describe patterns of change in specialty interests during medical school and examine associations between specialty change patterns and gender, desire for a high-prestige career, and interest in prevention. Design Medical students (Class of 2003) at 15 representative US schools were invited to complete surveys during freshman orientation, entry to wards, and senior year. Participants This analysis used data from 942 students who completed all 3 surveys. Measurements In addition to a number of other items, students were asked to choose the 1 specialty they were most interested in pursuing. Results The most common specialty choices among freshman students were pediatrics (20%) and surgery (18%); least common choices were psychiatry and preventive medicine (1% each). General internal medicine was the initial specialty choice for 8%. Most students changed their specialty choices, regardless of initial interest. Only 30% of those initially interested in primary care (PC) remained interested at all 3 time points, compared to 68% of those initially interested in non-PC. Female versus male students were more commonly interested in PC at all 3 time points. Senior students interested in non-PC specialties were more likely to desire a high-prestige career (48%) than those interested in PC (31%). Conclusions Medical students may benefit from more intensive introduction to some specialties earlier in pre-medical and medical education. In addition, increasing the prestige of PC fields may shape the physician workforce. PMID:18612751

  6. Pharmacist specialty certification.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Sharon M

    2012-03-01

    Nutrition support is a pharmacy specialty in which pharmacists work with prescribers, conduct order review, and either perform or oversee compounding of these complex parenteral nutrition formulations. Pharmacists should be certified in this specialty, and the options for certification are outlined in this article. PMID:22275326

  7. Health Care Delivery Practices in Huntington’s Disease Specialty Clinics: An International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Frich, Jan C.; Rae, Daniela; Roxburgh, Richard; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia H.; Edmondson, Mary; Pope, Erika Bjorklund; Goodman, LaVonne; Haddad, Monica S.; Giuliano, Joe; Nelson, Eugene C.; Guttman, Mark; Nance, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the organization of clinical services for Huntington’s disease (HD). Objective: To describe how health care services are organized and delivered in HD-clinics taking part in or eligible for the Enroll-HD study. Methods: In 2014, a 69-item survey was administered to sites taking part in or eligible for the Enroll-HD study. Results: Of 231 sites surveyed, 121 (52.2%) sites in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Oceania responded. Most sites in the sample serve large populations, with 61.1% serving more than 1.5 million people, and a further 33% serving >500,000. Almost all (86.0%) centers see patients from outside their region. The majority of centers (59.7%) follow 50–199 patients, 21.9% care for more than 200. Most centers provide care in all stages of HD, and nearly all review pre-symptomatic cases. Multidisciplinary case reviews are offered in 54.5% of sites, with outreach clinics offered by 48.1%. Videoconferencing and telemedicine are used by 23.6%. Separate consultations for caregivers are offered in more than half of the centers. Most centers (70.4%) report following published guidelines or local care pathways for HD. Conclusions: Most centers serve a large population and use a multidisciplinary approach. The survey gives insight into factors underpinning HD service delivery globally. There is a need for more in-depth studies of clinical practice to understand how services are organized and how such features may be associated with quality of care. PMID:27372053

  8. Clinical toxinology specialty training.

    PubMed

    White, Julian

    2013-07-01

    Clinical toxinology is the medical discipline dealing with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of toxin diseases caused by exposure to venomous animals and poisonous animals, plants and mushrooms. Currently there is no national or international organisation accrediting or training doctors in this discipline, but the role of the IST in this area is the subject of a recently approved revised Constitution. A few courses covering some aspects of clinical toxinology exist, either with limited curricula, or with only a minor clinical focus, or with a very regional, non-global focus. The only comprehensive clinical toxinology course is the one provided in Adelaide, Australia, running regularly since 1997. This course may form the nucleus from which IST can develop a global accredited training scheme in clinical toxinology. Such a scheme will require input from diverse global regions and will be far more comprehensive and over a much longer time than the current Short Course, though may incorporate the Short Course in some way, or a derivative of it. Accreditation of medical expertise in clinical toxinology will be required at the national level and this might be accomplished by the IST working with existing national medical specialty organisations and governments, with the IST supervising the training and accreditation requirements and the national organisations providing the framework for registration of medical expertise at the local level. PMID:23524067

  9. Dentistry's oldest specialty: orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.

    PubMed

    George, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) has 15,500 members worldwide and is the oldest and largest of the recognized dental specialties. A strategic planning process has identified six key challenges, and this article describes the progress that is being made in the areas of (a) consumer education, (b) volunteer leadership development, (c) recruitment and retention of orthodontic educators, (d) relationships with ADA and other healthcare organizations, (e) the AAO's role in international orthodontics, and (f) advocacy. The AAO is working for freedom of choice in dental healthcare providers; fee-for-service dental care; orthodontic insurance coverage as a benefit of employment, with direct reimbursement as the preferred plan; self-referred access to specialists; private and public funding that promote quality orthodontic care; and the retention of tax deductibility of dental healthcare benefits, including orthodontic care. PMID:19537476

  10. Dental students' perceptions of dental specialties and factors influencing specialty and career choices.

    PubMed

    Dhima, Matilda; Petropoulos, Vicki C; Han, Rita K; Kinnunen, Taru; Wright, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    The goals of this study were to 1) evaluate dental students' perceptions of dental specialties, 2) identify factors that play an important role in students' decision to pursue specialty training or career choices, and 3) establish a baseline of students' perceptions of the dental fields with the best future in terms of salary, personal and patient quality of life, and overall impact on the dental profession. Surveys were distributed to 494 students at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Data were collected from 380 traditional four-year students and thirty advanced standing students. Chi-square tests, multivariate analysis, and logistic regressions were used to determine associations and independent contributions of student demographics to their perceptions of dental specialties and factors influencing specialty training or career choices. Debt was a statistically significant factor (p<0.001) in choosing specialty training or career independent of gender, age, or class year. Enjoyment of providing care in a specialty or field was identified as the single most important factor in choosing a specialty career. Half of the respondents had decided not to specialize. Pursuing postdoctoral general dentistry training and private practice in general dentistry were the most commonly reported plans after completion of dental school. Suggestions are made for ways to inform students about specialty training. PMID:22550102

  11. The International Importance of a National Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    It is the author's experience that some of the most perplexing and time-consuming problems that face the chief executive of a National Association in Adult Education, arise out of international contacts. He thinks it is very wise that the Australian Association should give attention to the matter early in its existence. By so doing, the author…

  12. Interdisciplinary diabetes care teams operating on the interface between primary and specialty care are associated with improved outcomes of care: findings from the Leuven Diabetes Project

    PubMed Central

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Van Den Broeke, Carine; Verbeke, Geert; Carbonez, An; Ivanova, Anna; Mathieu, Chantal; Aertgeerts, Bert; Heyrman, Jan; Grol, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex, progressive disease which requires a variety of quality improvement strategies. Limited information is available on the feasibility and effectiveness of interdisciplinary diabetes care teams (IDCT) operating on the interface between primary and specialty care. A first study hypothesis was that the implementation of an IDCT is feasible in a health care setting with limited tradition in shared care. A second hypothesis was that patients who make use of an IDCT would have significantly better outcomes compared to non-users of the IDCT after an 18-month intervention period. A third hypothesis was that patients who used the IDCT in an Advanced quality Improvement Program (AQIP) would have significantly better outcomes compared to users of a Usual Quality Improvement Program (UQIP). Methods This investigation comprised a two-arm cluster randomized trial conducted in a primary care setting in Belgium. Primary care physicians (PCPs, n = 120) and their patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 2495) were included and subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention arms. The IDCT acted as a cornerstone to both the intervention arms, but the number, type and intensity of IDCT related interventions varied depending upon the intervention arm. Results Final registration included 67 PCPs and 1577 patients in the AQIP and 53 PCPs and 918 patients in the UQIP. 84% of the PCPs made use of the IDCT. The expected participation rate in patients (30%) was not attained, with 12,5% of the patients using the IDCT. When comparing users and non-users of the IDCT (irrespective of the intervention arm) and after 18 months of intervention the use of the IDCT was significantly associated with improvements in HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, an increase in statins and anti-platelet therapy as well as the number of targets that were reached. When comparing users of the IDCT in the two intervention arms no significant differences were noted, except for

  13. Physicians: Choosing Your Medical Specialty

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Text size Email How to Choose a Medical Specialty Choosing a medical specialty is a career- ... most challenging aspects of patient care. “Choosing a Medical Specialty”—A Guide on What to Expect from ...

  14. Emerging Dental Specialties and Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Mashni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses ethical dimensions related to the formal recognition of emerging dental specialties. It explores several issues related to the potential emergence of several new dental specialty areas. There are good reasons that dentistry should open the door to these new specialties, and patients would benefit. The ethical considerations for and against formal acceptance are examined. PMID:26697653

  15. The Medical Library Association's international fellowship programs.

    PubMed Central

    Poland, U H

    1978-01-01

    This article describes the two international fellowship programs administered by the International Cooperation Committee of the Medical Library Association: (1) the program supported by the Rockfeller Foundation from 1948 to 1963; (2) the Eileen R. Cunningham program, supported by Mrs. Cunningham's bequest to the association, from 1971 to date. Comments and suggestions received from Cunningham Fellows in response to a letter sent to each by the author in the summer of 1977 are listed. The cost of the fellowship program, not only in terms of financial support but also in terms of human resources, is documented. While the program receives enthusiastic support from the International Cooperation Committee and many members of MLA, the membership needs to examine its mission with regard to the training of medical librarians from other countries, to determine whether future funding is to be sought. PMID:708961

  16. Personality and Medical Specialty Choice: A Literature Review and Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    Synthesizes studies categorized by medical specialties and using the following instruments into the Five Factor Model of personality: Adjective Check List, California Psychological Inventory, 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Suggests a loose association between personalty factors and medical specialties and…

  17. 42 CFR 447.400 - Primary care services furnished by physicians with a specified specialty or subspecialty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... physician who self-attests to a specialty designation of family medicine, general internal medicine or pediatric medicine or a subspecialty recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS),...

  18. 42 CFR 447.400 - Primary care services furnished by physicians with a specified specialty or subspecialty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... physician who self-attests to a specialty designation of family medicine, general internal medicine or pediatric medicine or a subspecialty recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS),...

  19. Medical Specialty Choice and Related Factors of Brazilian Medical Students and Recent Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Correia Lima de Souza, Ligia; Mendonça, Vitor R. R.; Garcia, Gabriela B. C.; Brandão, Ediele C.; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Background Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ2 = 107.2). The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%). An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%), which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3) and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2). With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, “financial reason” (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3) and “personal time” (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4) were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both), and higher scores were observed for “curricular internship” (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4) and “social commitment” (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3). Conclusion The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate

  20. Specialty optical fibers: revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper contains description of chosen aspects of analysis and design of tailored optical fibers. By specialty optical fibers we understand here the fibers which have complex construction and which serve for the functional processing of optical signal rather than long distance transmission. Thus, they are called also instrumentation optical fibers. The following issues are considered: transmission properties, transformation of optical signal, fiber characteristics, fiber susceptibility to external reactions. The technology of tailored optical fibers offers a wider choice of the design tools for the fiber itself, and then various devices made from these fiber, than classical technology of communication optical fibers. The consequence is different fiber properties, nonstandard dimensions and different metrological problems. The price to be paid for wider design possibilities are bigger optical losses of these fibers and weaker mechanical properties, and worse chemical stability. These fibers find their applications outside the field of telecommunications. The applications of instrumentation optical fibers combine other techniques apart from the photonics ones like: electronic, chemical and mechatronic.

  1. Cardio-Oncology Training: A Proposal From the International Cardioncology Society and Canadian Cardiac Oncology Network for a New Multidisciplinary Specialty.

    PubMed

    Lenihan, Daniel J; Hartlage, Gregory; DeCara, Jeanne; Blaes, Anne; Finet, J Emanuel; Lyon, Alexander R; Cornell, Robert F; Moslehi, Javid; Oliveira, Guilherme H; Murtagh, Gillian; Fisch, Michael; Zeevi, Gary; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Witteles, Ron; Patel, Aarti; Harrison, Eric; Fradley, Michael; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Lenneman, Carrie Geisberg; Magalhaes, Andreia; Krone, Ron; Porter, Charles; Parasher, Susmita; Dent, Susan; Douglas, Pamela; Carver, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness and clinical interest in cardiac safety during cancer therapy as well as in optimally addressing cardiac issues in cancer survivors. Although there is an emerging expertise in this area, known as cardio-oncology, there is a lack of organization in the essential components of contemporary training. This proposal, an international consensus statement organized by the International Cardioncology Society and the Canadian Cardiac Oncology Network, attempts to marshal the important ongoing efforts for training the next generation of cardio-oncologists. The necessary elements are outlined, including the expectations for exposure necessary to develop adequate training. There should also be a commitment to local, regional, and international education and research in cardio-oncology as a requirement for advancement in the field. PMID:27038642

  2. Medical Specialty Counseling: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimny, George H.; Senturia, Audrey G.

    1973-01-01

    The survey asked the following questions: describe what you do to assist students in resolving their problem of selecting a medical specialty, and what is your reaction to the proposed medical counseling service. (Author)

  3. Commercial production of specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    The chemical substances utilized in consumer products, and for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses are generally referred to as specialty chemicals. These may be flavor or fragrance substances, intermediates for synthesis of drugs or agrochemicals or the drugs or agrochemicals themselves, insecticides or insect pheromones or antifeedants, plant growth regulators, etc. These are in contrast to chemicals which are utilized in large quantities for fuels or preparation of plastics, lubricants, etc., which are usually referred to as industrial chemicals. The specific utilization of specialty chemicals is associated with a specific important physiochemical or biological property. They may possess unique properties as lubricants or waxes or have a very desirable biological activity such as a drug, agrochemical or perfume ingredient. These unique properties convey significant economic value to the specific specialty chemical. The economic commercial production of specialty chemicals commonly requires the isolation of a precursor or the specialty chemical itself from a natural source. The discovery, development and commercialization of specialty chemicals is presented and reviewed. The economic and sustainable production of specialty chemicals is discussed.

  4. [Determinants of primary care specialty choice].

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Bielecki, Jan

    2007-03-01

    This paper analyzes and synthesizes the literature on primary care specialty choice. Motivation for choosing medicine and its impact on recruitment to different types of medical work has been presented. Factors that influence medical students and young doctors to change specialty preference have also been explored. Variables, such as gender, martial status, age, income expectations and prestige, that affect medical students' specialty selection decisions for primary care, have been examined. Personality profiles of primary care physician have been evaluated and the influence of communication skills and knowledge of social psychology on his/her work have been analyzed. It is presented that other traits, such as patient-centeredness, needs to serve society and value orientation, is also associated with increases in numbers of students choosing primary care. The analyze shows that the preference for primary care is connected with being interested in diverse patients and health problems and also with being people-orientated. A survey conducted into Polish medical students' attitudes to primary care and family medicine is presented. There is a negative perception of family medicine among Polish students and doctors because of its long work hours and less time for family, insufficient diagnostic possibilities and monotony It is chosen because of lack of other possibilities, difficulties in employment and opportunity to become 'a specialist' in short time. PMID:17682684

  5. High and low-risk specialties experience with the U.S. medical malpractice system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background “High-liability risk specialties” tend to be the focus of medical malpractice system research and debate, but concerns and fears are not limited to this group. The objective of this study was to examine whether “high-liability risk” medical specialties have a different experience with the malpractice system than “low-liability risk” specialties. Methods We reviewed claims data from the Physician Insurers Association of America’s Data Sharing Project between January 1985 and December 2008. We used linear regression, controlling for year, to determine how liability risk affected outcomes of interest. Results In high-liability risk specialties, 33% of claims result in indemnity payments compared to 28% for low-liability risk specialties (p < 0.001). The average indemnity payment for high-liability risk specialties was $315,314 compared to $267,146 for low-liability risk specialties (p = 0.25). Although only a small percentage of claims go to trial, low-liability risk specialties have significantly more claims that are ultimately dropped, withdrawn or dismissed, while high-liability risk specialties have significantly more claims that result in plaintiff settlement (p < 0.001). Conclusions Malpractice risk exists for all specialties. Variability in indemnity costs are found in both high- and low-liability risk specialties. Differences in the reasons for which claims are initiated for high- and low-liability risk specialties likely necessitate different risk management solutions. PMID:24192524

  6. [Research competencies in nursing specialties].

    PubMed

    Oltra-Rodríguez, Enrique; Rich-Ruiz, Manuel; Orts-Cortés, María Isabel; Sánchez-López, Dolores; González-Carrión, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Since nursing became an university degree in 1977, there have been several regulations to develop specialties, all of them agreeing on the need to include skills in research. Indeed, the relevance of acquiring these skills in all current disciplines has led to Royal Decree 99/2011, which regulates the official PhD courses, and recognises specialist nurses as qualified to access PhD studies. Nowadays, students from six of the seven specialties included in the Royal Decree 450/2005 on nursing specialties, are performing their training. The acquisition of research skills is seen as an opportunity and a challenge. However, the organizational structure of training facilities (multiprofessional teaching units) and the incorporation of nurses as clinical tutors, who initiated this teaching activity, deserve special attention to ensure the correct acquisition of research skills in the training of specialist nurses. PMID:24011526

  7. Fourth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association Specialty Society program at the 104th annual meeting of the American Urological Association at Chicago 2009.

    PubMed

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Hinotsu, Shiro; Chancellor, Michael B; Homma, Yukio; Nelson, Peter S; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Menon, Mani; Kucuk, Omer; Hara, Isao; Egawa, Shin; Uzzo, Robert G; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 4th American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) Joint Meeting, held once again at the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (25-30 April 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA). 2009 is a memorable year, being the start of new collaborations between AUA and JUA. The JUA in collaboration with AUA is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for one month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The JUA will have an exhibit booth at the AUA annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. The Journal of Urology and International Journal of Urology will share reviewers. The JUA will participate in developing AUA guidelines. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities to young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the US. We would like to thank Professor Robert C. Flanigan, the Secretary General of AUA, Professor Glenn M. Preminger, the Chairman of the AUA Office of Education and the staff of AUA and JUA for supporting our program. We hope to keep holding the joint meeting and have plenty of ideas on themes and forums. We believe that this international program helps to establish a closer relationship between JUA and AUA in the scientific field. PMID:19682110

  8. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  9. Precision Fertigation for Specialty Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in micro irrigation have facilitated greater adoption of fertigation for specialty crops. Fertigation improves nutrient uptake efficiency, minimize leaching of NO3-N below the root zone, and increases the yield and quality as compared to those with dry fertilizer broadcast. This paper is ba...

  10. Specialty pharmacy at a crossroad.

    PubMed

    Adams, Katherine T

    2005-10-01

    Consolidation of the specialty pharmacy business indicates a repositioning to buy new market channels, reduce costs, and compete in a burgeoning market. The challenge for SP is to prove its value to payers. Some companies are doing that on the basis of price or by offering care management services. Here's a look at a business in transition as it redefines itself for the biologics era. PMID:23424307

  11. Factors considered by undergraduate medical students when selecting specialty of their future careers

    PubMed Central

    Alawad, Awad Ali Mohamed Ahmed; Khan, Waleed Shabeer; Abdelrazig, Yousif Mohammed; Elzain, Yamin Ibrahim; khalil, Hassan Osman; Ahmed, Omer Bakri Elsayed; Adam, Omeralfaroug Ahmed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical students are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how medical students select their areas of specialization is the key to achieve a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The objective is to identify the number of medical students who have decided their postgraduate specialty career, their career specialties preference, and factors that may influence their decision to select a particular specialty. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2013 at Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire comprising demographic data and questions about future specialties preferences and factors influencing those preferences was distributed to 887 male and female students, (from first to fifth academic years) recruited in the study. Results Response rate was 73% with 647 questionnaires collected, out of 887 eligible medical students. Of the returned questionnaires, 604 were valid. The majority of students (541, 89.6%) have chosen a specialty. Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. The least selected specialty was anaesthesiology. A significant association was found between gender and specialty choice using Chi-square test (p = 0.00). There was no association between undergraduate level and specialty choice (p = 0.633). The most common reason for choosing a specific specialty was “Personal Interest” (215, 39.7%) followed by being “Helpful to the community” (144, 26.6%). Conclusion Surgery, medicine, paediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology were the most selected specialties. PMID:26090050

  12. Encouraging Specialty Certification: How Multilevel Support Can Help.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Sara; Lancaster, Rachelle J

    2016-02-01

    Professional development through specialty certification is positively associated with nurses' increased confidence in clinical skills, commitment to learning, empowerment, and professional credibility. This translates to improved patient outcomes, with higher organizational reimbursement, in addition to nurse retention and job satisfaction. Despite the call for lifelong learning from the Institute of Medicine, certification rates, especially among nurses in direct patient care, remain low. This article provides a three-tiered approach for organizational leaders and administrators of continuing education programs to establish resources and support for nurses seeking specialty certification. PMID:26840234

  13. Effects of Stress and Social Phobia on Medical Students' Specialty Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onady, Alice A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Medical students at Wright State University School of Medicine were asked to rate specialties as most and least stressful, to indicate whether they considered stress to be favorable or unfavorable, and to complete instruments measuring stress. There was no significant association among high stress and choice of least stressful specialties.…

  14. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  15. Internal hernia associated with colostomy after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hajime; Hoshino, Isamu; Sugamoto, Yuji; Fukunaga, Toru; Fujimoto, Hajime; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Uno, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We herein describe a case with an internal hernia that developed after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. The small intestine passed through the space between the sigmoid colon loop of the stoma and the abdominal wall. Internal hernias associated with colostomy are rare; however, the condition is an important complication, because it causes ischemia in both the herniated intestine and the sigmoid colon pulled through the abdominal wall as a stoma. PMID:23601774

  16. [Gender-specific characteristics of mental capability in students of different specialties].

    PubMed

    Petrov, H S; Liashenko, V P; Kofan, I M; Drehval', I V

    2006-01-01

    Mental capability of higher school students of different specialties: technical (27 male and 35 female), natural (32 male and 30 female) and humanitarian (20 male and 26 female) were studied. The following parameters were studied: perception, attention, memory, thinking and mental capability. The results showed that the development of psychophysiological organization of informational processing system in higher school students of different specialties is characterized by geterocronyisms and depend on the field of professional training. The learning of technical specialties results in the new associative links set up and abstract concepts forming under the object analysis. The natural specialties promote of the cognitive functions development along with time interval perception forming. The humanitarian specialties are characterized by attention and associative thinking functions. PMID:17333629

  17. Specialty hospitals: the economics and policy issues they pose.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Erwin A; Fuhr, Joseph P

    2007-01-01

    Specialty hospitals are not a new phenomenon. From psychiatric and tuberculosis hospitals to children's and eye hospitals, they have long existed. The current interest lies in the development of single specialty hospitals for certain conditions or illness such as cardiology or orthopedics for which such hospitals were previously uncommon or non-existent. We include physician-owned surgical hospitals in our definition of single specialty hospitals. Some have claimed that these specialty hospitals (hereafter SSH) are an efficient way of producing services by concentrating them in one institution. They argue that SSHs avoid inefficiencies of scheduling and use of facilities not expressly designed for the illness or condition. Critics contend that doctors are simply trying to get the general hospital's profits and the ultimate impact will be a financial weakening of the general hospital. They argue that the cross-subsidy from these procedures and services are necessary to give general hospitals the ability to provide services to the uninsured and the poor. This debate led to a 30-month moratorium on new specialty hospitals which was lifted in August 2006. General acute care hospitals have responded by denying privileges to physicians who own or participate in competing SSHs. The appropriateness of such economic credentialing will be investigated. Further, we shall examine issues associated with Medicare pricing structures that encourage the development of SSHs as well as self-referral rules for physicians involved with SSHs. The real issue which has not been addressed is whether specialty hospitals create more value for the patient than the traditional acute care hospitals. PMID:18972990

  18. Dento-maxillofacial radiology as a specialty.

    PubMed

    Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    2015-05-28

    This editorial discusses a relatively new specialty in dental and medical field namely dentomaxillofacial radiology. As a relatively newborn specialty it is obvious that there is a long way to go before dentomaxillofacial radiology is commonly known and respected by the society. All over the world, assigned committees work on the development of the training curriculum, determination of scientific and physical standards for institutions offering specialty training and arrangement of dental codes for reimbursement issues. Furthermore, adjustment of educational, scientific and legal regulations and prospective benefits are expected to boost this specialty's attractiveness to colleagues' worldwide. PMID:26029350

  19. Why medical students choose orthopedic surgery as a specialty?

    PubMed Central

    Erraji, Moncef; Kharraji, Abdessamad; Abbasi, Najib; Najib, Abdeljawad; Yacoubi, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Before the crisis announced the Moroccan surgery, the objectives of this study were to analyze the choice of specialties newly appointed to the internal review and the guidance of medical students and to determine the factors influencing this choice. Data on specialty choice students were analyzed and a questionnaire was offered to students of Morocco at the beginning of academic year 2013-20014 The form consisted of questions on the year of study. sex, professional guidelines and reasons for choice. candidates were male, the average age of our residents was 28 years. We also noted the importance of the passage as well as external service trauma. Care provided to patients, lifestyle and income reported by 85% of respondents to be the most important factors to pursue orthopedics as a career. The TR-Orth is now a specialty that responds to a positive choice. The choice of TR-Orth by students at the end of medical school curriculum is reinforced by teaching and practicing the specialty during the internship. The overall training is unsatisfactory overall. Students would deepen in some areas. This study confirms that there is currently a shift in trauma surgery, mostly induced by an a priori negative for particular workloads. PMID:26185556

  20. Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Arfken, Cynthia L; Swartz, James A; Koch, Alison L

    2006-01-01

    important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement. PMID:16879743

  1. Conference Proceedings of the International Association of School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    The 1976 International Association of School Librarianship conference focused on crucial issues in school library development and professional education. Complete texts of the keynote address, Crucial Issues in School Library Development and Professional Education by Frances Henne, and the following presentations are included: The School…

  2. Survey of New Horizons International Music Association Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Don

    2009-01-01

    This study analysed survey responses from 1652 New Horizons International Music Association (NHIMA) musicians in the United States and Canada to better understand older adults' experiences in making music. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) ascertain the extent of NHIMA musicians' musical backgrounds and their current involvement in…

  3. Journal of The International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Martin, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The entire journal covers the 61st Annual Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers in Charleston, South Carolina. Keynote addresses, committee reports and workshops are presented. The workshops covered topics such as drugs, child advocacy, autistic children, school social work and programs for the school-age parent.…

  4. A Semantic Network Analysis of the International Communication Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfel, Marya L.; Barnett, George A.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that a semantic network analysis of the International Communication Association (ICA) based on paper titles presented at its 1991 conference had a high degree of correspondence with the affiliation structure. Suggests validity of the procedures employed for determining semantic networks. Interprets results in regard to this journal's…

  5. A Brief Background of the ICA (International Communication Association) Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivonos, Paul D.

    This paper examines the International Communication Association (ICA) audit, the aim of which is to establish an integrated communication audit system and a multimethod approach to the auditing of the communication of an organization. Many of an organization's communication variables and concepts are examined so that strengths and weaknesses in…

  6. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  8. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  9. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  11. Sensing technologies for precision specialty crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the advances in electronic and information technologies, various sensing systems have been developed for specialty crop production around the world. Accurate information concerning the spatial variability within fields is very important for precision farming of specialty crops. However, this va...

  12. Social Dominance Theory and Medical Specialty Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; van Meerbeeck, Philippe; Dory, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how medical students select their specialty is a fundamental issue for public health and educational policy makers. One of the factors that students take into account is a specialty's prestige which hinges partly on its focus on technique rather than whole person. We examine the potential of a psychological framework, social…

  13. Comparison of Support Services Offered by Residencies in Six Specialties, 1979-80 and 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norman B., Jr.; Addison, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    A study investigated the availability of each of 19 medical school support services offered by 493 residencies in 6 specialties: family practice; internal medicine; obstetrics/gynecology; pediatrics; psychiatry; and surgery. Results show many specialties do not offer common, effective support services. It is suggested that programs move to…

  14. An Assessment of the Content of Medical Practice in the United States: Profiles of Physicians in Five Specialties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Roger A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The unique research methodology of a series of 24 specialty surveys of the professional activities of over 10,000 respondent physicians is described. Illustrative data are presented from five specialties (cardiology, family practice, general internal medicine, orthopedic surgery, and psychiatry), and the study's relevance and implications for…

  15. Working for Change across International Borders: The Association of Headmistresses and Education for International Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to the retrieval of the "lost history" of interwar internationalism that is increasingly receiving attention from historians of education. It traces the involvement of the English Association of Headmistresses (AHM) in a range of organizations that networked women educationists with women's organizations, with educational…

  16. Managing the cost of specialty pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kernich, Catherine A; Creighton, Frederick A

    2004-01-01

    The cost of specialty pharmaceuticals is a significant driver of increased costs in the delivery of ambulatory care. This expense is expected to increase disproportionately as an increased number of specialty pharmaceuticals available to treat rare, complex, or chronic diseases enter the market. Ambulatory practice managers must plan for these increased expenditures in a fiscally sound manner. The department of medicine at University Hospitals of Cleveland has developed a comprehensive system of checks and balances for managing specialty pharmaceuticals. This system includes working closely with providers and payers, underpinned with sound business planning techniques. PMID:15586478

  17. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  18. Geotechnologies for the Characterization of Specialty Coffee Environments of Mantiqueira de Minas in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Lacerda, M. P. C.; Borém, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) is a major cause of environmental transformation. Distant drivers, often associated with emerging markets for specific products, are now being considered one of the main factors of LUCC and are gaining attention in land change science. Consumers show an increasing interest in local and quality food, certified for its origin and its environmental production standards. A kind of agricultural product certification, Geographic Indication, identifies a product as originating from a specific region where a given quality, reputation or characteristic is attributed to its geographical origin. Sustainable land use is potentially an indirect effect of Geographic Indication, as it requires better land management in order to preserve the natural resources associated with the unique characteristics of the certified product. Located in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is the region of Mantiqueira de Minas, considered one of the most important regions for the production of specialty coffees in Brazil. In 2011, the region's tradition and reputation were recognized with a Geographic Indication, the second given for coffee regions in the country. To explore the full potential of this area for producing coffees with higher quality and meet the growing demand of this new international market, which aggregates value at specialty coffees, it became fundamental to understand the coffee environments of the region, the "terroirs" where these coffees are obtained. Geotechnology can give a significant contribution in filling this gap. This work is part of a research project that made a detailed characterization of the region's coffee agroecosystems. Geotechnologies were employed to map the areas occupied by coffee plantations by using RapidEye satellite images and SPRING and ArcGIS software. All the segments of the environment were characterized and mapped in detail and the relations with coffee quality were evaluated. The results

  19. Medical Specialty Decision Model: Utilizing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Denise D.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a working model to explain medical specialty decision-making. Using Social Cognitive Career Theory, we examined personality, medical specialty preferences, job satisfaction, and expectations about specialty choice to create a conceptual framework to guide specialty choice decision-making.…

  20. [The International Association of Tobacco Growers attacks WHO].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Jaime; Peruga, Armando

    2003-04-01

    The International Association of Tobacco Growers (IATG) has publicly blamed WHO's tobacco control policies for a decline in the amount of land where tobacco is grown in the Americas and for the fact that many farmers have lost a way to make a living. Contrary to these allegations, the surface of land where tobacco is grown and the production of tobacco have increased between 1990 and 2000 (from 471 975 to 505 636 hectares and from 703 431 to 868 302 metric tons, respectively). Furthermore, the IATG's internal documents point to the cause of the declining harvests observed in some countries as being the drop in prices that has been triggered by surplus production on a global scale. According to internal documents belonging to the tobacco industry, the IATG is a public relations agency that was created by the industry as its spokesman in developing countries in an effort to curb tobacco control initiatives. WHO aims to reduce the use of tobacco products and the morbidity and mortality that are attributable to such use, a measure which will have no impact on the current generation of tobacco growers because, even if the prevalence of smoking does decline, the total number of smokers will continue to grow due to the overall increase in the size of the population. PMID:12804157

  1. Resilience in international migrant women following violence associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Anita J; Stewart, Donna E

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to violence associated with pregnancy (VAP) is an underrecognized public health and social problem that has an enormous impact on the physical and mental health of women and their children. Our recent study of 1,127 new mothers living in two urban areas of Canada found refugees and asylum-seekers to be more likely to have experienced VAP than immigrant or Canadian-born women. Interestingly, some migrants who had experienced VAP had low rates of postpartum depression risk on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, suggesting that resilience may play an important role in maintaining their mental health. Hence, we sought to explore processes which enhance migrants' resilience to VAP. We conducted in-depth interviews with ten women who had been identified as experiencing VAP and having low risk of postpartum depression and performed thematic analyses. International migrant women found internal psychological and coping resources, external social supports, and systemic factors including government policies to be vital to their resilience. Participants perceived differences in resilience by gender and immigration status. International migrant women used a range of processes to maintain and enhance their resilience after VAP, and these may be helpful to less resilient women who are vulnerable to postpartum depression. PMID:24221406

  2. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  3. Shaping an Australian nursing and midwifery specialty framework for workforce regulation: criteria development.

    PubMed

    King, Susan Jane; Ogle, Kaye Robyn; Bethune, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles identified in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was the lack of available qualified health personal to meet the health needs of the global population. With nurses being the main workforce component in health systems, the human resource challenge for most countries is to address the reported shortage of nurses. Skill mix is one suggestion. In Australia, workforce projections indicated a shortage of 40,000 nurses by 2010. Toward the reform of the Australian health workforce, one project aimed to develop a nationally consistent framework for nursing and midwifery specialization based on knowledge and skills to generate the first national database iteration for designated specialties. A literature review looked at the way nursing specialty practices were defined in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Canada. Three international and three national sources of criteria for specialty nursing practice were mapped against each other. The result was six criteria synthesized to define nursing practice groups as Australian nursing specialties. Each criterion was operationalized with criteria indicators to meet Australian expectations. The nurses in Australia commented on the criteria before they were finalized. An audit of national workforce databases identified nursing practice groups. The criteria were applied to identify nursing specialties and practice strands that would form a national nursing framework. This paper reports on the criteria developed to assess specialty practice at a national level in Australia. PMID:20084619

  4. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  5. Excitatory Cerebellar Nucleocortical Circuit Provides Internal Amplification during Associative Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhenyu; Proietti-Onori, Martina; Lin, Zhanmin; ten Brinke, Michiel M.; Boele, Henk-Jan; Potters, Jan-Willem; Ruigrok, Tom J.H.; Hoebeek, Freek E.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Closed-loop circuitries between cortical and subcortical regions can facilitate precision of output patterns, but the role of such networks in the cerebellum remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterize the role of internal feedback from the cerebellar nuclei to the cerebellar cortex in classical eyeblink conditioning. We find that excitatory output neurons in the interposed nucleus provide efference-copy signals via mossy fibers to the cerebellar cortical zones that belong to the same module, triggering monosynaptic responses in granule and Golgi cells and indirectly inhibiting Purkinje cells. Upon conditioning, the local density of nucleocortical mossy fiber terminals significantly increases. Optogenetic activation and inhibition of nucleocortical fibers in conditioned animals increases and decreases the amplitude of learned eyeblink responses, respectively. Our data show that the excitatory nucleocortical closed-loop circuitry of the cerebellum relays a corollary discharge of premotor signals and suggests an amplifying role of this circuitry in controlling associative motor learning. PMID:26844836

  6. Is nephrology specialty at risk?

    PubMed

    Kalloo, Sean D; Mathew, Roy O; Asif, Arif

    2016-07-01

    Interest in nephrology as a career choice has been steadily waning among internal medicine residents. This decline is reflected in a significant increment in unfilled fellowship training spots for several years. Interventional nephrology can help to reinvigorate an interest in nephrology as a whole. PMID:27217198

  7. Medical student debt and major life choices other than specialty

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfing, James; Navarro, Ryan; Maniya, Omar Z.; Hughes, Byron D.; Rogalsky, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Methods Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students). No incentives were offered for survey completion. Results Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032), with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private) meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846). Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Conclusions Medical student debt and particularly debt relative to peers

  8. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  9. Nursing Interventions Core to Specialty Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Joanne Comi; Donahue, William; Bulechek, Gloria M.

    1998-01-01

    The identification of nursing interventions that are core to each clinical specialty will be useful in the development of nursing information systems, staff education programs and evaluations, referral networks, certification and licensing examinations, curricula, and research and theory construction. (Author/JOW)

  10. Personality Factors and Occupational Specialty Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    This study is a continuation of an earlier investigation of personality and medical specialty choice. The earlier study determined that personality differences existed among family practitioners, anesthesiologists, and general surgeons. Based on this initial research, an attempt was made to answer the question of how the personality factors of…

  11. Holland's Theory Applied to Medical Specialty Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Savickas, Mark L.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that medical specialties classified as technique oriented or patient oriented would be distinguished by RIASEC code, with technique-oriented specialists resembling Investigative-Realistic types and patient-oriented specialists resembling Investigative-Social types. Using longitudinal data obtained from 447…

  12. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  13. Construction and Practice of the New Business Specialty Talent Cultivation Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Xiaokong

    2009-01-01

    The vocational education of business should actively adapt the demands of the domestic and foreign business development to cultivate high-quality applicable talents with international knowledge. The traditional business specialty teaching and the talent cultivation mode have not followed the domestic and foreign market demands, and are difficult…

  14. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been limited research on physicians’ perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Methods: Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Results: Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. Conclusion: The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students. PMID:27363502

  15. Faculty's Degrees, Experience and Research Vary with Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Counts, Tim; Carey, Arlen; Santana, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues of professional experience, degrees, research, and productivity for journalism and mass communication faculty members, separating and comparing different specialties. Finds that requirements regarding academic degrees and research vary from specialty to specialty and that 53% of those teaching in advertising, radio/television, and…

  16. Socioeconomic Position Predicts Specialty Mental Health Service Use Independent of Clinical Severity: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between different indices of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the use of specialty mental health services (SMHS) and whether the associations exist after adjusting for severity of mental problems. Method: Using data from a large longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 2,149; mean age = 13.6 years [SD =…

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Association between Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature consistently shows an association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems in girls. The association for boys is less clear. The present study examines genetic and environmental influences on the association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems for boys and girls in two primarily Caucasian adolescent…

  18. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today. PMID:27090098

  19. Electric hybrid module based specialty car design

    SciTech Connect

    Bohan, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The vast majority of automobiles made in the United states today are manufactured by one of three major auto manufacturers. It is intrinsic in their nature to act conservatively. The big three`s large production runs represents a huge amount of capitalization. The amount of capital being invested is the real driving factor behind the conservative nature of these companies. In the computer industries we have seen a significant number of small start up companies as the driving force behind technological change. If a large company does not do it, a small venture capital company will certainly fill the vacuum. Unfortunately, the existing auto industry does not have a strong startup company presence. Even into the 1920`s, the specialty car or custom coach work manufactures represented a lively part of the auto economy. It was not until the coming of the great depression that the small specialty car manufacture was virtually eliminated. Today we see the beginnings of a comeback of the specialty car manufacturer in the kit car industry of today.

  20. Problem-specific racial/ethnic disparities in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jonathan I; Gudiño, Omar G; Lau, Anna S

    2013-05-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic differences in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in contact with the Child Welfare system. Participants included 1,600 non-Hispanic White, African American, and Latino youth (age 4-14) who were the subjects of investigations for alleged maltreatment and participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Maltreatment exposure, internalizing, and externalizing problems were assessed at baseline and subsequent specialty mental health service use was assessed 1 year later. Maltreatment exposure predicted both internalizing and externalizing problems across all racial/ethnic groups, but non-Hispanic White youth were the only group for whom maltreatment exposure was linked with subsequent service use via both internalizing and externalizing problem severity. Only externalizing problems predicted subsequent service use for African American youth and this association was significantly stronger relative to non-Hispanic White youth. Neither problem type predicted service use for Latinos. Future research is needed to understand how individual-, family-, and system-level factors contribute to racial/ethnic differences in pathways linking maltreatment exposure to services via internalizing/externalizing problems. PMID:23630401

  1. Is there a need for a common framework of dental specialties in Europe?

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Widström, E; Eaton, K A

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims to promote discussion about dental specialties and post-graduate dental education in the European Union (EU). Previously, dental educators have concentrated their efforts of seeking Pan-EU convergence in undergraduate dental education. However, the impact of the enlargement of the EU, the new European Commission (EC) Directive of professional training and the Bologna Process all impact on post-graduate (specialist) just as much as on undergraduate dental education. The provisions of the new EC directive mean that, unlike new medical specialties, new Pan-EU dental specialties cannot be created purely because they exist in two-fifths of EU Member States. At present, some EU Member States recognise eight or more dental specialties, whereas others recognise none. It is suggested that changing needs and demands of patients, which reflect a general improvement in oral health, increased wealth and an aging population will place increasing demands on dentistry to provide more complex care and treatment and that the current undergraduate curriculum cannot be expanded to provide suitable training to meet these needs and demands. There is thus a need to expand dental specialist training in all EU Member States, to agree common standards for specialist education and to officially recognise a wider range of Pan-EU dental specialties. The paper concludes that in order to achieve these goals, there is a need of a better collaboration between competent authorities, including governments, universities, dental associations and the various Pan-European Scientific Specialist Organizations. PMID:18666894

  2. International health program: preventing health problems associated with living abroad.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Carol A

    2004-02-01

    1. The components of the international health program consist of identifying health risks overseas, the availability of the medical resources, the assessment of the medical facility, primary care, as well as the pre-departure health evaluations. 2. The organization should develop and implement standards of care while working toward maintaining and improving those standards to achieve an innovative, effective international medical program. This should be linked by a top down commitment to insure success. 3. The implementation of the emergency response plan will help support employees and their family members while working abroad if a serious illness or injury should occur. PMID:14979618

  3. School Psychology: How Universal Are Ethical Principles Approved by International Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettifor, Jean L.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…

  4. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 32nd Annual Report 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    After a general outline of the organization of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience and a brief introduction to its functions and activities, this annual report contains the international report. This includes: the report of the General Secretary; a list of international visits and visitors; publicity…

  5. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 34th Annual Report 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    The 1981 annual report of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE) is presented. IAESTE seeks to provide students at institutions of higher education with technical experience abroad relative to their studies and to promote international understanding among all students. An international report…

  6. The Association between Internalizing Symptomology and Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perle, Jonathan G.; Levine, Alison B.; Odland, Anthony P.; Ketterer, Jessica L.; Cannon, Megan A.; Marker, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing symptoms (withdrawn/depressed and anxious/depressed), measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), were examined as related to the development of externalizing problems, a pathway to risky behavior. A cross-section of children ages 6 to 15 was drawn from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's (NICHD) Study…

  7. The Expansion of Higher Education. Papers of the International Association of Universities. No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Universities, Paris (France).

    Papers are presented from a conference of the International Association of Universities concerning the expansion of higher education. The contents are as follows: Foreword by J. Baugniet, International Association of Universities; "The Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil," by Rev. A. Alonso, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro;…

  8. Correlates of physician burnout across regions and specialties: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care organizations globally realize the need to address physician burnout due to its close linkages with quality of care, retention and migration. The many functions of health human resources include identifying and managing burnout risk factors for health professionals, while also promoting effective coping. Our study of physician burnout aims to show: (1) which correlates are most strongly associated with emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP), and (2) whether the associations vary across regions and specialties. Methods Meta-analysis allowed us to examine a diverse range of correlates. Our search yielded 65 samples of physicians from various regions and specialties. Results EE was negatively associated with autonomy, positive work attitudes, and quality and safety culture. It was positively associated with workload, constraining organizational structure, incivility/conflicts/violence, low quality and safety standards, negative work attitudes, work-life conflict, and contributors to poor mental health. We found a similar but weaker pattern of associations for DP. Physicians in the Americas experienced lower EE levels than physicians in Europe when quality and safety culture and career development opportunities were both strong, and when they used problem-focused coping. The former experienced higher EE levels when work-life conflict was strong and they used ineffective coping. Physicians in Europe experienced lower EE levels than physicians in the Americas with positive work attitudes. We found a similar but weaker pattern of associations for DP. Outpatient specialties experienced higher EE levels than inpatient specialties when organization structures were constraining and contributors to poor mental health were present. The former experienced lower EE levels when autonomy was present. Inpatient specialties experienced lower EE levels than outpatient specialties with positive work attitudes. As above, we found a similar but weaker

  9. Euthanasia--the twenty-sixth specialty?

    PubMed

    Capanna, A H; Capanna, D M; Bianco, R Y

    1998-08-01

    Twenty-five medical specialties currently offer board certification in the United States. The question is, should there be a 26th specialty--that of euthanasia? Physician-assisted suicide has clearly been brought to the forefront of public debate by Dr. Jack Kevorkian, the retired Michigan pathologist, and the passage of the Oregon Proposition. The concern becomes multifold; should physician-assisted suicide be allowed? On whom should it be allowed? Should all physicians be allowed to participate, or only a select few? All physicians take either the Hippocratic Oath or World Health Organization Oath (or both) at medical school commencement, which forbids the taking of a life. How then are we to reconcile physician-assisted suicide? The Dutch have extensive experience with euthanasia assisted by physicians. It has become increasingly clear that a great deal of pressure will be directly or indirectly exerted on physicians to withhold or minimize treatment with terminally ill patients at both spectrums of life. The need to face these decisions will be pushed by economic interests. It is well documented historically that Nazi doctors conducted numerous experiments on concentration camp inmates in the name of research and scientific truth. How did these doctors become part of Hitler's killing machine in the 1940s? By 1942, the Nazified physicians were ready to cure the nation by killing off "useless eaters," and Jews, the "cancer" of the Nordic race. If we are taught that history repeats itself, how can we condone the helping of one patient and assisting another with ending his life? Perhaps it is fitting that Dr. Kevorkian was a pathologist, not directly involved in caring for patients and families. Perhaps we will need the 26th specialty, but the real questions is "Should those of us who took the Hippocratic Oath take the first step?" PMID:9701114

  10. Family medicine: a specialty for all ages.

    PubMed

    Calman, Neil S; Hauser, Diane; Leanza, Francesco; Schiller, Robert

    2012-01-01

    After a diminishing of its ranks following the post-World War II explosion of growth in medical discoveries, advanced medical technology, and the concomitant specialization of the physician workforce, family medicine is re-establishing itself as a leading medical specialty that has garnered growing interest among recent medical-school graduates. Family physicians provide care for patients of all ages, from newborns to the elderly. In addition to its wide scope of practice, family medicine is characterized by its emphasis on understanding of the whole person, its partnership approach with patients over many years, and its command of medical complexity. Family physicians are trained both to use community resources to assist individual patients in meeting medical or social needs and to identify and address community-wide needs. The specialty of family medicine is uniquely positioned to provide a leadership role in health-reform efforts that are accelerating across the country. Health care models that are gaining traction, such as the patient-centered medical home model, health homes, and accountable care organizations, share the characteristics of providing comprehensive, coordinated patient care with an emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion. This model of care, provided in the context of family and community, has been the hallmark of family medicine since its creation as a distinct medical specialty more than 40 years ago. In addition, family physicians' ability to care for patients of all ages make them particularly cost-effective as the new models of care move to improve access to care through expanded hours and locations. PMID:22976366

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Acidified Specialty Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, William H.

    Acidified specialty products or condiments are among the most microbiologically stable and safe food products. Often formulated, packaged, and distributed without heat treatments, they are microbiologically stable indefinitely at ambient temperatures in unopened containers. The packaged, acidified products are often intended for multiple uses, exposing them at the points of consumption to numerous opportunities for contamination with microorganisms. Nonetheless, they remain resistant to microbiological spoilage for many months, often under refrigerated conditions that are used to retard chemical reactions, flavor changes, and yeast growth.

  12. How Do Medical Specialty Training Educators and Trainees Perceive Medical Specialty Selection Examination (TUS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen Kutanis, Rana; Tunc, Tulin; Tunc, Murat

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to explore whether a single-step examination is adequate for ranking the medical graduates for specialty training in medicine which is practically similar to doctoral training (PhD) in other disciplines. For this purpose, a semi- structured interview-based qualitative research was carried out at a university medical…

  13. Endovascular Internal Trapping of Ruptured Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Occipital-Internal Jugular Vein Fistula in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Taichiro; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous cervical extradural pseudoaneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular diseases. We report a case of ruptured occipital artery (OA) pseudoaneurysm associated with occipital-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula in neurofibromatosis type 1. Endovascular internal trapping via the OA was attempted; however, the distal entry of the OA could not be accessed because of the high shunt flow and tortuosity of the OA. The distal part of the OA was obliterated with coil via a transvenous approach through the IJV and pseudoaneurysm. The proximal entry of the OA was obliterated with coil and glue under proximal flow control with a balloon, and the fistula was successfully obliterated without placement of coils in the pseudoaneurysm. When ordinary internal trapping via a transarterial approach is not possible, the transvenous approach should be considered as an alternative for AVF associated with an aneurysmal component. PMID:26971039

  14. Characterizing the Self-System over Time in Adolescence: Internal Structure and Associations with Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    The longitudinal effects among self and identity processes, and between these processes and internalizing symptoms, are not well understood. As a result, the present study was designed to ascertain the over-time effects among identity commitment, reconsideration of commitments, and self-concept clarity, as well as to map the interplay of these…

  15. Specialty glass raw materials: Status and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.J.; Gray, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors highlight several key raw materials used in the specialty glass industry. The focus here is to update changes and shifts underway in the worldwide availability and processes that will impact both costs and efficient use of these products. The glass types that use these materials generally are those other than container, float, and fiber glass. Those high-volume consumers of glass raw materials are discussed in a companion paper in this volume. In the specialty glass field, the batch materials involve minerals, and the chemicals derived from them, which are less readily available domestically. These are much more critically defined by specifications of assay, contamination, and particle size, resulting in their being more expensive. They are seldom commodity products. The scope of materials for this fragmented industry includes those for leads, borosilicates, aluminosilicates, opals, sealing and frit glasses, optical glass, ophthalmic glass, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for TV and display, and glass-ceramics as major segments. They use lead oxides, nearly all the alkalies and alkaline earth portions of the periodic table, as well as rare earths, transition element oxides, phosphates, boron minerals and chemicals, zircon, zinc, most of the halogens, and many of the anions. They often require very special particle size specifications. The requirements for these batch materials are often based on chemistry, the absence of contaminants that impact melting, very wide ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, glass homogeneity, and freedom from solid and gaseous inclusions down to ppm levels in both size and number.

  16. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  17. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity and internalizing and externalizing symptoms are emotion specific

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Christine K.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Ram, Nilam

    2015-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing disorders are often, though inconsistently in studies of young children, associated with low baseline levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RSA is thus considered to reflect the capacity for flexible and regulated affective reactivity and a general propensity for psychopathology. However, studies assessing RSA reactivity to emotional challenges tend to report more consistent associations with internalizing than with externalizing disorders, although it is unclear whether this is a function of the type of emotion challenges used. In the present study, we examined whether baseline RSA was associated with internalizing and/or externalizing severity in a sample of 273 young children (ages 5–6) with elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Following motivation-based models of emotion, we also tested whether RSA reactivity during withdrawal-based (fear, sadness) and approach-based (happiness, anger) emotion inductions was differentially associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, respectively. Baseline RSA was not associated with externalizing or internalizing symptom severity. However, RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges was associated differentially with each symptom domain. As expected, internalizing symptom severity was associated with greater RSA withdrawal (increased arousal) during fearful and sad film segments. Conversely, externalizing symptom severity was related to blunted RSA withdrawal during a happy film segment. The use of theoretically derived stimuli may be important in characterizing the nature of the deficits in emotion processing that differentiate the internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology. PMID:23233122

  18. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the U.S. and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; calendar, 2002-2009; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  19. Outcomes of Global Education: External and Internal Change Associated with Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy; Thompson, Don

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of external and internal changes associated with collegiate study abroad experiences. A brief review of the research literature is included along with recent research that sheds light on potential mechanisms associated with study abroad-related change. Recommendations for enhancing outcomes associated with study…

  20. Responses of International Migrant Women to Abuse Associated With Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Praem; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-03-01

    The current study aims to identify what newly arrived migrant women do, in the early months post-birth, to respond to abuse associated with pregnancy. Textual data from 59 migrant women were analyzed thematically to identify common responses to abuses. The most common response was to physically leave their countries of origin and move to Canada, or to move out of the shared dwelling. Other responses included taking legal action, remaining silent, reporting the abuse, seeking counseling, isolating themselves, and supporting anger management for the abuser. These results enhance our understanding of the decisions, including inaction, made by migrant women. PMID:25922475

  1. US medical specialty global health training and the global burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Vanessa B.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Bergmark, Regan W.; Bergmark, Brian A.; Rouse, Chaturia; Bangsberg, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid growth in global health activity among US medical specialty education programs has lead to heterogeneity in types of activities and global health training models. The breadth and scope of this activity is not well chronicled. Methods Using a standardized search protocol, we examined the characteristics of US medical residency global health programs by number of programs, clinical specialty, nature of activity (elective, research, extended curriculum based field training), and geographic location across seven different clinical medical residency education specialties. We tabulated programmatic activity by clinical discipline, region and country. We calculated the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to estimate the association between programmatic activity and country–level disease burden. Results Of the 1856 programs assessed between January and June 2011, there were 380 global health residency training programs (20%) working in 141 countries. 529 individual programmatic activities (elective–based rotations, research programs, extended curriculum–based field training, or other) occurred at 1337 specific sites. The majority of the activities consisted of elective–based rotations. At the country level, disease burden had a statistically significant association with programmatic activity (Spearman's ρ = 0.17) but only explained 3% of the total variation between countries. Conclusions There were a substantial number of US medical specialty global health programs, but a relative paucity of surgical and mental health programs. Elective–based programs were more common than programs that offer longitudinal experiences. Despite heterogeneity, there was a small but statistically significant association between program location and the global burden of disease. Areas for further study include the degree to which US–based programs develop partnerships with their program sites, the significance of this activity for training, and number and

  2. International Paediatric Stroke Study: stroke associated with cardiac disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Michael M.; Hynan, Linda S.; Lo, Warren; Licht, Daniel J.; McClure, Chalmer; Yager, Jerome Y.; Dlamini, Nomazulu; Kirkham, Fenella J.; deVeber, Gabrielle; Pavlakis, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background and hypothesis The aetiologies of arterial ischaemic stroke in children are diverse and often multi-factorial. A large proportion occurs in children with cardiac disorders. We hypothesized that the clinical and radiographic features of children with arterial ischaemic stroke attributed to cardiac disorders would differ from those with other causes. Methods Using the large population collected in the prospective International Paediatric Stroke Study, we analysed the characteristics, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and early outcomes of children with and without cardiac disorders. Results Aetiological data were available for 667 children with arterial ischaemic stroke (ages 29 days to 19 years). Cardiac disorders were indentified in 204/667 (30·6%), congenital defects in 121/204 (59·3%), acquired in 40/204 (19·6%), and isolated patent foramen ovale in 31/204 (15·2%). Compared to other children with stroke, those with cardiac disorders were younger (median age 3·1 vs. 6·5 years; P < 0·001) and less likely to present with headache (25·6% vs. 44·6%; P < 0·001), but were similar in terms of gender and presentation with focal deficits, seizures, or recent infection. Analysis of imaging data identified significant differences (P = 0·005) in the vascular distribution (anterior vs. posterior circulation or both) between groups. Bilateral strokes and haemorrhagic conversion were more prevalent in the cardiac disorders group. Conclusions Cardiac disorders were identified in almost one-third of children with arterial ischaemic stroke. They had similar clinical presentations to those without cardiac disorders but differed in age and headache prevalence. Children with cardiac disorders more frequently had a ‘cardioembolic stroke pattern’ with a higher prevalence of bilateral strokes in both the anterior and posterior circulations, and a greater tendency to haemorrhagic transformation. PMID:23231361

  3. Disentangling the Associations between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits: A Community Based Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Happe, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Internalizing difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the underlying cause of this comorbidity. It is also unclear which types of autistic-like and internalizing difficulties are most strongly associated. The current study investigated the phenotypic and etiological associations…

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL DESIGN ASSOCIATES (FORMERLY GEOKINETICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.) LEAD RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents performance and economic data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of Electrochemical Design Associates (EDA), formerly known as Geokinetics International Inc., Lead Recovery Tech...

  5. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although apple (Malus x domestica) is of economic importance, little information is available about the transriptomic profiling of postharvest disorders, particularly internal browning. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with development of flesh browning durin...

  6. Issues associated with establishing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative missions in Earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  7. Sunset Specialty Turf: Growing the heap

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1998-07-01

    Almost a quarter of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the US is compostable. As composting as an industry is growing in the US, entrepreneurs are going where the markets are to expand their facilities and, hopefully, their revenues by making turf and groundcovers from recovered materials. In fact, over the past 20 years, the composting business has grown from a nascent backyard project to a full-fledged industry in the US. According to the US EPA`s recent waste characterization report, food and yard waste generated in the US in 1996 came to almost 53 million tons, or almost a quarter of the total 209 million tons of MSW generated in the US. Of the 28 million tons of yard waste generated in the US in 1996 alone, 38.6% was recycled. Yard trimmings made up about 13.4% of all the materials discarded as MSW. With its warm climate and abundance of foliage that create yard waste year round, the South is a region where composting facilities are thriving. And a Midwestern composting company is looking to reap the benefits of the current growing market for compostable materials in the Southeast while providing an environmentally beneficial end product. Sunset Turf Nursery, Inc. is a company that manufacturers turf products from compost materials. The company already runs a 51-acre facility in St. Louis, where it composts municipal materials and, using its patented process, grows turf grass to make a specialty groundcover which can be used for landscaping applications. Sunset officials plan to expand the company`s composting and turf manufacturing operations to more than 350 acres over the next three years, starting with the St. Louis facility. The company, specifically its division Sunset Specialty Turf, currently has a research and development testing site in Jacksonville, Florida, which it would like to use additional funding to expand to a full fledged manufacturing site similar to the St. Louis site.

  8. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  9. The Orientation and Development of the Public Affair Management Specialty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chenghui; Fu, Yongxian; Chen, Rongxiang; Hu, Xueqi

    2010-01-01

    Though the specialty of the public affair management has been developed for ten years, but it is still facing the actuality that the orientation and development are difficult. Only by confirming the cultivation target and the development orientation, the development of the specialty could find the development approach and method. According to the…

  10. Item Calibrations for Licensure Tests with Multiple Specialty Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chi-Yu; Lohss, William E.; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Shin, David

    This study was conducted to compare the usefulness of three item response theory (IRT) calibration packages (BILOG, BILOG-MG, and PIC) for examinations that include common and specialty components. Because small sample sizes and different mean abilities between specialty components are the most frequent problems that licensure/certification…

  11. 76 FR 22733 - Cable Statutory License: Specialty Station List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... specialty station. 55 FR 40021 (October 1, 1990). The Office agreed at that time to periodically update the... FCC's former requirements for specialty station status. 76 FR 5213 (January 28, 2011). The Office has..., Quebec, Canada CBWFT, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada CBXFT, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada CHLT-TV,...

  12. 77 FR 18869 - Cable Statutory License: Specialty Station List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... complex regulatory structure governing the carriage of distant network station signals in the 1970s.... 54 FR 38461, 38464 (September 18, 1989). The Office published its first specialty station list in... hence, qualifies it as a specialty station. 55 FR 40021 (October 1, 1990). The Office noted at that...

  13. Counselor Personality Needs as a Determinant of Functional Specialty Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated whether personality needs discriminate between counselor trainees who prefer the administrator specialty and those who prefer the practitioner functional specialty. The results suggest that the Personality Research Form (PRF) may have value as a tool in the selection of counselors. (Author)

  14. Medical Student Utilization of the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimny, George H.; Senturia, Audrey G.

    1973-01-01

    This study was aimed specifically at determining the number of medical students who would, on a voluntary basis, utilize a source of information about their medical specialty preferences. The information was that provided by the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory (MSPI) developed by the authors. (Author)

  15. 75 FR 42431 - Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc; Notice Soliciting Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc; Notice Soliciting Applications July 14, 2010. On April 29, 2009, Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc. (Onyx), licensee for the Willow Mill Project No. 2985, filed... Housatonic River. The turbine generating unit is located in the basement of MeadWestvaco's paper mill....

  16. Specialty Selections of Jefferson Medical College Students: A Conjoint Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A consumer research technique, conjoint analysis, was used to assess the relative importance of several factors in 104 fourth-year medical students' selection of specialty. Conjoint analysis appears to be a useful method for investigating the complex process of specialty selection. (SLD)

  17. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. PMID:26774529

  18. Factors Associated With External and Internal Lymphedema in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jie; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Murphy, Barbara A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The sample included 81 patients {>=}3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. Results: The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

  19. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  20. 78 FR 60766 - Clarification on Fireworks Policy Regarding Approvals or Certifications for Specialty Fireworks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...This document clarifies PHMSA's policy regarding applications for specialty fireworks devices. Specialty fireworks devices are fireworks devices in various shapes that produce multiple effects, simultaneously. In this document, we are establishing our policy regarding specialty fireworks...

  1. Healthcare Spending and Performance of Specialty Hospitals: Nationwide Evidence from Colorectal-Anal Specialty Hospitals in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and performance of colorectal-anal specialty vs. general hospitals for South Korean inpatients with colorectal-anal diseases, and assesses the short-term designation effect of the government's specialty hospital. Materials and Methods Nationwide all colorectal-anal disease inpatient claims (n=292158) for 2010-2012 were used to investigate length of stay and inpatient charges for surgical and medical procedures in specialty vs. general hospitals. The patients' claim data were matched to hospital data, and multi-level linear mixed models to account for clustering of patients within hospitals were performed. Results Inpatient charges at colorectal-anal specialty hospitals were 27% greater per case and 92% greater per day than those at small general hospitals, but the average length of stay was 49% shorter. Colorectal-anal specialty hospitals had shorter length of stay and a higher inpatient charges per day for both surgical and medical procedures, but per case charges were not significantly different. A "specialty" designation effect also found that the colorectal-anal specialty hospitals may have consciously attempted to reduce their length of stay and inpatient charges. Both hospital and patient level factors had significant roles in determining length of stay and inpatient charges. Conclusion Colorectal-anal specialty hospitals have shorter length of stay and higher inpatient charges per day than small general hospitals. A "specialty" designation by government influence performance and healthcare spending of hospitals as well. In order to maintain prosperous specialty hospital system, investigation into additional factors that affect performance, such as quality of care and patient satisfaction should be carried out. PMID:26446659

  2. Examining Temporal Associations between Perceived Maternal Psychological Control and Early Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55%…

  3. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

  4. Examining temporal associations between perceived maternal psychological control and early adolescent internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alexandra

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55% female) participating in two waves of a study. Results from multi-group, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that although early adolescents' depressive symptoms and social anxiety predicted change in perceived maternal psychological control one year later, perceived maternal psychological control did not predict change in early adolescents' internalizing problems. Elevated levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of perceived maternal psychological control one year later, whereas elevated levels of social anxiety were associated with decreased levels. Aforementioned findings were consistent across boys' and girls' data. Study findings extend limited research on adolescent effects, demonstrating that early adolescents' internalizing problems play a role in perceived maternal psychological control. PMID:19562478

  5. [Specialty care in the transformation process].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Suárez, Romeo S; Mansilla Olivares, Armando; Díaz Jiménez, María Juana

    2012-01-01

    The scientific research goals developed and applied beyond their own frontiers, by the National Institutes of Health and High Specialty Hospitals, are presented regarding the specialized medical care of excellence on the field of global health, in benefice of the Mexican population. Maternal mortality as well as malnutrition, and the lack of micronutrients in the pregnant mother and child, put them in disadvantage to face future physical and mental diseases. Low weight at birth, prematurity, and overweight during childhood are factors that can trigger the the development of the metabolic syndrome, with all its consequences on physical and mental health. These challenges are faced with a preventive vision by means of pilot programs like "Towards a new generation of Mexicans" and "Chronic kidney disease stratification in high risk patients", besides the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of other chronic diseases such as cancer, hypertension, and diabetes among others by decreasing the number of overweight and obesity people in the Mexican population. PMID:23254715

  6. Two interesting cases highlighting an oblivious specialty of psychoneuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Dhull, Pawan; Somasekharan, Manoj; Seshadri, K

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroendocrinology deals with the overlap disorders pertaining to three different specialties. Awareness about the somatic manifestations of psychiatric diseases and vice versa is a must for all the clinicians. The knowledge of this interlinked specialty is essential because of the obscure presentation of certain disorders. Our first case was treated as depressive disorder, whereas the diagnosis was hypogonadism with empty sella. Our second patient was managed as schizophrenia and the evaluation revealed bilateral basal ganglia calcification and a diagnosis of Fahr's disease. We report these cases for their unusual presentation and to highlight the importance of this emerging specialty. PMID:23806989

  7. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013. The Mobile Learning 2013 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  8. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants’ health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants’ social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3–6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  9. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  10. Brain mechanisms associated with internally directed attention and self-generated thought

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Beaty, Roger E.; Fink, Andreas; Koschutnig, Karl; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2016-01-01

    Internal cognition like imagination and prospection require sustained internally directed attention and involve self-generated thought. This fMRI study aimed to disentangle the brain mechanisms associated with attention-specific and task-specific processes during internally directed cognition. The direction of attention was manipulated by either keeping a relevant stimulus visible throughout the task, or by masking it, so that the task had to be performed “in the mind’s eye”. The level of self-directed thought was additionally varied between a convergent and a divergent thinking task. Internally directed attention was associated with increased activation in the right anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL), bilateral lingual gyrus and the cuneus, as well as with extended deactivations of superior parietal and occipital regions representing parts of the dorsal attention network. The right aIPL further showed increased connectivity with occipital regions suggesting an active top-down mechanism for shielding ongoing internal processes from potentially distracting sensory stimulation in terms of perceptual decoupling. Activation of the default network was not related to internally directed attention per se, but rather to a higher level of self-generated thought. The findings hence shed further light on the roles of inferior and superior parietal cortex for internally directed cognition. PMID:26960259

  11. Personality and Medical Specialty Choice: Technique Orientation versus People Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Osmon, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire completed by 161 physicians indicated that role consciousness, abstractedness, and tough mindedness differentiated medical specialties (surgeons, anesthesiologists, family practitioners). Results correlated with the use of differences between person orientation and technique orientation to…

  12. Theme: Staying Current--Small Animals and Specialty Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, James A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Six theme articles examine ways that vocational agriculture teachers can keep current, including related hobbies, resource persons, beekeeping as a supervised occupational experience, specialty crops such as fruits and nuts, an inservice poultry project, and trade and industry organizations. (SK)

  13. Specialty choices and board certifications of 'fifth pathway' graduates.

    PubMed

    Rosner, F; Mulvihill, J E; Cohen, S

    1983-08-01

    We studied the specialty choices and board certification status of 258 graduates over a ten-year period of a single "fifth pathway" program. Not including obstetrics and gynecology as a primary care specialty, 54% of our graduates chose primary care specialties. Including obstetrics and gynecology, the number increased to 63%. Thirty-five of 158 graduates through 1978 are specialty board certified and another 49 are board eligible. We believe that our program has fulfilled the need of assisting Americans studying medicine abroad, primarily in Mexico, to overcome their clinical deficits and become integrated into the mainstream of American medicine. The future role of fifth pathway programs must be reevaluated in light of the 1980 Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee report, which concluded that by 1990, there will be an overabundance of physicians in the United States. PMID:6870440

  14. Specialty pharmaceuticals and the quest for better outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brook, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the healthcare system has seen significant growth in the number of products, pathways, and modes of treatment administration for a number of costly conditions. Many of these products are biologic agents, classified as specialty pharmaceuticals, and are distributed through specialty pharmacies. The increasing use of these expensive medications and their growing costs raise the simple question, can payers and purchasers afford to keep doing business as usual? In addition, confusion exists as to what "outcomes" are relevant for these conditions treated using specialty medications. Available information on outcomes, treatments, and pathways from multiple sources can overload clinicians and the treatment team, making it difficult to select - and receive reimbursement for - the most appropriate regimens. This article offers an approach to understanding some of the unique challenges posed in evaluating the value of specialty pharmaceuticals. PMID:26357895

  15. An integrated strategy for teaching biochemistry to biotechnology specialty students.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-07-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of each pedagogy and better solve the main difficulties that lay in the teaching of biochemistry to biotechnology specialty students in the East China University of Science and Technology. PMID:21591104

  16. Strengthening end-of-life care through specialty nursing certification.

    PubMed

    Esper, Peg; Lockhart, Joan Such; Murphy, Cynthia Miller

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of content related to end-of-life (EOL) care in materials used in the nursing certification process across clinical nursing specialties. Thirty-eight certification examination blueprints, 18 specialty nursing scope and standards of practice documents, and 28 specialty nursing core curriculum text books were analyzed by using descriptive statistics to determine the quantity and quality of content related to nine critical areas of EOL content contained in them. Fifteen (38 per cent) of the certification examination blueprints contained at least one of the critical EOL content areas. Eight (44 per cent) of the scope and standards of practice documents contained at least one sentence on EOL care. Seven (25 per cent) of the 28 textbooks contained at least one chapter dedicated to EOL care content, and 129.5 (0.8 per cent) of the 15,706 textbook pages reviewed were dedicated to EOL care content. Expert ratings regarding the overall accuracy, currency, and comprehensiveness of EOL content found in the textbooks were poor to good. An increased focus on EOL care in the nursing specialty certification process is warranted. The content of nursing specialty certification examinations has a direct influence on nursing education as well as a significant impact on nursing practice in clinical specialty areas. PMID:12096361

  17. Primary care by desire or default? Specialty choices of minority graduates of US medical schools in 1983.

    PubMed Central

    Babbott, D.; Weaver, S. O.; Baldwin, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if US medical school students of different racial/ethnic backgrounds demonstrate similar patterns of evolution of specialty choice between their senior year of medical school and their third postgraduate year. The study identified the specialty choices of US medical school seniors in 1983 through their responses to the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduating Medical Student Questionnaire (GQ). The cohort was classified into three groups: underrepresented minorities, non-underrepresented minorities, and whites. Using these AAMC data as baseline, each racial/ethnic background group was tracked through their third residency year. Comparisons were made between anticipated specialty choices as senior medical students and actual specialties as revealed through residency tracking. The study found that more than 95% of the cohort began residencies in specialties compatible with their GQ choices. Unexpectedly, almost 20% of blacks, Commonwealth Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanics were not in graduate medical education in their third postgraduate year. This group needs to be studied further in order to learn the proportion of these physicians who subsequently completed residency training and the reason(s) for attrition in physicians who did not fulfill minimum training requirements for board certification. PMID:8064901

  18. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J; Ramus, S J; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, S A; Anderson, A R; Edlund, C K; Wu, A H; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, P M; Holt, S K; Chen, C; Doherty, J A; Rossing, M A; Whittemore, A S; McGuire, V; DiCioccio, R A; Goodman, M T; Lurie, G; Carney, M E; Wilkens, L R; Ness, R B; Moysich, K B; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjaer, S K; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, C K; Goode, E L; Sellers, T A; Vierkant, R A; Cunningham, J C; Schildkraut, J M; Berchuck, A; Moorman, P G; Iversen, E S; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Vitonis, A F; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Song, H; Pharoah, P D P; Spurdle, A B; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Brewster, W; Galitovskiy, V; Chenevix-Trench, G

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P⩽0.10 in a log-additive model: rs2740574 in CYP3A4 (P=0.011), rs1805386 in LIG4 (P=0.007), and rs3218536 in XRCC2 (P=0.095). Additional genotyping in other OCAC studies was undertaken and only the variant in CYP3A4, rs2740574, continued to show an association in the replication data among homozygous carriers: ORhomozygous(hom)=2.50 (95% CI 0.54-11.57, P=0.24) with 1406 cases and 2827 controls. Overall, in the combined data the odds ratio was 2.81 among carriers of two copies of the minor allele (95% CI 1.20–6.56, P=0.017, phet across studies=0.42) with 1969 cases and 3491 controls. There was no association among heterozygous carriers. CYP3A4 encodes a key enzyme in oestrogen metabolism and our finding between rs2740574 and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted. PMID:19127255

  19. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  20. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  1. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  3. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  4. Racial disparities across provider specialties in opioid prescriptions dispensed to Medicaid beneficiaries with chronic non-cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Ringwalt, Chris; Roberts, Andrew W.; Gugelmann, Hallam; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain affects both psychological and physical functioning, and is responsible for more than $60 billion in lost productivity annually in the United States. Although previous studies have demonstrated racial disparities in opioid treatment, there is little evidence regarding disparities in treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and the role of physician specialty. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting We analyzed North Carolina Medicaid claims data, from July 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010, to examine disparities by different provider specialties in beneficiaries dispensed prescriptions for opioids. Subjects The population included White and Black North Carolina Medicaid beneficiaries with CNCP (n=75,458). Methods We used bivariate statistics and logistic regression analysis to examine race-based discrepancies in opioid prescribing by physician specialty. Results Compared to White beneficiaries with CNCP (n=49,197), Black beneficiaries (n=26,261) were less likely [OR 0.91 (CI: 0.88–0.94)] to fill an opioid prescription. Our hypothesis was partially supported: we found that race-based differences in beneficiaries dispensed opioid prescriptions were more prominent in certain specialties. In particular, these differences were most salient among patients of specialists in obstetrics and gynecology [OR 0.78 (CI: 0.67–0.89)] and internal medicine [OR 0.86 (CI: 0.79–0.92)], as well as general practitioners/family medicine physicians [OR 0.91 (CI: 0.85–0.97)]. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in our study population, Black beneficiaries with CNCP are less likely than Whites to fill prescriptions for opioid analgesics as a function of their provider’s specialty. Although race-based differences in patients filling opioid prescriptions have been noted in previous studies, this is the first study that clearly demonstrates these disparities by provider specialty. PMID:25287703

  5. Longitudinal Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms Among Male and Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katie L; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-06-01

    Using ecological theory and the peer socialization model, the current study identified risk and protective factors associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ecological domains. It was hypothesized that the constellation of risk and protective factors within the peer microsystem would vary by gender: future optimism and negative peer influence were expected to be significant risk/protective factors for males, whereas peer victimization was expected to be significant risk factors among females. Using four waves of data, three-level hierarchical linear models were estimated for males and females. Results revealed that negative peer influence was a particularly salient risk factor for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors among males, although future optimism did not emerge as a significant protective factor. In addition, as hypothesized, peer victimization indicators were significant risk factors for females. Parent-child conflict was also significantly and positively associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for males and females. Implications are discussed. PMID:26341092

  6. Longitudinal associations between adolescent perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and internalization and defiance.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not degree of prohibition related to overtime changes in internalization and oppositional defiance. Specifically, in line with self-determination theory, autonomy-supportive and controlling styles of prohibiting were found to relate differentially to quality of internalization and oppositional defiance. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that several of these associations were reciprocal. The discussion focuses on the critical role of perceived parental style for communicating prohibitions. PMID:23668799

  7. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  8. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Bailey, Jon S.; Dorsey, Michael F.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M.; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called "restraint" and "seclusion." Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the…

  9. Evaluation of the Unesco Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Stacy; Omari, Issa

    In accordance with a mandate from Unesco's 1978 General Conference, an evaluation methodology and instruments were devised to assess the Unesco Associated School's success in encouraging international peace and human rights. The background of this assessment project and a report of evaluation activities are presented in this document. The…

  10. The International Federation of Library Associations. A Selected List of References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambio, Edward P., Comp.

    Prepared in anticipation of the 40th session of the General Council of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), this bibliography cites materials issued by or under the auspices of the federation and its council, sections, and committees, as well as selected works about IFLA and its various subdivisions. The citations are…

  11. Educational Experiences Associated with International Students' Learning, Development, and Positive Perceptions of Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Chris R.

    2012-01-01

    This research project uses the constructive-developmental tradition, in the self-authorship framework of intercultural maturity (King & Baxter Magolda, 2005), to examine the extent to which 12 specific educational experiences may be associated with international undergraduates' learning, development, and perception of campus climate. The study…

  12. Portals, A Journal of the Idaho Council of the International Reading Association, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, James, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This first volume of "Portals: A Journal of the Idaho Council International Reading Association" presents those interested in literacy development with a new forum for discussion of ideas, trends, and issues related to literacy teaching and learning. Articles in the first issue are: "Caleb's Journal" (Ann Desaulniers); "Literature That Stirs the…

  13. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  14. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Adolescent Perceived Degree and Style of Parental Prohibition and Internalization and Defiance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not…

  16. A Report on the Peace Education Commission Program, International Peace Research Association Conference 2010, Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    From July 6th to 10th, 2010, International Peace Research Association (IPRA) held its biennial conference at the University of Sydney in Australia. Hosted by the University's Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies and coordinated by Jake Lynch and a team of dedicated staff and volunteers, the conference featured seven plenary panels and many papers…

  17. Clarifying Co-Rumination: Associations with Internalizing Symptoms and Romantic Involvement among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Co-rumination, or excessive discussion of problems within friendships, has been associated with internalizing symptoms and is especially prevalent among adolescent girls. Eighty-three early adolescent girls participated in a prospective study further examining this construct. Co-rumination was positively correlated with depressive symptoms and…

  18. UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

  19. An NSTA Position Statement: International Science Education and the National Science Teachers Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) encourages and promotes international science education because it has the ability to improve the teaching and learning of science, as well as to "empower people, improve their quality of life, and increase their capacity to participate in the decision-making processes leading to social, cultural,…

  20. Eighty-seventh annual conference of the International District Energy Association

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The proceedings of the 87th Annual Conference of the International District Energy Association are presented. Thirty pages were presented at the Conference which was held on June 8-12, 1996 in Washington, D.C. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Experiencing Adventure Education Internationally: What in the World Is the Wilderness Education Association Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The Wilderness Education Association (WEA) is increasingly offering more international courses (Williams, 2007). Recent examples of such courses have included courses operating in Taiwan, Japan, New Zealand, Romania, and East Africa. This article compares the ethnographic data resulting from a recent 14 day Wilderness Stewardship Course in Taiwan…

  2. Improvement of Educational Policy and Administration: The Role of International Organizations, Learned Societies, and Professional Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Learned societies, professional associations, and international organizations have important roles to play in improving educational policy. This paper discusses the formation of the Inter-American Society for Educational Leadership Development, an organization for educational leaders in North, Central, and South America. The society serves its…

  3. Professional Concerns of Women in International Communication Association: Results of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Matilda; And Others

    This paper discusses and charts the results of a questionnaire sent in 1976 to the membership of the International Communication Association (ICA), covering the following professional concerns of women in communication: sexism in undergraduate/graduate textbooks; lack of courses dealing with women and communication; inadequate counseling of women…

  4. Specialty Preferences of Physicians and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Harrison G.

    1975-01-01

    Family and internal medicine were rated high by the groups studied. Neurological and colon-rectal surgery were rated low. Males gave higher ratings to surgical specialities, whereas females express stronger preferences for obstetrics and gynecology. (Author/KE)

  5. Orthopedic specialty hospitals: centers of excellence or greed machines?

    PubMed

    Badlani, Neil; Boden, Scott; Phillips, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Orthopedic specialty hospitals have recently been the subject of debate. They are patient-centered, physician-friendly health care alternatives that take advantage of the economic efficiencies of specialization. Medically, they provide a higher quality of care and increase patient and physician satisfaction. Economically, they are more efficient and profitable than general hospitals. They also positively affect society through the taxes they pay and the beneficial aspects of the competition they provide to general hospitals. Their ability to provide a disruptive innovation to the existing hospital industry will lead to lower costs and greater access to health care. However, critics say that physician ownership presents potential conflicts of interest and leads to overuse of medical care. Some general hospitals are suffering as a result of unfair specialty hospital practices, and a few drastic medical complications have occurred at specialty hospitals. Specialty hospitals have been scrutinized for increasing the inequality of health care and continue to be a target of government regulations. In this article, the pros and cons are examined, and the Emory Orthopaedics and Spine Hospital is analyzed as an example. Orthopedic specialty hospitals provide excellent care and are great assets to society. Competition between specialty and general hospitals has provided added value to patients and taxpayers. However, physicians must take more responsibility in their appropriate and ethical leadership. It is critical to recognize financial conflicts of interest, disclose ownership, and act ethically. Patient care cannot be compromised. With thoughtful and efficient leadership, specialty hospitals can be an integral part of improving health care in the long term. PMID:22385456

  6. Specialty supplement use and biologic measures of oxidative stress and DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Owen, Robert W.; Schmezer, Peter; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Peters, Ulrike; Shen, Danny D.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and resulting cellular damage have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Identifying factors associated with reduced oxidative stress and resulting damage may guide future disease-prevention strategies. Methods In the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) biomarker-study of 209 persons living in the Seattle area, we examined the association between current use of several specialty supplements and oxidative stress, DNA damage, and DNA repair capacity. Use of glucosamine, chondroitin, fish oil, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), ginseng, ginkgo, and saw palmetto was ascertained by a supplement inventory/interview, while use of fiber supplements was ascertained by questionnaire. Supplements used by more than 30 persons (glucosamine and chondroitin) were evaluated as the trend across number of pills/week (non-use, <14 pills/week, 14+ pills/week), while less-commonly used supplements were evaluated as use/non-use. Oxidative stress was measured by urinary 8-isoprostane and PGF2α concentrations using enzyme immunoassays (EIA), while lymphocyte DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were measured using the Comet assay. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression was used to model the associations between supplement use and oxidative stress/DNA damage. Results Use of glucosamine (p-trend:0.01), chondroitin (p-trend:0.003), and fiber supplements (p:0.01) was associated with reduced PGF2α concentrations, while CoQ10 supplementation was associated with reduced baseline DNA damage (p:0.003). Conclusions Use of certain specialty supplements may be associated with reduced oxidative stress and DNA damage. Impact Further research is needed to evaluate the association between specialty supplement use and markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23917455

  7. Life-course fertility patterns associated with childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Childhood behavioral problems have been associated with earlier childbearing, but their life-course reproductive consequences are unknown. The present study examined whether and how behavioral problems assessed in childhood predict fertility patterns over the life course in women and men. Participants were 9,472 individuals from the British National Child Development Study (4,739 men and 4,733 women). Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors were rated by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Information on fertility history was derived from interviews at ages 33, 42, and 46, including date of pregnancy, whether the pregnancy was planned or non-planned, and pregnancy outcome (live birth, miscarriages/stillbirth, induced abortion). Transition to parenthood and fertility rate were assessed using survival analysis and age-stratified regression models. In both sexes, higher externalizing behavior was associated with higher rate of pregnancies, especially non-planned pregnancies in adolescence and early adulthood, but this association attenuated or even reversed later in adulthood. Internalizing behavior was associated with lower pregnancy rates, especially planned pregnancies and later in adulthood, and particularly in men. In women, higher internalizing behavior was also associated with earlier transition to parenthood. Externalizing behavior in women predicted higher risk of miscarriages and induced abortions, while internalizing behavior predicted lower risk for these outcomes. These findings suggest that childhood behavioral problems have long-term associations with fertility behavior over the life course, including earlier transition to parenthood, lower probability of normative family formation later in adulthood, and higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24452837

  8. Outreach Programmes for Education and Training: Contributions from the International Cartographic Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, W. E.; Fairbairn, D.

    2012-07-01

    Organisations like the International Cartographic Association champion programmes that develop and deliver education and training to cartographers and geospatial scientists, globally. This can be in the form of traditional university and training college programmes, short courses for professional and technical members of mapping agencies and as outreach initiatives to transfer knowledge about the discipline and its contemporary practices. Through its international community, the ICA undertakes the transfer of knowledge about cartography and GI Science by publishing books and special editions of journals and running workshops. Colleagues from the ICA community conduct these workshops on a volunteer basis, generally with the support of the national member organisation of ICA or the national mapping body. For example, the ICA promotes the generation of extensive publications, generally through its Commissions and Working Groups. The publications include books, journals and the ICA Newsletter. Outreach activities are especially pertinent to up skill colleagues from developing countries. Specialist programmes can be offered for professional and 'everyday' map users (from adults to children). The ICA can assist with its current programmes, designed to embrace professional and non-professional cartographers alike. This paper will address how education and outreach programmes can be supported by international associations, by offering programmes independently, or in partnership with sister associations and national and regional organisations and societies. As well, the paper will address the need to deliver education and outreach programmes not to just the professional international community, but also to map users and citizen map publishers.

  9. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:24450248

  10. Children's perceptions of dissimilarity in parenting styles are associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Berkien, Myra; Louwerse, Anneke; Verhulst, Frank; van der Ende, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's perception of dissimilarity in parenting styles, and internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Children from the general population (n = 658) reported on the level of emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection of both parents by filling out the child version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (EMBU-C) and mothers completed the child behavior checklist (CBCL). Intraclass correlations were computed as measures of dissimilarity between parenting styles of mothers and fathers. Children's perceived dissimilarity in parental emotional warmth is associated with internalizing and externalizing problems (β = 0.092, p < 0.05; β = 0.091, p < 0.05). Perceived dissimilarity between parents' overprotection is associated with externalizing problems (β = 0.097, p < 0.05). Perceived dissimilarity between parenting styles is associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, over and above the effects of the level of the parenting styles. The results highlight the negative consequences of perceived dissimilarity between parents. To conclude, children have more internalizing and externalizing problems when they perceive their parents as more dissimilar in parenting styles. PMID:22222568

  11. Mixing and sediment resuspension associated with internal bores in a shallow bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Homma, Hikaru; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu; Fringer, Oliver B.; Nagai, Takeyoshi; Kitade, Yujiro; Okayasu, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Observations of the run-up of internal bores in a shallow bay were made with a tow-yo instrument and mooring arrays with high spatial and temporal resolution. Shoreward propagating internal bores have been studied with laboratory experiments and numerical models, but few observational studies have shown the detailed structure of the run-up of internal bores induced by internal tides. Our observations showed that internal bores propagate along the slope, accompanied by strong turbulent mixing and strong sediment resuspension in a shallow bay. The isothermal displacement due to the bores reached 20 m vertically in a water depth of 40 m. Turbidity measurements showed suspended particles transported from the sloping bottom and offshore above the thermocline, forming an intermediate nepheloid layer (INL). At the head of the bore (dense water), a vortex accompanied by strong vertical motion induced strong vertical sediment resuspension and a steep isothermal displacement. The rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation reached 10-6 W kg-1 at the head of the wave. A nonhydrostatic numerical simulation in a two-dimensional domain reproduced fine features associated with the run-up of an internal bore and the vortex motion at its head.

  12. Development of the Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit Network in North America

    PubMed Central

    Karr, Catherine J.; Seltzer, James M.; Cherry, Debra C.; Sheffield, Perry Elizabeth; Cifuentes, Enrique; Buka, Irena; Amler, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Training in environmental health in general, and pediatric environmental health in particular, is inadequate. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began to develop pediatric environmental health specialty units (PEHSUs) after noting the dearth of practitioners who could evaluate and manage children with exposures to environmental health hazards. The Environmental Protection Agency subsequently joined in providing support for what has developed into a network of 13 PEHSUs in North America. PEHSUs provide services to families, act as consultants to clinicians and public agencies, develop educational materials, and respond to natural disasters, including hurricanes and wildfires. PEHSUs are relatively easy to organize and should be replicable internationally. PMID:19890150

  13. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  14. Lower mortality rates at cardiac specialty hospitals traceable to healthier patients and to doctors' performing more procedures.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Hartz, Arthur J

    2012-04-01

    Physician-owned cardiac specialty hospitals advertise that they have outstanding physicians and results. To test this assertion, we examined who gets referred to these hospitals, as well as whether different results occur when specialty physicians split their caseloads among specialty and general hospitals in the same markets. Using data on 210,135 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions in Texas during 2004-07, we found that the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate for patients treated at specialty hospitals was significantly below the rate for all hospitals in the state (0.68 percent versus 1.50 percent). However, the rate was significantly higher when physicians who owned cardiac specialty hospitals treated patients in general hospitals (2.27 percent versus 1.50 percent). In addition, several patient characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of being admitted to a cardiac hospital for cardiac care, such as being African American or Hispanic and having Medicaid or no health insurance. After adjustment for patient severity and number of procedures performed, the overall outcomes for cardiologists who owned specialty hospitals were not significantly different from the "average outcomes" obtained at noncardiac hospitals. In contrast to previous studies, patient outcomes were found to be highly dependent on the type of hospital where the procedure was performed. To remove a potential source of bias and achieve a more balanced comparison, the quality statistics reported by physician-owned cardiac hospitals should be adjusted to incorporate the high rates of poor outcomes for the many procedures done by their cardiologists at nearby noncardiac hospitals. PMID:22492898

  15. IFLA General Conference, 1985. International Association of Law Libraries (IALL) Round-Table on Access to Information in International Legal Research. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on international access to information pertaining to legal research, which were presented at the 1985 conference of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) include: (1) "Materials of European Intergovernmental Organizations and Their Accessibility through Available Research Tools" (Irene Berkey, Northwestern University…

  16. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  17. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  18. International Student Access to U.S. Higher Education since World War II: How NAFSA (Association of International Educators) Has Influenced Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyokawa, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…

  19. Arthroscopic Resection of Osteochondroma of Hip Joint Associated with Internal Snapping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heung-Tae; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Jeon, Yoo-Sun

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year old male patient visited the hospital complaining of inguinal pain and internal snapping of right hip joint. In physical examination, the patient was presumed to be diagnosed femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular labral tear. In radiologic evaluation, FAI and acetabular labral tear were identified and bony tumor associated with internal snapping was found on the posteromedial portion of the femoral neck. Despite of conservative treatment, there was no symptomatic improvement. So arthroscopic labral repair, osteoplasty and resection of bony tumor were performed. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as osteochondroma through biopsy and all symptoms improved after surgery. There was no recurrence, complication or abnormal finding during 1 year follow up. Osteochondroma located at posteromedial portion of femoral neck can be a cause of internal snapping hip and although technical demands are challenging, arthroscopic resection can be a good treatment option.

  20. A case of extraperitoneal stoma-associated internal hernia after abdominoperineal resection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Published reports concerning internal hernias after extraperitoneal stoma construction are scarce. In our present report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for the treatment of rectal cancer. He underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum with sigmoidostomy using an extraperitoneal route. On the ninth postoperative day, the patient experienced sudden and intense abdominal pain and was diagnosed with strangulation of the small intestine due to a stoma-associated internal hernia. Therefore, an emergency laparotomy was performed. The surgical findings showed that the small intestine protruded through the space between the sigmoid colon loop and the abdominal wall in a cranial-to-caudal direction. The strangulated portion of the small intestine was recovered, and the orifice of herniation was closed. No recurrence of internal herniation was observed during the follow-up period. PMID:24886644

  1. A case of extraperitoneal stoma-associated internal hernia after abdominoperineal resection.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuichiro; Kawai, Kazushige; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yoneyama, Satomi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Published reports concerning internal hernias after extraperitoneal stoma construction are scarce. In our present report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for the treatment of rectal cancer. He underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum with sigmoidostomy using an extraperitoneal route. On the ninth postoperative day, the patient experienced sudden and intense abdominal pain and was diagnosed with strangulation of the small intestine due to a stoma-associated internal hernia. Therefore, an emergency laparotomy was performed. The surgical findings showed that the small intestine protruded through the space between the sigmoid colon loop and the abdominal wall in a cranial-to-caudal direction. The strangulated portion of the small intestine was recovered, and the orifice of herniation was closed. No recurrence of internal herniation was observed during the follow-up period. PMID:24886644

  2. Gender and Specialty in Business Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Gerald; Song, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate university enrolment in Canada is characterized by a higher proportion of women to men, with a pattern of gender segregation across some disciplines. Within some disciplines, there is also a pattern of internal sex segregation whereby women and men still sort themselves into gendered sub-fields, a pattern that is particularly evident…

  3. Gourmet and health-promoting specialty oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gourmet vegetable oils are characterized by their aroma and taste, mainly resulting from the fact that they are not refined. The most popular gourmet oil is olive oil with annual international production of about 2.75 million tons. Although the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is often the...

  4. Multi-center survey of House officers' choice of Medical specialties in Nigeria: preferences and determining factors.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Kelechi Emmanuel; Akpayak, Idorenyin Cletus; Amusan, Ezekiel Olatunde; Ekpe, Eyo Effiong; Adamu, Yahaya Baba; Ocheli, Emmanuel Ossai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine preferences and factors influencing the choice of medical specialties by House officers. Questionnaires were distributed to House-officers in 4 tertiary hospitals namely: the National hospital, Abuja, the University of Port-Harcourt, the Jos University, and the University of Uyo Teaching Hospitals. The data were simultaneously collected and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 129(86%) were duly filled. The mean age was 22.4 years (range 21-40 years), 79(61.2%) of the respondent were male. Fifty-nine(45.7%) chose training within the country while 32(24.8%) preferred outside as 107(86%) chose training in Teaching Hospitals. Teachers, Resident doctors and parents influenced choices in 34(26.3%), 17(13.1%) and 16(12.4%) respectively. Thirty-four(26.3%), 28 (21.7%), 13(10.1%) and 15(11.6%) preferred obstetrics, surgery, internal medicine and paediatrics respectively. Seventy (46.7%) chose specialties for personal likeness and 17(11.3%) for role models in that specialty. House officers preferred to pursue medical specialty in teaching hospitals within the country and they are motivated by personal fulfillment, independence of practice and role models while more prefer to specialize in more Obstetrics/ Gyaenocology and surgery. PMID:26175828

  5. Multi-center survey of House officers’ choice of Medical specialties in Nigeria: preferences and determining factors

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Kelechi Emmanuel; Akpayak, Idorenyin Cletus; Amusan, Ezekiel Olatunde; Ekpe, Eyo Effiong; Adamu, Yahaya Baba; Ocheli, Emmanuel Ossai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine preferences and factors influencing the choice of medical specialties by House officers. Questionnaires were distributed to House-officers in 4 tertiary hospitals namely: the National hospital, Abuja, the University of Port-Harcourt, the Jos University, and the University of Uyo Teaching Hospitals. The data were simultaneously collected and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 129(86%) were duly filled. The mean age was 22.4 years (range 21-40 years), 79(61.2%) of the respondent were male. Fifty-nine(45.7%) chose training within the country while 32(24.8%) preferred outside as 107(86%) chose training in Teaching Hospitals. Teachers, Resident doctors and parents influenced choices in 34(26.3%), 17(13.1%) and 16(12.4%) respectively. Thirty-four(26.3%), 28 (21.7%), 13(10.1%) and 15(11.6%) preferred obstetrics, surgery, internal medicine and paediatrics respectively. Seventy (46.7%) chose specialties for personal likeness and 17(11.3%) for role models in that specialty. House officers preferred to pursue medical specialty in teaching hospitals within the country and they are motivated by personal fulfillment, independence of practice and role models while more prefer to specialize in more Obstetrics/ Gyaenocology and surgery. PMID:26175828

  6. Specialty fibers for broad spectra of wavelength and power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushenko, Viacheslav; Wojciechowski, Cezar; Ingram, Jim; Kononenko, Vitaly; Lobachev, Vladimir; Sakharova, Tatjana; Ludczak, Jacek; Grzebieniak, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Zdzislaw

    2005-09-01

    Review of the latest development in production and advanced applications of specialty fibre optics includes specialty silica fibers and IR-fibers drawn from chalcogenide glasses and extruded from crystal solutions of Silver Halides. Transmission range of these 3 types of fibers spans 0.2 to 18μm, while the power of radiation they may deliver varies from microwatts for sensing applications to several kilowatts - when silica fibers are assembled, for example, in high power cables for laser technology applications. Various probes and bundles assembled from specialty fibers are used for remote sensing of IR-emission, temperature, mechanical stress and for process-spectroscopy in very broad range - from 0.2 to 18μm.

  7. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243243

  8. Technology assessment network building: The International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.; Andersen, J.

    1996-01-01

    With the globalization of trade and the increased understanding of transboundary problems such as global climate change, the need for understanding the consequences of technological change has never been higher. Institutional arrangements necessary to assess these changes and make decision makers aware of the consequences have not necessarily adapted to these world conditions. In response to this leading technology assessment and forecasting institutions formed an international association of technology assessment and forecasting institutions to assist in the diffusion of technology assessment in the decision-making process. This paper discusses the origins of the International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions (IATAFI) and the goals and the vision for the organization. The articles cited represent some of the topics discussed at the first IATAFI conference in Bergen, Norway in May 1994.

  9. Prospective Associations of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems and Their Co-Occurrence with Early Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wieczorek, William F.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or…

  10. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Bruce W.; Mouland, Andrew J.; McCormick, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

  11. Physician specialty societies and the development of physician performance measures.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Timothy G; Vogeli, Christine; Marder, Jessica; Sennett, Cary S; Campbell, Eric G

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to increase accountability in the delivery of care include attempts to measure performance of individual doctors. Although physician specialty societies may be best positioned to define best practices, they have not yet played a major role in the development of measures. We examined specialty society involvement in measure development through interviews and review of Web sites. We found that a minority (35 percent) of societies were engaged in developing performance measures. Key barriers included member reluctance, lack of resources for development, and problems with data collection; facilitators included strong leadership and the perception of increasing pressure for accountability. PMID:17978390

  12. Health plans' strategies for managing outpatient specialty pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C Daniel; Lavallee, Danielle Chauncey; Pradel, Françoise G; DeVries, Andrea R; Caputo, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Balancing increased spending for specialty pharmaceuticals while providing affordable and equitable coverage for consumers is a key issue for public and private payers. Health plans rely on an array of strategies, including both medical management and those used for more traditional pharmaceuticals. To explore specific management strategies for outpatient specialty pharmaceuticals, a survey was administered to thirty-eight Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans, focused on identifying core strategies. Prior authorization was the most commonly used strategy, implemented by 83.3 percent of respondents. Other frequently implemented management strategies included claims review (82.8 percent), formulary management (76.7 percent), and utilization review (70 percent). PMID:16966730

  13. Personal characteristics, career plans, and specialty choices of medical students elected to Alpha Omega Alpha.

    PubMed

    Babbott, D; Weaver, S O; Baldwin, D C

    1989-03-01

    Among US medical graduates in 1983, personal characteristics, career plans, and specialty choices of men and women elected to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA), the honor medical society, differed in a number of ways from those of their non-AOA classmates. Students in AOA scored significantly higher on each subtest of the Medical College Admission Test, were disproportionately white, and had a higher proportion of parents achieving a post-high school education. Members of AOA participated in undergraduate medical research and authored papers during medical school significantly more frequently than those who were not members of AOA, planned a major career commitment to research, and planned careers in academic medicine significantly more frequently than those who did not belong to AOA. In contrast, neither religious preference, among students from Catholic, Jewish, or Protestant backgrounds, nor gender differentiated members of AOA from non-AOA members. Among the 15 specialties studied, internal medicine subspecialties and internal medicine attracted the highest proportion of students elected to AOA. PMID:2919933

  14. Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness. PMID:20438455

  15. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations With Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

    PubMed Central

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers’ and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers’ use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness. PMID:20438455

  16. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for healthcare professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in healthcare (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for healthcare professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, healthcare management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http:www.imia.org/wg1). PMID:10992757

  17. Response of perennial specialty crops to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial specialty crop production is sensitive to temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Elevated atmospheric cabon dioxide generally increases growth rate and yield, resulting in a higher accumulation of biomass, and fruit production and quality in f...

  18. New Specialty Crop Funds Invested in Onion Genomics Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 Farm Bill provided funds for the USDA to establish the Specialty Crops Research Initiative to address challenges in the production and marketing of fruit, nut, vegetable, nursery, and ornamental crops. A group of prominent onion scientists joined together and proposed collaborative researc...

  19. Using Person Matching to Predict Career Specialty Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Borges, Nicole J.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    2005-01-01

    Person matching promotes career exploration and choice by linking persons to persons in occupations based on inventory profile score similarity. We examined the efficacy of the procedure for career specialty choice. Medical students (N=196 women, 224 men) responded to the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in their first year of…

  20. 76 FR 69288 - Cable Statutory License: Specialty Station List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... station that generally carries foreign-language, religious, and/or automated programming in one-third of... to file an affidavit with the Office attesting to the fact that the station's programming comports with the 1981 FCC definition, and hence, qualifies it as a specialty station. 55 FR 40021 (October...

  1. Learning and Career Specialty Preferences of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Terry D.; Witzke, Donald B.; Elam, Carol L.; Cheever, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined relationships among medical school applicants' preferred approaches to learning, methods of instruction, and specialty areas (n=912). Based on confidential responses to a progressive series of paired comparisons, applicants' preferences for lecture (L), self-study (SS), group discussion (GD), and computers (C) were…

  2. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  3. Predicting Medical Specialty Choice: A Model Based on Students' Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadem, Barbara H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A discriminant analysis of objective and subjective measures from the records of students who graduated from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School over a six-year period was used to generate a model for the prediction of medical specialty choice. (Author/MLW)

  4. Burnout Comparison among Residents in Different Medical Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Shahm; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Churchill, Amy; Balon, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate resident burnout in relation to work and home-related factors. Method: Maslach Burnout Inventory was mailed to residents in eight different medical specialties, with a response rate of 35%. Results: Overall, 50% of residents met burnout criteria, ranging from 75% (obstetrics/gynecology) to 27% (family medicine). The first…

  5. This Specialty Line of Clothing Really Is the "Bee's Knees"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2009-01-01

    This article features "Bee's Knees," a specialty line of clothing. While not the typical product one would think of when considering mobility equipment, this line of clothing certainly does aid in helping those with disabilities access their world more safely and comfortably. "Bee's Knees" offers pint-sized pants made of kid-friendly, durable…

  6. Different Voices: Constructing and Recording an Applied Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Naomi M.

    1999-01-01

    Essay reflects upon the accomplishments of "The Counseling Psychologist" (TCP) and their relationship to the field of counseling psychology. Argues that the journal's success is due to the fact that TCP represents an applied scientific specialty that generates knowledge, promotes human welfare and is distinguished by its inclusiveness. (GCP)

  7. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  8. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  9. Personality and Functional Specialty Preference of Prospective Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1973-01-01

    This study examined the personality needs of doctoral students in counselor education who preferred functional specialties as administrators of practitioners. Achievement, dominance, order, and social recognition needs, as measured by the Personality Research Form (PRF), were found to differentiate between the groups. (Author)

  10. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  11. The Synthesis of Specialty Narratives from Co-Citation Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Henry

    1986-01-01

    Applies a method for generating synopses of scientific fields to a co-citation cluster in field of cancer virology and describes the resulting specialty narrative. Implications of procedure for the cognitive processes involved in reviewing a field are discussed. Appended are lists of highly cited and citing papers. (35 references) (EJS)

  12. 76 FR 5213 - Cable Compulsory License: Specialty Station List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... in 1989, see 54 FR 38461 (September 18, 1989), an owner or licensee of a broadcast station files a... television station classified as a specialty station at the base rate for ``permitted'' signals. See 49 FR... in order to maintain as current a list as possible. 55 FR 40021 (October 1, 1990). Its second...

  13. Using specialty advertising in a niche marketing plan.

    PubMed

    Schwisow, C R

    1992-01-01

    While niche marketing is not a new strategy, an increasing number of competitors are pursuing the same niches, resulting in stiff competition within the health care industry, writes C. Ronald Schwisow. This means marketers need to be resourceful to maximize their communications efforts. One such approach is specialty advertising. PMID:10118999

  14. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  15. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  16. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  17. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  18. Personality and Values as Predictors of Medical Specialty Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Brian J.; Hartung, Paul J.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2011-01-01

    Research rarely considers the combined influence of personality traits and values in predicting behavioral outcomes. We aimed to advance a germinal line of inquiry that addresses this gap by separately and simultaneously examining personality traits and physician work values to predict medical specialty choice. First-year medical students (125…

  19. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/collaborative-research-groups/past-crgs). This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  20. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/collaborative-research-groups/past-crgs). This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  1. Evaluation of internal validity using modern test theory: Application to word association.

    PubMed

    Shono, Yusuke; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W

    2016-02-01

    Word association tests (WATs) have been widely used to examine associative/semantic memory structures and shown to be relevant to behavior and its underpinnings. Despite successful applications of WATs in diverse research areas, few studies have examined psychometric properties of these tests or other open-ended cognitive tests of common use. Modern test theory models, such as item response theory (IRT) models, are well suited to evaluate interpretations of this class of test. In this evaluation, unidimensional IRT models were fitted to the data on the WAT designed to capture associative memory relevant to an important applied issue: casual sex in a sample of 1,138 adult drug offenders. Using association instructions, participants were instructed to generate the first behavior or action that came to mind in response to cues (e.g., "hotel/motel") that might elicit casual sex-related responses. Results indicate a multitude of evidence for the internal validity of WAT score interpretations. All WAT items measured a single latent trait of casual sex-related associative memory, strongly related to the latent trait, and were invariant across gender, ethnicity, age groups, and sex partner profiles. The WAT was highly informative at average-to-high levels of the latent trait and also associated with risky sex behavior, demonstrating the usefulness of this class of test. The study illustrates the utility of the assessments in this at-risk population as well as the benefits of application of the modern test theory models in the evaluation of internal validity of open-ended cognitive test score interpretation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053001

  2. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  3. Peer Cybervictimization Among Adolescents and the Associated Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Benjamin W; Gardella, Joseph H; Teurbe-Tolon, Abbie R

    2016-09-01

    Numerous adolescents in the United States experience peer cybervictimization, which is associated with a series of internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger) and externalizing (e.g., aggression, substance use, risky sexual behavior) problems. The current study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing research on these relationships. Included in the meta-analyses are 239 effect sizes from 55 reports, representing responses from 257,678 adolescents. The results of a series of random effects meta-analyses using robust variance estimation indicated positive and significant relationships between peer cybervictimization and a series of internalizing and externalizing problems, with point estimates of this relationship ranging from Pearson's r = .14 to .34. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27447707

  4. Managing the Patient with Pulmonary Hypertension: Specialty Care Centers, Coordinated Care, and Patient Support.

    PubMed

    Chakinala, Murali M; Duncan, Maribeth; Wirth, Joel

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension remains a challenging condition to diagnose and manage. Decentralized care for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has led to shortcomings in the diagnosis and management of PAH. The Pulmonary Hypertension Association-sponsored Pulmonary Hypertension Care Center program is designed to recognize specialty centers capable of providing multidisciplinary and comprehensive care of PAH. Ideally, Pulmonary Hypertension Care Centers will comanage PAH patients with community-based practitioners and address the growing needs of this emerging population of long-term PAH patients. PMID:27443143

  5. Hiromeri: a specialty ham of Cyprus--historical evidence, culinary and cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Patapiou, Nasa; Lazarou, Chrystalleni

    2013-01-01

    Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented. PMID:23621488

  6. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index > 95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age = 12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05) in the present sample. Greater family attendance at religious services was associated with higher child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that church-based interventions may be one viable option for the delivery of lifestyle interventions in families of youth with severe obesity. PMID:25921774

  7. 48 CFR 225.7003 - Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals. 225.7003 Section 225.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals....

  8. 48 CFR 225.7003 - Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals. 225.7003 Section 225.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7003 - Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals. 225.7003 Section 225.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals....

  10. 48 CFR 225.7003 - Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals. 225.7003 Section 225.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Restrictions on acquisition of specialty metals....

  11. 77 FR 13326 - Carpenter Technology Corporation and Latrobe Specialty Metals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Carpenter Technology Corporation and Latrobe Specialty Metals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement... (``Consent Agreement'') with Carpenter Technology Corporation (``Carpenter''), Latrobe Specialty Metals,...

  12. [Reinventing specialty training of physicians? Principles and challenges].

    PubMed

    Morán-Barrios, J; Ruiz de Gauna Bahillo, P

    2010-01-01

    In a world undergoing constant change, in the era of globalisation, the training of medical professionals should be under constant review so that it can be tailored to meet the needs of this society in transition. This is all the more true at times of economic uncertainty, such as the current conditions, which have a direct impact on health services. Professionals need new Competencies for new times. Over the last decade initiatives have emerged in various Anglo-Saxon countries which have defined a framework of basic Competencies that all medical specialists should demonstrate in their professional practice. In addition to this, we must respond to the creation of the European Higher Education Area which has implications for specialised training. In Spain, training for medical specialists was in need of an overhaul and the recently passed law (Real Decreto 183/2008) will allow us to move forward and implement, in medical education, initiatives and innovations required in our medical centres, to respond to the new society and bring us in line with international professional education and practice. The way forward is a Competency-based model for medical education with assessment of these Competencies using simple instruments, validated and accepted by all the stakeholders. The institutions involved (hospitals, medical centres and other health care services) should trial different approaches within the general framework established by the current legislation and be conscious of the duty they have to society as accredited training organisations. Accordingly, they should consolidate their teaching and learning structures and the various different educational roles (Director of Studies, Tutors, and other teaching positions), showing the leadership necessary to allow proper implementation of their training programmes. For this, the Spanish Autonomous Regions must develop their own legislation regulating Medical Specialty Training. So, medical professionals should receive

  13. INVASIVESNET towards an International Association for Open Knowledge on Invasive Alien Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucy, Frances E; Roy, Helen; Simpson, Annie; Carlton, James T.; Hanson, John Mark; Magellan, Kit; Campbell, Marnie L.; Costello, Mark J.; Pagad, Shyama; Hewitt, Chad L; McDonald, Justin; Cassey, Phillip; Thomaz, Sidinei M; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Zenetos, Argyro; Tricarico, Elena; Boggero, Angela; Groom, Quentin J; Adriaens, Tim; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Torchin, Mark E.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Fuller, Pam; Carman, Mary R; Conn, David Bruce; Vitule, Jean R. S.; Canning-Clode, João; Galil, Bella S; Ojaveer, Henn; Bailey, Sarah A; Therriault, Thomas W; Claudi, Renata; Gazda, Anna; Dick, Jaimie T A; Caffrey, Joe; Witt, Arne; Kenis, Marc; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Helmisaari, Harry; Panov, Vadim E

    2016-01-01

    To date, the sustainability of many strategic national and international initiatives on IAS have unfortunately been hampered by time-limited grants or funding cycles. Recognising that IAS initiatives need to be globally coordinated and ongoing, we aim to develop a sustainable knowledge sharing association to connect the outputs of IAS research and to inform the consequential management and societal challenges arising from IAS introductions. INVASIVESNET will provide a dynamic and enduring network of networks to ensure the continuity of connections among the IAS community of practice, science and management.

  14. Position paper of the Ethics Committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Megan; d'Apice, Anthony; Sandrin, Mauro

    2003-05-01

    Xenotransplantation (XTx) provides a potential solution to the shortage of human organs and tissues, and has several advantages over other possible solutions to this problem. However, a number of scientific and ethical barriers exist, and need to be addressed in order to advance the field of XTx in a manner that optimizes its potential to benefit society and minimizes its risk. Some of the most pressing ethical issues are discussed, and the position of the Ethics Committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association is presented. PMID:12694539

  15. What Physicians from Diverse Specialties Know and Support in Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Ganjian, Sheila; Dowling, Patrick T.; Hove, Jason; Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Background The US is in an unprecedented era of health care reform that is pushing medical professionals and medical educators to evaluate the future of their patients, careers, and the field of medicine. Objectives To describe physician familiarity and knowledge with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to determine if knowledge is associated with support and endorsement of the ACA. Methods Cross-sectional internet-based survey of 559 physicians practicing in California. Primary outcomes were physician support and endorsement of ACA: 1) overall impact on the country (1 item), and 2) perceived impact on physician’s medical practice (1 item). The primary predictor was knowledge of the ACA as measured with 10 questions. Other measures included age, gender, race-ethnicity, specialty, political views, provision of direct care, satisfaction with the practice of medicine, and compensation type. Descriptive statistics and multiple variable regression models were calculated. Results Respondents were 65% females, and the mean age was 54 years (+/− 9.7). Seventy-seven percent of physicians understood the ACA somewhat well/very well, and 59% endorsed the ACA, but 36% of physicians believed that health care reform will most likely hurt their practice. Primary care physicians were more likely to perceive that the new law will help their practice, compared to procedural specialties. Satisfaction with the practice of medicine, political affiliation, compensation type, and more knowledge of the health care law were independently associated with endorsement of the ACA. Conclusions Endorsement of the ACA varied by specialty, knowledge, and satisfaction with the practice of medicine. PMID:25853599

  16. Assessment of Junior Doctors' Perceptions of Difficulty of Medical Specialty Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The demands placed on medical trainees by the different specialty training programs are important considerations when choosing a medical specialty. To understand these demands, 193 junior doctors completed a web-based survey, and: (a) ranked medical specialties according to perceived level of training difficulty (incorporating entry difficulty,…

  17. 76 FR 43680 - Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... License. b. Project No.: 2985-008. c. Date Filed: June 1, 2010. d. Applicant: Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc... Clements, Counsel for Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc., Van Ness Feldman, PC, 1050 Jefferson Street, NW.,...

  18. Influence of Gender on Specialty Choices in a Brazilian Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Jose Fernando de Castro; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Specialty choices for medical school graduates of the University of Sao Paolo (Brazil) in 1975-84 and 1989-94 were analyzed by gender. Results showed women predominating in pediatrics and men in surgery and orthopedics in both periods, with no gender predominance in other specialties. Significant changes occurred in specialty choice patterns…

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7010 - Commercial Derivative Military Article-Specialty Metals Compliance Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Military Article-Specialty Metals Compliance Certificate. 252.225-7010 Section 252.225-7010 Federal... Military Article—Specialty Metals Compliance Certificate. As prescribed in 225.7003-5(b), use the following provision: Commercial Derivative Military Article—Specialty Metals Compliance Certificate (JUL 2009)...

  20. 40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability; description of the specialty organic...

  1. Agreement Between the Regents of the University of Michigan and the University of Michigan Interns-Residents Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.

    This document presents the agreement between the Regents of the University of Michigan and the University of Michigan Interns-Residents Association. Articles of the agreement cover recognition and definitions; employer rights; no-interference; non-discrimination; Association dues and representation-service fee; check-off of association dues or…

  2. Mapping turbulent diffusivity associated with oceanic internal lee waves offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Schmitt, Raymond W.

    2016-04-01

    Breaking internal waves play a primary role in maintaining the meridional overturning circulation. Oceanic lee waves are known to be a significant contributor to diapycnal mixing associated with internal wave dissipation, but direct measurement is difficult with standard oceanographic sampling methods due to the limited spatial extent of standing lee waves. Here, we present an analysis of oceanic internal lee waves observed offshore eastern Costa Rica using seismic imaging and estimate the turbulent diffusivity via a new seismic slope spectrum method that extracts diffusivities directly from seismic images, using tracked reflections only to scale diffusivity values. The result provides estimates of turbulent diffusivities throughout the water column at scales of a few hundred meters laterally and 10 m vertically. Synthetic tests demonstrate the method's ability to resolve turbulent structures and reproduce accurate diffusivities. A turbulence map of our seismic section in the western Caribbean shows elevated turbulent diffusivities near rough seafloor topography as well as in the mid-water column where observed lee wave propagation terminates. Mid-water column hotspots of turbulent diffusivity show levels 5 times higher than surrounding waters and 50 times greater than typical open-ocean diffusivities. This site has steady currents that make it an exceptionally accessible laboratory for the study of lee-wave generation, propagation, and decay.

  3. Japanese Cancer Association Meeting UICC International session--what is cost-effectiveness in cancer treatment?

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Roh, Jae Kyung; Inoue, Hajime; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Kim, Sukyeong; Hayre, Jasdeep; Naidoo, Bhash; Wilkinson, Thomas; Fukuda, Takashi; Jang, Woo Ick; Nogimori, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "What is cost-effectiveness in cancer treatment? " Healthcare economics are an international concern and a key issue for the UICC. The presenters and participants discussed the question of how limited medical resources can be best used to support life, which is a question that applies to both developing and industrialized countries, given that cancer treatment is putting medical systems under increasing strain. The emergence of advanced yet hugely expensive drugs has prompted discussion on methodologies for Health Technology Assessment (HTA) that seek to quantify cost and effect. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including representatives of industry, government and academia and three speakers from the Republic of Korea, an Asian country where discussion on HTA methodologies is already advanced. In addition, the session was joined by a representative of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) of the United Kingdom, which has pioneered the concept of cost-effectiveness in a medical context. The aim of the session was to advance and deepen understanding of the issue of cost-effectiveness as viewed from medical care systems in different regions. PMID:24528045

  4. International outbreak investigation of Salmonella Heidelberg associated with in-flight catering.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, J; Garvey, P; Ryan, A; O'Donnell, J; Cormican, M; Jackson, S; Cloak, F; Cullen, L; Swaan, C M; Schimmer, B; Appels, R W; Nygard, K; Finley, R; Sreenivasan, N; Lenglet, A; Gossner, C; McKeown, P

    2014-04-01

    Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10.2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations. PMID:23890227

  5. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors and their association with the treatment of adolescents with substance use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Latimer, William W.; Stone, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the treatment outcome research literature for adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse has shown recent advances (R. J. Williams, S. Y. Chang, & Addiction Centre Adolescent Research Group, 2000), significant knowledge gaps remain. A. E. Kazdin (2001) recently observed that one of the key questions for the field is to identify if client characteristics meaningfully mediate or moderate treatment outcome. There is support from the adolescent clinical literature that internalizing and externalizing personality subtypes are related to the onset and course of youth substance use disorders (D. B. Clark & O. G. Bukstein, 1998). The study extends this literature by examining the association of drug use behaviors outcome and subtyped adolescents (internalizers and externalizers; n = 141) who sought treatment at a 12-Step program. The analysis also includes a community-based control group (n = 94). Specifically, we examined the association of subtype and treatment retention and short-term (Year 1) and long-term (Year 4 and Year 5.5) drug involvement outcomes. Externalizers consistently showed poorer outcomes, including poorer treatment retention and greater drug use and drug disorder symptoms at each follow-up point. The treatment implications of the study are discussed. PMID:18328664

  6. Nodding syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda: association with conflict and internal displacement

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Jesa L; Palmer, Valerie S; Spencer, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test for any temporal association of Nodding syndrome with wartime conflict, casualties and household displacement in Kitgum District, northern Uganda. Methods Data were obtained from publicly available information reported by the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH), the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data (ACLED) Project of the University of Sussex in the UK, peer-reviewed publications in professional journals and other sources. Results Reports of Nodding syndrome began to appear in 1997, with the first recorded cases in Kitgum District in 1998. Cases rapidly increased annually beginning in 2001, with peaks in 2003–2005 and 2008, 5–6 years after peaks in the number of wartime conflicts and deaths. Additionally, peaks of Nodding syndrome cases followed peak influxes 5–7 years earlier of households into internal displacement camps. Conclusions Peaks of Nodding syndrome reported by the MOH are associated with, but temporally displaced from, peaks of wartime conflicts, deaths and household internment, where infectious disease was rampant and food insecurity rife. PMID:25371417

  7. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics / medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http://www.imia.org/wg1). PMID:15718686

  8. Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Results from MESSENGER's Search for Remanent Crustal Magnetization Associated with Impact Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, M. E.; Johnson, C. L.; Nicholas, J. B.; Philpott, L. C.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field measurements obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have entered a new phase since April 2014, with periapsis altitudes below 200 km. MESSENGER is now obtaining magnetic profiles across large impact features at altitudes less than the horizontal scale of those features. We use data from this latest phase to investigate evidence for remanent crustal magnetization specifically associated with impact basins and large craters. The spatial resolution of magnetic field measurements for investigating crustal magnetization is approximately equal to the altitude of the observations. We focus on large impact features because their relative ages provide a powerful chronological tool for interpreting any associated magnetic signatures. We examine profiles across large impact basins such as Caloris, Shakespeare, Budh-Sobkou and Goethe. For example, coverage over Caloris during the last year of the mission will be largely at night and will comprise 18 profiles with altitudes between 125 and 200 km and 12 profiles with altitudes between 50 and 125 km over the northern part of the basin. We use large-scale magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data to remove contributions from the offset axial dipole, magnetopause, and magnetotail. The residual magnetic fields above 200 km are still dominated by poorly understood magnetospheric fields such as those from the cusp and from Birkeland currents. We empirically average, or exclude observations from these local times, in order to search for repeatable internal field signals. We use local basis functions such as equivalent source dipoles, applied with regularization tools, in order to map the altitude-normalized magnetic field from internal sources. These internal sources may comprise both crustal and core contributions, and we use the information from the along-track magnetic gradient in order to separate these contributions.

  9. Brain Regions Associated With Internalizing and Externalizing Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients With Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Huey, Edward D; Lee, Seonjoo; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Devanand, D P; Brickman, Adam M; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A factor structure underlying DSM-IV diagnoses has been previously reported in neurologically intact patients. The authors determined the brain regions associated with factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses and compared the ability of DSM-IV diagnoses, factor scores, and self-report measures to account for the neuroanatomical findings in patients with penetrating brain injuries. This prospective cohort study included 254 Vietnam War veterans: 199 with penetrating brain injuries and 55 matched control participants. Measures include DSM-IV diagnoses (from a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM), self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and CT scans. Factors underlying DSM-IV diagnoses were determined using an exploratory factor analysis and correlated with percent of brain regions affected. The ability of the factor scores, DSM-IV diagnoses, and the self-report psychiatric measures to account for the anatomical variance was compared with multiple regressions. Internalizing and externalizing factors were identified in these brain-injured patients. Damage to the left amygdala and bilateral basal ganglia was associated with lower internalizing factor scores, and damage to the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with higher, and bilateral hippocampi with lower, externalizing factor scores. Factor scores best predicted left amygdala and bilateral hippocampal involvement, whereas DSM-IV diagnoses best predicted bilateral basal ganglia and left OFC involvement. Damage to the limbic areas involved in the processing of emotional and reward information, including structures involved in the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria Negative Valence Domain, influences the development of internalizing and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Self-report measures underperformed DSM-IV and factor scores in predicting neuroanatomical findings. PMID:26715034

  10. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  11. Recurrent gluteal haematoma: two internal iliac artery-associated bleeding points

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Bilal; Miranda, Benjamin H.; Gopee, Esha L.; Wigham, Andrew J.; Toft, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Gluteal artery aneurysms are also rare, more commonly affecting the superior gluteal artery in association with penetrating trauma, with those of the inferior gluteal artery usually associated with pelvic fractures. We discuss a diagnostically challenging presentation of recurrent subcutaneous gluteal haematoma due to two separate internal iliac artery-associated bleeding points. A 67-year-old man was referred, from a peripheral hospital, with a right-sided subcutaneous gluteal haematoma. This manifested 28 days following minor non-penetrating, non-fracture-associated trauma. Despite repeat blood transfusions, albeit interspersed with days of haemodynamic stability, and despite exclusion of relevant bleeding sources at endoscopy and two surgical explorations, it was only until contrast CT scanning was requested that both bleeding sources were identified and successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization. This provides an important variant and lesson to supplement current literature and understanding of more diagnostically challenging cases of an extremely rare presentation. PMID:27316622

  12. Recurrent gluteal haematoma: two internal iliac artery-associated bleeding points.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Bilal; Miranda, Benjamin H; Gopee, Esha L; Wigham, Andrew J; Toft, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Gluteal artery aneurysms are also rare, more commonly affecting the superior gluteal artery in association with penetrating trauma, with those of the inferior gluteal artery usually associated with pelvic fractures. We discuss a diagnostically challenging presentation of recurrent subcutaneous gluteal haematoma due to two separate internal iliac artery-associated bleeding points. A 67-year-old man was referred, from a peripheral hospital, with a right-sided subcutaneous gluteal haematoma. This manifested 28 days following minor non-penetrating, non-fracture-associated trauma. Despite repeat blood transfusions, albeit interspersed with days of haemodynamic stability, and despite exclusion of relevant bleeding sources at endoscopy and two surgical explorations, it was only until contrast CT scanning was requested that both bleeding sources were identified and successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization. This provides an important variant and lesson to supplement current literature and understanding of more diagnostically challenging cases of an extremely rare presentation. PMID:27316622

  13. Single specialty renaissance: the promise of disease management.

    PubMed

    Korenchuk, K M

    1996-01-01

    The conventional wisdom that all single-specialty providers outside of primary care will lose their ability to be significant contributors in the managed care marketplace is now being questioned. Subspecialty groups and single-specialty practices have the opportunity to reinventing themselves and offer their services with a disease management strategy. While groups have the opportunity to challenge the stasus quo, they must develop new ways of providing the services for which they are best qualified. The structures that can be utilized to implement this include group practice mergers, carve-out managed care networks, development of hospital relationships and fostering a relationship with a physician practice management company that focuses on their area of health care. PMID:10160187

  14. [Core competencies in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Casademont, J; Conthe, P; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; García-Alegría, J

    2011-06-01

    The working group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) on "Competencies of the Internist" has defined the basic medical knowledge, skills and attitudes that all internists in Spain should have. This list of competencies represents the Internal Medicine core curriculum within the context of the future educational framework of medical specialties in Health Sciences. PMID:21531405

  15. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    PubMed

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr. PMID:10901196

  16. Specialty-service lines: salvos in the new medical arms race.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Robert A; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Pham, Hoangmai H

    2006-01-01

    Hospitals and physicians are developing and marketing discrete and profitable specialty-service lines. Although closely affiliated specialist physicians are central to hospitals' service-line products, other physicians compete directly with hospitals via physician-owned specialty facilities. Specialty-service lines may be provided in a variety of settings, both inside and outside traditional hospital walls. Thus far, the escalating battle between hospitals and physicians for control over specialty services has not affected hospital profitability. However, as the scope of care that can be safely performed in the outpatient arena expands, physician competition for control over specialty services may threaten hospitals' financial health. PMID:16868008

  17. International Lung Cancer Consortium: Coordinated association study of 10 potential lung cancer susceptibility variants

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Therese; Sauter, Wiebke; McKay, James D.; Hosgood, H.Dean; Gallagher, Carla; Amos, Christopher I.; Spitz, Margaret; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H.Erich; Bickeböller, Heike; Risch, Angela; Dienemann, Hendrik; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Naeim, Behnaz Pezeshki; Yang, Ping; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Haugen, Aage; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jin Hee; Duell, Eric J.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Kiyohara, Chikako; Shen, Hongbing; Matsuo, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Seow, Adeline; Ng, Daniel P.K.; Lan, Qing; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Constantinescu, Vali; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Caporaso, Neil E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thun, Michael; Landi, Maria Teresa; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Lubiński, Jan; Wang, Ying; Chabrier, Amélie; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case–control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 × 10−4). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89–0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85–0.95), P = 1 × 10−4]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations. PMID:20106900

  18. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; A Canadian-American Librarianship or an American-Canadian Librarianship in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…

  19. Geography and International Knowledge. A Report of the Committee on Geography and International Studies of the Association of American Geographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC.

    This report illustrates how geography can play an important role in improving America's performance in international matters. The degree of interdependence among nations intensifies daily. Today world interaction affects everyone. For example, a frost in Brazil raises coffee prices in the United States and a strike in Africa's Copperbelt affects…

  20. Emergency medicine as a primary specialty-French emergency medicine residents' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Youri; Sobotka, Jennifer; Dahan, Benjamin; Jacquin, Laurent; Kalpokdjian, Aurélie; Pateron, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has been a fellowship program (supra-specialty) in France since 2004. Even though the program can be accessed after completion of one of several primary specialties, the vast majority (97%) of its residents enter the program after having completed training in family medicine. A change to develop a primary EM specialty is being discussed. Our objective was to assess French residents and young EM physicians' attitudes toward EM as a primary specialty. We conducted a brief cross-sectional online survey among young EM physicians and trainees in November and December 2012. There were 288 respondents to the survey. Forty-nine percent (n=142) of respondents would have chosen EM if it was a primary specialty, but 73% (n=209) prefer maintaining the status quo, offering EM training as a supra-specialty fellowship program. Work-related quality of life was the main reason for those not choosing EM as a primary specialty. PMID:26012721

  1. Prospective Associations of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems and Their Co-Occurrence with Early Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wieczorek, William F.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or protective factor. A large community sample (N=387; mean age at the first assessment 12 years old; 83 % White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years. Externalizing problem behavior in the absence of internalizing problems showed the strongest prospective association with alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. A weaker, albeit statistically significant prospective positive association was found between co-occurring internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and substance use. Internalizing problems in the absence of externalizing problems protected adolescents against cigarette and marijuana use. Clarifying the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use can inform the development of early intervention and prevention efforts. Our results highlight the importance of further considering the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in developmental pathways to substance use. PMID:23242624

  2. Prospective associations of internalizing and externalizing problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M; Read, Jennifer P; Lengua, Liliana J; Wieczorek, William F; Hawk, Larry W

    2013-05-01

    The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or protective factor. A large community sample (N = 387; mean age at the first assessment 12 years old; 83 % White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years. Externalizing problem behavior in the absence of internalizing problems showed the strongest prospective association with alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. A weaker, albeit statistically significant prospective positive association was found between co-occurring internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and substance use. Internalizing problems in the absence of externalizing problems protected adolescents against cigarette and marijuana use. Clarifying the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use can inform the development of early intervention and prevention efforts. Our results highlight the importance of further considering the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in developmental pathways to substance use. PMID:23242624

  3. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  4. Increase of internal ion concentration triggers trehalose synthesis associated with cryptobiosis in larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2003-07-01

    Larvae of an African chironomid, Polypedilum vanderplanki, which live in temporal rock pools, are completely dehydrated when the pools dry up and undergo anhydrobiosis until the next rain comes. During the dehydration process, larvae accumulate large amounts of trehalose, which provides effective protection against desiccation because of its high capacity for water replacement and vitrification. As the occurrence of rapid trehalose synthesis coincides with loss of body water, changes of osmolarity in the body are thought to be a cue for trehalose synthesis. Indeed, exposure to high salinity triggers rapid and efficient accumulation of trehalose even without desiccation treatment. As this rapid production occurs mainly in high concentrations of salt solutions, we conclude that an increase in internal ion concentration triggers trehalose synthesis associated with cryptobiosis in this species. PMID:12771176

  5. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with internal carotid artery dissection resulting from whiplash trauma.

    PubMed

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Freeman, Michael D; Webb, Alexandra L; Pedersen, Michael; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2015-12-01

    Spinal injury following inertial loading of the head and neck (whiplash) is a common sequel of low speed traffic crashes. A variety of non-musculoskeletal injuries have been described in association with injury to the spine following whiplash trauma, including traumatic brain injury, vestibular derangement, and cranial nerve injury, among others. Vascular injuries in the head and neck have, however, only rarely been described. We present the case of a middle-aged male who sustained an ultimately fatal injury that resulted from injury to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and intracerebral vascular structures following a hard braking maneuver, with no direct head- or neck contact with the vehicular interior. Based on this unusual mechanism of injury we reviewed hospital data from the United States nationwide inpatient database (NIS) to assess the frequency of similar injuries reportedly resulting from traffic crashes. The post-mortem examination revealed a left internal carotid artery dissection associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the close temporal association, the absent prior history, and the plausibility of the injury mechanism, the injury was attributed to the braking maneuver. An analysis of NIS data demonstrated that the prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is significantly higher when there is a traumatic etiology, and higher yet when the trauma is a traffic crash (odds ratio 3.3 and 4.3, respectively). The presented case, together with the hospital inpatient data analysis, indicate that although SAH in combination with ICA dissection is relatively rare, it is substantially more probable following a traffic crash. In a clinical or forensic setting the inference that magnitude of a trauma was low should not serve as a basis for either excluding a cervical artery dissection from a differential diagnosis, or for excluding the trauma as a cause of a diagnosed dissection. This case report illustrates a rare fatal outcome of inertial load to

  6. Pathway from Vocational Education and Associate Degree to Higher Education: Chinese International Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ling; Tran, Ly Thi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing international students' decision to engage in international education is essential for education providers to better cater for students' educational expectations and enhance their attractiveness to international students. Whilst there has been extensive research on the reasons why international students undertake…

  7. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update. PMID:21205727

  8. Arriving at a Scientific Consensus in the International Association of Hydrological Sciences(IAHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Rango, A.

    2001-12-01

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences(IAHS) is the oldest and foremost international nongovernmental organization which deals with hydrology and water resources. It was established in 1922 with the aim of bringing together hydrologists from all countries to promote the hydrological sciences. International meetings are held once every two years, first, in concert with the General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics(IUGG)(which is held every four years), the parent body of IAHS, and then in the midterm between IUGG General Assemblies in IAHS Scientific Assemblies. In addition, IAHS organizes and co-sponsors conferences, symposia, workshops, and courses, primarily through the efforts of its nine International Commissions on Remote Sensing(ICRS), Surface Water, Groundwater, Continental Erosion, Snow and Ice, Water Quality, Water Resources Systems, Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations, and Tracers. IAHS offers memberships to individuals for no annual fee. IAHS maintains close collaboration with UNESCO, WMO, and IAEA through their respective hydrology and water resources programs. IAHS recently decided that although its scientific meetings have been successful, some new additional activities were merited. In addition to holding international meetings, the IAHS Bureau decided that IAHS should become more proactive by focusing on critical worldwide water problems and developing research programs to address these problems. Particularly, IAHS needs to address global water issues through direct involvement in policy oriented activities such as those of the World Water Council and World Water Forum 3 as well as many ongoing UN and ICSU science programs. IAHS plans to take strong leadership in such programs by demonstrating scientific solutions of problems of hydrologic uncertainty and resulting improvements for water management. In order to focus our scientific activities and make the scientific potentials practical, IAHS followed a

  9. Association between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the internal carotid artery: a CBCT imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Aartman, I H A; Tsiklakis, K; van der Stelt, P; Berkhout, W E R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the extracranial and intracranial calcification depiction of the internal carotid artery (ICA), incidentally found in CBCT examinations in adults, and to discuss the conspicuous clinical implications. Methods: Out of a series of 1085 CBCT examinations, 705 CBCT scans were selected according to pre-defined criteria. The extra- and intracranial calcifications depicted along the course of the ICA were documented according to a comprehensive set of descriptive criteria. Results: In total, 799 findings were detected, 60.1% (n = 480) were intracranially and 39.9% (n = 319) were extracranially allocated. The χ2 test showed associations between all variables (p < 0.001). Also, most of the combinations of variables showed statistically significant results in the McNemar's test (p < 0.001). Conclusions: We found that a significant correlation exists between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the ICA. It is clear that in cases of the presence of a calcification in the ICA extracranially, the artery's intracranial portion has an increased risk of showing the same findings. CBCT imaging is widely used as a diagnostic tool, thus, our results contribute to the identification of a subgroup of patients who should undergo further medical evaluation of the atherosclerosis of the ICAs. PMID:25690425

  10. Mental Disorders and Their Association With Disability Among Internally Displaced Persons and Returnees in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makhashvili, Nino; Chikovani, Ivdity; McKee, Martin; Bisson, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Bayard

    2014-01-01

    There remains limited evidence on comorbidity of mental disorders among conflict-affected civilians, particularly internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs who have returned to their home areas (returnees). The study aim was to compare patterns of mental disorders and their influence on disability between IDPs and returnees in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with adult IDPs from the conflicts in the 1990s, the 2008 conflict, and returnees. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using cut scores on Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Among the 3,025 respondents, the probable prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity (>1 condition) was 23.3%, 14.0%, 10.4%, 12.4%, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (p < .001) were .40 (PTSD with depression), .38 (PTSD with anxiety), and .52 (depression with anxiety). Characteristics associated with mental disorders in regression analyses included displacement (particularly longer-term), cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, poor community conditions, and bad household economic situation; coefficients ranged from 1.50 to 3.79. PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity were associated with increases in disability of 6.4%, 9.7%, 6.3%, and 15.9%, respectively. A high burden of psychiatric symptoms and disability persist among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. PMID:25322880

  11. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. Contribution of IADR This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. Conclusions IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease. PMID:26391001

  12. SSCP markers provide a useful alternative to microsatellites in genotyping and estimating genetic diversity in populations and germplasm collections of specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For well studied species where whole genome sequence and extensive EST data is available, SNP markers are the logical choice for both targeted genotyping or whole genome association studies. However, SNP markers do not necessarily address the needs of a researcher working on a plant specialty crop ...

  13. SSCP markers provide a useful alternative to microsatellites in genotyping and estimating genetic diversity in populations and germplasm collections of plant specialty crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For well-studied plant species with whole genome sequence or extensive EST data, SNP markers are the logical choice for both genotyping and whole genome association studies. However, SNP markers may not address the needs of researchers working on specialty crops with limited available genomic infor...

  14. Efficacy of photodynamic killing with membrane associated and internalized photosensitizer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Beth; Jiang, Frank N.; Levy, Julia G.

    1991-06-01

    Many photosensitizers under investigation for possible use in PDT share the property of selective accumulation in malignant or abnormal tissues. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs is not understood. Although it has been established that singlet oxygen is responsible for cell killing once a photosensitizer has reached the target tissue, the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms also remain unknown. The mechanisms of selective accumulation and cytotoxicity may depend upon the photosensitizer used. In attempts to develop technology to improve selective uptake by target tissues, the authors address the question of cellular targets at a preliminary level. These studies were performed using one benzoporphyrin derivative analogue, benzoporphyrin mono-acid ring A (BPD-MA). Plasma distribution of BPD-MA shows that this lipophilic photosensitizer has a propensity to associate with plasma lipoproteins in blood. Biodistribution studies indicate that preincubation of BPD-MA with low density lipoprotein (LDL) leads to significantly greater tumor accumulation than BPD-MA in aqueous solution. Further, the technology for conjugating BPD-MA to monoclonal antibodies has been established in the laboratory. Selective photodynamic killing of a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (A549) has been demonstrated using such a conjugate. The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) used, 5E8, has specificity for a glycoprotein detected on human squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In this study these two delivery systems are used to compare the cytotoxicity of membrane bound and internalized photosensitizer at the cellular level. The results indicate that LDL or MoAb mediated delivery increases the selectivity and cytotoxicity of BPD-MA. Internalization of BPD-MA via either delivery mode produces significantly enhanced cell killing.

  15. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: Ready for Routine Clinical Use? An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ronco, Claudio; Legrand, Matthieu; Goldstein, Stuart L.; Hur, Mina; Tran, Nam; Howell, Eric C.; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Cruz, Dinna N.; Damman, Kevin; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Di Somma, Salvatore; Lewington, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a challenge in terms of diagnosis and classification, its morbidity and mortality remaining high in the face of improving clinical protocols. Current clinical criteria use serum creatinine (sCr) and urine output to classify patients. Ongoing research has identified novel biomarkers that may improve the speed and accuracy of patient evaluation and prognostication, yet the route from basic science to clinical practice remains poorly paved. International evidence supporting the use of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a valuable biomarker of AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD) for a number of clinical scenarios was presented at the 31st International Vicenza Course on Critical Care Nephrology, and these data are detailed in this review. NGAL was shown to be highly useful alongside sCr, urinary output, and other biomarkers in assessing kidney injury; in patient stratification and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) selection in paediatric AKI; in assessing kidney injury in conjunction with sCr in sepsis; in guiding resuscitation protocols in conjunction with brain natriuretic peptide in burn patients; as an early biomarker of delayed graft function and calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity in kidney transplantation from extended criteria donors; as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease and heart failure, and in guiding CRRT selection in the intensive care unit and emergency department. While some applications require further clarification by way of larger randomised controlled trials, NGAL nevertheless demonstrates promise as an independent biological marker with the potential to improve earlier diagnosis and better assessment of risk groups in AKI and CKD. This is a critical element in formulating quick and accurate decisions for individual patients, both in acute scenarios and in long-term care, in order to improve patient prognostics and outcomes. PMID:25012891

  16. Tomographic mapping of a coastal upwelling and the associated diurnal internal tides in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanzheng; Kaneko, Arata; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Gohda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Temperature variations caused by a typhoon were measured in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay by four coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems. The horizontal distributions of depth-averaged temperature from 0 to 8 m were mapped at 10 min intervals between the 11 and 25 September 2013. The horizontal distributions of a coastal upwelling and the associated diurnal internal tides were reconstructed well by regularized inversion based on the grid segmented method, using one-way travel time data along five successful sound transmission lines. Station-to-station ranges were corrected in such a way that sound speed (determined from one-way travel time data) was equal to sound speed calculated from a couple of CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) data sets on each transmission line. In addition, all station positions were adjusted to make focal points at the geographical positions of the transducers. The corrections increased the accuracy of temperature measurements to make temperature errors as small as 0.073-0.079°C. The high accuracy made it possible to map the temperature structure with a variation range of less than 0.5°C. An upwelling grew from 16 to 17 September, due to a typhoon-derived northerly wind. The diurnal internal tide resonated with the semidiurnal external tide, which was pronounced after the upwelling decayed (18 September), around the time the spring tide occurred. The upwelling and mixing fractions were formulated. These fractions increased continuously as the upwelling grew. Complete mixing was observed during the upwelling's mature phase.

  17. The International Permafrost Association: new structure and initiatives for cryospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, I.; Lewkowicz, A. G.; Christiansen, H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Lantuit, H.; Schrott, L.; Sergeev, D.; Wei, M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details recent and ongoing changes in the functioning of the IPA that will influence the way cryospheric research is conducted under its auspices. One of the most important is the development of competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Since the first call, four proposals have been accepted by the Executive Committee and the teams are currently working on high topical issues, such as the assessment of the deep permafrost organic carbon pools and the mapping of subsea permafrost, as well as fundamental questions such as the extent of permafrost during the Last Permafrost Maximum. The IPA also decided to put additional effort into facilitating the study of the significance of permafrost to the global climate systems, with human aspects playing a very important role. To achieve this goal, the IPA will encourage and assist the climate modeling community in improving the representation of perennially frozen ground

  18. Improving Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates in Ambulatory Specialty Practices

    PubMed Central

    Pennant, Keyana N.; Costa, John J.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Sax, Paul E.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Lara E.; Coblyn, Jonathan; Desai, Sonali P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended for elderly and high-risk patients; however, rates of adherence are low. We sought to implement influenza and pneumococcal vaccine initiatives in 4 different ambulatory specialty practices, using 3 unique approaches. Methods. Four specialties with high-risk patient populations were selected for intervention: allergy (asthma), infectious disease (ID) (human immunodeficiency virus), pulmonary (chronic lung disease), and rheumatology (immunocompromised). Allergy and ID focused on influenza vaccination, and pulmonary and rheumatology focused on pneumococcal vaccination. We used 3 strategies for quality improvement: physician reminders, patient letters, and a nurse-driven model. Physicians were provided their performance data on a monthly basis and presented trended data on a quarterly basis at staff meetings. Results. All 4 specialties developed processes for improving vaccination rates with all showing some increase. Higher rates were achieved with pneumococcal vaccine than influenza. Pneumococcal vaccine rates showed steady improvement from year to year while influenza vaccine rates remained relatively constant. Allergy's influenza rate was 59% in 2011 and 64% in the 2014 flu season. Infectious disease influenza rates moved from 74% in the 2011 flu season to 86% for the 2014 season. Pneumococcal vaccine in pulmonary patients' rate was 52% at the start of intervention in February 2009 and 79% as of January 2015. Rheumatology rates rose from 50% in February 2009 to 87% in January 2015. Conclusions. Integrated routine workflow and performance data sharing can effectively engage specialists and staff in vaccine adherence improvement. Influenza vaccination may require other approaches to achieve the rates seen with pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:26430697

  19. Internal Dynamics and Boundary Forcing Characteristics Associated with Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.- M.; Kim, K.-M.; Yang, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a description of the internal dynamics and boundary forcing characteristics of two major components of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), i.e., the South Asian (SAM) and the Southeast-East Asian monsoon (SEAM). The description is based on a new monsoon-climate paradigm in which the variability of ASM is considered as the outcome of the interplay of a "fast" and an "intermediate" monsoon subsystem, under the influenced of the "slow" varying external forcings. Two sets of regional monsoon indices derived from dynamically consistent rainfall and wind data are used in this study. For SAM, the internal dynamics is represented by that of a "classical" monsoon system where the anomalous circulation is governed by Rossby-wave dynamics, i.e., generation of anomalous vorticity induced by an off-equatorial heat source is balanced by planetary vorticity advection. On the other hand, the internal dynamics of SEAM is characterized by a "hybrid" monsoon system featuring multi-cellular meridional circulation over the East Asian section, extending from the deep tropics to midlatitudes. These meridional-cells link tropical heating to extratropical circulation system via the East Asian jetstream, and are responsible for the characteristic occurrences of zonally oriented anomalous rainfall patterns over East Asian and the subtropical western Pacific. In the extratropical regions, the major upper level vorticity balance is by anomalous vorticity advection and generation by the anomalous divergent circulation. A consequence of this is that compared to SAM, the SEAM is associated with stronger teleconnection patterns to regions outside the ASM. A strong SAM is linked to basin-scale sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuation with significant signal in the equatorial eastern Pacific. During the boreal spring SST warming in the Arabian Sea and the subtropical western Pacific may lead to a strong SAM. For SEAM, interannual variability is tied to SSTA over the Sea of

  20. Implementing cognitive behavioral therapy in specialty medical settings

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Weisberg, Risa B.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the second issue of a two-part Special Series on integrating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) into medical settings. The first issue focused on integrating CBT into primary care, and this issue focuses on implementing CBT in other specialty medical settings, including cancer treatment, HIV care, and specialized pediatric medical clinics. Models for treatment delivery to improve ease of implementation are also discussed, including telehealth and home-delivered treatment. The six articles in this series provide examples of how to transport CBT techniques that are largely designed for implementation in outpatient mental health settings to specialized medical settings, and discuss unique considerations and recommendations for implementation.

  1. Transitioning experienced registered nurses into an obstetrics specialty.

    PubMed

    Bell, Renee; Bossier-Bearden, Mary; Henry, Armilla A G; Kirksey, Kenn M

    2015-04-01

    Ensuring patient safety and enhancing nurse satisfaction both rank high on most hospitals' list of priorities. One of the concerns at a large, comprehensive, county health care system in the southwestern United States has been the shortage of experienced obstetrics (OB) nurses to provide patient care. To address this concern, a nursing fellowship was implemented to facilitate successful transition and retention of experienced RNs into the specialty area of obstetrics. The program provided a gateway for non-OB nurses to participate in relevant, evidence-based didactic and preceptor-facilitated clinical experiences to ensure adequate knowledge, skills, and competencies to care for patients in labor, delivery, and recovery suites. PMID:25856454

  2. Options for taking time out of specialty training.

    PubMed

    Byng-Maddick, Rachel; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Trainees in higher specialty training programmes may have the option to take time out of their training programme to enhance or broaden their skills and perhaps develop a subspecialty interest. Traditionally, out of programme experience has been mostly taken by clinical academic trainees in order to undertake a higher research degree. However, there are a growing number of other ways to usefully spend time out of programme. This article is intended to highlight the range of opportunities and explain the modern processes for obtaining permissions to enable trainees to make good choices for themselves. PMID:27481372

  3. Internalization of the ultra-thin ideal: positive implicit associations with underweight fashion models are associated with drive for thinness in young women.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Hetherington, Marion M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young women who make implicit associations between underweight models and positive attributes report elevated eating disorder symptoms. Ninety nine female undergraduates completed a weight based implicit association test (IAT) and self report measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization and eating disorder symptoms. IAT scores were associated with drive for thinness (r = -0.26, p < 0.05). This relationship was moderated by attitude importance. The relationship between drive for thinness and IAT scores was stronger (r = 0.34; p < 0.02) in participants who report that the media is an important source of information about fashion and being attractive. The IAT used in the current study is sensitive enough to discriminate between participants on drive for thinness. Women who have developed cognitive schemas that associate being underweight with positive attributes report higher eating disorder symptoms. Attitude importance is highlighted as a key construct in thin ideal internalization. PMID:18568920

  4. Risk factors associated with diarrhea among international visitors to Cuzco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Maldonado, Fernando; Quispe, Wanda; Mozo, Karen; Serrano, Edson; González, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Verdonck, Kristien; Echevarria, Juan I; Dupont, Herbert L; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for travelers' diarrhea (TD) reported by visitors to Cuzco, Peru. In this cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires looking at perceived occurrence of health problems and pre-travel health advice were obtained from departing travelers at Cuzco's International Airport between August and November 2002. A total of 5,988 travelers participated in the study. The mean age was 35 years, and 51% were women. The prevalence of TD was 24%. Factors associated with TD in the multivariable analysis were use of antibiotic prophylaxis (OR: 3.20), vaccination against cholera (OR: 1.44), history of advice for safe food and water consumption (OR: 1.46), being younger than 35 years of age (OR: 1.37), being a resident of the United States (OR: 1.28), not staying in hotels in Cuzco (OR: 1.13), and number of unsafe food or beverages consumed (OR: 1.04). Remaining in Cuzco < 1 week was a protective factor (OR: 0.58). TD is common among travelers to Cuzco. This study suggests that conventional recommendations are not invariably effective at decreasing TD. PMID:17123998

  5. From association to alert--a revised approach to international signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, M; Edwards, I R; Bate, A; Fucik, H; Nunes, A M; Ståhl, M

    1999-04-01

    From the inception of the WHO international drug monitoring programme, the main aim has been to detect signals of adverse reaction problems as early as possible. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), is now in a better position to fulfil this mission. Using the latest technology, new tools have been developed which allow for rapid, robust and comprehensive data mining of the WHO database. Based on retrospective time scans made during the pilot phase the current threshold used is the 97.5% confidence level of difference from the generality of the database. To maximize the capacity for picking up signals, we intend to extend today's panel of expert consultants, as well as doing our own review. The new system includes an enhanced follow-up list of signals, a 're-signalling' procedure and a cumulative historical file of all drug-ADR associations. Already we produce some 50 signals per year, cisapride and tachycardia being an example of a controversial signal only recently accepted. With the addition of new tools for follow-up of important signals such as complex variable data mining techniques, and the combination of WHO ADR data with sales and prescription figures from the IMS, we will be able to provide more information that should benefit regulators, producers, prescribers, and most importantly, the users of medicines. PMID:15073883

  6. Viscoat Assisted Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Large Macular Holes Associated with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zongming; Li, Mei; Liu, Junjie; Hu, Xuting; Hu, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the surgical outcomes of Viscoat® assisted inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for large macular holes (MHs) associated with high myopia. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with high myopia underwent vitrectomy and Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique to treat MH without RD. Patients were followed up over 6 months. The main outcome measures were MH closure evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Result. MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) following the initial surgery. Type 1 closure was observed in 13 eyes (86.7%); type 2 closure was observed in the remaining 2 eyes (13.3%). Compared to the preoperative baseline, the mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) improved significantly at 3 months and 6 months after surgery (P = 0.025, 0.019, resp.). The final BCVA improved in 10 eyes (66.7%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes (20.0%), and worsened in 2 eyes (13.3%). Conclusion. Vitrectomy combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. It may increase the success rate of the initial surgery and enhance the anatomical and functional outcomes. PMID:27047686

  7. I'm running on insulin. Summary of the history of the International Diabetic Athletes Association.

    PubMed

    Thurm, U; Harper, P N

    1992-11-01

    The changes that physical activity brings in the functioning of the human body have a special interest to active individuals with diabetes. Certain adjustments in dosing are necessary. Even today, with such an emphasis on healthy life-style, little information is available to assist an individual with diabetes to exercise safely. Granted, no easy formula exists. Many different factors influence blood glucose. Most often, individuals with diabetes learn by trial and error how to best manage their favorite activity. In 1985, Paula Harper founded the International Diabetic Athletes Association (IDAA) in hopes of educating people with diabetes about the benefits of regular exercise. For most individuals with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus, it is not encouragement, but safety that is the issue. The IDAA offers great opportunities for sharing ideas at its annual meetings. These meetings attract an exceptional faculty of speakers and offer a mix of workshops led by experienced diabetic athletes on various sports. A quarterly newsletter is published that presents new information and recognizes success stories. IDDA chapters exist in the U.S., Canada, U.K., Germany, France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain. PMID:1468319

  8. Enhancement of Identifying Cancer Specialists through the Linkage of Medicare Claims to Additional Sources of Physician Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Lori A; Adamache, Walter; Eheman, Christie R; Ryerson, A Blythe; Richardson, Lisa C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the number of cancer specialists identified in three national datasets, the effect of combining these datasets, and the use of refinement rules to classify physicians as cancer specialists. Data Sources 1992–2003 linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data and a cancer-free comparison population of Medicare beneficiaries, Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Registry, and the American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile. Study Design We compared differences in counts of cancer specialists identified in Medicare claims only with the number obtained by combining data sources and after using rules to refine specialty identification. Data Extraction We analyzed physician specialty variables provided on Medicare claims, along with the specialties obtained by linkage of unencrypted UPINs on Medicare claims to the UPIN Registry, the AMA Masterfile, and all sources combined. Principle Findings Medicare claims identified the fewest number of cancer specialists (n=11,721) compared with 19,753 who were identified when we combined all three datasets. The percentage increase identified by combining datasets varied by subspecialty (187 percent for surgical oncologists to 50 percent for radiation oncologists). Rules created to refine identification most affected the count of radiation oncologists. Conclusions Researchers should consider taking the additional effort and cost to refine classification by using additional data sources based on their study objectives. PMID:19207588

  9. Coleadership Among Chief Residents: Exploration of Experiences Across Specialties

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many departments have multiple chief residents. How these coleaders relate to each other could affect their performance, the residency program, and the department. Objective This article reports on how co-chiefs work together during the chief year, and what may allow them to be more effective coleaders. Methods A phenomenological research design was used to investigate experiences of outgoing chief residents from 13 specialties at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics over a 2-year period from 2012 through 2013. Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews was conducted to investigate commonalities and recommendations. Results Face-to-face interviews with 19 chief residents from 13 different specialties identified experiences that helped co-chiefs work effectively with each other in orienting new co-chiefs, setting goals and expectations, making decisions, managing interpersonal conflict, leadership styles, communicating, working with program directors, and providing evaluations and feedback. Although the interviewed chief residents received guidance on how to be an effective chief resident, none had been given advice on how to effectively work with a co-chief, and 26% (5 of 19) of the respondents reported having an ineffective working relationship with their co-chief. Conclusions Chief residents often colead in carrying out their multiple functions. To successfully function in a multichief environment, chief residents may benefit from a formal co-orientation in which they discuss goals and expectations, agree on a decision-making process, understand each other's leadership style, and receive feedback on their efficacy as leaders. PMID:26221435

  10. Demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in specialty milk products.

    PubMed

    Gulseven, Osman; Wohlgenant, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the socio-demographic determinants affecting the demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in milk products based on a two-stage model. In order to derive the implicit market values of these enhancements, first we estimated the relationship between the prices of differentiated dairy products and the amount or respectively the presence of specific characteristics in these products. Next, using these implicit prices along with the information on households' demographic background, we analyzed the socio-demographic factors that affect consumer demand for specific functional and nutritional enhancements. The model is estimated using a combined panel data set based on AC Nielsen Retail Homescan Panel and the USDA Nutrient Database. Our results indicate that being lactose/cholesterol free (LFCF) and organic implies substantially higher price premiums, whereas soy has a negative price. Socio-demographic factors such as income, racial profile, presence of children; education level and age have significant effects on the demand for functional enhancements. Specialty milk consumption increases with age, education, and presence of kids, whereas it declines with income. The ratio of specialty milk consumption to total milk consumption is substantially higher among Hispanic, Asian and African-American households. PMID:24997409

  11. Critical care medicine in the United States: addressing the intensivist shortage and image of the specialty.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M; Oropello, John M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Intensivists are increasingly needed to care for the critically ill and manage ICUs as ICU beds, utilization, acuity of illness, complexity of care and costs continue to rise. However, there is a nationwide shortage of intensivists that has occurred despite years of well publicized warnings of an impending workforce crisis from specialty societies and the federal government. The magnitude of the intensivist shortfall, however, is difficult to determine because there are many perspectives of optimal ICU administration, patient coverage and intensivist availability and a lack of national data on intensivist practices. Nevertheless, the intensivist shortfall is quite real as evidenced by the alternative solutions that hospitals are deploying to provide care for their critically ill patients. In the midst of these manpower struggles, the critical care environment is dynamically changing and becoming more stressful. Severe hospital bed availability and fiscal constraints are forcing ICUs to alter their approaches to triage, throughput and unit staffing. National and local organizations are mandating that hospitals comply with resource intensive and arguably unproven initiatives to monitor and improve patient safety and quality, and informatics systems. Lastly, there is an ongoing sense of professional dissatisfaction among intensivists and a lack of public awareness that critical care medicine is even a distinct specialty. This article offers proposals to increase the adult intensivist workforce through expansion and enhancements of internal medicine based critical care training programs, incentives for recent graduates to enter the critical care medicine field, suggestions for improvements in the critical care profession and workplace to encourage senior intensivists to remain in the field, proactive marketing of critical care, and expanded engagement by the critical care societies in the challenges facing intensivists. PMID:24132037

  12. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  13. Identity Distress among Youth Exposed to Natural Disasters: Associations with Level of Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress, and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brandon G.; Sanders, Ashley F. P.; Graham, Rebecca A.; Banks, Donice M.; Russell, Justin D.; Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    Identity distress involves intense or prolonged upset or worry about personal identity issues including long-term goals, career choice, friendships, sexual orientation and behavior, religion, values and beliefs, and group loyalties. Research suggests that trauma exposure and subsequent PTSD symptoms may negatively impact identity development and psychological adjustment. However, little is known about their specific associations with identity distress and internalizing problems among disaster-exposed adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine these relationships in a sample of 325 adolescents (60% female; 89% African American) who experienced a major natural disaster and its aftermath. The results indicated that identity distress was positively associated with age, hurricane exposure, PTSD symptoms, and internalizing problems. Linear regression analyses also showed that identity distress was uniquely associated with internalizing symptoms and that there was an indirect effect of hurricane exposure on identity distress via PTSD symptoms. Finally, PTSD symptoms moderated the link between identity distress and internalizing symptoms, with a significant positive slope found for youth with more PTSD symptoms. Findings were generally consistent with previous work and predictions, and add to the extant knowledge about identity distress by providing data on the linkages between disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress and internalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:25505851

  14. Pneumonia treated in the internal medicine department: focus on healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Giannella, M; Pinilla, B; Capdevila, J A; Martínez Alarcón, J; Muñoz, P; López Álvarez, J; Bouza, E

    2012-08-01

    Patients with pneumonia treated in the internal medicine department (IMD) are often at risk of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The importance of HCAP is controversial. We invited physicians from 72 IMDs to report on all patients with pneumonia hospitalized in their department during 2 weeks (one each in January and June 2010) to compare HCAP with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). We analysed 1002 episodes of pneumonia: 58.9% were CAP, 30.6% were HCAP and 10.4% were HAP. A comparison between CAP, HCAP and HAP showed that HCAP patients were older (77, 83 and 80.5 years; p < 0.001), had poorer functional status (Barthel 100, 30 and 65; p < 0.001) and had more risk factors for aspiration pneumonia (18, 50 and 34%; p < 0.001). The frequency of testing to establish an aetiological diagnosis was lower among HCAP patients (87, 72 and 79; p < 0.001), as was adherence to the therapeutic recommendations of guidelines (70, 23 and 56%; p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality increased progressively between CAP, HCAP and HAP (8, 19 and 27%; p < 0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the main pathogen in CAP and HCAP. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused 17 and 12.3% of HCAP. In patients with a confirmed aetiological diagnosis, the independent risk factors for pneumonia due do difficult-to-treat microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa or MRSA) were HCAP, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and higher Port Severity Index. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining high awareness of HCAP among patients treated in IMDs, because of the different aetiologies, therapy requirements and prognosis of this population. PMID:22284436

  15. Publication: Presentation rate in the Latin American region of the International Association for Dental Research.

    PubMed

    Jara-Tracchia, Lilian; Aromando, Romina F; Itoiz, María E

    2010-01-01

    Most research conducted by the dental scientific community is presented at the Annual Meetings of the different Divisions and Sections of IADR. This research acquires real value when the results are published in peer-reviewed journals. A useful indicator of the publication efficiency of research work is the rate of publication (PR), i.e., the ratio between the quantity of presentations and subsequent publications in peer-reviewed journals. The aim of this study was to analyze the PR of the presentations at the Sections and Divisions of the Latin American Region of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR). We considered the presentations at the Annual Meetings of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru held in 2002 and 2003 and their corresponding publications indexed in PubMed from 2002 to 2009. For Venezuela, we analyzed the meetings held in 2002 and 2005, because they did not hold consecutive annual meetings. Presentation periods were selected based on previous data that report an interval of up to five years between presentation and publication. The number of presentations and the PR are related to the number of years that Sections and Divisions have existed. In Brazil and Argentina, PR (expressed as 1 publication: x presentations) is 1:3. The amount of research in Brazil is almost 8 times higher than in Argentina. Newer Sections and Divisions have produced fewer presentations, and the PR is also lower. We hope that this type of analysis will encourage the promotion of dental research at the different institutions and in the different vacancy areas of research, and facilitate exchange among researchers in the Region, enabling greater use to be made of their scientific activities. PMID:21053689

  16. The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to…

  17. Maximising Intercultural Learning in Short Term International Placements: Findings Associated with Orientation Programs, Guided Reflection and Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Coral J. L.; Walta, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Short-term international practicum experience is now a feature of many university education programs in Australia in an attempt to engage students with the growing multi-cultural aspects of Australian life. The stated purposes of such practicum experiences generally highlight intercultural learning, which is associated with the development of…

  18. International Association of School Librarianship 1986 Annual Conference Proceedings (15th, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, July 27-August 1, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    Following the text of a pre-conference paper entitled "The School Library Picture in Nova Scotia--One Part of the Canadian Scene," by Shirley Coulter, various International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) conference activities are summarized, and the conference program is presented, together with opening remarks by Thomas J. McInnis,…

  19. Selected Monographs from the Association for Experiential Education International Conference (27th, Rochester, New York, October 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Experiential Education, Boulder, CO.

    This document contains 10 presentation papers from the 1999 International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education. Papers address the outcomes and benefits of experiential approaches and outdoor education for various age groups, as well as the therapeutic use of adventure and experiential strategies. The papers are: "Residential…

  20. Reading English in Asia. The First Yearbook of Literacy and Languages in Asia, International Reading Association Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byong Won, Ed.

    Focusing on instruction in the English language arts by students for whom English is a second language, this yearbook contains the papers from the precongress institute, "Reading English in Asia," of the tenth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading--held in Hong Kong in 1984. Part 1 contains "Linguistic Theories and L2…

  1. Expert Meeting and Membership Meetings, Standing Committee Meeting. Section of Libraries for the Blind. International Federation of Library Associations. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt

    Two meetings of the International Federation of Library Associations Section of Libraries for the Blind (BLISTA) are summarized. The first was an expert meeting which was held in Marburg/Lahn, Federal Republic of Germany, in August 1983. Participants included 51 librarians and technical experts serving blind and physically disabled individuals in…

  2. Visual Literacy--Enhancing Human Potential. Readings from the 15th Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice D., Ed.; And Others

    This document includes 46 papers presented at the International Visual Literacy Association Conference on topics ranging from prehistoric cave paintings to technology of the future. Major sections are devoted to research and theory, education, computer technology, and phototherapy. Emphasis is on increased understanding of opportunities available…

  3. International Federation of Library Associations General Conference, Montreal 1982. Official Opening Statements and Speeches. Plenary Session I and II. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Official opening statements and papers on networking and the development of information technology which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) opening speeches by Else Granheim (IFLA president) and Kenneth H. Rogers (UNESCO Representative); (2) "The Importance of Networks Within…

  4. How Project Management Tools Aid in Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International Maintenance of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Cynthia W.; Brumagim, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the case of one business college's use of project management techniques as tools for accomplishing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International maintenance of accreditation. Using these techniques provides an efficient and effective method of organizing maintenance efforts. In addition, using…

  5. The Journal of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers: Title/Topic Index--1956-1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James G.; Craig, Shirley S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Title/Topic Index of all articles, notes, comments, editorials, convention notices, and most other information published in each issue of the Journal of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers from its inception in December 1956 to the Summer 1992, when the last issue was published. Each…

  6. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Plenary Meeting (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granheim, Else; And Others

    This group of papers from the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) comprises six papers presented at the plenary session and two papers from the Bibliographic Control Division of IFLA. Presented at the plenary session were (1) the opening address by the President of IFLA; (2) brief reports from sections and round tables of the…

  7. Child Characteristics as Moderators of the Association between Family Stress and Children's Internalizing, Externalizing, and Peer Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Noni K.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Lockwood, Rebecca L.

    2003-01-01

    We examined child characteristics of coping strategies, age, and gender as moderators of the association between family stressors and internalizing, externalizing, and peer rejection in a sample of 228 3rd-5th grade children. Consistent with previous research, children in the current study who experienced a higher number of family stressors were…

  8. An association between the internalization of body image, depressive symptoms and restrictive eating habits among young males.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Dias, Fernanda Coelho; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the relationship between the internalization of body image and depressive symptoms with restrictive eating habits among young males. Three hundred and eighty-three male adolescents, aged between twelve and seventeen, took part in this survey. The "Overall Internalization" and "Athletic Internalization" sub-scales taken from the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) were used to evaluate the internalization of body images. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The "Diet" sub-scale from the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate restrictive eating habits. The logistic regression findings indicated 2.01 times greater chances of youngsters with a high level of overall internalization adopting restrictive eating habits (Wald = 6.16; p = 0.01) when compared with those with low levels. On the other hand, the regression model found no significant association between "Athletic Internalization" (Wald = 1.16; p = 0.23) and depressive symptoms (Wald = 0.81; p = 0.35) with eating restrictions. The findings made it possible to conclude that only overall internalization was related to eating restrictions among young males. PMID:26602723

  9. Extensive corneal epithelial defect associated with internal hordeolum after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Miguel J; Juberías, José R; Moreno-Montañés, Javier

    2002-09-01

    This report illustrates a retrospective case review in which extensive corneal epithelial ulceration occurred concomitantly with an internal hordeolum in the inferior forniceal conjunctiva 24 hours after an uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis. The internal hordeolum and epithelial defect were successfully managed using a bandage soft contact lens, a course of topical dexamethasone and tobramycin, and generous lubrication. PMID:12231335

  10. Online Learning Behaviors for Radiology Interns Based on Association Rules and Clustering Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsing-Shun; Liou, Chuen-He

    2014-01-01

    In a hospital, clinical teachers must also care for patients, so there is less time for the teaching of clinical courses, or for discussing clinical cases with interns. However, electronic learning (e-learning) can complement clinical skills education for interns in a blended-learning process. Students discuss and interact with classmates in an…

  11. Association between Independent Reports of Maternal Parenting Stress and Children's Internalizing Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable research has investigated parenting stress and children's externalizing behavior problems, comparatively less has considered parenting stress in relation to children's internalizing difficulties. Even less research on parenting stress has incorporated children's report of their internalizing symptoms or the potential…

  12. Report of the ASHP Task Force on Caring for Patients Served by Specialty Suppliers.

    PubMed

    Caselnova, Dominick; Donley, Kathy; Ehlers, Diane; Hyduk, Amy E; Koontz, Susannah E; Nowobilski-Vasilios, Anna; Pawlicki, Kathleen S; Poikonen, John C; Poremba, Art C; Sasser, Cathy L; Schell, Kenneth H; Schwab, Jay L; Swinarski, Dave; Chen, David; Kirschenbaum, Bonnie; Armitstead, John

    2010-10-01

    Task Force recommendations are discussed in more detail in eAppendix A (available at www.ajhp.org). What follows is a brief summary of those recommendations. In very abbreviated terms, the Task Force suggested that ASHP: 1. Consider creating and maintaining a Web resource center on ASHP's website to provide information about restricted drug distributions systems (RDDSs), risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMSs), risk assessment and minimization plans (RiskMAPs), and specialty suppliers and products. 2. Provide comprehensive education to members, other health professionals, regulators, third-party payers, patients, and other stakeholders about RDDSs, REMSs, RiskMAPs, and specialty suppliers and products. 3. Develop policies to advocate that a. Pharmacists serve as the institutional leaders in compliance and utilization challenges of safely managing externally supplied medications and related drug administration devices, b. Agencies, organizations, and associations that influence the distribution, sale, and dispensing of medications under these alternative distribution models address issues these models create in continuity of care, reimbursement, and patient safety, c. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Joint Commission develop standards and interpretations that accommodate hospital use of these products and devices when currently available technology (e.g., cold-chain storage, e-pedigree) is used to ensure patient safety, d. Group purchasing organizations negotiate contractual arrangements for specialty pharmaceuticals for both acquisition costs and distribution arrangements, and e. Information technology (IT) be used to resolve issues created by alternative distribution models and that ASHP work with IT vendors to ensure that programs are designed to meet the needs of these evolving models. 4. Quantify through research, perhaps in cooperation with entities such as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Institute of

  13. Adding insult to injury: neural sensitivity to social exclusion is associated with internalizing symptoms in chronically peer-victimized girls.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Davis, Megan M; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-05-01

    Despite evidence documenting activation of the social pain network in response to social rejection and its link to temporary distress, far less is known regarding its role in pervasive emotional difficulties. Moreover, research has not considered the intersection between neural activation to experimentally induced social exclusion and naturally occurring social adversity. This study examined an integrated social pain model of internalizing symptoms, which posits that (i) neural sensitivity in the social pain network is associated with internalizing symptoms, (ii) this linkage is more robust in youth with than without a history of social adversity, and (iii) heightened avoidance motivation serves as one pathway linking neural sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 47 adolescent girls (M age = 15.46 years, SD = .35) with well-characterized histories of peer victimization were exposed to social exclusion. Whole-brain analyses revealed that activation to exclusion in the social pain network was associated with internalizing symptoms. As anticipated, this linkage was stronger in chronically victimized than non-victimized girls and was partially accounted for by avoidance motivation. This research indicates the importance of integrating neural, social and psychological systems of development in efforts to elucidate risk for internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls. PMID:26892162

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7009 - Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... its magnetic properties from rare earth metals (such as samarium). Produce means— (i) Atomization; (ii... of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. 252.225-7009 Section 252.225-7009 Federal... Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. As prescribed in 225.7003-5(a)(2), use...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7009 - Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... obtains a majority of its magnetic properties from rare earth metals (such as samarium). (9) Produce means... of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. 252.225-7009 Section 252.225-7009 Federal... Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. As prescribed in 225.7003-5(a)(2), use...

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7009 - Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... its magnetic properties from rare earth metals (such as samarium). Produce means— (i) Atomization; (ii... of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. 252.225-7009 Section 252.225-7009 Federal... Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. As prescribed in 225.7003-5(a)(2), use...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7009 - Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... magnet means a permanent magnet that obtains a majority of its magnetic properties from rare earth metals... of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. 252.225-7009 Section 252.225-7009 Federal... Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. As prescribed in 225.7003-5(a)(2), use...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7009 - Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... magnet means a permanent magnet that obtains a majority of its magnetic properties from rare earth metals... of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. 252.225-7009 Section 252.225-7009 Federal... Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. As prescribed in 225.7003-5(a)(2), use...

  19. 76 FR 19467 - Mueller Steam Specialty Formerly Known As Core Industries Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65519). ] At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Mueller Steam Specialty Formerly Known As Core Industries Including... Assistance on October 7, 2010, applicable to workers of Mueller Steam Specialty, including on-site...

  20. Study on the Higher Vocational and Professional Specialty Ability Module of "Construction Management"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Qun

    2008-01-01

    The higher vocational and professional specialty of "construction management" of China begun late, and the talent training mode of various colleges are different, especially the analysis to the specialty ability modules on the higher vocational and professional layer is not mature. In this article, combining with the practice of Manjing…

  1. Root-knot nematode resistance, yield, and fruit quality of specialty melons grafted onto cucumis metulifer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in specialty melons (Cucumis melo) with distinctive fruit characteristics has grown in the United States in recent years. However, disease management remains a major challenge in specialty melon production. In this study, grafting experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of...

  2. Specialty Choices of Kuwaiti Medical Graduates during the Last Three Decades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarallah, Khaled F.; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined postgraduate specialty training of Kuwaiti medical graduates during 1968 to 1999 and identified their attained professional qualifications to reveal scarcity in some specialties. Method: A survey was carried out involving review of the records maintained at the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization (KIMS)…

  3. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act...

  4. 78 FR 15123 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Supplement No. 5 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company (NAIC 27154). BUSINESS ADDRESS:...

  5. Construct Validity of the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Sandro M.; Richard, George V.

    2009-01-01

    The Medical Specialty Preference Inventory (MSPI; Zimny, G.H. (1979). Manual for the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis University School of Medicine), a measure of medical students' interests, was substantively and empirically examined to identify an underlying factor structure. A factor model for the original MSPI…

  6. Variation of the Nature of Citation Measures with Journals and Scientific Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugesan, Poovanalingam; Moravcsik, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Classification of scientific citations according to their quality and function is strengthened by tests of its reproducibility and universality. The method is applied to articles in various specialties of theoretical physics published in various journals, and conclusions are drawn about differences by specialty and geographic area. (Author)

  7. 78 FR 28627 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ..., Specialty Manufacturing Division, a Subsidiary of Koch Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers of DS&E..., also doing business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of Koch... Division, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, including on-site leased workers of DS&E Company,...

  8. 78 FR 28633 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ..., Specialty Manufacturing Division, a Subsidiary of Koch Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers of DS&E... Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, Duluth, Minnesota (subject firm). The workers produce... Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, including...

  9. Who's choosing whom? A sociological study of the specialty choices in a Danish context

    PubMed Central

    Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if habitus, the unconscious and embodied mental structures founded early in life, can contribute to our understanding of how individuals choose a medical specialty. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using standardized open-ended interviews. In the present research, sampling was purposive, with an aim to illuminating the study objective. A sample of six juniors and three senior doctors were recruited from gynecology and obstetrics, vascular surgery and general practice via a snowball method. The interview guide and the subsequent analysis were based on Bourdieu’s sociological theory. Results Three central themes emerged, labeled as “the use of distinctions and dichotomies”, “the shaping of habitus” and “consequences of the shaping of habitus”. These represent values and preferences developed through childhood education and experiences which may contribute to explaining specialty choices. Participants distinguished between specialties by referring to dichotomous characteristics of the specialty (such as sick/healthy patients; young/elderly patients; fine/coarse surgery). Conclusions Bourdieu’s theory is useful for broadening our understanding of specialty choice, as his central concept, habitus, was found to direct the choice of specialty and constrain the number of possible specialties for the individual doctor. Research is needed to better understand how various factors affect the specialty choices of medical school graduates.

  10. 77 FR 40353 - Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ..., 52 FR 47897), Commission staff has reviewed the Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc.'s application for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Onyx Specialty Papers, Inc; Notice of Availability of...

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of the sense of control: Gray and white matter volumes associated with an internal locus of control.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-10-01

    A belief that effort is rewarded can develop incentive, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy. Individuals with such a belief attribute causes of events to themselves, not to external, uncontrollable factors, and are thus said to have an internal locus of control. An internal locus of control is a positive personality trait and has been thoroughly studied in applied psychology, but has not been widely examined in neuroscience. In the present study, correlations between locus of control assessment scores and brain volumes were examined in 777 healthy young adults using magnetic resonance imaging. A whole-brain multiple regression analysis with corrections for the effects of age, gender, and intelligence was conducted. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and anterior insula positively correlated with higher scores, which indicate an internal LOC. In addition, white matter volumes in the striatum showed significant correlations with an internal locus of control. These results suggest that cognitive, socioemotional, self-regulatory, and reward systems might be associated with internal control orientation. The finding of greater volumes in several brain regions in individuals with a stronger internal locus of control indicates that there is a neuroanatomical basis for the belief that one's efforts are rewarded. PMID:26123375

  12. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Lymph Node Map: A Radiologic Atlas and Review

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Edwin JR; Murchison, John T; Marin, Aleksander; Mirsadraee, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer is crucial in determining optimal treatment plans and predicting patient outcome. Currently used lymph node maps have been reconciled to the internationally accepted International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) map published in the seventh edition of TNM classification system of malignant tumours. This article provides computed tomographic illustrations of the IASLC nodal map, to facilitate its application in day-to-day clinical practice in order to increase the appropriate classification in lung cancer staging. PMID:26175770

  13. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    PubMed

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to

  14. Older doctors and progression through specialty training in the UK: a cohort analysis of General Medical Council data

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Yvette; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether older age at graduation is associated with any difference in outcomes from the annual specialty training progression assessment. Design An open cohort of 38 308 doctors who graduated from a UK medical school with annual assessments of progression in their specialty training programme with data centrally collected by the General Medical Council between 5 August 2009 to 31 July 2012. Results Mature junior doctors (≥29 years at graduation) were more likely to have problems with progression on their annual review of competence progression record of in training assessment (ARCP/RITA) than their younger colleagues (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.49, p<0.001). This association was, if anything, even stronger (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.74, p<0.001) after adjustment for gender, ethnicity, type of University and specialty. The same was true when only looking at the most extreme ARCP outcome (4) which is being asked to leave their specialist programme (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.44, p<0.001). Conclusions Mature doctors are a growing part of the medical workforce and they are likely to broaden the spectrum of doctors by bring different life experience to the profession. These results suggest that they are more likely to have problems with progressing through their specialist training programme. More research is required to determine the reasons behind these associations and how mature doctors can be supported both in choosing the best training programme and in coping with the complex demands of higher training at a later stage in their lives. PMID:25649208

  15. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  16. Medical students' choice of specialty and factors determining their choice: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yu Wei; Rajakrishnan, Sudeash; Low, Chin Aun; Jayapalan, Prakash Kumar; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T

    2011-01-01

    Information about medical students' choice of specialty can be helpful for planning health manpower. However, such information from medical students in Malaysian medical schools is lacking. We carried out a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among fourth- and fifth-year medical undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College. A total of 425 students responded to the survey questionnaire. Nearly a quarter of the students indicated internal medicine as their choice of specialty. Other choices were general surgery (13.2%), pediatrics (11.3%), orthopedics (12.7%) and obstetrics & gynecology (Ob/Gyn) (12.1%). Female students (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.18-3.08), fourth-year students (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.15-3.12), and students who reported a higher self-rated knowledge of their subject of choice were more likely to choose internal medicine and allied specialties (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.07-2.19). The influence of teaching faculty and consultants at the teaching hospitals (74.4%) and inspiration obtained during clinical postings (71.9%) were the factors which were rated by the most students as 'important' for choosing a specialty. About half of the students intended to pursue their postgraduate studies in Malaysia, most of the rest in the United Kingdom or Australia. While internal medicine and surgical subspecialties were preferred, students were not inclined towards primary care or diagnostic subspecialties. Incentives should be provided and other measures should be taken to make these branches more attractive. PMID:21572250

  17. The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH): reflecting on 60 years of contributions to groundwater science and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Willi; Howard, Ken; Chilton, John

    2016-08-01

    The 60th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is an important milestone that allows pause for reflection on how the association has evolved over the years and the contributions it has made to groundwater science and water management. IAH was founded in 1956 at the 20th International Geological Congress and developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s in response to a growing global interest in groundwater mapping and in sound approaches to resource protection and sustainable aquifer management. Incorporated in 2000, IAH has now secured its position as the world's leading international association specialising in groundwater with over 4,100 members in 131 countries. Much credit for this success must go to members, past and present, whose individual efforts and collaboration with sister institutions are documented here. These members have shaped the association's goals and contributed selflessly to its scientific programmes, publications and educational and charitable activities. Looking ahead to the next 60 years, it is essential that IAH does not rest on past achievements but listens and adjusts to the needs of members while continuing to pursue its mission of furthering the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater resources throughout the world.

  18. Progress on Establishing a World Education Research Association Continues at Third International Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of 28 education research associations from around the world convened in New York on March 29-30, 2008 at a third meeting to advance the goal of establishing a world education research association (informally called "WERA"). The agenda centered on the nature and form of a world education research association, with discussions…

  19. Association of Heterotopic Neuroglial Tissue with an Arachnoid Cyst in the Internal Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Howard W.; Nager, George T.; Holliday, Michael J.; Long, Donlin M.

    1995-01-01

    An arachnoid cyst arising within the internal auditory canal, or within the cerebellopontine angle and subsequently extending into the internal meatus and enlarging it, is a rare occurrence. Nevertheless, the neurootologist and the neurosurgeon have an interest in its existence because its clinical manifestations are identical with the ones produced by a schwannoma, involving overwhelmingly the cochleovestibular nerve in that region. An equally rare observation in that location is the presence of ectopic neuroglial tissue. The two can occur independently or in combination. Examples of such lesions are presented, and their possible pathogenesis is discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171156

  20. Quality of life assessment in International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) trials: practical issues and factors associated with missing data.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, J; Peterson, H F; Coates, A S; Gusset, H; Isley, M; Hinkle, R; Gelber, R D; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Hürny, C

    We report on our experience of quality of life (QL) assessment in adjuvant clinical trials of the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG), with special emphasis on cultural and logistical aspects of international organization that are unique to this group. Data are presented regarding submission rates of assessments before and after treatment failure, and timing of assessments relative to chemotherapy administration. To identify areas where rates might be improved, we investigated the association between missing data and sociodemographic and biomedical factors, treatment assignment, institution, chemotherapy compliance and toxicity in a trial of adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for post-menopausal patients with breast cancer (IBCSG VII). The factors most highly associated with missing data were institution and chemotherapy compliance. PMID:9549808

  1. Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 1994 Conference Papers. Annual Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 24-26, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger E., Comp.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Member Perceptions of the Association for International Agricultural & Extension Education" (Eaton et al.); "Historical Review of U.S. Involvement in International Agricultural Education between World War II and Enactment of Title XII" (Thuemmel, Meaders); "Educational Needs of International Graduate Students as…

  2. Alzheimer's Association International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease 2015 (AAIC 2015) (July 18-23, 2015 - Washington, D.C., USA).

    PubMed

    Mason, V L

    2015-07-01

    The Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) was held in Washington, D.C. this year. It is the world's largest meeting of the dementia research community, connecting care providers, clinicians and investigators. The extent of efforts being made in the field of Alzheimer's research was demonstrated by the wide and varied program at the conference. This report focuses on some of the therapeutic highlights from the first two poster sessions. PMID:26261847

  3. Comparative persistence of pesticides on selected cultivars of specialty vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brian D; Ritcey, Gwen M; Harris, C Ronald; Denommé, Mary Anne; Lissemore, Linda I

    2003-02-26

    The behavior and dissipation of several pesticides on selected cultivars of specialty vegetable crops were compared to determine appropriate preharvest intervals for compliance with maximum residue limits. To reduce application variability, a tank mix of pesticides was applied for each trial. Residues of eight pesticides applied to bok choi, Chinese broccoli, and fuzzy squash were similar for the two leafy vegetables; residues were higher than on squash because of the latter's larger mass-to-surface area ratio. Whereas residues of five of the nine pesticides applied to cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and bok choi did not differ significantly from 3 to 14 days after application, residues of cypermethrin and three fungicides were significantly higher on Chinese cabbage and bok choi. The residue deposits of the pesticides were about 50% lower on Chinese cabbage and 90% lower on cabbage than on bok choi. Dissipation of residues on different cultivars of lettuce and cabbage were compared after application of nine pesticides. With the exception of captan, residues on head lettuce were lower than on the other lettuces on day 1; cultivar differences were not significant for most of the nine applied pesticides on days 3 and 8. Generally, residues of the nine individual pesticides on storage cabbage, savoy cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and tah tsai did not differ significantly from day 1 to day 7 after application. Residue concentrations were generally significantly higher on bok choi than on the other cultivars. Residue deposits generally correlated with the rate of application; residues of captan, however, were about 50% of the predicted value. Significant differences in deposit and dissipation were observed among cultivars and pesticides, with dramatic initial decreases for diazinon and parathion. Because of their higher exposed surface area-to-mass ratios, leafier crops had higher residue concentrations than head varieties. Residues on lettuce cultivars were higher than on the

  4. Longitudinal Associations between Clique Membership Status and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems during Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal link between clique membership status and the development of psychopathology in 451 children followed annually from age 9 to 12 years. Classroom clique membership status was identified through social network analysis, and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed using peer nominations. Controlling…

  5. The Association of Intended and Attained Curriculum in Science with Program for International Students Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çepni, Salih

    2014-01-01

    International examination results have already influenced many countries to make radical reforms in education system. According to these results countries have been categorized as high, middle and low achievement in education. Turkey has also taken these results into consideration quite seriously and started to investigate to what extent there are…

  6. International Understanding at School: UNESCO Associated School Project. Bulletin No. 50/51 1985/1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    One of a series of teaching guides designed to enhance elementary and secondary schools' observances of United Nations' international days, this issue features two guidelines, one for teaching about World Meteorological Day (March 23) and one for teaching about World Post Day (October 9). These observances are encouraged in order to promote…

  7. The Association between Attention Problems and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Peer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Vania T.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Mehrotra, Kala; Sung, Min; Lim, Choon Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of attention problems in children warrants concern, as it is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems. There lies a need to understand possible factors that may mediate this link so that interventions may be targeted to alleviate these mediators and interrupt the link between attention problems and…

  8. The associations between self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yan-Gang; Li, Jian-Bin; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2014-07-01

    Self-consciousness is considered as a multifaceted and hierarchical construct that includes self-evaluation, self-experience, and self-control. This study assumes that self-consciousness is a preventative factor of internalizing and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. 1202 Chinese adolescents from grade 7 to grade 12 participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires that assessed self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems. The results showed that, after controlling demographic variables, some lower-order factors (i.e., sense of satisfaction, sense of anxiety, social self, self-restraint, self-esteem, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-evaluation and self-experience) of self-consciousness significantly predicted internalizing problems, while externalizing problems were predicted by several lower-order factors (i.e., self-restraint, sense of satisfaction, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-control and self-experience). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are related with different aspects of self-consciousness, which sheds light on the prevention into adolescents' problem behaviors. PMID:24931553

  9. Infant Risk Factors Associated with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Co-Occurring Behavior Problems in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee C.; Hans, Sydney L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the unique and interactive contributions of infant negative emotionality and family risk factors in the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, and co-occurring behavior problems in early childhood. The sample included 412 infants and their primary caregivers. Interviews and…

  10. Association of Acculturative Stress, Islamic Practices, and Internalizing Symptoms among Arab American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Pham, Andy V.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Yosai, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first-…

  11. Antioxidant treatment alters metabolism associated with internal browning in ‘Braeburn’ apples during CA storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Braeburn’ apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit can develop internal browning (Braeburn breakdown disorder; BBD) and pitting during hypoxic cold storage in elevated levels of CO2. Pre-storage treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) can prevent this disorder. To evaluate disorder-relat...

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  13. International Seed Testing Association List of stabilized plant names, edition 6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-testing laboratories determine the quality of seed lots in national and international seed commerce. Those services most commonly requested include purity analysis, noxious-weed seed detection, and viability tests. Rigorous procedures for performing various tests on specific crops have been est...

  14. Self-compassion as a moderator of thinness-related pressures' associations with thin-ideal internalization and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Russell, Hannah L; Neal, Ashley A

    2015-04-01

    During situations that threaten personal adequacy, people high in self-compassion are kind and caring toward themselves, mindful of their distress, and recognize that being imperfect is part of the human experience. Therefore, self-compassion may offset certain disorders (e.g., eating disorders) associated with environmental threats (e.g., thinness-related pressures). In this cross-sectional study, we explored self-compassion's associations with threats involving thinness-related pressures (from friends, family, partners, and media), thin-ideal internalization, and disordered eating among an online sample of 435 U.S. community women. Findings indicated that self-compassion buffered the links from media thinness-related pressure to disordered eating and thin-ideal internalization. Furthermore, higher self-compassion was directly associated with fewer perceived thinness-related pressures, lower thin-ideal internalization, and lower disordered eating. Collectively, these findings add to the growing conceptualization of self-compassion as beneficial to eating behavior and help justify pursuing rigorous longitudinal and clinical examinations of self-compassion as a protective factor of disordered eating. PMID:25536526

  15. A review of approaches for the management of specialty pharmaceuticals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bijal Nitin; Audet, Patricia R

    2014-11-01

    With increased innovation and development of specialty pharmaceuticals, the US and global healthcare industries are looking to implement appropriate management strategies to control both utilization and costs. Specialty pharmaceuticals are high-cost medications that treat complex, chronic, rare, and difficult-to-manage conditions. These drugs require special drug handling, appropriate clinical outcomes monitoring, and effective cost controls. The primary scope of this article is to discuss various strategies being implemented for specialty pharmaceutical utilization and cost management and correlated outcomes in the USA; these outcomes include enhanced health insurance plan benefit designs with formulary modifications and greater patient cost burden. Additional methods to manage specialty pharmaceuticals include the use of specialty pharmacies for drug distribution, increased emphasis on coordination of care and evidence-based medicine, as well as healthcare reform and regulations. Healthcare spending, both in the US and globally, continues to increase, with a rising proportion of drug spend towards specialty pharmaceuticals. Continued specialty pharmaceutical innovation and introduction of biosimilar products will evolve the currently utilized management strategies for these drugs. PMID:25118989

  16. Balancing Demographic, Diversity and Specialty in Faculty Recruiting: Two Decades of Experience From the Department of Geosciences at The Pennsylvania State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bralower, T. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Arthur, M. A.; Slingerland, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    and internationally. The Department has directed searches and hired at all rank levels. Open-rank searches have the potential to attract a higher-caliber pool of applicants but generally favor senior candidates. To maintain demographic balance and to prevent future waves of retirement, we advocate a balanced hiring strategy with the majority of hires made at the Assistant or junior Associate Professor rank, but with the occasional senior hire. Informal feedback suggests top candidates accepted offers in part based on the Department's academic reputation, impressions of faculty collegiality, a strong mentoring system, and valuing of teaching. Recruitment, especially of female faculty, has also been helped by a spousal hiring program involving significant resources from the College and Central Administration.

  17. Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

  18. Meals at medical specialty society annual meetings: a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    La Puma, John; Schiedermayer, David; Becker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Little isd known about how meals are chosen for medical meetings. We surveyed the annual meeting planners for 20 major specialty societies. Thirteen (65%) responded; all were currently planning their next meeting. Attendance in 2000 was reported at 113,477 physicians, with 2 million planned meals and snacks. No physician was named as responsible for food choices; the meeting planner and staff were primarily responsible for deciding what food to serve, excluding exhibit halls. Twelve (92%) respondents rated "available budget" as the most important factor. "Nutritional guidelines" were rated "very important" by eight of 13 (63%). However, no specific nutritional guidelines could be identified by any planner. All respondents indicated that members would attend a meeting if "healthy" food were the only option. For 2000, 100% of respondents indicated that for each lunch and for each dinner, a dessert had been included. No annual meeting and no planned 2001 meeting excluded potato chips, snack mixes, or candies at breaks; soda pop was offered at each break. Most respondents (89%) relied on a concluding questionnaire about the meeting facilities to evaluate the food. Respondents reported no difference in charges for "special meals," including vegetarian and kosher meals. Physicians may be unaware that some food served at medical meetings may impair learning, with excessive calorie, fat, and carbohydrate consumption. Small changes can improve the quality of food and beverages selected, without increased cost, and provide choices that conform to national nutritional guidelines. Medical meetings should serve flavorful, healthful food. PMID:14743829

  19. Specialty fiber optic applications for harsh and high radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Brian G.

    2015-05-01

    Since the first commercial introduction in the 1980s, optical fiber technology has undergone an almost exponential growth. Currently over 2 billion fiber kilometers are deployed globally with 2014 global optical fiber production exceeding 300 million fiber kilometers. 1 Along with the staggering growth in optical fiber production and deployment, an increase in optical fiber technologies and applications has also followed. Although the main use of optical fibers by far has been for traditional data transmission and communications, numerous new applications are introduced each year. Initially the practical application of optical fibers was limited by cost and sensitivity of the optical fibers to stress, radiation, and other environmental factors. Tremendous advances have taken place in optical fiber design and materials allowing optical fibers to be deployed in increasingly harsh environments with exposure to increased mechanical and environmental stresses while maintaining high reliability. With the increased reliability, lower cost, and greatly expanded range of optical fiber types now available, new optical fiber deployments in harsh and high radiation environments is seeing a tremendous increase for data, communications, and sensing applications. An overview of key optical fiber applications in data, communications, and sensing for harsh environments in industrial, energy exploration, energy generation, energy transmission, and high radiation applications will be presented. Specific recent advances in new radiation resistant optical fiber types, other specialty optical fibers, optical fiber coatings, and optical fiber cable materials will be discussed to illustrate long term reliability for deployment of optical fibers in harsh and high radiation environments.

  20. Evaluation of a diabetes specialty centre: structure, process and outcome.

    PubMed

    Basa, R P; McLeod, B

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a diabetes specialty centre in assisting clients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to improve their metabolic control and quality of life. A single-subject repeated measures design was used where data was collected on entry to the program, immediately following the 2-day education sessions, and at both 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Structure and process were taken into consideration, and the main outcome variables measured were knowledge, attitudes, metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c) and perceived quality of life. These variables were chosen in the belief that many factors can influence behaviour and it is the combination of these factors which results in behavioural change and ultimately improvement in metabolic control and quality of life. The main findings were that the facilities and documentation records were adequate, the clients perceived that the primary function of the center was medical management rather than education, and knowledge, metabolic control and quality of life improved significantly after the program. For clients, perceived happiness and quality of life were primary issues. Therefore, improvement in quality of life should be one of the primary goals of diabetes education programs. PMID:7603930

  1. Changing state of gynecologic oncologist specialty in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma

    2016-05-01

    Gynecologic oncologists must have extensive knowledge regarding the methods of treating a diverse range of gynecologic cancers as well as the ability to perform cutting-edge multidisciplinary treatments that frequently involve surgery. Given that coordination with other medical departments is vital for treatment, a high level of interpersonal and technical skills needs to be demonstrated to form the axis for medical treatment. One objective of the specialist certification system is the grooming of leaders as gynecologic oncologists while instructing trainees. The most distinguishing feature of Japanese gynecologic oncologists is that they need experience in more than 150 invasive cancer treatments, including more than 100 operations within the last 3-5 years. As for performance of surgery, at least 30 operations, including 15 radical hysterectomies, are required. Since surgical methods, including laparoscopic surgery, are undergoing a radical change, and increasing numbers of patients are undergoing radiotherapy for invasive cervical cancer, a review of the necessary requirements is critical. It is important to foster new leaders who are research-oriented. Now is the time for marked reform with the new specialist certification system being introduced by the Japanese Medical Specialty Board. Japan has the advantage of offering medical services at a much lower cost because of its national health insurance system. However, specialists are currently not receiving clear benefits befitting their efforts, and the question of how to maintain their motivation is an issue for the future. For these purposes, I believe securing incentives is a critical issue for specialists. PMID:26988808

  2. Medical specialty considerations by medical students early in their clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specialty selection by medical students determines the future composition of the physician workforce. Selection of career specialties begins in earnest during the clinical rotations with exposure to the clinical and intellectual environments of various specialties. Career specialty selection is followed by choosing a residency program. This is the period where insight into the decision process might help healthcare leaders ascertain whether, when, and how to intervene and attempt to influence students' decisions. The criteria students consider important in selecting a specialty and a residency program during the early phases of their clinical rotations were examined. Methods Questionnaires distributed to fifth-year medical students at two Israeli medical schools. Results 229 of 275 (83%) questionnaires were returned. 80% of the students had considered specialties; 62% considered one specialty, 25% two, the remainder 3-5 specialties. Students took a long-range view; 55% considered working conditions after residency more important than those during residency, another 42% considered both equally important. More than two-thirds wanted an interesting and challenging bedside specialty affording control over lifestyle and providing a reasonable relationship between salary and lifestyle. Men were more interested in well-remunerated procedure-oriented specialties that allowed for private practice. Most students rated as important selecting a challenging and interesting residency program characterized by good relationships between staff members, with positive treatment by the institution, and that provided much teaching. More women wanted short residencies with few on-calls and limited hours. More men rated as important residencies affording much responsibility for making clinical decisions and providing research opportunities. More than 50% of the students considered it important that their residency be in a leading department, and in a large university medical

  3. Using clinically nuanced cost sharing to enhance consumer access to specialty medications.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Jason; de Souza, Jonas; Fendrick, A Mark

    2014-06-01

    With specialty pharmaceutical prices on the rise, patients are often expected to pay anywhere from 30% to 50% of the specialty-tier drug price through co-insurance-based cost sharing. As these prices continue to climb, patients may choose lower-value medications for their medical needs or become nonadherent for cost-related reasons. Value-based insurance design implementations for specialty medications connect cost sharing and clinical value by moving high-value medications into lower-priced tiers, adjusting cost-sharing based on patient-specific variables, applying the "reward the good soldier" strategy, and encouraging patients to seek high-performing providers. PMID:25180506

  4. Development of underwater and hyperbaric medicine as a medical specialty in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Samil; Toklu, Akin S; Yildiz, Senol; Uzun, Günalp

    2013-01-01

    Underwater and hyperbaric medicine focuses on diving physiology, prevention and treatment of health problems related to the exposure to high ambient pressure and therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen for several medical conditions. Adequate educational standards should be developed for physicians working in the field of underwater and hyperbaric medicine. In Turkey, underwater and hyperbaric medicine is one of the medical specialties. The history of underwater and hyperbaric medicine as a medical specialty is dated back to the 1960s. In this paper, we review standards and the development of underwater and hyperbaric medicine as a medical specialty in Turkey. PMID:23397869

  5. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls. PMID:26866768

  6. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, K. J.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Cheriton, O. M.; McPhee-Shaw, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the relative importance of internal tides on the resuspension and transport of seabed sediment. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15-25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7-14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave-current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux is almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave-current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus, the internal tide and upwelling/relaxation dynamics are important in the transport of sediment during the relatively quiescent summer months.

  7. Mission X in Japan, an Education Outreach Program Featuring Astronautical Specialties and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihori, Maki; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakao, Reiko; Nakazawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshito; Takeoka, Hajime; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In the science field, disseminating new information to the public is becoming increasingly important, since it can aid a deeper understanding of scientific significance and increase the number of future scientists. As part of our activities, we at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Biomedical Research Office, started work to focus on education outreach featuring space biomedical research. In 2010, we launched the Mission X education program in Japan, named after “Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut” (hereinafter called “Mission X”), mainly led by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). Mission X is an international public outreach program designed to encourage proper nutrition and exercise and teaching young people to live and eat like astronauts. We adopted Mission X's standpoint, and modified the program based on the originals to suit Japanese culture and the students' grade. Using astronauts as examples, this mission can motivate and educate students to instill and adopt good nutrition and physical fitness as life-long practices.Here we introduce our pilot mission of the “Mission X in Japan” education program, which was held in early 2011. We are continuing the education/public outreach to promote the public understanding of science and contribute to science education through lectures on astronautical specialties and knowledge.

  8. Expanding access to hepatitis C virus treatment--Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) project: disruptive innovation in specialty care.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sanjeev; Kalishman, Summers; Thornton, Karla; Dion, Denise; Murata, Glen; Deming, Paulina; Parish, Brooke; Brown, John; Komaromy, Miriam; Colleran, Kathleen; Bankhurst, Arthur; Katzman, Joanna; Harkins, Michelle; Curet, Luis; Cosgrove, Ellen; Pak, Wesley

    2010-09-01

    The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) Model was developed by the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center as a platform to deliver complex specialty medical care to underserved populations through an innovative educational model of team-based interdisciplinary development. Using state-of-the-art telehealth technology, best practice protocols, and case-based learning, ECHO trains and supports primary care providers to develop knowledge and self-efficacy on a variety of diseases. As a result, they can deliver best practice care for complex health conditions in communities where specialty care is unavailable. ECHO was first developed for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV), optimal management of which requires consultation with multidisciplinary experts in medical specialties, mental health, and substance abuse. Few practitioners, particularly in rural and underserved areas, have the knowledge to manage its emerging treatment options, side effects, drug toxicities, and treatment-induced depression. In addition, data were obtained from observation of ECHO weekly clinics and database of ECHO clinic participation and patient presentations by clinical provider. Evaluation of the ECHO program incorporates an annual survey integrated into the ECHO annual meeting and routine surveys of community providers about workplace learning, personal and professional experiences, systems and environmental factors associated with professional practice, self-efficacy, facilitators, and barriers to ECHO. The initial survey data show a significant improvement in provider knowledge, self-efficacy, and professional satisfaction through participation in ECHO HCV clinics. Clinicians reported a moderate to major benefit from participation. We conclude that ECHO expands access to best practice care for underserved populations, builds communities of practice to enhance professional development and satisfaction of primary care clinicians, and expands sustainable

  9. Attitudes Toward Blinding of Peer Review and Perceptions of Efficacy Within a Small Biomedical Specialty

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bennett, Katherine Egan; Griffith, Kent A.; DeCastro, Rochelle; Grace, Calley; Holliday, Emma; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Peer reviewers' knowledge of author identity may influence review content, quality, and recommendations. Therefore, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics (“Red Journal”) implemented double-blinded peer review in 2011. Given the relatively small size of the specialty and the high frequency of preliminary abstract presentations, we sought to evaluate attitudes, the efficacy of blinding, and the potential impact on the disposition of submissions. Methods and Materials: In May through August 2012, all Red Journal reviewers and 1 author per manuscript completed questionnaires regarding demographics, attitudes, and perceptions of success of blinding. We also evaluated correlates of the outcomes of peer review. Results: Questionnaires were received from 408 authors and 519 reviewers (100%). The majority of respondents favored double blinding; 6% of authors and 13% of reviewers disagreed that double blinding should continue in the Red Journal. In all, 50% of the reviewers did not suspect the identity of the author of the paper that they reviewed; 19% of reviewers believed that they could identify the author(s), and 31% suspected that they could. Similarly, 23% believed that they knew the institution(s) from which the paper originated, and 34% suspected that they did. Among those who at least suspected author identity, 42% indicated that prior presentations served as a clue, and 57% indicated that literature referenced did so. Of those who at least suspected origin and provided details (n=133), 13% were entirely incorrect. Rejection was more common in 2012 than 2011, and submissions from last authors with higher H-indices (>21) were more likely to survive initial review, without evidence of interactions between submission year and author gender or H-index. Conclusions: In a relatively small specialty in which preliminary research presentations are common and occur in a limited number of venues, reviewers are often familiar with

  10. Empathy in Undergraduate Medical Students of Bangladesh: Psychometric Analysis and Differences by Gender, Academic Year, and Specialty Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Rozina; Mostafa, Mohammad; Rana, Md. Mashud

    2014-01-01

    Empathy is considered to be associated with better patient compliance, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The aim of the study is to measure and examine empathy among a sample of undergraduate medical students of Bangladesh. It was a cross-sectional study and all the medical students of first through fifth year enrolled at Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College during the study period of 2014 were surveyed. Participants anonymously completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Medical Student version translated into Bengali language, a valid and reliable 20-item self-administered questionnaire. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were calculated to check validity and reliability of the scale. ANOVA was used to examine the differences in empathy between gender, academic years, and specialty preferences. The mean empathy score was 110.41 ± 13.59. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.88. There were significant associations between gender and empathy scores. The level of empathy in medical students gradually increases after clinical training in medical college. A nonsignificant difference was found between empathy scores and specialty preferences. It is suggested that the medical curriculum in Bangladesh should include more extensive program to promote empathy and other humanistic values among the medical students. PMID:25006522

  11. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  12. Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Specialty Treatment Services and Race/ Ethnicity: A National Study of Children and Families Involved With Child Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Barth, Richard P.; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J.; Wood, Patricia; Spicer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We used data on a national sample of children involved with child welfare systems to compare American Indian caregivers with White, Black, and Hispanic caregivers in their need for, and receipt of, specialty alcohol, drug, and mental health treatment. American Indian caregivers were significantly less likely to receive services than were Hispanic caregivers (P<.05) but not significantly less likely than were White or Black caregivers. Child placement, child age, and caregiver psychiatric comorbidity were significantly associated with service receipt. PMID:16507729

  13. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  14. Effects of Serine 129 Phosphorylation on α-Synuclein Aggregation, Membrane Association, and Internalization.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Filsy; Flavin, William P; Iqbal, Sobia; Pacelli, Consiglia; Sri Renganathan, Sri Dushyaanthan; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Campbell, Edward M; Fraser, Paul E; Tandon, Anurag

    2016-02-26

    Although trace levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein (α-syn) are detectable in normal brains, nearly all α-syn accumulated within Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease brains is phosphorylated on serine 129 (Ser-129). The role of the phosphoserine residue and its effects on α-syn structure, function, and intracellular accumulation are poorly understood. Here, co-expression of α-syn and polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), a kinase that targets Ser-129, was used to generate phosphorylated α-syn for biophysical and biological characterization. Misfolding and fibril formation of phosphorylated α-syn isoforms were detected earlier, although the fibrils remained phosphatase- and protease-sensitive. Membrane binding of α-syn monomers was differentially affected by phosphorylation depending on the Parkinson disease-linked mutation. WT α-syn binding to presynaptic membranes was not affected by phosphorylation, whereas A30P α-syn binding was greatly increased, and A53T α-syn was slightly lower, implicating distal effects of the carboxyl- on amino-terminal membrane binding. Endocytic vesicle-mediated internalization of pre-formed fibrils into non-neuronal cells and dopaminergic neurons matched the efficacy of α-syn membrane binding. Finally, the disruption of internalized vesicle membranes was enhanced by the phosphorylated α-syn isoforms, a potential means for misfolded extracellular or lumenal α-syn to access cytosolic α-syn. Our results suggest that the threshold for vesicle permeabilization is evident even at low levels of α-syn internalization and are relevant to therapeutic strategies to reduce intercellular propagation of α-syn misfolding. PMID:26719332

  15. Associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children: an international comparison

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, J-P; Katzmarzyk, P T; LeBlanc, A G; Tremblay, M S; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Rae, D E; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Olds, T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although evidence is accumulating on the importance of a good night's sleep for healthy eating and activity behaviors, existing research has mainly been conducted in high-income, developed countries with limited sociocultural variability. This study is the first to examine the associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. METHODS: This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 5777 children aged 9–11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. Nocturnal sleep duration (hours per night), sleep efficiency (%) and bedtime (h:min) were monitored over 7 consecutive days using an accelerometer. Lifestyle behaviors included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time (SED), self-reported screen time (ST) and healthy/unhealthy diet patterns (HDP/UDP). Multilevel modeling analyses were used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. RESULTS: Overall, participants averaged 8.8 (s.d. 0.9) hours of sleep with 96.2% (s.d. 1.4) sleep efficiency and a mean bedtime of 2218 hours. After adjustment for age, sex, highest parental education and BMI z-score, results showed that (i) sleep duration was negatively associated with MVPA, SED and UDP score; (ii) sleep efficiency was negatively associated with MVPA and UDP score, and positively associated with SED; and (iii) later bedtime was positively associated with SED, ST and UDP score, and negatively associated with MVPA and HDP score. Results using categories of sleep patterns were consistent with the linear associations. Results also revealed that associations between sleep patterns and MVPA, SED and ST were significantly different between study sites, with stronger associations in high-income countries compared with low/middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep

  16. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... December 13, 2005 (70 FR 73556). This interim rule also invites interested parties to comment on making... and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers AGENCY:...

  17. 75 FR 52989 - Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, VA; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... (75 FR 38142). The workers produced precipitated calcium carbonate used in the production of paper... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Specialty Minerals, Inc., Franklin, VA; Notice of...

  18. Using geographic information system tools to improve access to MS specialty care in Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, William J; Cowper-Ripley, Diane; Litt, Eric R; McDowell, Tzu-Yun; Hoffman, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patients who lived more than 2 hours from the nearest specialty clinic in fiscal year 2007. We demonstrate the utility of using GIS tools in decision-making by providing three examples of how patients' access to care is affected when additional specialty clinics are added. The mapping technique used in this study provides a powerful and valuable tool for policy and planning personnel who are evaluating how to address underserved populations and areas within the VHA healthcare system. PMID:20848371

  19. Oncofertility: A New Medical Specialty Helping Young Cancer Patients Have Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Oncofertility: A Revolution in Childbearing Oncofertility: A New Medical Specialty Helping Young Cancer Patients Have Children ... NICHD). Photo courtesy of: NICHD "Oncofertility" is a new term that addresses an old problem: the fertility ...

  20. Specialty Pharmacy Services: Preparing for a New Era in Health-System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Shay, Blake; Louden, Les; Kirschenbaum, Bonnie

    2015-10-01

    To deal with the changing health care landscape and the expanding growth of specialty pharmaceuticals, it is imperative that health systems evaluate their current structure of providing hospitalbased specialty pharmacy services. Specialty pharmacy services have rapidly expanded over the last decade, and this has affected a wide variety of disease states and in many cases has dramatically enhanced clinical outcomes. However, these medications come at a substantial cost, and a clear plan must be established at each institution to sustain financial viability. By focusing on developing a plan for specialty pharmaceuticals, the pharmacy director can help ensure the institution has prepared a strategy that is conservative, financially viable, and patient-centered. PMID:26912924

  1. The role of specialty pharmacy in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Eng, Kirby

    2009-11-01

    Specialty Pharmacy plays an integral role in the delivery and management of biologic and chemotherapeutic medications for patients with higher-risk MDS by streamlining the delivery process, educating patients, monitoring treatment adherence and response, managing complex storage and delivery requirements, and assisting both patients and payers with clinical, operational, and financial issues and challenges. Specialty Pharmacy will continue to develop procedures to assist clinicians and patients, maximizing access to pharmacy and clinical advisors who are able to explain medical diagnoses to patients, walk them through medication options, and describe the specific details of therapeutic regimens. Where the use of specialty pharmaceuticals poses challenges of inventory, sourcing, complex treatment regimens, patient adherence, and slow reimbursement, Specialty Pharmacy has designed standardized processes to address these needs and will continue to improve and increases its services to support vital business and clinical functions for patients, health care plans, and providers. PMID:20085113

  2. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (Fort Worth, Texas, October 22-24, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2013), October 22-24, 2013, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by The University of North Texas (UNT), sponsored by the…

  3. Commission for International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE). Proceedings of the 2013 International Pre-Conference (Lexington, Kentucky, November 3-5, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for International Adult Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE) of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) provides a forum for the discussion of international issues related to adult education in general, as well as adult education in various countries around the globe. The following purposes summarize the work of the…

  4. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information and Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015). The e-Learning 2015…

  5. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  6. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance. PMID:22077096

  7. The World Informatics Scene: ICSU, International Unions and Associations, Professional Society Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; Barton, C.

    2009-04-01

    Now that the Electronic Geophysical Year (2007-2008) has concluded, a substantial number of new coordination efforts under the heading of informatics have emerged. These efforts range from divisions/ sections in societies such as the Geological Society of America, the American Geophysical Union and the European Geosciences Union devoted to all aspects of informatics. In each case there has been a strong community response at their regular meetings. These society efforts are closer to the working scientists, technologists and data producers, and managers. At the same time, in a recognition for the need of a sustained activity such as eGY, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) has formed a Union Commission for Data and Information and the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) approved a Task Group on eGY Earth and Space Science Data Interoperability. The International Council of Science's (ICSU) Strategic Committee on Information and Data (SCID) implementation report was approved by the ICSU general assembly in October 2008. ICSU's priority area assessment strategy for ICSU to play a leadership role in the coordination of data and information efforts world-wide. This report is being implemented and influences entities such as CODATA, and forms a new World Data System. This presentation will give details on the abovementioned activities and indicate an emerging synergy for Informatics across many discipline and the advancement of science and societal goals.

  8. Approach to biomarker testing: perspectives from various specialties

    PubMed Central

    Sung, M.R.; Ellis, P.M.; Verma, S.; Duncan, E.; Leighl, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite its importance for patient outcomes, biomarker testing for lung cancer is not uniformly integrated into the Canadian health care system. To better understand current practice patterns for lung cancer biomarker testing, we assessed physician perspectives by specialty and region. Methods A national survey of Canadian lung cancer specialists was conducted to understand their perspectives on biomarker testing in lung cancer. The 11-item survey assessed the current practice and challenges of testing. The survey was sent to 375 specialists. Results The overall response rate for the survey was 36%. Nearly all specialists reported that knowing tumour genotyping results affects patient outcome and influences the treatment decision. Medical oncologists most commonly initiated molecular testing; however, most respondents suggested a shared model involving medical oncologists and pathologists. More than half of all responding specialists had the perception that fewer than 25% of test results are available for first-line treatment decisions. Identified barriers to routine testing for all lung cancer patients included cost, lack of funding, tissue availability, and sample quality. Conclusions There was clear agreement that biomarker testing is important in determining appropriate treatment for patients. There is a need for general consensus on who should initiate molecular testing. Clear clinical guidance for pathologists has to be established for molecular testing, including defining the population to be tested, the timing of testing, and the tests to be performed. Testing could be facilitated by including more information on diagnostic sample requisitions, such as clinical suspicion of primary lung cancer, cancer history, and other samples already collected. PMID:27330346

  9. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  10. Specialty choice in times of economic crisis: a cross-sectional survey of Spanish medical students

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jeffrey E; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Ortún, Vicente; Barber, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinants of specialty choice among graduating medical students in Spain, a country that entered into a severe, ongoing economic crisis in 2008. Setting Since 2008, the percentage of Spanish medical school graduates electing Family and Community Medicine (FCM) has experienced a reversal after more than a decade of decline. Design A nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted online in April 2011. Participants We invited all students in their final year before graduation from each of Spain's 27 public and private medical schools to participate. Main outcome measures Respondents’ preferred specialty in relation to their perceptions of: (1) the probability of obtaining employment; (2) lifestyle and work hours; (3) recognition by patients; (4) prestige among colleagues; (5) opportunity for professional development; (6) annual remuneration and (7) the proportion of the physician's compensation from private practice. Results 978 medical students (25% of the nationwide population of students in their final year) participated. Perceived job availability had the largest impact on specialty preference. Each 10% increment in the probability of obtaining employment increased the odds of preferring a specialty by 33.7% (95% CI 27.2% to 40.5%). Job availability was four times as important as compensation from private practice in determining specialty choice (95% CI 1.7 to 6.8). We observed considerable heterogeneity in the influence of lifestyle and work hours, with students who preferred such specialties as Cardiovascular Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynaecology valuing longer rather than shorter workdays. Conclusions In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, job availability has assumed critical importance as a determinant of specialty preference among Spanish medical students. In view of the shortage of practitioners of FCM, public policies that take advantage of the enhanced perceived job availability of FCM may help steer medical school

  11. Factors influencing dental students' specialty choice: a survey of ten graduating classes at one institution.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jane H; Kinnunen, Taru H; Zarchy, Marisa; Da Silva, John D; Chang, Brian Myung W; Wright, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to survey ten graduating classes at Harvard School of Dental Medicine regarding students' specialty choice and factors influencing that choice. Students were surveyed once in 2008 (for the Classes of 2007-11) and again in 2013 (for the Classes of 2012-16). A prior article reported results regarding students' interest in and experiences with prosthodontics; this article presents results regarding their interest in all dental specialties and factors influencing those interests. Of a total 176 students in the Classes of 2012-16, 143 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 81%, compared to a 95% response rate (167 of total 176 students) for the Classes of 2007-11. The results showed that orthodontics was the most popular specialty choice, followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery. From the 2008 to the 2013 survey groups, there was an increase in the percentages of students planning to pursue oral and maxillofacial surgery, pediatric dentistry, and postdoctoral general dentistry. The educational debt these students expected to accrue by graduation also increased. The largest percentage of students chose "enjoyment of providing the specialty service" as the factor most influencing their specialty choice. "Prior dental school experience" and "faculty influence" were greater influences for students pursuing specialties than those pursuing postdoctoral general dentistry. Increased interest in particular disciplines may be driven by high debt burdens students face upon graduation. Factors related to mentoring especially influenced students pursuing specialties, demonstrating the importance of student experiences outside direct patient care for exposure to the work of specialists beyond the scope of predoctoral training. This finding suggests that dental schools should increase mentoring efforts to help students make career decisions based not on financial burden but rather on personal interest in the specialty, which is likely to have a

  12. Common and Unique Factors Associated with DSM-IV-TR Internalizing Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Smith, Rita L.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2008-01-01

    With the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association. "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV Fourth Edition-Text Revision". Author, Washington, DC. 2000) ahead, decisions will be made about the future of taxonomic conceptualizations. This study examined the…

  13. Travel-associated disease among US residents visiting US GeoSentinel clinics after return from international travel

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann, Stefan H F; Han, Pauline V; Stauffer, William M; Miller, Andy O; Connor, Bradley A; Hale, DeVon C; Coyle, Christina M; Cahill, John D; Marano, Cinzia; Esposito, Douglas H; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2015-01-01

    Background US residents make 60 million international trips annually. Family practice providers need to be aware of travel-associated diseases affecting this growing mobile population. Objective To describe demographics, travel characteristics and clinical diagnoses of US residents who present ill after international travel. Methods Descriptive analysis of travel-associated morbidity and mortality among US travellers seeking care at 1 of the 22 US practices and clinics participating in the GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network from January 2000 to December 2012. Results Of the 9624 ill US travellers included in the analysis, 3656 (38%) were tourist travellers, 2379 (25%) missionary/volunteer/research/aid workers (MVRA), 1580 (16%) travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs), 1394 (15%) business travellers and 593 (6%) student travellers. Median (interquartile range) travel duration was 20 days (10–60 days). Pre-travel advice was sought by 45%. Hospitalization was required by 7%. Compared with other groups of travellers, ill MVRA travellers returned from longer trips (median duration 61 days), while VFR travellers disproportionately required higher rates of inpatient care (24%) and less frequently had received pre-travel medical advice (20%). Illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract were the most common (58%), followed by systemic febrile illnesses (18%) and dermatologic disorders (17%). Three deaths were reported. Diagnoses varied according to the purpose of travel and region of exposure. Conclusions Returning ill US international travellers present with a broad spectrum of travel-associated diseases. Destination and reason for travel may help primary health care providers to generate an accurate differential diagnosis for the most common disorders and for those that may be life-threatening. PMID:25261506

  14. Characterization of a REST-Regulated Internal Promoter in the Schizophrenia Genome-Wide Associated Gene MIR137.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Alix; Breen, Gerome; Rujescu, Dan; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P

    2015-05-01

    MIR137 has been identified as a candidate gene for schizophrenia from genome-wide association studies via association with an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1625579. The location of the SNP suggests one mechanism in which transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation of miR-137 expression could underlie schizophrenia. We identified and validated a novel promoter of the MIR137 gene adjacent to miR-137 itself which can direct the expression of distinct mRNA isoforms encoding miR-137. Analysis of both endogenous gene expression and reporter gene assays determined that this internal promoter is regulated by repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), which has previously been associated with pathways linked to schizophrenia. Distinct isoforms of REST mediate differential expression at this locus, suggesting the relative levels of these isoforms are important for miR-137 expression profiles. The internal promoter contains a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) domain adjacent to the pre-miR-137 sequence. The reporter gene activity directed by this promoter was modified by the genotype of the VNTR. Differential expression was also observed in response to cocaine, which is known to regulate the REST pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data support the hypothesis that a "gene × environment" interaction could modify the level of miR-137 expression via this internal promoter and that the genotype of the VNTR could modulate transcriptional responses. We demonstrate that this promoter region is not in disequilibrium with rs1625579 and therefore would supply a distinct pathway to potentially alter miR-137 levels in response to environmental cues. PMID:25154622

  15. Existing FDA pathways have potential to ensure early access to, and appropriate use of, specialty drugs.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Tan, Yongtian Tina; Darrow, Jonathan J; Avorn, Jerry

    2014-10-01

    Specialty drugs are notable among prescription drugs in that they offer the possibility of substantial clinical improvement, come with important risks of adverse events and mortality, can be complex to manufacture or administer, and are usually extremely costly. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a critical role in ensuring that patients who could benefit from specialty drugs have access to them in a timely fashion. In this article we review the different strategies that the FDA can use to approve and influence the post-approval prescribing of specialty drugs. When specialty drugs show promise in early clinical trials, the FDA can expedite the drugs' availability to patients through expanded access programs and expedited approval pathways that speed regulatory authorization. After approval, to ensure that specialty drugs are directed to the patients who are most likely to benefit from them, the FDA can limit the scope of the drugs' indications, encourage the development of companion diagnostic tests to indicate which patients should receive the drugs, or require that manufacturers subject them to Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies to ensure that their use is appropriately limited to a restricted population that is aware of the drugs' risks and benefits. Implementing these existing regulatory approaches can promote timely patient access to specialty drugs while preventing expensive and potentially inappropriate overuse. PMID:25288421

  16. Specialty choice preference of medical students according to personality traits by Five-Factor Model

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process. PMID:26838573

  17. Specialty food safety concerns and multilingual resource needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai T; Jones, Andria Q; Sargeant, Jan M; Marshall, Barbara J; Dewey, Catherine E

    2010-12-01

    The province of Ontario, Canada, has a highly diverse and multicultural population. Specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures) are becoming increasingly available at retail food outlets and foods service establishments across the province; as a result, public health inspectors (PHIs) are increasingly required to assess the safety of foods with which they may be unfamiliar. The aim of this study was to investigate the concerns, perceptions, and self-identified needs of PHIs in Ontario with regard to specialty foods and food safety information resources in languages other than English. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. The study found that while some food safety information resources were available in languages other than English, fewer than 25% of respondents (56/239) were satisfied with the current availability of these resources. With regard to specialty foods, 60% of respondents (143/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were not confident about their current food safety knowledge, and 64% of respondents (153/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were dissatisfied with the current availability of food safety information. Therefore, the development of additional food safety information resources for specialty foods, and food safety resources in additional languages may provide enhanced support to PHIs involved in protecting and promoting a safe food supply. PMID:20704506

  18. Graduate medical students' perception of obstetrics and gynaecology as a future career specialty.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S I M F; Kevelighan, E H

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of graduate-entry medical students of obstetrics and gynaecology as a specialty, in order to understand how to increase its appeal to them, and therefore enhance recruitment to the specialty. A total of 90 questionnaires were returned out of 145 questionnaires distributed to years 2 and 4 graduate-entry medical students (62% response rate). Although fewer than 4% of respondents are considering the specialty as their career choice, more than half of the respondents would consider the specialty as a second option, which shows that there is room to persuade them to have a second look. Gender was the only factor that significantly affected views regarding obstetrics and gynaecology. There is a need for more information about the specialty and its training opportunities and exposure to areas of special interest and subspecialisation, as well as role models, rather than focussing on labour ward in timetables. Areas of apprehension about the specialty, such as the risk of litigation, need to be aired and addressed through career days, as well as formal tutorials within teaching programmes. PMID:24484359

  19. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Vera Lúcia Fonseca; Fernandes, Filipa Alexandra Veludo

    2016-01-01

    Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r), Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r), Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice. PMID:27027676

  20. Development of ERN together with an internal model of audio-motor associations

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Kai; Puorger, Roman; Cheetham, Marcus; Jancke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The brain's reactions to error are manifested in several event related potentials (ERP) components, derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. Although these components have been known for decades, their interpretation is still controversial. A current hypothesis (first indicator hypothesis) claims that the first indication of an action being erroneous leads to a negative deflection of the EEG signal over frontal midline areas. In some cases this requires sensory feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR). If KR is given, then the first negative deflection can be found around 250 ms after feedback presentation (feedback-related negativity, FRN). When KR is not required, a negative deflection is found already around 100 ms after action onset (ERN). This deflection may be evoked when a mismatch between required and actually executed actions is detected. To detect such a mismatch, however, necessitates knowledge about which action is required. To test this assumption, the current study monitored EEG error components during acquisition of an internal model, i.e., acquisition of the knowledge of which actions are needed to reach certain goals. Actions consisted of finger presses on a piano keyboard and goals were tones of a certain pitch to be generated, thus the internal model represented audio-motor mapping. Results show that with increasing proficiency in mapping goals to appropriate actions, the amplitude of the ERN increased, whereas the amplitude of the FRN remained unchanged. Thus, when knowledge is present about which action is required, this supports generation of an ERN around 100 ms, likely by detecting a mismatch between required and performed actions. This is in accordance with the first indicator hypothesis. The present study furthermore lends support to the notion that FRN mainly relies on comparison of sensory targets with sensory feedback. PMID:24027506

  1. The World Informatics Scene: ICSU, International Unions and Associations, Professional Society Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Peter

    In the lead up to, and during, the Electronic Geophysical Year (2007-2008), a substantial number of new coordinated efforts under the heading of informatics (defined as: ) have emerged. These efforts range from the formation of divisions/ sections in societies such as the Geological Society of America, the American Geophysical Union and the European Geosciences Union devoted to all aspects of informatics and have seen strong community response at their regular meetings. These society efforts are closer to the working scientists, technologists and data producers, and managers. At the same time, in a recognition for the need of a sustained activity such as eGY, two ad-hoc committees produced proposals for a) the formation of a Union Commission for Data and Information within the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and b) the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) approved a Working Group on XX, with the intent that it will become a Task Group after the 2008 CODATA general assembly. The International Council of Science's (ICSU) Strategic Committee on Information and Data (SCID) will deliver its report on implementation ICSU's priority area assessment strategy for ICSU to play a leadership role in the coordination of data and information efforts world-wide. This report will influence entities such as CODATA, the World Data Centres, the Federation of Astrophysical and Geophysical Data Services (FAGS) and, most likely, all ICSU Unions. This presentation will give details on the abovementioned activities and indicate an emerging synergy for Informatics across many discipline and the advancement of science and societal goals. The presentation will also include suggestions for the COSPAR community to engage in on-going activities.

  2. International collaboration, funding and association with burden of disease in randomized controlled trials in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Swingler, George H.; Pillay, Victoria; Pienaar, Elizabeth D.; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether randomized controlled trials conducted in Africa with collaborators from outside Africa were more closely associated with health conditions that have a burden of disease that is of specific importance to Africa than with conditions of more general global importance or with conditions important to developed countries. We also assessed whether the source of funding influenced a study's relevance to Africa. METHODS: We compared randomized controlled trials performed in Africa that looked at diseases specifically relevant to Africa (as determined by burden of disease criteria) with trials classified as looking at diseases of global importance or diseases important to developed countries in order to assess differences in collaboration and funding. FINDINGS: Of 520 trials assessed, 347 studied diseases that are specifically important to Africa; 99 studied globally important diseases and 74 studied diseases that are important to developed countries. The strongest independent predictor of whether a study was of specifically African or global importance was the corresponding author's country of origin: African importance was negatively associated with a corresponding author being from South Africa (odds ratio (OR) = 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.02-0.10) but there was little difference between corresponding authors from other African countries and corresponding authors from countries outside Africa. The importance of a study to Africa was independently associated with having more non-African authors (OR per author = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.08-1.58), fewer trial sites (OR per site = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.96), and reporting of funding (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.15-4.00). Similar patterns were present in the comparisons of trials studying diseases important to Africa versus those studying diseases important to developed countries with stronger associations overall. When funding was reported, private industry funding was negatively

  3. A surgical case of paraclinoid carotid aneurysm associated with ipsilateral cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Sakakibara, Fumihiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a 60-year-old with a large paraclinoid carotid aneurysm associated with cervical interal carotid artery (ICA) dissection (CICAD). She had a fall while riding a bicycle and hit her head on the ground. Computed tomography scan done at another facility showed a round mass lesion near the sella. Her medical history revealed gradual decrease in left eye vision since two years. Left carotid artery digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a CICAD with an intimal flap and a large paraclinoid aneurysm (15.5 mm in size). She underwent a high-flow bypass with a so-called double-insurance bypass and proximal ligation of the cervical ICA and the postoperative course was uneventful. She was discharged without any new neurological deficits. We suggest that the possible nature of carotid artery dissection (CAD)-related hemodynamic changes should be taken into consideration in cases of intracranial aneurysm associated with CAD. PMID:23135031

  4. Association between the Adherence to the International Guidelines for Cancer Prevention and Mammographic Density

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, Adela; Prieto, Leandro; Ederra, María; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density (MD) is considered a strong predictor of Breast Cancer (BC). The objective of the present study is to explore the association between MD and the compliance with the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations for cancer prevention. Methods Data of 3584 women attending screening from a population-based multicenter cross-sectional study (DDM-Spain) collected from October 7, 2007 through July 14, 2008, was used to calculate a score that measures the level of compliance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations: R1)Maintain adequate body weight; R2)Be physically active; 3R)Limit the intake of high density foods; R4)Eat mostly plant foods; R5)Limit the intake of animal foods; R6)Limit alcohol intake; R7)Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; R8)Meet nutritional needs through diet. The association between the score and MD (assessed by a single radiologist using a semi-quantitative scale) was evaluated using ordinal logistic models with random center-specific intercepts adjusted for the main determinants of MD. Stratified analyses by menopausal status and smoking status were also carried out. Results A higher compliance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with lower MD (OR1-unit increase = 0.93 95%CI:0.86;0.99). The association was stronger in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.91 95%CI:0.84;0.99) and nonsmokers (OR = 0.87;95%CI:0.80;0.96 for nonsmokers, OR = 1.01 95%CI:0.91;1.12 for smokers, P-interaction = 0.042). Among nonsmokers, maintaining adequate body weight (OR = 0.81 95%CI:0.65;1.01), practicing physical activity (OR = 0.68 95%CI:0.48;0.96) and moderating the intake of high-density foods (OR = 0.58 95%CI:0.40;0.86) and alcoholic beverages (OR = 0.76 95%CI:0.55;1.05) were the recommendations showing the strongest associations with MD. Conclusions postmenopausal women and non-smokers with greater compliance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines have lower MD. These results may

  5. Evaluation of specialty fibers and waveguides for ultrashort laser pulse propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Michael N.

    Ultrashort pulse lasers have become invaluable tools in many areas of science and technology. Optical waveguide or fiber delivery of ultrashort pulses would benefit numerous applications that require remote location of the laser or for addressing areas of low accessibility such as minimally invasive surgical procedures, multiphoton excitation microscopy, laser micromachining and high bandwidth telecommunications. However, the extremely high peak power and bandwidth associated with ultrashort pulses are prohibitive for most conventional waveguides that guide light in solid dielectric cores, the main drawbacks being dispersion, nonlinear effects, and damage via optical breakdown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the significant obstacles involved with implementing optical waveguides or fibers capable of delivering ultrashort pulses. In recent years, specialty fibers such as large mode-area (LMA) photonic crystal and photonic bandgap fibers have been developed, which exhibit remarkable properties such as single-mode guidance that is independent of core size and guidance in an air core respectively. In this thesis, two early prototypes of each of these fibers are investigated for their ability to deliver ultrashort pulses. Another specialty fiber, silver coated hollow silica waveguide, which was originally developed for delivery of infrared light from CO2 and Er:YAG lasers is shown to be a good candidate for single-mode delivery of gigawatt peak power pulses with minimal pulse distortion. Another potential fiber is comprised of multiple evanescently-coupled single-mode cores. This so-called multi-core fiber has demonstrated increased power handling in fiber lasers and amplifiers and was selected as a candidate for delivery of ultrashort pulses due to its scalable large mode-area and increased nonlinear threshold. A design for multi-core fibers is proposed that allows tailoring of the supermode distribution to obtain equal power distribution among all cores

  6. It Gets Better: Resolution of Internalized Homophobia over Time and Associations with Positive Health Outcomes among MSM

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael w.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. PMID:23283578

  7. Analysis of internal motions of interleukin-13 variant associated with severe bronchial asthma using {sup 15}N NMR relaxation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Yuichiro; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Takeda, Chika; Kuroki, Ryota; Izuhara, Kenji; Imoto, Taiji; Ueda, Tadashi . E-mail: ueda@phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2007-06-22

    The single nucleotide polymorphism interleukin-13 (IL-13) R110Q is associated with severe bronchial asthma because its lower affinity leads to the augmentation of local IL-13 concentration, resulting in an increase in the signal transduction via IL-13R. Since the mutation site does not directly bind to IL-13R{alpha}2, we carried out NMR relaxation analyses of the wild-type IL-13 and IL-13-R110Q in order to examine whether the R110Q mutation affects the internal motions in IL-13 molecules. The results showed that the internal motion in the micro- to millisecond time scale on helix D, which is suggested to be important for the interaction between IL-13 and IL-13R{alpha}2, is increased in IL-13-R110Q compared with that in the wild-type IL-13. It therefore appears that the difference in the internal motions on helix D between the wild-type IL-13 and IL-13-R110Q may be involved in their affinity differences with IL-13R{alpha}2.

  8. Review of National Teachers Examination by the Oregon State System of Higher Education. 23 Specialty Area Tests from October Review. 2 Specialty Area Tests from May Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene.

    This report summarizes findings on 26 National Teacher Examination specialty area tests provided by faculty reviewers from five Oregon institutions of higher education. Reviewers were asked to judge tests on the basis of: (1) whether students at the reviewer's institution would have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge measured in test items;…

  9. Influence of training changes on the stability of specialty choices of UK medical graduates: surveys of the graduates of 2002 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Svirko, Elena; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the impact of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) training on the stability of medical career choices in the UK. Setting UK Participants Graduates of 2002 and 2008 from all UK medical schools, 1 and 3 years postgraduation. Design Questionnaire surveys were conducted of 2002 and 2008 graduates from all UK medical schools 1 and 3 years post graduation. Main outcome measures Doctors gave their specialty choice(s) and rated the influence of each of 11 factors on their career choice. Results 2008 graduates were a little more likely than graduates of 2002 to retain their year 1 choice in year 3 (77.3% vs. 73.3%; p = 0.002). Among 2008 graduates, the percentage retaining their year 1 choice varied between 42% (clinical oncology) and 79% (general practice). Enthusiasm for a specialty, student experience and inclinations before medical school were associated with choice retention; consideration of domestic circumstances and hours/working conditions were associated with changes of choice. 2008 graduates were more likely than 2002s to be influenced by enthusiasm for a specialty, self-appraisal of their skills, working hours and their domestic circumstances; and less likely to be influenced by their experience of jobs, a particular teacher/department or eventual financial prospects. Conclusions Post-MMC, graduates were less likely to change their career choice and more likely to be motivated by personal factors and self-assessment of their suitability to a particular area of work. PMID:25572991

  10. Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs: findings of an international survey of active drug users.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Noronha, Louise A; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Fielding, Amanda; Curran, H Valerie

    2013-06-01

    There have been several recent efforts in the UK and the Netherlands to describe the harms of psychoactive substances based on ratings of either experts or drug users. This study aimed to assess the perceived benefits as well as harms of widely used recreational drugs, both licit and illicit, in an international sample of drug users. The survey was hosted at https://www.internationaldrugsurvey.org/ and was available in three languages. Residents reported their experience of 15 commonly used drugs or drug classes; regular users then rated their harms and benefits. In all, 5791 individuals from over 40 countries completed the survey, although the majority were from English speaking countries. Rankings of drugs differed across 10 categories of perceived benefits. Skunk and herbal cannabis were ranked consistently beneficial, whilst alcohol and tobacco fell below many classified drugs. There was no correlation at all between users' harm ranking of drugs and their classification in schedules of the USA or ABC system in the UK. Prescription analgesics, alcohol and tobacco were ranked within the top 10 most harmful drugs. These findings suggest that neither the UK nor US classification systems act to inform users of the harms of psychoactive substances. It is hoped the results might inform health professionals and educators of what are considered to be both the harms and benefits of psychoactive substances to young people. PMID:23438502

  11. Flywheel-associated counterweight apparatus for reducing vibration in a single cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, A.M. Jr.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a single cylinder internal combustion engine comprising: crankshaft means rotationally drivable about a crankshaft axis; bearing means, engaging the crankshaft means between opposite first and second end portions thereof, for supporting the crankshaft means for driven rotation about the crankshaft axis; piston means reciprocably drivable along a piston axis transverse to the crankshaft axis, the piston means having top dead center and bottom dead center positions; connecting rod means, interconnected between the piston means and the first end portion of the crankshaft means, for causing rotation of the crankshaft means about the crankshaft axis in response to driven reciprocation of the piston means along the piston axis; flywheel means coaxially mounted on the second end portion of the crankshaft means for driven rotation therewith about the crankshaft axis; and counterweight means, connected directly to the second end portion of the crankshaft means, for substantially reducing engine vibration attributable to linear inertial and reactive forces transmitted to the first end portion of the crankshaft means by the piston means and the connected rod means, when during engine operation.

  12. Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs: findings of an international survey of active drug users

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Celia JA; Noronha, Louise A; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Fielding, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    There have been several recent efforts in the UK and the Netherlands to describe the harms of psychoactive substances based on ratings of either experts or drug users. This study aimed to assess the perceived benefits as well as harms of widely used recreational drugs, both licit and illicit, in an international sample of drug users. The survey was hosted at https://www.internationaldrugsurvey.org/ and was available in three languages. Residents reported their experience of 15 commonly used drugs or drug classes; regular users then rated their harms and benefits. In all, 5791 individuals from over 40 countries completed the survey, although the majority were from English speaking countries. Rankings of drugs differed across 10 categories of perceived benefits. Skunk and herbal cannabis were ranked consistently beneficial, whilst alcohol and tobacco fell below many classified drugs. There was no correlation at all between users’ harm ranking of drugs and their classification in schedules of the USA or ABC system in the UK. Prescription analgesics, alcohol and tobacco were ranked within the top 10 most harmful drugs. These findings suggest that neither the UK nor US classification systems act to inform users of the harms of psychoactive substances. It is hoped the results might inform health professionals and educators of what are considered to be both the harms and benefits of psychoactive substances to young people. PMID:23438502

  13. AB015. Current diagnostic approaches in ILD: ILD vs. non-specialty clinics

    PubMed Central

    Belloli, Elizabeth; Rosenbluth, Michael; Choi, Yoonha; Danese, Sherry; Bianchi, Pauline; Martinez, Fernando; Flaherty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background The approach to diagnosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has evolved. While high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and multidisciplinary discussion are key components in the diagnostic process, the approval of pirfenidone and nintedanib for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has spurred greater urgency to improve the diagnostic process. In this study, we evaluated responses from pulmonologist in ILD and non-specialty clinics to assess the current ILD diagnostic evaluation and impact of a novel genomic classifier under development. Methods A national survey targeting pulmonologists in ILD and non-specialty clinics to assess the current ILD diagnostic evaluation and the impact of a novel diagnostic test. Participants were practicing pulmonologists who evaluated at least ten ILD patients annually. Seventy-six physicians satisfied the screening criteria and completed the survey (16 ILD pulmonologists; 60 non-specialty pulmonologists). Data were collected from March 17–20, 2015. Results ILD physicians diagnosed more patients with ILD (median 100 vs. 43 patients, P=0.017) and IPF (median 40 vs. 20 patients, P=0.02) annually than non-specialty pulmonologists. HRCT was highly utilized in both ILD and non-specialty clinics (96% vs. 91%, P=0.08). ILD clinicians utilized invasive diagnostic procedures significantly less than non-specialty pulmonologists: bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 30% vs. 40% (P=0.022); transbronchial biopsy (TBB), 27% vs. 41% (P=0.002); surgical lung biopsy (SLB), 32% vs. 42% (P=0.021). Clinicians were provided clinical backgrounds and HRCT images for four patient cases and were queried regarding diagnostic/treatment plans. ILD pulmonologists were significantly more likely to recommend pirfenidone or nintedanib for patients with definite Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) on HRCT than non-specialty pulmonologists (81% vs. 38%, P=0.006). About 48% of non-specialty pulmonologists recommended BAL/TBB or SLB in this patient case despite

  14. Updating the definition and role of public health nursing to advance and guide the specialty.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Walker Linderman, Tessa; Kneipp, Shawn; Zahner, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    National changes in the context for public health services are influencing the nature of public health nursing practice. Despite this, the document that defines public health nursing as a specialty--The Definition and Role of Public Health Nursing--has remained in wide use since its publication in 1996 without a review or update. With support from the American Public Health Association (APHA) Public Health Nursing Section, a national Task Force, was formed in November 2012 to update the definition of public health nursing, using processes that reflected deliberative democratic principles. A yearlong process was employed that included a modified Delphi technique and various modes of engagement such as online discussion boards, questionnaires, and public comment to review. The resulting 2013 document consisted of a reaffirmation of the one-sentence 1996 definition, while updating supporting documentation to align with the current social, economic, political, and health care context. The 2013 document was strongly endorsed by vote of the APHA Public Health Nursing Section elected leadership. The 2013 definition and document affirm the relevance of a population-focused definition of public health nursing to complex systems addressed in current practice and articulate critical roles of public health nurses (PHN) in these settings. PMID:25284433

  15. Oral and maxillofacial radiologists: career trends and specialty board certification status.

    PubMed

    Pakchoian, Andrew J; Dagdeviren, Didem; Kilham, Jessica; Mahdian, Mina; Lurie, Alan; Tadinada, Aditya

    2015-05-01

    Oral and maxillofacial radiology is the newest specialty to be recognized by the American Dental Association, so knowledge about the parameters of this profession is in the early stages of development. The aim of this study was to understand the current distribution of oral and maxillofacial radiologists (OMFRs) in academia and private practice, the nature of their practice, and trends in their board certification status. An email describing the study's purpose with a link to a survey was sent to "OradList," a listserv that has a majority of OMFRs in the United States and Canada as members. Of the 205 respondents, 46% were female; the age distribution ranged from 25 to over 70 years; and 80% were working full-time. Among the respondents, 66% practiced in an academic setting, 20% in private practice, 8% in both private and academic settings, and 3% in the military. Only 37% of the respondents were board-certified. For OMFRs trained from 1965 to 2009, there was an increasing trend towards becoming board-certified, but a significant decrease occurred after 2009, dropping from 65% to 35% of those trained in those years. PMID:25941142

  16. Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties-certified faculty: a survey of United States colleges of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Frank; Ryan, Melody; Smith, Kelly M

    2004-03-01

    Board certification of pharmacists has been a reality in the United States since 1976, when the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties (BPS) was founded. Little has been reported about the effects of board certification of pharmacists, particularly pharmacy practice faculty, since 1992, when the BPS administered its first certification examination. We developed and pretested a survey to describe and measure the effect of BPS certification on the realm of academia as perceived by deans of colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Deans or other appropriate officials at all 84 colleges of pharmacy in the United States were asked to complete and submit this 13-question survey, which was administered through the Web and maintained respondents' anonymity. Officials from 35 of the 84 colleges completed the survey, for a response rate of 42%. No college reported that board certification was a condition for employment. Eight schools (23%) anticipated a certification requirement in the future. The most commonly reimbursed items associated with certification were fees for the American College of Clinical Pharmacy preparatory course and the BPS examination. Twelve schools (34%) provided no reimbursement toward certification. The most common incentive for faculty to obtain certification was consideration in promotion and tenure (66%). We believe that this information will facilitate efforts to gauge the effects of BPS certification on colleges of pharmacy. We also anticipate that it will assist colleges as they attempt to recruit and retain the most qualified faculty members possible, particularly in light of the national pharmacist shortage. PMID:15040653

  17. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.

    2016-06-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15-25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7-14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave-current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave-current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for variability

  18. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15–25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7–14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave–current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave–current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for

  19. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  20. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics. First Revision.

    PubMed

    Mantas, John; Ammenwerth, Elske; Demiris, George; Hasman, Arie; Haux, Reinhold; Hersh, William; Hovenga, Evelyn; Lun, K C; Marin, Heimar; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Wright, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on revising the existing international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), particularly international activities in educating BMHI specialists and the sharing of courseware. Method: An IMIA task force, nominated in 2006, worked on updating the recommendations' first version. These updates have been broadly discussed and refined by members of IMIA's National Member Societies, IMIA's Academic Institutional Members and by members of IMIA's Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education. Results and Conclusions: The IMIA recommendations center on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (e.g. physicians, nurses, BMHI professionals), 2) type of specialization in BMHI (IT users, BMHI specialists), and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, doctorate). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role a) as IT user and b) as BMHI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in BMHI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in BMHI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in BMHI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high-quality BMHI education. It supports information

  1. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Stellern, Sarah A; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M; Gunnar, Megan R

    2012-10-16

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

  2. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

  3. Unmasking Novel Loci for Internal Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency in Rice Germplasm through Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wissuwa, Matthias; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Takuya; Mori, Asako; Rose, Michael T; Pariasca-Tanaka, Juan; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Haefele, Stephan M; Rose, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of non-renewable rock phosphate reserves and phosphorus (P) fertilizer price increases has renewed interest in breeding P-efficient varieties. Internal P utilization efficiency (PUE) is of prime interest because there has been no progress to date in breeding for high PUE. We characterized the genotypic variation for PUE present within the rice gene pool by using a hydroponic system that assured equal plant P uptake, followed by mapping of loci controlling PUE via Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Loci associated with PUE were mapped on chromosomes 1, 4, 11 and 12. The highest PUE was associated with a minor indica-specific haplotype on chromosome 1 and a rare aus-specific haplotype on chromosome 11. Comparative variant and expression analysis for genes contained within the chromosome 1 haplotype identified high priority candidate genes. Differences in coding regions and expression patterns between genotypes of contrasting haplotypes, suggested functional alterations for two predicted nucleic acid-interacting proteins that are likely causative for the observed differences in PUE. The loci reported here are the first identified for PUE in any crop that is not confounded by differential P uptake among genotypes. Importantly, modern rice varieties lacked haplotypes associated with superior PUE, and would thus benefit from targeted introgressions of these loci from traditional donors to improve plant growth in phosphorus-limited cropping systems. PMID:25923470

  4. Microgravity induces changes in microsome-associated proteins of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on board the international space station.

    PubMed

    Mazars, Christian; Brière, Christian; Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    The "GENARA A" experiment was designed to monitor global changes in the proteome of membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to microgravity on board the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose, 12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1 g centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated to membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1 g (space and ground) and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated to auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in µg space conditions, whereas proteins associated to stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in µg than in 1 g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach gives a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected. PMID:24618597

  5. Unmasking Novel Loci for Internal Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency in Rice Germplasm through Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wissuwa, Matthias; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Takuya; Mori, Asako; Rose, Michael T.; Pariasca-Tanaka, Juan; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Haefele, Stephan M.; Rose, Terry J.

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of non-renewable rock phosphate reserves and phosphorus (P) fertilizer price increases has renewed interest in breeding P-efficient varieties. Internal P utilization efficiency (PUE) is of prime interest because there has been no progress to date in breeding for high PUE. We characterized the genotypic variation for PUE present within the rice gene pool by using a hydroponic system that assured equal plant P uptake, followed by mapping of loci controlling PUE via Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Loci associated with PUE were mapped on chromosomes 1, 4, 11 and 12. The highest PUE was associated with a minor indica-specific haplotype on chromosome 1 and a rare aus-specific haplotype on chromosome 11. Comparative variant and expression analysis for genes contained within the chromosome 1 haplotype identified high priority candidate genes. Differences in coding regions and expression patterns between genotypes of contrasting haplotypes, suggested functional alterations for two predicted nucleic acid-interacting proteins that are likely causative for the observed differences in PUE. The loci reported here are the first identified for PUE in any crop that is not confounded by differential P uptake among genotypes. Importantly, modern rice varieties lacked haplotypes associated with superior PUE, and would thus benefit from targeted introgressions of these loci from traditional donors to improve plant growth in phosphorus-limited cropping systems. PMID:25923470

  6. Microgravity Induces Changes in Microsome-Associated Proteins of Arabidopsis Seedlings Grown on Board the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Grat, Sabine; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Eche, Brigitte; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Le Disquet, Isabel; Medina, Francisco Javier; Graziana, Annick; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    The “GENARA A” experiment was designed to monitor global changes in the proteome of membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to microgravity on board the International Space Station (ISS). For this purpose, 12-day-old seedlings were grown either in space, in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) under microgravity or on a 1 g centrifuge, or on the ground. Proteins associated to membranes were selectively extracted from microsomes and identified and quantified through LC-MS-MS using a label-free method. Among the 1484 proteins identified and quantified in the 3 conditions mentioned above, 80 membrane-associated proteins were significantly more abundant in seedlings grown under microgravity in space than under 1 g (space and ground) and 69 were less abundant. Clustering of these proteins according to their predicted function indicates that proteins associated to auxin metabolism and trafficking were depleted in the microsomal fraction in µg space conditions, whereas proteins associated to stress responses, defence and metabolism were more abundant in µg than in 1 g indicating that microgravity is perceived by plants as a stressful environment. These results clearly indicate that a global membrane proteomics approach gives a snapshot of the cell status and its signaling activity in response to microgravity and highlight the major processes affected. PMID:24618597

  7. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  8. International Perspectives on Environmental Education: Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st International and 13th Annual Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed.

    The proceedings of the first International Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers and reports are…

  9. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  10. Universality, Diversity, Interdependence: The Missions of IAU. Policy Outline 1990-1995. International Association of Universities General Conference (9th, Helsinki, Finland, August 5-11, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Universities, Paris (France).

    This policy outline was issued to guide the work of the International Association of Universities (IAU) as it develops policy for the further development of services, outreach, and partnerships. Services being rendered or developed by IAU's International Universities Bureau are described to provide a departure point for policy considerations.…

  11. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007-2012. Device-associated module.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Víctor Daniel; Maki, Dennis George; Mehta, Yatin; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Al-Mousa, Haifaa Hassan; Balkhy, Hanan; Hu, Bijie; Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Raka, Lul; Cuellar, Luis E; Ahmed, Altaf; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; El-Kholy, Amani Ali; Kanj, Souha Sami; Bat-Erdene, Ider; Duszynska, Wieslawa; Van Truong, Nguyen; Pazmino, Leonardo N; See-Lum, Lucy Chai; Fernández-Hidalgo, Rosalia; Di-Silvestre, Gabriela; Zand, Farid; Hlinkova, Sona; Belskiy, Vladislav; Al-Rahma, Hussain; Luque-Torres, Marco Tulio; Bayraktar, Nesil; Mitrev, Zan; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Fisher, Dale; Abu-Khader, Ilham Bulos; Berechid, Kamal; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Arnaldo; Horhat, Florin George; Requejo-Pino, Osiel; Hadjieva, Nassya; Ben-Jaballah, Nejla; García-Mayorca, Elías; Kushner-Dávalos, Luis; Pasic, Srdjan; Pedrozo-Ortiz, Luis E; Apostolopoulou, Eleni; Mejía, Nepomuceno; Gamar-Elanbya, May Osman; Jayatilleke, Kushlani; de Lourdes-Dueñas, Miriam; Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of an International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2007-December 2012 in 503 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 605,310 patients hospitalized in the INICC's ICUs for an aggregate of 3,338,396 days. Although device utilization in the INICC's ICUs was similar to that reported from ICUs in the U.S. in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection in the INICC's ICUs, 4.9 per 1,000 central line days, is nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.9 per 1,000 central line days reported from comparable U.S. ICUs. The overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher (16.8 vs 1.1 per 1,000 ventilator days) as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (5.5 vs 1.3 per 1,000 catheter days). Frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (42.8% vs 10%) and imipenem (42.4% vs 26.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (71.2% vs 28.8%) and imipenem (19.6% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC's ICUs compared with the ICUs of the CDC's NHSN. PMID:25179325

  12. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Gomez, F; Alvarado, B; Guerra, R O; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J; Zunzunegui, M V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in the elderly populations of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Approximately 200 men and 200 women aged 65-74 years were recruited at each site (n=1995) during IMIAS' 2012 baseline survey at five cities: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken at participants' homes. Hypertension prevalence ranged from 53.4% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 83.5% in Tirana. Diabetes and obesity were identified as risk factors in all cities. More than two-thirds of hypertensive participants were aware of their condition (from 67.3% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 85.4% in Tirana); women were more aware than men. Awareness was positively associated with diabetes in Kingston, Manizales and Natal. Though most of those aware of their hypertensive condition were being treated pharmacologically, associations between awareness and physical activity and refraining from smoking were weak. Control among treated hypertensive participants was low, especially in Tirana and Natal. Diabetes and physical inactivity were associated with poor hypertension control. Hypertension is common in the older populations of IMIAS. Diabetes is strongly associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness and lack of control of hypertension. The fact that awareness is not strongly associated with healthy behaviours suggests that antihypertensive medication is not accompanied by non-pharmacological therapies. Improved health behaviours could strengthen hypertension control. Efforts should be made to increase men's awareness of hypertension. Hypertension control in diabetic patients is a challenge. PMID:25833704

  13. The scatter of research: cross sectional comparison of randomised trials and systematic reviews across specialties

    PubMed Central

    Erueti, Chrissy; Thorning, Sarah; Glasziou, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the degree of scatter of reports of randomised trials and systematic reviews, and how the scatter differs among medical specialties and subspecialties. Design Cross sectional analysis. Data source PubMed for all disease relevant randomised trials and systematic reviews published in 2009. Study selection Randomised trials and systematic reviews of the nine diseases or disorders with the highest burden of disease, and the broader category of disease to which each belonged. Results The scatter across journals varied considerably among specialties and subspecialties: otolaryngology had the least scatter (363 trials across 167 journals) and neurology the most (2770 trials across 896 journals). In only three subspecialties (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hearing loss) were 10 or fewer journals needed to locate 50% of trials. The scatter was less for systematic reviews: hearing loss had the least scatter (10 reviews across nine journals) and cancer the most (670 reviews across 279 journals). For some specialties and subspecialties the papers were concentrated in specialty journals; whereas for others, few of the top 10 journals were a specialty journal for that area. Generally, little overlap occurred between the top 10 journals publishing trials and those publishing systematic reviews. The number of journals required to find all trials or reviews was highly correlated (r=0.97) with the number of papers for each specialty/subspecialty. Conclusions Publication rates of speciality relevant trials vary widely, from one to seven trials per day, and are scattered across hundreds of general and specialty journals. Although systematic reviews reduce the extent of scatter, they are still widely scattered and mostly in different journals to those of randomised trials. Personal subscriptions to journals, which are insufficient for keeping up to date with knowledge, need to be supplemented by other methods such as journal scanning services

  14. Implementation of a Cross-specialty Training Program in Basic Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Jette Led; Thinggaard, Ebbe; Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Several surgical specialties use laparoscopy and share many of the same techniques and challenges, such as entry approaches, equipment, and complications. However, most basic training programs focus on a single specialty. The objective of this study was to describe the implementation of a regional cross-specialty training program for basic laparoscopy, to increase the flexibility of educational courses, and to provide a more efficient use of simulation equipment. Methods: Using a regional training program in basic laparoscopy for gynecology as a model, we developed a cross-specialty training program for residents in surgery, gynecology, urology, and thoracic surgery. We reviewed data on training for the first year of the program and evaluated the program by using a scoring system for quality criteria for laparoscopic curricula and skills. Results: We held 6 full-day theoretical courses involving 67 residents between September 1, 2013, and August 31, 2014. In the weeks following each course, residents practiced in a self-directed, distributed, and proficiency-based manner at a simulation center and in local hospital departments. A total of 57 residents completed the self-practice and a subsequent practical animal laboratory–based course. The structure of the training program was evaluated according to identified quality criteria for a skills laboratory, and the program scored 38 of a maximum 62 points. Discussion: Implementation of a regional cross-specialty training program in basic laparoscopy is feasible. There are several logistic benefits of using a cross-specialty approach; however, it is important that local departments include specialty-specific components, together with clinical departmental follow-up. PMID:26527858

  15. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  16. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  17. Participation of National Medical Associations in quality improvement activities - International comparison and the Israeli case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many countries have devoted considerable efforts in an attempt to improve the performance of their health care systems. National Medical Associations (NMAs), along with other stakeholders, play a part in the promotion of such activities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and level of participation of NMAs in activities of quality improvement in medicine, with a specific emphasis on Israel. Methods The authors conducted a survey among NMAs around the world inquiring as to their involvement in three central aspects of quality improvement: clinical guidelines, quality measurement and continuing medical education (CME). In addition, they conducted a review of the literature in order to gather more information and complete the data collected in the survey. The findings were processed and analyzed comparatively. Results Most of the NMAs surveyed participate in quality improvement activities at least to some extent. NMAs' main involvement is in the regulation of CME and they are involved to a much lesser extent in the preparation of clinical guidelines and in quality measurement. In Israel, the Israeli Medical Association (IMA) has a dominant role in both the preparation of clinical guidelines and the regulation of CME credits. Discussion It is possible that the expertise maintained by the profession, coupled with the organizational power of the NMA as a union, is viewed as beneficial for regulating educational activities in medicine such as CME. Conversely, the issuing of clinical guidelines is usually regarded as a typical scientific activity, and therefore often rests in the hands of professional medical societies. Quality measurement is regarded as a distinctive administrative tool and is usually found in the province of governments. Based on the typology that we introduced in our previous paper, we discovered that the extent of NMAs’ involvement in quality improvement coincides with the mode of governance of the health care system

  18. The Association between Tax Structure and Cigarette Price Variability: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O’Connor, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance when cigarette excise tax structure departs from a uniform specific structure. However, the association between tax structure and cigarette price variability has not been thoroughly studied in the existing literature. Objective To examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with price variability. The variability of self-reported prices is measured using the ratios of differences between higher and lower prices to the median price such as the IQR-to-median ratio. Methods We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Cigarette prices were derived using individual purchase information and aggregated to price variability measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on price variability was estimated using Generalised Estimating Equations after adjusting for year and country attributes. Findings Our study provides empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette price variability. We find that, compared to the specific uniform tax structure, mixed uniform and tiered (specific, ad valorem or mixed) structures are associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). Moreover, while a greater share of the specific component in total excise taxes is associated with lower price variability (p≤0.05), a tiered tax structure is associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). The results suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption and prevalence by limiting price variability and decreasing opportunities for tax avoidance. PMID:25855641

  19. Genetic Association of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Polymorphisms with High-Grade Myopia in an International Family Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Ravikanth; Ki, Chang-Seok; Li, Yi-Ju; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Abbott, Diana; Malecaze, Francois; Calvas, Patrick; Mackey, David A.; Rosenberg, Thomas; Paget, Sandrine; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Evidence from human myopia genetic mapping studies (MYP3 locus), modulated animal models, and observations of glycemic control in humans suggests that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays a role in the control of eye growth. This study was conducted to determine whether IGF-1 polymorphisms are associated with myopia in a large, international dataset of Caucasian high-grade myopia pedigrees. Methods. Two hundred sixty-five multiplex families with 1391 subjects participated in the study. IGF-1 genotyping was performed with 13 selected tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using allelic discrimination assays. A family-based pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) was performed to test for association. Myopia status was defined using sphere (SPH) or spherical equivalent (SE), and analyses assessed the association of (1) high-grade myopia (≤ −5.00 D), and (2) any myopia (≤ −0.50 D) with IGF-1 markers. Results were declared significant at P ≤ 0.0038 after Bonferroni correction. Q values that take into account multiple testing were also obtained. Results. In all, three SNPs—rs10860860, rs2946834, and rs6214—were present at P < 0.05. SNP rs6214 showed positive association with both the high-grade– and any-myopia groups (P = 2 × 10−3 and P = 2 × 10−3, respectively) after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions. The study supports a genetic association between IGF-1 and high-grade myopia. These findings are in line with recent evidence in an experimental myopia model showing that IGF-1 promotes ocular growth and axial myopia. IGF-1 may be a myopia candidate gene for further investigation. PMID:20435602

  20. Regulatory tasks of national medical associations - international comparison and the Israeli case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many countries, NMAs, along with other stakeholders, play a part in the regulation of physicians. The purpose of this paper is to compare and explain the level of involvement of NMAs in physician regulation in several developed countries, with a specific emphasis on Israel. Methods The authors conducted a review of the literature on physician regulation, focusing on licensing and registration, postgraduate training and physician disciplinary measures. Detailed country specific information was also obtained via the websites of relevant NMAs and regulatory bodies and correspondence with select NMAs. Five test cases were examined in detail: Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Israeli case will be discussed at greater length. Results Medical licensing usually lies in the hands of the government (on the national or state level). Specialist training, on the other hand, is often self-regulated and entrusted in the hands of the profession, frequently under the direct responsibility of the NMA, as in Israel, the Netherlands and Germany. In all the countries presented, other than Germany, the NMA is not involved in instituting disciplinary procedures in cases of alleged physician misconduct. Discussion The extent to which NMAs fulfill regulatory functions varies greatly from country to country. The relationship between government and the profession in the area of regulation often parallels the dominant mode of governance in the health care system as a whole. Specifically, the level of involvement of the Israeli Medical Association in medical regulation is a result of political, historical and ideological arrangements shaped vis-à-vis the government over the years. Conclusions In Continental Europe, co-operation between the NMA and the government is more common than in the USA and the UK. The Israeli regulatory model emerged in a European-like fashion, closer to the Netherlands than to Germany. The Israeli case, as

  1. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Pugh, B.K.; Howell, E.I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Miller, Roger G.; Pugh, Barry K.; Howell, Edwin I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been 238PuO2, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the ``Pluto Express'' mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS).

  3. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Miller, Roger G.; Pugh, Barry K.; Howell, Edwin I.

    1997-01-10

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the 'Pluto Express' mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS)

  4. Inaugural conference of the International Association of Immunization Managers (IAIM), Istanbul Turkey, 3-4 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Peter; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Andrus, Jon; Waller, Katie; Maassen, Alison; Symenouh, Emi; Hafalia, Gabrielle

    2015-08-01

    For more than 35 years, most national immunization programs have established managerial structures and processes for delivering vaccination services to their populations. These days, immunization managers are facing an increasing number of challenges due to the introduction of new vaccines, shifting demographic patterns, complex networks of service providers, and maintaining the gains achieved with previous vaccination efforts. To confront these challenges, better program performance will require better managerial practices, which incorporates new technologies. To that end, the International Association of Immunization Managers (IAIM) is the first global professional association launched to promote superior leadership and management skills among health professionals involved with vaccination efforts worldwide. From 3 to 4 March 2015, approximately 132 members from 70 countries representing six regions, gathered in Istanbul, Turkey for the inaugural conference of IAIM. In the two-day program, members selected thirteen peers to constitute the Governing Council. The 12 articles of the bylaws of the Association were also ratified. This conference was a forum for sharing managerial best practices through networking sessions, breakout sessions, and presentations. Members also learned about IAIM sponsored training opportunities to deepen their managerial competencies through peer-to-peer exchanges and scholarship training programs. We believe that the IAIM inaugural conference was an appropriate platform for equipping managers with tools and professional network of peers to support them in achieving national, regional and global immunization goals, including those of the Global Vaccine Action Plan of the World Health Organization. PMID:26162849

  5. A Multicenter Study Investigating Empathy and Burnout Characteristics in Medical Residents with Various Specialties.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmin; Lee, Yeon Jung; Hong, Minha; Jung, Chul-Ho; Synn, Yeni; Kwack, Young-Sook; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Seong Ae; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-04-01

    We assessed empathy in medical residents, including factors modifying empathy and the relationship between empathy and burnout. Participants (n = 317 residents, response rate = 42%) from 4 university hospitals completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Health Professional version, Korean edition), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Participants were classified by medical specialty: "people-oriented specialty" (POS group) or "technology-oriented specialty" (TOS group), with more women in the POS than in the TOS group, χ(2) = 14.12, P < 0.001. Being female, married, and having children were factors related to higher empathy (gender, t = -2.129, P = 0.034; marriage, t = -2.078, P = 0.038; children, t = 2.86, P = 0.005). Within specialty group, POS residents showed higher empathy scores in the fourth as compared to the first year, F = 3.166, P = 0.026. Comparing POS and TOS groups by year, fourth year POS residents had significantly higher scores than did fourth year TOS residents, t = 3.349, P = 0.002. There were negative correlations between empathy scores and 2 MBI subscales, emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP). Additionally, first year POS residents had higher DP scores than did first year TOS residents, t = 2.183, P = 0.031. We suggest that factors important for empathy are type of medical specialty, marriage, siblings, and children. Burnout state may be related to decreasing empathy. PMID:27051244

  6. Medical Malpractice Reform: Noneconomic Damages Caps Reduced Payments 15 Percent, With Varied Effects By Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Seth A.; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of 220,653 malpractice claims from 1985–2010 merged with information on state liability reforms. We estimated the impact of state noneconomic damage caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for 10 different specialties, and compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 vs. $500,000 cap). We found noneconomic damage caps reduced payments by $42,980 (15%; p<0.001), with a $250,000 cap reducuing average payments by $59,331 (20%; p<0.001), while a $500,000 cap had no significant effect. Effects varied according to specialty and were largest in specialties with high average payments, such as pediatrics. This suggests that the effect of noneconomic damage caps differs by specialty, and only more restrictive caps result in lower average payments. PMID:25339633

  7. Effect of physician disclosure of specialty bias on patient trust and treatment choice.

    PubMed

    Sah, Sunita; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the impact of disclosures of bias on advisees. Disclosure-informing advisees of a potential bias-is a popular solution for managing conflicts of interest. Prior research has focused almost exclusively on disclosures of financial conflicts of interest but little is known about how disclosures of other types of biases could impact advisees. In medicine, for example, physicians often recommend the treatment they specialize in; e.g., surgeons are more likely to recommend surgery than nonsurgeons. In recognition of this bias, some physicians inform patients about their specialty bias when other similarly effective treatment options exist. Using field data (recorded transcripts of surgeon-patient consultations) from Veteran Affairs hospitals and a randomized controlled laboratory experiment, we examine and find that disclosures of specialty bias increase patients' trust and their likelihood of choosing a treatment in accordance with the physicians' specialty. Physicians in the field also increased the strength of their recommendation to have the specialty treatment when they disclosed their bias or discussed the opportunity for the patient to seek a consultation with a physician from another specialty. These findings have important implications for handling advisor bias, shared advisor-advisee decision-making, and disclosure policies. PMID:27325783

  8. Certificate-of-Need regulation in outpatient surgery and specialty care: implications for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Pacella, Salvatore J; Comstock, Matthew; Kuzon, William M

    2005-09-15

    For plastic surgeons, independent development of outpatient surgical centers and specialty facilities is becoming increasingly common. These facilities serve as important avenues not only for increasing access and efficiency but in maintaining a sustainable, competitive specialty advantage. Certificate of Need regulation represents a major hurdle to plastic surgeons who attempt to create autonomy in this fashion. At the state level, Certificate of Need programs were initially established in an effort to reduce health care costs by preventing unnecessary capital outlays for facility expansion (i.e., managing supply of health care resources) in addition to assisting with patient safety and access to care. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Certificate of Need regulations on health care costs, patient safety, and access to care and to discuss specific implications of these regulations for plastic surgeons. Within Certificate of Need states, these regulations have done little, if anything, to control health care costs or affect patient safety. Presently, Certificate of Need effects coupled with recent provisions in the Medicare Modernization Act banning development of specialty hospitals may restrict patient access to ambulatory surgical and specialty care. For the plastic surgeon, these effects not only act as an economic barrier to entry but can threaten the efficiencies gained from providing surgical care in an ambulatory setting. An appreciation of these effects is critical to maintaining specialty autonomy and access to fiscal policy. PMID:16163102

  9. Educational Milestone Development in the First 7 Specialties to Enter the Next Accreditation System

    PubMed Central

    Swing, Susan R.; Beeson, Michael S.; Carraccio, Carol; Coburn, Michael; Iobst, William; Selden, Nathan R.; Stern, Peter J.; Vydareny, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project introduced 6 general competencies relevant to medical practice but fell short of its goal to create a robust assessment system that would allow program accreditation based on outcomes. In response, the ACGME, the specialty boards, and other stakeholders collaborated to develop educational milestones, observable steps in residents' professional development that describe progress from entry to graduation and beyond. Objectives We summarize the development of the milestones, focusing on 7 specialties, moving to the next accreditation system in July 2013, and offer evidence of their validity. Methods Specialty workgroups with broad representation used a 5-level developmental framework and incorporated information from literature reviews, specialty curricula, dialogue with constituents, and pilot testing. Results The workgroups produced richly diverse sets of milestones that reflect the community's consideration of attributes of competence relevant to practice in the given specialty. Both their development process and the milestones themselves establish a validity argument, when contemporary views of validity for complex performance assessment are used. Conclusions Initial evidence for validity emerges from the development processes and the resulting milestones. Further advancing a validity argument will require research on the use of milestone data in resident assessment and program accreditation. PMID:24404235

  10. High-fidelity specialty mental health probation improves officer practices, treatment access, and rule compliance.

    PubMed

    Manchak, Sarah M; Skeem, Jennifer L; Kennealy, Patrick J; Louden, Jennifer Eno

    2014-10-01

    Many probation agencies in the United States assign offenders with mental illness to relatively small specialty caseloads supervised by officers with relevant training, rather than to large general caseloads. Specialty caseloads are designed to improve the process and outcomes of probation, largely by linking these probationers with psychiatric treatment and avoiding unnecessary violations. In this multimethod, longitudinal matched trial, we tested whether a prototypical specialty agency (n = 183) differed from a traditional agency (n = 176) in officers' practices, probationers' treatment access, and probationers' rule violations. The specialty agency yielded significantly (a) better officer practices (e.g., problem solving rather than sanction threats; higher quality relationships with probationers; more boundary spanning), (b) greater rates of treatment involvement, and (c) lower rates of violation reports than the traditional agency. Additionally, officers' use of sanctions and threats increased probationers' risk of incurring a probation violation, whereas high-quality officer-probationer relationships protected against this outcome. When implemented with fidelity, specialty mental health caseloads improved the supervision process for this high-need group. PMID:24749700

  11. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119

  12. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. PMID:24793383

  13. [Effects of an implicit internal working model on attachment in information processing assessed using Go/No-Go Association Task].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsutomu; Uebuchi, Hisashi; Yamada, Kotono; Saito, Masahiro; Ito, Eriko; Tonegawa, Akiko; Uebuchi, Marie

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the present study were (a) to use both a relational-anxiety Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT) and an avoidance-of-intimacy GNAT in order to assess an implicit Internal Working Model (IWM) of attachment; (b) to verify the effects of both measured implicit relational anxiety and implicit avoidance of intimacy on information processing. The implicit IWM measured by GNAT differed from the explicit IWM measured by questionnaires in terms of the effects on information processing. In particular, in subliminal priming tasks involving with others, implicit avoidance of intimacy predicted accelerated response times with negative stimulus words about attachment. Moreover, after subliminally priming stimulus words about self, implicit relational anxiety predicted delayed response times with negative stimulus words about attachment. PMID:26182489

  14. Water Footprint Assessment and the Panta Rhei research initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    "Panta Rhei - Everything Flows" is the new scientific decade, 2013-2022, of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). It is dedicated to understanding issues linked with the interactions between hydrology and society in the context of change. The purpose of Panta Rhei is to reach an improved interpretation of the processes governing the water cycle in the Anthropocene, an improved prediction of such systems, and where possible to provide input for policy and practice, aimed at water security, human wellbeing and development. This talk discusses the research initiative, explores the possibility of research innovations offered by the research initiative and how water footprint assessment is a valuable tool to understand and assess human impacts on the water cycle in the Anthropocene.

  15. Weight bias internalization in treatment-seeking overweight adults: Psychometric validation and associations with self-esteem, body image, and mood symptoms.

    PubMed

    Durso, Laura E; Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C

    2016-04-01

    Internalized weight bias has been previously associated with impairments in eating behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning. The present study explored the psychological correlates and psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) among overweight adults enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Questionnaires assessing internalized weight bias, anti-fat attitudes, self-esteem, body image concern, and mood symptoms were administered to 90 obese or overweight men and women between the ages of 21 and 73. Reliability statistics suggested revisions to the WBIS. The resulting 9-item scale was shown to be positively associated with body image concern, depressive symptoms, and stress, and negatively associated with self-esteem. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated that WBIS scores were significant and independent predictors of body image concern, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. These results support the use of the revised 9-item WBIS in treatment-seeking samples as a reliable and valid measure of internalized weight bias. PMID:26826975

  16. Single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies in an international cohort of 2140 systemic sclerosis subjects: clinical associations

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, S.; Hudson, M.; Troyanov, Y.; Proudman, S.; Walker, J.; Stevens, W.; Nikpour, M.; Assassi, S.; Mayes, M.D.; Wang, M.; Baron, M.; Fritzler, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Autoantibodies directed against the Ku autoantigen are present in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and have been associated with myositis overlap and interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, there is a paucity of data on the clinical correlates of anti-Ku antibodies in the absence of other SSc-specific antibodies. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical correlates of single-specificity anti-Ku in SSc. An international (Canada, Australia, USA, Mexico) cohort of 2140 SSc subjects was formed, demographic and clinical variables were harmonized, and sera were tested for anti-Ku using a line immunoassay. Associations between single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies (i.e., in isolation of other SSc-specific antibodies) and outcomes of interest, including myositis, ILD, and survival, were investigated. Twenty-four (1.1%) subjects had antibodies against Ku, and 13 (0.6%) had single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies. Subjects with single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies were more likely to have ILD (58% vs 34%), and to have increased creatine kinase levels (>3× normal) at baseline (11% vs 1%) and during follow-up (10% vs 2%). No difference in survival was noted in subjects with and without single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies. This is the largest cohort to date focusing on the prevalence and disease characteristics of single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies in subjects with SSc. These results need to be interpreted with caution in light of the small sample. International collaboration is key to understanding the clinical correlates of uncommon serological profiles in SSc. PMID:27583908

  17. Single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies in an international cohort of 2140 systemic sclerosis subjects: clinical associations.

    PubMed

    Hoa, S; Hudson, M; Troyanov, Y; Proudman, S; Walker, J; Stevens, W; Nikpour, M; Assassi, S; Mayes, M D; Wang, M; Baron, M; Fritzler, M J

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibodies directed against the Ku autoantigen are present in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and have been associated with myositis overlap and interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, there is a paucity of data on the clinical correlates of anti-Ku antibodies in the absence of other SSc-specific antibodies. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical correlates of single-specificity anti-Ku in SSc.An international (Canada, Australia, USA, Mexico) cohort of 2140 SSc subjects was formed, demographic and clinical variables were harmonized, and sera were tested for anti-Ku using a line immunoassay. Associations between single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies (i.e., in isolation of other SSc-specific antibodies) and outcomes of interest, including myositis, ILD, and survival, were investigated.Twenty-four (1.1%) subjects had antibodies against Ku, and 13 (0.6%) had single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies. Subjects with single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies were more likely to have ILD (58% vs 34%), and to have increased creatine kinase levels (>3× normal) at baseline (11% vs 1%) and during follow-up (10% vs 2%). No difference in survival was noted in subjects with and without single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies.This is the largest cohort to date focusing on the prevalence and disease characteristics of single-specificity anti-Ku antibodies in subjects with SSc. These results need to be interpreted with caution in light of the small sample. International collaboration is key to understanding the clinical correlates of uncommon serological profiles in SSc. PMID:27583908

  18. Health and health-related quality of life among treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults: associations with internalized weight bias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight bias is widespread and has numerous harmful consequences. The internalization of weight bias has been associated with significant psychological impairment. Other forms of discrimination, such as racial and anti-gay bias, have been shown to be associated with physical health impairment. However, research has not yet examined whether internalized weight bias is associated with physical as well as psychological impairment in health-related quality of life. Methods Participants included 120 treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults (mean body mass index = 35.09; mean age = 48.31; 68% female; 59% mixed or Asian ethnicity). Participants were administered measures of internalized weight bias and physical and mental health-related quality of life, and they were assessed for the presence of chronic medical conditions, use of prescription and non-prescription medications, and current exercise. Results Internalized weight bias was significantly correlated with health impairment in both physical (r = −.25) and mental (r = −.48) domains. In multivariate analyses controlling for body mass index, age, and other physical health indicators, internalized weight bias significantly and independently predicted impairment in both physical (β = −.31) and mental (β = −.47) health. Conclusions Internalized weight bias was associated with greater impairment in both the physical and mental domains of health-related quality of life. Internalized weight bias also contributed significantly to the variance in physical and mental health impairment over and above the contributions of BMI, age, and medical comorbidity. Consistent with the association between prejudice and physical health in other minority groups, these findings suggest a link between the effects of internalized weight-based discrimination and physical health. Research is needed on strategies to prevent weight bias and its internalization on both a societal and individual level. PMID:24764526

  19. Behavioral Exploration of Career and Specialty Choice in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the process by which students naturally construct and internalize their educational experiences relating to career development is important to career counseling. The author investigated how exploratory behaviors during a community-based field experience course contributed to the vocational development of 1st-year medical students.…

  20. Survey of Sexual Education among Residents from Different Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Balon, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to determine how residents are being educated regarding sexual health, and it assesses attitudes toward sexual education and barriers to evaluating patients' sexuality. Methods: An anonymous Internet survey was sent to 195 residents in family practice, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and psychiatry at a…

  1. The timing and stability of choice of medical specialty among Malaysian doctors.

    PubMed

    Rogayah, J; Zulkifli, A

    2001-09-01

    A total of 356 doctors responded to a survey on the timing and stability of choice of medical specialty. The majority of doctors made their final decision while working as a medical officer. One hundred (48.5%) of the doctors had made an earlier choice as medical students, 63 (30.6%) during their internship and 43 (20.9%) made their final choice while they were medical officers. Working experience in the specialty was the most important factor in determining final choice of specialty. Advice from consultants/seniors, better financial prospects and parental influence were more important for the male doctors while marriage and family considerations were more important for the female doctors in making their final choice. PMID:11732078

  2. The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Specialty Medical Home: A New Model of Patient-centered Care.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Miguel D; McAnallen, Sandra E; Greer, Julia B; Perkins, Stephen E; Ramalingam, S; Szigethy, Eva

    2016-08-01

    New models of health care have emerged over the past decade. Accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes are designed to improve the patient experience, enhance health care quality, and decrease cost. These models have been developed in the primary care domain and have yet to be tested in specialty care. Certain chronic diseases require principal care by a specialist or health care team. The specialty medical home would provide patient-centered care for specific populations of patients whose health care derives from a single chronic disease. This article defines the parameters for a specialty medical home and provides a specific payer-provider experience for the comprehensive care of an inflammatory bowel disease population. PMID:27135486

  3. Specialty distribution of physician assistants and nurse practitioners in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Fraher, Erin P; Morgan, Perri; Johnson, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Physician workforce projections often include scenarios that forecast physician shortages under different assumptions about the deployment of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs). These scenarios generally assume that PAs and NPs are an interchangeable resource and that their specialty distributions do not change over time. This study investigated changes in PA and NP specialty distribution in North Carolina between 1997 and 2013. The data show that over the study period, PAs and NPs practiced in a wide range of specialties, but each profession had a specific pattern. The proportion of PAs-but not NPs-reporting practice in primary care dropped significantly. PAs were more likely than NPs to report practice in urgent care, emergency medicine, and surgical subspecialties. Physician workforce models need to account for the different and changing specialization trends of NPs and PAs. PMID:26953672

  4. Supervision practices in specialty mental health probation: What happens in officer-probationer meetings?

    PubMed

    Eno Louden, Jennifer; Skeem, Jennifer L; Camp, Jacqueline; Vidal, Sarah; Peterson, Jillian

    2012-04-01

    As the correctional population continues to increase, probation agencies struggle to adequately supervise offenders with unique needs, including those with mental disorder. Although more than 100 U.S. probation agencies have implemented specialty mental health case-loads, little is known about their practices. Based on detailed observations of 83 audio-taped meetings, we examined interactions between probationers and officers in a prototypic specialty agency, focusing on the extent to which practices comport with evidence-based risk reduction principles. We found that specialty officers (a) more frequently discussed probationers' general mental health than any individual criminogenic need, (b) chiefly questioned, directed, affirmed, and supported (rather than confronted) probationers, and (c) relied more heavily on neutral strategies and positive pressures (e.g., inducements) rather than negative pressures (e.g., threats of incarceration) to monitor and enforce compliance. Implications for "what works" to promote community integration for probationers with mental disorder are discussed. PMID:22471415

  5. The Impact of Overestimations of Surgical Control Times Across Multiple Specialties on Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert; Brovman, Ethan Y; Whang, Edward E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Optimization of operating room (OR) resources and costs require accurate estimations of procedure times. In some institutions, surgeons are asked to predict their surgical control time (SCT), which typically constitutes the majority of the total procedure time. Here, we examine differences in predicted versus actual SCT and variations by specialty. Data included all scheduled surgical procedures at one academic institution from October 2008 - September 2014. Exclusion criteria consisted of missing values for SCT as well as estimated SCTs that fell outside of 5 standard deviations of any given procedure's mean. Differences in estimation were calculated by subtracting estimated SCT from actual SCT and compared against a null hypothesis of 0 with a two-tailed t-test. Differences between specialties were examined using analysis of variance and Games-Howell tests. Between 2008 and 2014, 119,410 scheduled procedures were performed. After exclusion, 116,599 cases were analyzed. On average, SCT was overestimated by 12.9 min (p < 0.0001). Overestimations persisted when divided by specialty (p < 0.0001). With thoracic surgery as a control, all other specialties except for cardiac surgery had overestimations of SCT. The greatest time differences were seen in dental (37.6 min, p < 0.0001), cardiology (33.0 min, p < 0.0001), and neurosurgery (29.7 min, p < 0.0001). Overall, SCTs are overestimated at this institution across many specialties. Depending on the methodology by which a hospital chooses to allocate OR time, SCT estimations could potentially be reduced in certain specialties to allow for better allocation of OR resources. PMID:26860918

  6. Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among International Students at a Japanese University: With Special Reference to Their Financial Status.

    PubMed

    Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-12-01

    We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention. PMID:25225076

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-375-1861, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Los Angeles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, a study was made of possible toxic exposures experienced by fire fighters from the Los Angeles Fire Department, paramedics, and police officers during a chemical warehouse fire at Research Organic, Inorganic Chemical Corporation, Sun Valley, California. Numerous flammable, corrosive, and reactive compounds were stored at the warehouse at the time of the fire. Dermatological problems with rashes lasting more than 1 day after the fire were reported by 18 fire fighters and nine police officers. Neurotoxic symptoms of fatigue, forgetfulness, irritability, headaches, and difficulty sleeping were also reported. The neurotoxic symptoms lasted from a month to over a year. The authors conclude that the symptoms experienced by those working at the fire site are associated with exposures during the fire. Recommendations arising from the fire include the establishment of a response team with comprehensive training, state of the art protective equipment, protocols for addressing medical evaluation and decontamination issues, environmental sampling capability, and coordination with other emergency disaster responders.

  8. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 81-025-1668, Operative Plasterers and Cement Masons International Association, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    London, M.; Rinsky, R.

    1986-02-01

    Following a request by the Operative Plasterers and Cement Masons International Association, a proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study of union members was conducted. Death certificates were used to classify cause of death; usual occupation was determined from union records. White United States males were the comparison group. Statistically significant PMRs for all deaths included a deficit of diseases of the circulatory system, PMR-0.90, and of the nervous system, PMR-0.78, and an excess of death from all cancers, PMR-1.36. Cancers in significant excess included cancer of the digestive organs, particularly the stomach; respiratory system; brain and nervous system; and other and unspecified sites. Respiratory-system cancers were primarily located in the lung, as well as trachea and bronchus. A proportionate cancer mortality study continued to indicate a significant excess for cancer of the respiratory system, PMR-1.17. When examined by occupation, only cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung was significantly associated with occupation, that of plasterer. Six cases of cancer of the pleura, and two of the peritoneum were identified. The authors conclude that asbestos exposure may have contributed to the excess respiratory cancer mortality among plasterers. Current asbestos exposure would occur only in rehabilitation work and appropriate precautions should be taken.

  9. Experience with DICOM for the clinical specialties in the healthcare enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Dayhoff, Ruth E.

    2003-05-01

    DICOM is a success for radiology and cardiology and it is now beginning to be used for other clinical specialties. The US Department of Veterans Affairs has been instrumental in promoting this technological advancement. We have worked with a number of non-radiology imaging vendors over the past several years, encouraging them to support DICOM, providing requirement specifications, validating their implementations, installing their products, and integrating their systems with the VA healthcare enterprise. We require each new non-radiology vendor to support the DICOM Modality Worklist and Storage services, as specified in the IHE Technical Framework, and insist that they perform validation testing with us over the Internet before installing at a VA site. Three years ago we began working with commercial DICOM image acquisition applications in ophthalmology and endoscopy. Today we are interfacing with six vendors in ophthalmology, six in dental, and two in endoscopy. Getting imaging modality vendors to support DICOM is only part of the story, however. We have also developed the capabilities of the VistA hospital information system to properly handle DICOM interfaces to the different clinical specialties. The workflow in the clinical specialties is different than that of radiology, and is much more diverse. We designed the VistA DICOM image acquisition and display interface to use the generic order entry, result entry, result reporting, and appointment scheduling applications of our hospital information system, which are common to other hospital information systems, in order to maintain existing clinical workflow, minimize operational disruptions, simplify training, and win user acceptance. This software is now being field tested with dental and ophthalmology systems at a large number of VA medical centers. We have learned several things from this field test. The DICOM Modality Worklist and Storage services can be successfully used for image acquisition in the clinical

  10. Conference scene: Summary of the 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories with international participation.

    PubMed

    Carasevici, Eugen

    2011-10-01

    The Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories (RAML) conferences have acquired a reputation for standing out as the most prominent and efficient meetings in the national community of laboratory medicine, being a landmark of the development in this field in Romania and an active affiliation to international forums. This year, the conference setting was Piatra Neamt, in the northeast part of Romania, which produced a friendly and stimulating professional environment. As in previous years, leading experts in the fields of laboratory medicine attended the event. This year, we enjoyed the opportunity to have such distinguished guests as the members of the executive board of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC); Graham Beastall, IFCC President; Päivi Hannele Laitinen, IFCC secretary; and Grazyna Sypniewska, IFCC Communication and Publication Division, and editor of the electronic journal of the IFCC. As usual, the conference program included all aspects of clinical laboratory activity, with a special focus on technology development, instrumentation and laboratory management. Fully aware of the fact that the complexity and depth of laboratory practice have undergone an impressive and rapid evolution, the specific goals of the event were to increase knowledge in the fundamentals of new molecular investigation, areas which show the tendency to become routine in our daily activity. In addition, laboratory management and the place of medical laboratories in the process of translational medicine were subjects of focus. The 6th Conference of the Romanian Association of Medical Laboratories was held from Wednesday 1st to Saturday 4th of June 2011. A total of 273 participants from all local branches of the Association attended. The scientific program included seven plenary sessions where 22 lectures and 18 short communications were delivered, and three poster sessions with 44 poster presentations. Session topics covered issues of

  11. International Radiosurgery Support Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine, Nov. 29, 2007] Read More... Scientists study scorpion venom in cancer care The research team at ... Birmingham discovered that the chemical compounds in this scorpion's venom could be used to kill cancerous cells ...

  12. Cognitive Dysfunction is Associated with Poor Socio-Economic Status in Patients with Cirrhosis: an International Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Riggio, Oliviero; Allampati, Sanath; Prakash, Ravi; Gioia, Stefania; Onori, Eugenia; Piazza, Nicole; Noble, Nicole A; White, Melanie B; Mullen, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims In patients with cirrhosis, cognitive dysfunction most often results from covert hepatic encephalopathy (HE). These patients are not routinely tested for cognitive dysfunction, despite single-center evidence that it could be associated with poor socio-economic status (SES). We investigated the association between SES and cognition in a multi-center study of cirrhosis. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 236 cirrhotic patients from 3 centers (84 subjects from Virginia, 102 from Ohio, and 50 from Rome, Italy; age 57.7±8.6 y; 14% with prior overt HE) were given recommended cognitive tests and a validated SES questionnaire, which included questions about employment, personal and family income, and overall financial security. Comparisons were made among centers and between subjects who were employed or not. Regression analysis was performed using employment and personal income as outcomes. Results Only 37% of subjects had been employed in the last year. Subjects had substantial financial insecurity—their yearly personal income ranged from $16,000 to $24,999 and their family income ranged from $25,000 to $49,999. They were only able to maintain a residence for 3–6 months if their income stopped, and their current liquid assets were $500–$4999 (<$500 if debt was subtracted). Cognition and SES were worst in Ohio and best in Virginia. Cognition correlated with personal and family income, within and between centers. On regression analysis, cognitive performance (digit symbol, lures, and line tracing) was associated with personal yearly income, after controlling for demographics, country, employment, and overt HE. Unemployed subjects had a higher rate of overt HE, worse cognition, and lower personal income than employed subjects. On regression analysis, performance on digit symbol, line tracing, inhibitory control test lures, and serial dotting tests remained associated with income, similar to employment. Conclusions In an international, multi

  13. Clinically Significant Fatigue: Prevalence and Associated Factors in an International Sample of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, Tracey J.; Jelinek, George A.; Marck, Claudia H.; Hadgkiss, Emily J.; van der Meer, Dania M.; Pereira, Naresh G.; Taylor, Keryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors. Objectives To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate) and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD) and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS. Methods PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate. Results Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6%) completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7–67.7)) screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil. Conclusion This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this

  14. Geochemical Evaluation of Uranium Fate and Transport Guterl Specialty Steel Site, New York - 12077

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, Bill; Tandon, Vikas

    2012-07-01

    Between 1948 and 1952, up to 15,875 metric tons (35 million pounds) of natural uranium metal (U) were processed at the former Guterl Specialty Steel Corporation site in Lockport, New York. The resulting dust, thermal scale, mill shavings and associated land disposal contaminated both the facility and on-site soils. Uranium subsequently impacted groundwater and a fully developed plume exists below the site. Site soils are composed of anthropogenic fill and re-worked, glacially-derived native soil. This overburden is underlain by the weathered and fractured Lockport Dolostone bedrock. Shallow groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally and allow groundwater to contact U contaminated soil, which promotes transport. This condition is exemplified through coincident increases in specific conductivity and groundwater levels, which flush soluble constituents in the fill/soil to groundwater during recharge events. In addition, water-level fluctuations affect reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions at the site. The U in soils is subject to wetting and drying cycles that promote oxidation more than stable redox conditions (e.g., dry soil or fully saturated conditions). This oxidizing mechanism increases uranium solubility and mobility. Site groundwater also receives uranium via leaching from near-surface contaminated fill. The strong correlation between nitrate and uranium in groundwater indicates that uranium is mobile where oxidizing conditions occur. Analytical models of contaminant leaching determined that multiple pathways and transport mechanisms govern site risk. Uranium transport to groundwater involves three mechanisms: 1) direct contact of contaminated soil with groundwater, 2) the oxidation-state or chemical valence of uranium, and 3) the leaching of near-surface contamination to groundwater. These mechanisms require an integrated remedial solution that is sustainable and cost effective. (authors)

  15. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  16. The Young Scientist Club of the International Association for Promoting Geoethics - Promoting geoethics among the young geoscientists community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; De Pascale, Francesco; Gomez Cantero, Jonathan; Hassan, Tharwat; Mukosi, Ndivhuwo Cecilia; O'Brien, Craig

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) is a multidisciplinary, scientific platform for the debate on problems of Ethics applied to the Geosciences. The Young Scientists Club (YSC) of the IAPG represents the interface between the IAPG and the young geoscientists' community, organizations and groups. Its overall goal is to promote the topic of geoethics and the IAPG among its young colleagues. The YSC is considered to be the outpost of the IAPG and one of its greater strengths. It is believed that young people entering the professional world or evolving in academic settings can identify needs and expectations that geosciences can cover. The YSC seeks to give a status update on pertinent geoscience challenges and how geoethical principles can be integrated in tackling these challenges. They can also report new instances from the society and identify the potential innovative contributions that geosciences can provide as a service to the population. The YSC was initiated in the summer 2015. All IAPG members younger than 35 years old are part of the YSC. Its Executive Board is constituted by enthusiastic young geoscientists from various backgrounds and countries. Their tasks are to organize and coordinate the activities of the YSC: manage young geoscientists blog posts on Geoethics, set-up a forum platform to allow discussions about geoethics between young and senior geoscientists, organize IAPG-YSC sessions at international conferences for example to discuss the new values that allow to do research in geosciences and organize working groups on geoethical topics. The YSC eagerly anticipates meeting the young geoscientist community at the upcoming EGU Assembly and discuss all current geoethical issues. We look forward to garnering further support for this exciting initiative.

  17. Investigating the Association between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits in a Community-Based Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The phenotypic and etiologic relation between internalizing and autistic-like traits is studied using a community-based twin sample. Internalizing and autistic-like traits showed moderate phenotypic overlap but have specific genetic influences.

  18. Internal associations and dynamic expression of c-kit and nanog genes in ventricular remodelling induced by adriamycin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Shuo; Liu, Lingling; Guo, Zhikun; Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of the c-kit and nanog genes in rats with left ventricular remodelling induced by adriamycin (ADR), and explore its internal association and mechanism of action. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into a normal control group and a heart failure model group. Heart failure was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of ADR (4 mg/kg) weekly for six weeks. The normal control group was given the same amount of saline. At the eighth week, rat cardiac function was examined to demonstrate the formation of heart failure. The rat hearts were harvested frozen and sectioned, and the expression levels of the nanog and c-kit genes in the myocardial tissue samples were detected using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated various pathological changes in the myocardial cells in the heart failure model group, whereas myocardial infarction was not observed in the normal control group. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence demonstrated that nanog-positive cells were predominantly expressed in the vascular endothelium, with a few myocardial cells and stem cells in normal myocardium. The expression levels of c-kit and nanog in the myocardium of the rats with heart failure decreased significantly. c-kit-positive cells clustered together in the epicardium and its vicinity, and c-kit expression significantly decreased in the myocardium of rats with heart failure, as compared with normal rats. In both groups, some cells co-expressed both the c-kit and nanog genes. The RT-PCR results demonstrated that the expression levels of the two genes in the heart failure model group were significantly lower compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the c-kit- and nanog-positive stem cells decreased in the myocardium of the rats with left ventricular remodelling induced by ADR

  19. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  20. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…