Science.gov

Sample records for association isaga kyoto

  1. Report on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Westelaken, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School held in New Delhi (Gurgaon), India. This Summer School was hosted by the Institute for Integrated Learning in Management. Participants came from all over the world. This year's theme was "The Art and Science of Simulation and Gaming Design and Facilitation for Business and Management."

  2. THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

  3. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  4. Exposure to morphine-associated cues increases mu opioid receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Torry S; Beck, Kevin D; Cominski, Tara P; Bobzean, Samara A M; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Servatius, Richard J; Perrotti, Linda I

    2016-10-15

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability as it exhibits pronounced behavioral inhibition, passive avoidance, exaggerated startle response, enhanced HPA-axis activation, and active avoidance that is resistant to extinction. Accumulating evidence suggests that WKY rats respond differently to rewarding stimuli when compared to outbred strains of rat. Conditioned responding to drug-associated cues is linked with alterations in the activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, alterations in KOR expression/activation in the NAc of WKY rats are implicated in the regulation of some of the components that make up the unique behavioral phenotype of this strain. The purpose of this study was to extend upon previous work from our laboratory by investigating conditioned morphine reward in adult male WKY and SD rats, and to examine levels of KOR mRNA and MOR mRNA in the NAc at baseline and after acquisition of morphine CPP. Our results demonstrate that SD rats displayed morphine-induced CPP to each of the six doses of morphine tested (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10mg/kg). Interestingly, WKY rats demonstrated CPP for only the 1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg doses, yet no preference at the lowest (0.5mg/kg) or highest (7.5 and 10mg/kg) doses. qPCR analysis of MOR and KOR in the NAc revealed no strain differences in basal levels of MOR, but higher levels of KOR in WKY rats compared to those of SD rats. Interestingly, after completion of the CPP task, WKY rats had overall higher levels of NAc MOR mRNA compared to SD rats; the initial basal differences in NAc KOR levels persisted without change due to CPP in either strain. These results demonstrate that the WKY rat exhibits a unique pattern of behavioral responding to morphine and implicates differences in NAc KOR signaling as a potential source of aversion to higher doses of morphine. Additionally, the CPP-induced upregulation of

  5. Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Hattori, Takashi; Ishii, M.; Sasaki, Minoru; Takeyama, Norihide

    1998-07-01

    We are building the second version of the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph (Ohtani et al., this symposium). This will be mounted on the MAGNUM, a 2-m telescope under construction at Haleakala, and also on the SUBARU. The spectrograph has four observational modes: Fabry-Perot imager, integral field spectrograph (IFS) with a microlens array, long-slit spectrograph, and filter-imaging modes. The new spectrograph is significantly better than the first version in several ways. The IFS has as many as 37 X 37 microlenses, each of which subtends 0' .39 at the MAGNUM. The optics is designed to be used in wide wavelength ranges from 360 nm to 900 nm. The transmission at any wavelength between 370 and 900 nm is designed to exceed 50% for the collimator plus camera system, and to reach almost 40% even at 360 nm. In order to achieve high efficiency at short wavelengths, we use an anti- reflection coated backside-illuminated 2K X 2K CCD. We are also planning a further improvement by using multi-layer anti- reflection coatings for lenses, in collaboration with National Astronomical Observatory, Japan. In order to assure good image quality under a severe weight limit of 150 kg for this instrument, we have carried out mechanical design by calculating the flexure of the instrument for all telescope attitudes with finite element analysis, and succeeded in limiting the maximum flexure to 30 micrometer. This does not degrade image quality. The movements on the CCD of the light from the center of the focal plane have also been simulated, depending on the telescope attitudes. This is important to obtain not only a good image, but also a correct flat field and wavelength calibration in the IFS mode. The movements are expected to be confined almost within one pixel for an attitude, which is considered to be small enough.

  6. Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II: progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Hattori, Takashi; Ishii, Motomi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Sasaki, Minoru; Takeyama, Norihide

    2000-08-01

    We are building the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II and are planning to mount it on Subaru telescope. The spectrograph has four observational modes: Fabry-Perot imager, integral field spectrograph (IFS) with a microlens array, long-slit spectrograph, and filter-imaging modes. The optics is designed to be used in wide wavelength range from 360 nm to 900 nm. The design well matches with high spatial resolution of Subaru: 0 inch .06 pixel-1 in Fabry- Perot mode, for which we actually will use binning before adaptive optics at optical wavelengths becomes available, and 0 inch .1 lens-1 in microlens array mode. These well sample image sizes obtained by Subaru, which are about 0 inch .4 in relatively good conditions. We have evaluated a point spread function of our cylindrical microlens array and found that it consists of a diffraction pattern and more extended component which probably comes from border regions between microlenses. With a suitable mask at the micro pupil position, the crosstalk between spectra will be limited down to a few percent. With a suitable mask at the micro pupil position, the crosstalk between spectra will be limited down to a few percent. We have succeeded in synchronizing frequency switching of Fabry-Perot etalons with the movement of charge on the CCD. This technique enables to average out all temporal variations between each passband.

  7. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  8. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  9. Continuity and Change: Kyoto Chefs Engage with Science.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto's chefs have reacted proactively to changes brought about by the most recent phase of globalization, hoping to ensure the continued existence and resonance of Kyoto cuisine by using science to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. These chefs are breaking new ground in their pursuit of a scientific understanding of how Kyoto cuisine works. They meet once a month in a kitchen laboratory at Kyoto University to present and analyze culinary experiments in keeping with a predetermined theme. They use their acquired knowledge to more precisely hone their culinary skills and to explain Kyoto cuisine to a global audience. Chefs visit local elementary schools, appear on national television, and welcome chefs from abroad into their kitchens so that people across the world will better understand what authentic Kyoto cuisine consists of. Although these chefs' efforts are groundbreaking, there is also remarkable continuity to their approach. Not only has Kyoto cuisine always been in a steady state of transformation, but the chefs in the Laboratory are engaging with science and a global audience specifically so that they can ascertain Kyoto cuisine's continued existence and importance. Though their means of understanding and articulating what Kyoto cuisine is differs from that of their predecessors, concepts like shun (seasonality) and hin (refinement) still guide chefs today. Ultimately, then, based on interviews and participant observation conducted in and outside of the Japanese Cuisine Laboratory in 2012 and 2013, I argue that by engaging with contemporary food science, Kyoto's chefs achieve a strategic balance of protecting their culinary heritage while adapting it to contemporary circumstances. PMID:26598840

  10. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  11. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  12. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  13. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  14. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  15. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  16. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs. PMID:16539979

  17. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  18. S-LSR, Cooler Ring Development at Kyoto University

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ikegami, Masahiro; Noda, Akira; Souda, Hikaru; Tanabe, Mikio; Tongu, Hiromu; Noda, Koji; Shibuya, Shinji; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Takeshi; Iwata, Soma; Takubo, Atsushi; Okamoto, Hiromi; Yuri, Yosuke; Grieser, Manfred; Syresin, Evgeny M.

    2006-03-20

    A compact ion cooler ring, S-LSR is under construction in Kyoto University. One of the subjects of S-LSR is a realization of the crystalline beams using the electron beam and the laser cooling. The ring is designed to be satisfied several required conditions for the beam ordering, such as a small betatron phase advance, a small magnetic error and a precise magnet alignment. The design phase advance per a period is less than 127 degree. The calculated closed orbit distortion and the stopband is less than 1 mm and 0.001 without correction, respectively.

  19. Let`s focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries.

  20. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  1. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

    2000-07-06

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of

  2. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  3. Experimental Equipments for Microwave Power Transmission in Kyoto University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Shinohara, N.; Mitani, T.

    2004-12-01

    RISH, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere, of Kyoto University is one of the most active research laboratories for a microwave power transmission (MPT) and SSPS (Space Solar Power System) in Japan. Since the first MPT rocket experiment in the ionosphere was conducted in early 1980's by Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere (RASC), the former institute of the RISH, the RISH has conducted a variety of theoretical and experimental studies on the MPT and SSPS both in laboratory and field. In the paper, we will show the experimental equipments for the MPT and the SSPS research in the RISH. We have two facilities of METLAB (Microwave Energy Transmission LABoratory) and SPSLAB (SPS LABoratory) for the MPT researches. The METLAB is composed of an anechoic radio wave chamber and an experimental system specially designed for the MPT experiment. The SPSLAB is a facility to promote a systematic research for conceptual, technical and coordinative research with our colleagues in all parts of Japan including the industrial partners. These facilities are now open for inter-universities collaborations. The other available experimental facilities are multiple MPT systems with a phased array transmitter using phase controlled magnetrons (PCMs) at both 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, and a semiconductor-based beam control system and a retrodirective target detecting system. These facilities are named SPORTS (Space POwer Radio Transmission System) 2.45 and SPORTS5.8.

  4. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  5. Vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune diseases in Japan: A report from vitiligo clinic in Kyoto University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Miki; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Katoh, Mayumi; Takahashi, Kenzo; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the causes of "loss of skin color" in 144 patients, who visited Vitiligo Clinic of Kyoto University Hospital between April 2005 and August 2008. The numbers of patients with generalized and segmental Vitiligo vulgaris were 98 (68.1%) and 26 (18.1%), respectively. Small numbers of the patients suffered from Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, piebaldism, congenital albinism, Hypomelanosis of Ito, post-inflammatory hypopigmentation, white leaf-shaped macules associated with tuberous sclerosis and nevus hypopigmentosus. One forth of the patients with generalized vitiligo had complications, while no complications were found in the patients with segmental vitiligo. Among the complications, autoimmune diseases dominated 43% (10 of 23 cases). Autoimmune thyroid diseases explained for the most of the complicated autoimmune diseases and were associated with 7.4% of the patients with generalized vitiligo. Minor autoimmune complications include myasthenia gravis, Sjogren syndrome and autoimmune nephritis. Reflecting the condition that our clinic is located in a university hospital, vitiligo patients with end-stage non-melanoma cancers of internal organs accounted for 8.4% of the patients of generalized vitiligo. PMID:20046588

  6. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. PMID:26192911

  7. FEL Beamline for Wide Tunable Range and Beam Sharing System at Kyoto University

    SciTech Connect

    Bakr, Mahmoud; Yoshida, K.; Higashimura, K.; Ueda, S.; Kinjo, R.; Sonobe, T.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.; Zen, H.

    2010-02-03

    A mid-infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL) facility (KU-FEL: Kyoto University Free Electron Laser) has been constructed for developing energy materials in Institute of Advanced Energy (IAE), Kyoto University. The tunable range of KU-FEL was estimated as 5-13.2 {mu}m by numerical calculation to design the MIR-FEL transport line for application purposes. Aiming to increase the number of FEL users with different desires we decided to develop an FEL beam sharing system that is useful for multi-utilization at different end-stations. The transport line and the beam sharing system has been designed and constructed to the user stations. Applications of the MIR-FEL in the renewable energy research at Kyoto University will start as well.

  8. Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactors in Japanese Universities: Experimental Study Using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroya, S.; Unesaki, H.; Misawa, T.

    2001-06-17

    A series of basic experiments for an accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor (ADSR) was officially launched in financial year 2000 at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) as a joint-use program among Japanese universities. These experiments are closely related to the future plan of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. A final goal of this plan is to establish a next-generation neutron source as a substitute for the 5-MW Kyoto University Reactor and based on the ADSR concept to promote joint research among Japanese universities. An attractive point of the ADSR system is that either pulsed or steady neutrons can be provided depending on the accelerator's operation mode.

  9. Characterization of the winter atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE, EAS and IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Kasahara, Mikio; Tohno, Susumu; Hwang, Kyung-Chul

    Characteristics of atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto, Japan and Seoul, Korea were investigated using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), elemental analysis system (EAS) and ion chromatograph (IC). Atmospheric aerosols were collected into fine and coarse fractions using a two-stage filter pack sampler in Kyoto and Seoul in winter of 1998. PIXE was applied to analyze the middle and heavy elements with atomic number greater than 14 (Si), and EAS was applied to analyze the light elements such as H, C and N. The total mass concentration in Seoul was about two times higher than in Kyoto and the concentration of Ca, Si, and Ti that are mainly originated from soil were remarkably higher in Seoul. During an Asian dust storm event, the concentration of soil components increased dramatically and amounted to about 15 times higher than average concentration. The fine/coarse ratios of NH 4+, NO 3-, and SO 42- were extremely high in both sites. The fact that nearly 70% of fine particles in both Kyoto and Seoul consist of the light elements (N, C, and H) suggests the importance of light elements measurement. Good mass closure for fine particles with light element data was achieved.

  10. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  11. Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

  12. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  13. Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Sanford E.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

  14. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  15. beta. -adrenergic receptor binding characteristics and responsiveness in cultured Wistar-Kyoto rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jazayeri, A.; Meyer, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The tone of arterial blood vessels is regulated by the catecholamines through their receptors on arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC). ..beta..-/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors of ASMC mediate vasodilation through agonist mediated c-AMP production. Previous reports have described these receptors on freshly isolated blood vessels. This study demonstrates the presence of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on cultured rat ASMC and that these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptor binding was measured using (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to the membrane of cultured ASMC from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The ASMC ..beta..-adrenergic receptors have a Kd of 0.56 +/- 0.16 nM and a Bmax of 57.2 +/- 21.7 fmol/mg protein. Competition binding studies revealed a much greater affinity of these receptors for epinephrine than norepinephrine, indicating the preponderance of a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype. Isoproterenol stimulation of cultured ASMC resulted in a 14 +/- 7 fold increase in intracellular c-AMP content of these cells indicating these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cultured ASMC provide an excellent system in which the association between hypertension and observed ..beta..-adrenergic receptor differences can be further explored.

  16. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-01-01

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis. PMID:18673520

  17. Present status of PACS at Kyoto University Hospital: image workstation for clinical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Okajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Ishu; Takahashi, Takashi; Konishi, Junji; Abe, Mituyuki; Gotoh, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiro

    1990-08-01

    The PAC system: KIDS (Kyoto University Hospital Image Database and Communication System) has been expanded to include several major digital imaging modalities such as X-ray CT, MRI, DSA and CR. The fiber optic high-speed local area network and the workstation with quick image handling are newly designed. The system (new KIDS) is intended to achieve a film-less environment in the department of radiology and to evaluate the feasibility of a hospital-wide PAC system. The present status of the system at the end of 1989 including a image workstation installed in a lecture hall for clinical education is described.

  18. Adaptive Optics at Optical Wavelengths: Test Observations of Kyoto 3DII Connected to Subaru Telescope AO188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Akita, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) enables us to observe objects with high spatial resolution, which is important in most astrophysical observations. Most AO systems are operational at near-infrared wavelengths but not in the optical range, because optical observations require a much higher performance to obtain the same Strehl ratio as near-infrared observations. Therefore, to enable AO-assisted observations at optical wavelengths, we connected the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII), which can perform integral field spectroscopy, to the second generation AO system of the Subaru Telescope (AO188). We developed a new beam-splitter that reflects light below 594 nm for the wavefront sensors of AO188 and transmits above 644 nm for Kyoto 3DII. We also developed a Kyoto 3DII mount at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope. In test observations, the spatial resolution of the combined AO188–Kyoto 3DII was higher than that in natural seeing conditions, even at 6500 Å. The full width at half maximum of an undersampled (1.5 spaxels) bright guide star (7.0 mag in the V-band) was 0.″12.

  19. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, March 25, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This hearing focuses on the economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In the Kyoto Protocol, which was completed in December 1997, the administration agreed to legally binding obligations to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions to seven percent below 1990 levels during the years 2008--2011. This climate treaty does not subject developing countries to emission targets.

  1. Biomedical irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy at the Kyoto University Reactor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K; Ujeno, Y; Ishida, M R

    1990-01-01

    Physics studies related to radiation source, spectroscopy, beam quality, dosimetry, and biomedical applications using the Kyoto University Reactor Heavy Water Facility are described. Also, described are a Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube and a Super Mirror Neutron Guide Tube that are used both for the measurement of boron concentration in phantom and living tissue and for precise measurements of neutron flux in phantom in the presence of both light and heavy water. Discussed are: (1) spectrum measurements using the time of flight technique, (2) the elimination of gamma rays and fast neutrons from a thermal neutron irradiation field, (3) neutron collimation without producing secondary gamma rays, (4) precise neutron flux measurements, dose estimation, and the measurement of boron concentration in tumor and its periphery using guide tubes, (5) the dose estimation of boron-10 for the first melanoma patient, and (6) special-purpose biological irradiation equipment. Other related subjects are also described. PMID:2176458

  2. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively. PMID:27423022

  3. The influence of pharmacogenetics on fatty liver disease in the wistar and kyoto rats: a combined transcriptomic and metabonomic study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Julian L; Scott, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2007-01-01

    Although fatty liver disease is caused by a number of toxicological insults and the metabolic syndrome, the exact mechanisms by which many of these pathophysiological stimulii induce fatty liver are unknown. The rapid and profound steatosis caused by orotic acid, resulting from an impairment in the production of ApoB, has been investigated in the Wistar strain rat using a combined transcriptomic and metabonomic/metabolomic approach. Analysis of liver tissue from rats exposed to orotic acid for 1, 3, and 14 days was performed by DNA microarrays and high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy based metabonomics of both tissue extracts and intact tissue (n = 3). Data were analyzed using a combination of ANOVA and principal components analysis, used as a data reduction tool to visualize the most perturbed transcripts and metabolites. Orotic acid produced a profound 8-fold increase in total lipids, and in particular increases in resonances associated with polyunsaturated fats (CH=CH and CH2CH=CH groups). This was accompanied by increases in the concentrations of trimethylamine-oxide (TMAO), betaine, choline, and phosphocholine, as well as a relative decrease in glucose and glycogen. At the transcriptional level, perturbations were detected in both oxidative stress and osmoregulation/pH homeostasis. However, this contrasts with a previous transcriptomic/metabolic study of fatty liver disease in a combined data set of Wistar (out-bred) and Kyoto (in-bred) strains of rats, with only 4 transcripts being found to be in common between the two analyses. This emphasizes the need to understand how strain background interacts with a given toxic lesion or genetic modification. PMID:17203948

  4. Detrimental effects of acute nicotine on the response-withholding performance of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Gabriel J.; Wood-Isenberg, Gabriel; Watterson, Elizabeth; Sanabria, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, which may be related to potential therapeutic effects of nicotine on ADHD symptoms. Whereas nicotine offers robust improvements in sustained attention, the effects of nicotine on impulsivity are unclear. Objectives The present study examined the effects of nicotine on the response inhibition capacity of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD, compared to that of a normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) using the Fixed Minimum Interval (FMI) schedule of reinforcement. Methods Tests were conducted following acute injections of subcutaneous nicotine (0.1 – 0.6 mg/kg). On each FMI trial, the first lever press initiated an inter-response time (IRT); a head entry into a food receptacle terminated the IRT. IRTs longer than 6 s were intermittently reinforced with sucrose. Results A model that assumes that only a proportion of IRTs are sensitive to the timing contingencies of the FMI provided a close fit to the data, regardless of strain or treatment. No baseline difference in FMI performance was observed between SHR and WKY. Nicotine reduced the duration of timed IRTs and the duration of latencies to the IRT-initiating lever press similarly for both strains. Nicotine dose-dependently increased the proportion of timed IRTs; the dose-response curve was shifted leftwards in SHR relative to WKY. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine (a) reduces response-inhibition capacity (b) enhances the reinforcement efficacy of sucrose, and (c) dose-dependently enhances attention-like sensitivity to contingencies of reinforcement, through mechanisms that are yet unknown. PMID:24414609

  5. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  6. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  7. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  8. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol. Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the 1970s to a global mean value of 6.3 ppt by the end of 2007. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around 3000 years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after 1995, most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries. However, after 1998 the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. Moreover, observed north-south concentration differences in SF6 suggest that emissions calculated from statistical (bottom-up) information and reported by Annex II parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) may be too low by up to 50%. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric (top-down) validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Other members of the Global SF6 Trends Team: R. Heinz (1), D. Osusko (1), E. Cuevas (2), A. Engel (3), J. Ilmberger (1), R.L. Langenfelds (4), B. Neininger (5), C.v. Rohden (1), L.P. Steele (4), A. Varlagin (6), R. Weller (7), D.E. Worthy (8), S.A. Zimov (9) (1) Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, (2) Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, (3) Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, (4) Centre for Australian Weather and

  9. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  10. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating. PMID:25678184

  11. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  12. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  13. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  14. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminaryin vitroandin vivoimaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  15. The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, H.; Hattori, T.; Kawai, A.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, T.; Ishigaki, T.; Ishii, M.; Ohtani, H.; Shimono, A.; Okita, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kosugi, G.; Sasaki, M.; Takeyama, N.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate physical conditions of ionized gas in galaxies, as well as its kinematics, we have developed the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II. It is a multimode optical instrument, including integral field spectrograph (IFS) and Fabry-Perot imager modes. We have designed it compact so that we can mount it on 2 m class telescopes as well as on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Special care was taken to obtain high-quality calibrations in the IFS mode. In order to remove the chromatic aberration of micropupil images produced by a lenslet array, we have introduced a corrector lens system behind the lenslet array. The internal calibration system simulates the telescope optics so that the system provides micropupil images identical to those produced by the telescope. The rigidness of the instrument provides the positional stability of micropupil images. We have succeeded in test observations of all the modes on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in (UH88) telescopes and have verified the performance of the instrument. This includes the instrument efficiencies as well as the effective sky background subtraction and the minimization of crosstalk effects in the IFS mode. In the IFS mode a spatial resolution of 0.4'' was obtained in good seeing conditions. Each of 37 × 37 lenslets subtends 0.1'' in Subaru's case. This samples the image size well. A wider field of view is emphasized in the case of UH88.

  16. Report from the 29th World Congress of Endourology and SWL (November 30-December 3, 2011 - Kyoto, Japan).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2012-02-01

    Kyoto is a city of surprises: from the most beautiful castles and temples known far and wide across the world, to the humblest temples, as beautiful as those appearing in all tourist guides, just hidden away in small lanes among busy traffic of bicycles and pedestrians shopping in markets or attending to their daily business. Add the innumerable tourists busily exploring the city's attractions, although this was not the reason for visiting Kyoto, which was the site of this year's World Congress of Endourology and SWL. Nevertheless, maybe as a compensation, the meeting was held in Kokusaikaikan, literally the International Conference Centre, which is a modern facility in the city outskirts, actually adjoining the Takaragaike park, with a beautiful lake and the mountains, brightly led by the trees' red leaves, just visible through the main hall windows. PMID:22384455

  17. Promoting Health During the American Occupation of Japan The Public Health Section, Kyoto Military Government Team, 1945-1949

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Sey

    2008-01-01

    During the American occupation of Japan (1945–1952), young public health officers from the US Army Medical Corps were posted in local US Army military government teams. These young doctors (aged 25 to 27 years), who had not absorbed the strong anti-Japanese tradition of the US military during World War II, seem to have alleviated the initial resentment felt by the Japanese toward the new governors of their homeland. The case of the Kyoto Military Government Team illustrates the Kyoto citizenry’s positive view of some American-directed public health measures. The team’s services helped to counter widely held negative views on colonialism, occupation, and public health; lessened resentment toward the unilateral command structure of the occupation forces; and contributed to improved relations between the United States and Japan at the local level. PMID:18235076

  18. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyungwoo; Clinton, Sarah M.; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs' behavior to that of Sprague–Dawley (SD), Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST). WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness). WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs' behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e., neonatal handling) that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression. PMID:24744709

  19. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression. PMID:26215574

  20. Interleukin-6 Modulates Colonic Transepithelial Ion Transport in the Stress-Sensitive Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Dervla; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Immunological challenge stimulates secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, resulting in variety of biological responses. In the gastrointestinal tract, IL-6 modulates the excitability of submucosal neurons and stimulates secretion into the colonic lumen. When considered in the context of the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where plasma levels of IL-6 are elevated, this may reflect an important molecular mechanism contributing to symptom flares, particularly in the diarrhea-predominant phenotype. In these studies, colonic ion transport, an indicator of absorption and secretion, was assessed in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat model of IBS. Mucosa-submucosal colonic preparations from WKY and control Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were mounted in Ussing chambers and the basal short circuit current (ISC) was electrophysiologically recorded and compared between the strains. Exposure to IL-6 (1 nM) stimulated a secretory current of greater amplitude in WKY as compared to SD samples. Furthermore, the observed IL-6-mediated potentiation of secretory currents evoked by veratridine and capsaicin in SD rats was blunted in WKY rats. Exposure to IL-6 also stimulated an increase in transepithelial resistance in both SD and WKY colonic tissue. These studies demonstrate that the neuroexcitatory effects of IL-6 on submucosal plexi have functional consequences with alterations in both colonic secretory activity and permeability. The IL-6-induced increase in colonic secretory activity appears to neurally mediated. Thus, local increases in IL-6 levels and subsequent activation of enteric neurons may underlie alterations in absorpto-secretory function in the WKY model of IBS. PMID:23162465

  1. Kyoto digital database of 44-year synoptic observation of solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Reizaburo; Asai, Ayumi; Hayashi, Hiroo; Ueno, Satoru

    2012-07-01

    Solar activity is known to cyclically change in 11 years. However, the amplitude of the variation is not constant but modulated in long term span. The long term variation of solar activity is thought as one of the origin of the global warming or cooling of the earth. In Kyoto University, a continuous synoptic observation of solar chromospheres in CaIIK monochromatic light had been done during the years 1926-1969. CaIIK spectroheliographic images and white light images had been taken on daily base. All the images were recorded in photographic plates. In view of the long term span of the data and the uniqueness of full solar disk images, we think that the data is scientifically a very valuable one. Since we have a risk of aging and degradation of these old photographic plates, we have started a project to digitize all the plates and develop a digital image database for public use via IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) system. Our plan of the project consists of six stages. (1) Compilation of meta-database and its publication. (2) Digitization of all the plates and development of image database. (3) Visualization of long term solar chromospheric variation. (4) Measurement of solar plage area and brightness. (5) Comparative study between variations of sunspot number and plage activity. (6) Study on the long term character of terrestrial upper atmosphere heating with the solar plage activity as a proxy of solar EUV irradiation. In the present paper, we will give the basic plan, the present status of our project and some preliminary scientific results.

  2. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications. PMID:16556480

  3. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  4. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  5. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  6. Antiplatelet therapy discontinuation and the risk of serious cardiovascular events after coronary stenting: observations from the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Yamaji, Kyohei; Ando, Kenji; Shizuta, Satoshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tada, Tomohisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Hayano, Mamoru; Abe, Mitsuru; Tamura, Takashi; Shirotani, Manabu; Miki, Shinji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Mamoru; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Takeshi; Doi, Osamu; Hattori, Ryuichi; Kato, Masayuki; Suwa, Satoru; Takizawa, Akinori; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Shinoda, Eiji; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Teruki; Lee, Jong-Dae; Inoko, Moriaki; Ogawa, Hisao; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Horie, Minoru; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kastrati, Adnan; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Relation of antiplatelet therapy (APT) discontinuation with the risk of serious cardiovascular events has not been fully addressed yet. This study is aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic event after APT discontinuation based on long-term APT status of large cohort. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2 enrolling 15939 consecutive patients undergoing first coronary revascularization, 10470 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention either with bare-metal stents (BMS) only (N=5392) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) only (N=5078). Proportions of patients taking dual-APT were 67.3% versus 33.4% at 1-year, and 48.7% versus 24.3% at 5-year in the SES and BMS strata, respectively. We evaluated daily APT status (dual-, single- and no-APT) and linked the adverse events to the APT status just 1-day before the events. No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was associated with significantly higher risk for stent thrombosis (ST) beyond 1-month after SES implantation (cumulative incidence rates beyond 1-month: 1.23 versus 0.15/0.29, P<0.001/P<0.001), while higher risk of no-APT for ST was evident only until 6-month after BMS implantation (incidence rates between 1- and 6-month: 8.43 versus 0.71/1.20, P<0.001/P<0.001, and cumulative incidence rates beyond 6-month: 0.31 versus 0.11/0.08, P=0.16/P=0.08). No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was also associated with significantly higher risk for spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke regardless of the types of stents implanted. Single-APT as compared with dual-APT was not associated with higher risk for serious adverse events, except for the marginally higher risk for ST in the SES stratum. In conclusion, discontinuation of both aspirin and thienopyridines was associated with increased risk for serious cardiovascular events including ST, spontaneous MI and stroke beyond 1-month after coronary stenting. PMID:25853836

  7. INHALED ENVIRONMENTAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES CAUISE MYOCARDIAL INJURY IN THE WISTAR KYOTO RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, direct experimental evidence showing causality and pathogenesis of PM-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We ...

  8. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, John S.; Portmann, Robert W.; Grabiel, Peter M.; Moomaw, William R.; Galloway, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  9. A post-Kyoto partner: considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L; Ravishankara, A R; Daniel, John S; Portmann, Robert W; Grabiel, Peter M; Moomaw, William R; Galloway, James N

    2013-03-19

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  10. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals. PMID:12460486

  11. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  12. Preoperative systemic therapy in locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Benson, John R; Winer, Eric P; Forbes, John F; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Golshan, Mehra; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; Cole, Bernard F; Chow, Louis W C; Pegram, Mark D; Han, Wonshik; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Ikeda, Tadashi; Kanao, Shotaro; Lee, Eun-Sook; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Ohno, Shinji; Partridge, Ann H; Rouzier, Roman; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Sugie, Tomoharu; Yamauchi, Akira; Inamoto, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Data reviewed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC) showed that preoperative systemic therapy (PST) could optimize surgery through the utilization of information relating to pre- and post-PST tumor stage, therapeutic sensitivity, and treatment-induced changes in the biological characteristics of the tumor. As such, it was noted that the biological characteristics of the tumor, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, histological grade, cell proliferative activity, mainly defined by the Ki67 labeling index, and the tumor's multi-gene signature, should be considered in the planning of both systemic and local therapy. Furthermore, the timing of axillary sentinel lymph node diagnosis (i.e., before or after the PST) was also noted to be critical in that it may influence the likelihood of axillary preservation, even in node positive cases. In addition, axillary diagnosis with ultrasound and concomitant fine needle aspiration cytology or core needle biopsy (CNB) was reported to contribute to the construction of a treatment algorithm for patient-specific or individualized axillary surgery. Following PST, planning for breast surgery should therefore be based on tumor subtype, tumor volume and extent, therapeutic response to PST, and patient preference. Nomograms for predicting nodal status and drug sensitivity were also recognized as a tool to support decision-making in the selection of surgical treatment. Overall, review of data at the KBCCC showed that PST increases the likelihood of patients receiving localized surgery and individualized treatment regimens. PMID:23143284

  13. Experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system at the Kyoto Univ. critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyeon, C. H.; Yagi, T.; Lim, J. Y.; Misawa, T.

    2012-07-01

    The experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system (ADS) is conducted in the Kyoto Univ. Critical Assembly (KUCA). The experiments are carried out in both the critical and subcritical states for attaining the reaction rates of the thorium capture and fission reactions. In the critical system, the thorium plate irradiation experiment is carried out for the thorium capture and fission reactions. From the results of the measurements, the thorium fission reactions are obtained apparently in the critical system, and the C/E values of reaction rates show the accuracy of relative difference of about 30%. In the ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons and 100 MeV protons, the subcritical experiments are carried out in the thorium-loaded cores to obtain the capture reaction rates through the measurements of {sup 115}In(n, {gamma}){sup 116m}In reactions. The results of the experiments reveal the difference between the reaction rate distributions for the change in not only the neutron spectrum but also the external neutron source. The comparison between the measured and calculated reaction rate distributions demonstrates a discrepancy of the accuracy of reaction rate analyses of thorium capture reactions through the thorium-loaded ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons. Hereafter, kinetic experiments are planned to be carried out to deduce the delayed neutron decay constants and subcriticality using the pulsed neutron method. (authors)

  14. Experience With A Small Scale All Digital CT And MRI Clinical Service Unit: Present Status Of Kyoto University Hospital Image Database And Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, K.; Komori, M.; Nakano, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Kyoto University Hospital is currently developing a prototype PAC system named KIDS (Kyoto univ. hosp. Image Database and communication System). The present goal of the system is to achieve the totally digital CT and MRI unit in the radiological department. Because KIDS is designed as a first step of a long-range plan towards a hospital wide system, it includes all of the basic functions required in realizing the PAC system, such as communication networks, a long term archiving unit, a laser film printer and image workstations. The system concept, architecture and current status are described in this paper. Our early experience and evaluations with the system in a clinical environment are also mentioned.

  15. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  16. Nuclear orphan receptor Nor-1 contributes to depressive behavior in the Wistar-Kyoto rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Daniel J; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Shukla, Pradeep K; Volenec, Andreja; Redei, Eva E

    2010-11-29

    The current study explored the effects of prolonged antidepressant treatment on mRNA levels of two nuclear receptors in specific brain regions of an animal model of depression, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Both nuclear receptors have been implicated in the development or treatment of depression. The expression of nuclear orphan receptor-1 (Nor-1), a member of the NR4A nuclear orphan receptor family, is induced by electroconvulsive shock, an effective treatment for depression. Deficit in the levels or function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) found in depressed patients has been causally implicated in depression, as this deficit is normalized by antidepressant treatments. Baseline levels of amygdalar Nor-1 and GR mRNA were higher in the WKYs compared to the comparison control Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). Prolonged treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (DMI) decreased the expression of both transcripts in the WKY strain concomitantly with decreased immobility in the forced swim test (FST) of depressive behavior. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted against Nor-1, we investigated the direct contribution of elevated Nor-1 expression in the amygdala of WKY to their exaggerated depressive behavior in the FST. After validating the shRNA targeting of Nor-1 in vitro, Nor-1 shRNA containing vector was infused intracerebroventricularly, using a linear polyethylenimine (PEI)-containing in vivo gene delivery system. Repeated administration of Nor-1 shRNA ameliorated the depressive behavior of WKYs in the FST and decreased amygdalar Nor-1 mRNA levels without affecting GR mRNA levels. These data demonstrate that brain region-specific changes in GR expression in response to DMI are strain dependent and that elevated amygdalar Nor-1 expression can contribute to depressive behavior in the WKY model of depression. PMID:20851110

  17. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin enhances sleep continuity in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Benjamin M.; Gajewski, Nicholas D.; Mann, Graziella L.; Kubin, Leszek; Morrison, Adrian R.; Ross, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is well described in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and likely has significant functional consequences. Fear-conditioned rodents may offer an attractive model of the changes in sleep that characterize PTSD. Following fear conditioning (FC), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a strain known to be particularly stress-sensitive, have increased REMS fragmentation that can be quantified as a shift in the distribution of REMS episodes towards the more frequent occurrence of sequential REMS (inter-REMS episode interval ≤ 3 min) vs. single REMS (interval > 3 min). The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has demonstrated efficacy in normalizing sleep in PTSD. To determine the utility of fear-conditioned WKY rats as a model of sleep disturbances typical of PTSD and as a platform for the development of new treatments, we tested the hypothesis that prazosin would reduce REMS fragmentation in fear-conditioned WKY rats. Sleep parameters and freezing (a standard measure of anxiety in rodents) were quantified at baseline and on days 1, 7, and 14 following FC, with either prazosin (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle injections administered prior to testing in a between-group design. Fear conditioning was achieved by pairing tones with a mild electric foot shock (1.0 mA, 0.5 s). One, 7, and 14 days following FC, prazosin or vehicle was injected, the tone was presented, freezing was measured, and then sleep was recorded from 11 AM to 3 PM. WKY rats given prazosin, compared to those given vehicle, had a lower amount of seq-REMS relative to total REMS time 14 days after FC. They also had a shorter non-REMS latency and fewer non-REMS arousals at baseline and on days 1 and 7 after FC. Thus, in FC rats, prazosin reduced both REMS fragmentation and non-REMS discontinuity. PMID:24246572

  18. Effect of renal sympathetic nerve on adrenergically and angiotensin II-induced renal vasoconstriction in normal Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of renal sympathetic innervation on adrenergically and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced renal vasoconstriction in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Methods Forty-eight WKY rats were treated with either losartan (10 mg/kg/day p.o.) or carvedilol (5 mg/kg/day p.o.) or a combination of them (10 mg/kg/day + 5 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 7 days. On day 8, the rats were anaesthetized, and renal vasoconstrictor experiments were carried out. A group of rats was subjected to acute unilateral renal denervation during the acute study. Changes in the renal vasoconstrictor responses were determined in terms of reductions in renal blood flow caused by Ang II, noradrenaline (NA), and methoxamine (ME). Results In normal animals, losartan decreased (P < 0.05) the renal vasoconstrictor response to Ang II but not to NA or ME. Carvedilol treatment, however, blunted (P < 0.05) the renal vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II and adrenergic agonists. Combination of losartan and carvedilol blunted (P < 0.05) the renal vasoconstrictor response to Ang II but augmented the responses to NA and ME (all P < 0.05). Interestingly, when denervated rats were treated with the same combination, there was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the renal vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II and adrenergic agonists. Conclusions Data suggest that the renal sympathetic nerve contributes to adrenergic agonist-mediated renal vasoconstrictions in normal rats. The data further indicate an interactive relationship between renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems in modulating adrenergically and Ang II-induced renal vasoconstriction in WKY rats. PMID:21047287

  19. Test observations of the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II at the University of Hawaii 88-in and Subaru Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Hattori, Takashi; Kawai, Atsushi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Kosugi, George; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Motomi; Sasaki, Minoru; Shimono, Atsushi; Okita, Yoshiko; Sudo, Jun; Takeyama, Norihide

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate the physical conditions of ionized gas in galaxies, as well as its kinematics, we have developed the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II (3DII). It is a multi-mode instrument designed for Cassegrain focus, including integral field spectrograph (IFS) and Fabry-Perot imager modes. We have designed it compact so that we can mount it at 2-m class telescopes as well as at 8-m Subaru telescope. We have succeeded in test observations of the 3DII. In the IFS mode the spatial resolution of ~ 0".5 and 0".4 was obtained in 30-minute exposures at University of Hawaii 88-inch (UH88) and Subaru, respectively, in relatively good weather conditions. Each of 37 × 37 microlenses subtends ~ 0".1 in Subaru's case. This samples well the image size. A wider field of view is emphasized in the case of UH88. Because our micropupil spectroscopy is free from a slit effect, we have reached the accuracy of an order of one tenth of a pixel for deriving velocity fields in terms of velocity center while the full width at half maximum of the instrumental profile corresponds to two pixels. At Subaru we have used a container designed in a collaboration with National Astronomical Observatory, Japan: it fits with a robotic instrument exchanger. The containerincludes two heat exchangers to keep its surface cool and void degrading the image quality. We have established effective observational equences by realizing a software interface with Subaru operating system. ome results from target observations are shown.

  20. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  1. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity correlates with cortical perfusion parameters determined by bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Shane; Rouine, Jennifer; McIntosh, Allison; Kerskens, Christian; Harkin, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in astrocyte number and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in the animal laboratory has enabled an investigation of the relationship between pathological and neuroimaging markers in animal models. However the physiological processes which underlie these markers and their role in mediating behavioural deficits is still poorly understood. Rodent models have provided us with important insights into physiological and cellular mechanisms which may mediate anxiety and depression-related behaviours. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a strain which endogenously expresses highly anxious and depressive-like behaviours and has previously been reported to exhibit alterations in immunoreactivity for the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain sub-regions relative to more stress resilient out-bred strains. Here we report that the depressive and anxiety-like behaviours exhibited by the WKY rat strain are associated with alterations in brain morphology including a decrease in hippocampal volume, coupled with reduced resting state frontal cortical perfusion as assessed by MR bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) relative to the out-bred Wistar strain. Pre-limbic cortical GFAP immunoreactivity and astrocyte cell number were positively correlated with cortical blood perfusion in the WKY strain. These experiments provide a link between pathological and neuroimaging markers of aberrant astrocytic function and add validity to the WKY rat as a model for co-morbid anxiety and depression. PMID:27068181

  2. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A-stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  3. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  4. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  5. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  6. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed. PMID:12408308

  7. Inter-Strain Differences in Default Mode Network: A Resting State fMRI Study on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat and Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Yi-Ling; Peng, Shin-Lei; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ho, Kung-Chu; Wang, Fu-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Genetic divergences among mammalian strains are presented phenotypically in various aspects of physical appearance such as body shape and facial features. Yet how genetic diversity is expressed in brain function still remains unclear. Functional connectivity has been shown to be a valuable approach in characterizing the relationship between brain functions and behaviors. Alterations in the brain default mode network (DMN) have been found in human neuropsychological disorders. In this study we selected the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), two inbred rat strains with close genetic origins, to investigate variations in the DMN. Our results showed that the major DMN differences are the activities in hippocampal area and caudate putamen region. This may be correlated to the hyperactive behavior of the SHR strain. Advanced animal model studies on variations in the DMN may have potential to shed new light on translational medicine, especially with regard to neuropsychological disorders. PMID:26898170

  8. The Kyoto protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Kerr, Suzi; Hughes, R. Flint; Liu, Shuguang; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Schimel, David; Tosi, Joseph; Watson, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Protecting tropical forests under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could reduce the cost of emissions limitations set in Kyoto. However, while society must soon decide whether or not to use tropical forest-based offsets, evidence regarding tropical carbon sinks is sparse. This paper presents a general method for constructing an integrated model (based on detailed historical, remote sensing and field data) that can produce land-use and carbon baselines, predict carbon sequestration supply to a carbon-offsets market and also help to evaluate optimal market rules. Creating such integrated models requires close collaboration between social and natural scientists. Our project combines varied disciplinary expertise (in economics, ecology and geography) with local knowledge in order to create high-quality, empirically grounded, integrated models for Costa Rica.

  9. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  10. PREFACE: MEM05: The 3rd International Workshop on Mechano-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Kyoto, Japan, 17 20 July 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2005-12-01

    One of the important challenges facing the international scientific community at the beginning of the third millennium is how to manage the world's energy resources properly. Superconductivity will provide one of the strategies employed to avoid an energy crisis. Of course the ITER Fusion Tokomak that is to be built in France provides an exciting focus for the whole superconductivity community. In parallel, we can expect that other key technologies for superconductivity such as large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, and generators and motors will have a real impact in technologically advanced countries. There is broadly a consensus that the prototype stage for high-current high-field superconducting applications is largely completed, and the required performance has been demonstrated. However, before we move to full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies, feasibility studies suggest there are two types of problem that remain. The first is the development of high performance and low cost materials which are fully optimized in terms of critical current, low ac loss and high strength. The second is the establishment of optimal procedures for system design accompanying scale up. As the system design is dependent on material development, there is a critical need to study the key issues for developing high performance superconducting materials. Under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity), MEM05 was organized by Professor Osamura (Kyoto University), Professor Itoh (NIMS), Professor Hojo (Kyoto University) and Professor Matsumoto (Kyoto University) and held in Kyoto, Japan. The focus for the workshop was the elimination of grain boundary weak links, the creation of strong flux pinning sites, the optimal arrangement of filaments and barriers for reducing ac losses, and the design of high strength strain tolerant composite conductors. Five subsessions were held at MEM05. • Mechanical properties of

  11. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  12. Differential ERK1/2 Signaling and Hypertrophic Response to Endothelin-1 in Cardiomyocytes from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto Rats: A Potential Target for Combination Therapy of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-an; Fang, Ning-yuan; Gao, Ping-jin; Jin, Xian; Wang, Hai-ya; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signal regulated kinase½ (ERK1/2) signaling is critical to endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. This study was to investigate ERK1/2 signaling and hypertrophic response to ET-1 stimulation in cardiomyocytes (CMs) from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Primary neonatal SHR and WKY CMs were exposed to ET-1 for up to 24 hrs. Minimal basal ERK1/2 phosphorylation was present in WKY CMs, while a significant baseline ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in SHR CMs. ET-1 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both SHR and WKY CMs. However, ET-1-induced ERK1/2 activation occurred much earlier with significantly higher peak phosphorylation level, and stayed elevated for longer duration in SHR CMs than that in WKY CMs. ET-1-induced hypertrophic response was more prominent in SHR CMs than that in WKY CMs as reflected by increased cell surface area, intracellular actin density, and protein synthesis. Pre-treatment with ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor PD98059 completely prevented ET-1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increases in cell surface area and protein synthesis in SHR and WKY CMs. The specific PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 blocked ET-1-induced Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and protein synthesis in CMs. These data indicated that ERK1/2 signaling was differentially enhanced in CMs, and was associated with increased cardiac hypertrophic response to ET-1 in SHR. ET-1-induced ERK1/2 activation and cardiac hypertrophy appeared to be mediated via PI3 kinase/Akt signaling in SHR and WKY. The differential ERK1/2 activation in SHR CMs by ET-1 might represent a potential target for combination therapy of hypertension. PMID:25360842

  13. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008–2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Methods Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. Results There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had “uncertain” as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures. PMID:27252738

  14. The Spontaneously Hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto Rat Models of ADHD Exhibit Sub-Regional Differences in Dopamine Release and Uptake in the Striatum and Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Erin M.; Pomerleau, Francois; Huettl, Peter; Russell, Vivienne A.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Glaser, Paul E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/NCrl), which best represents the combined subtype (ADHD-C). Recent evidence has revealed that a progenitor strain, the Wistar Kyoto from Charles River Laboratories (WKY/NCrl), is useful as a model of the inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI) and the Wistar Kyoto from Harlan Laboratories (WKY/NHsd) and the Sprague Dawley (SD) have been suggested as controls. Dopamine (DA) dysfunction in the striatum (Str) and nucleus accumbens core (NAc) is thought to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ADHD but data obtained with the SHR is equivocal. Using high-speed chronoamperometric recordings with carbon fiber microelectrodes, we found that the SHR/NCrl displayed decreased KCl-evoked DA release versus the WKY/NCrl model of ADHD-PI in the dorsal Str. The WKY/NCrl and the WKY/NHsd control did not differ from each other; however, the control SD released less DA than the WKY/NCrl model of ADHD-PI in the dorsal Str and less than the control WKY/NHsd in the intermediate Str. The SHR/NCrl had faster DA uptake in the ventral Str and NAc versus both control strains, while the WKY/NCrl model of ADHD-PI exhibited faster DA uptake in the NAc versus the SD control. These results suggest that increased surface expression of DA transporters may explain the more rapid uptake of DA in the Str and NAc of these rodent models of ADHD. PMID:22960443

  15. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

  16. European Forest Carbon Mass Balances Estimated with Remote Sensing and the Production Efficiency Model C-Fix: A hot Future Unfolds for Kyoto Protocol Implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon emission and -fixation fluxes are key variables to guide climate change stakeholders in the use of remediation techniques as well as in the follow-up of the Kyoto protocol. A common approach to estimate forest carbon fluxes is based on the forest harvest inventory approach. However, harvest and logging inventories have their limitations in time and space. Moreover, carbon inventories are limited to the estimation of net primary productivity (NPP). Additionally, no information is available when applying inventory based methods, on the magnitude of water limitation. Finally, natural forest ecosystems are rarely included in inventory based methods. To develop a Kyoto Protocol policy support tool, a good perspective towards a generalised and methodologically consistent application is offered by expert systems based on satellite remote sensing. They estimate vegetation carbon fixation using a minimum of meteorological inputs and overcome the limitations mentioned for inventory based methods. The core module of a typical expert system is a production efficiency model. In our case we used the C-Fix model. C-Fix estimates carbon mass fluxes e.g, gross primary productivity (GPP), NPP and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for various spatial scales and regions of interest (ROI's). Besides meteorological inputs, the C-Fix model is fed with data obtained by vegetation RTF (Radiative Transfer Model) inversion. The inversion is based on the use of look-up tables (LUT's). The LUT allows the extraction of per pixel biome type (e.g. forests) frequencies and the value of a biophysical variable and its uncertainty at the pixel level. The extraction by RTF inversion also allows a land cover fuzzy classification based on six major biomes. At the same time fAPAR is extracted and its uncertainty quantified. Based on the biome classification, radiation use efficiencies are stratified according to biome type to be used in C-Fix. Water limitation is incorporated both at the GPP level

  17. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    PubMed

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2. PMID:20129780

  18. The medical-irradiation characteristics for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    At the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor, the mix irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, and the solo irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons are available additionally to the thermal neutron irradiation, and then the neutron capture therapy (NCT) at this facility became more flexible, after the update in 1996. The estimation of the depth dose distributions in NCT clinical irradiation, were performed for the standard irradiation modes of thermal, mixed and epi-thermal neutrons, from the both sides of experiment and calculation. On the assumption that the 10B concentration in tumor part was 40 ppm and the ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 3.5, the advantage depth were estimated to 5.4, 6.0, and 8.0, for the respective standard irradiation modes. It was confirmed that the various irradiation conditions can be selected according to the target-volume conditions, such as size, depth, etc. Besides, in the viewpoint of the radiation shielding for patient, it was confirmed that the whole-body exposure is effectively reduced by the new clinical collimators, compared with the old one. PMID:12408307

  19. Effect of sodium depletion on the release of /sup 3/Hnorepinephrine from central and peripheral tissue of Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, M.J.; Xue, C.S.; Badino, L.; Westfall, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the relationship between sodium intake, the sympathetic nervous system, and hypertension, a study was made of the effects of a 7-9 day dietary restriction of sodium in three different ages of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Field-stimulated (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ( (/sup 3/H)NE) release was measured in portal vein, anterior hypothalamus, and the A2 region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of 5- to 6-, 10- to 11-, and 28- to 30- week-old SHR and age-matched WKY. A low-sodium diet (0.05% Na+, control 0.5% Na+) significantly lowered stimulated (/sup 3/H)NE release from portal vein and anterior hypothalamus in SHR and WKY at all three ages. However, release from the A2 region was not altered by sodium restriction. The results of the present study suggest that lowered dietary sodium can selectively alter norepinephrine release in both the peripheral and central sympathetic nervous system of SHR and WKY. The results also suggest that the SHR at 5-6 weeks are more sensitive to altered dietary sodium than are age-matched WKY.

  20. Differential Responses to Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Effects of Antioxidant (Honey) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress. PMID:21673929

  1. Climate change: The impact of the third conference of the parties at Kyoto on the U.S. Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, D.; Nisbet, M.; O`Hare, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper provides, as background, a brief review of the structure of the US cement industry. It outlines the growth trends of the industry over the last 20 years. It describes the sources and significance of cement imports in the US market, and the importance of exports to Canadian cement producers. The sources of CO{sub 2}, the primary greenhouse gas emitted in the cement manufacturing process, are explained and the impact of improved energy efficiency and fuel switching on CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of product are discussed. The aspects of the Kyoto Protocol relevant to the US cement industry are analyzed as are the types of impacts they can be expected to have on: cement trade, domestic cement production, long term growth of the US cement industry, and US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper projects the US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions to 2010, taking into account anticipated improvements in energy efficiency. It discusses manufacturing process and changes that could be made to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper also covers the types of product modifications that might be made to reduce the embodied CO{sub 2} content. Where possible the potential reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from process and product changes are quantified.

  2. Pharmacologic analysis of 7-O-ethyl-fangchinoline-induced vasodilation properties in isolated perfused common carotid arteries of Wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, M; Zenda, H; Chiba, S

    1991-10-01

    Using the cannula insertion method, we investigated vascular effects of 7-O-ethyl-fangchinoline (TJN-220) derived from tetrandrine in isolated and perfused common carotid arteries of Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A single dose of TJN-220 caused a vasodilation in a dose-related manner in arteries preconstricted by phenylephrine. The vasodilation was not inhibited by propranolol, a potent beta-adrenoceptor antagonist. A potent alpha-antagonist bunazosin inhibited the vasoconstriction to norepinephrine while TJN-220 did not modify the norepinephrine-induced constriction, indicating TJN-220 had no alpha-blocking activity. A potent calcium entry blocker, diltiazem, markedly attenuated the KCl-induced vasoconstriction, and TJN-220 slightly but significantly attenuated the KCl-induced one in large doses. The vasodilation of TJN-220 was not abolished after removing the endothelium by an intraluminal administration of saponin, although the ACh-induced dilation was completely abolished by it. A comparison of vascular responses in WKY and SHR revealed no significant differences. From these results, it is concluded that 1) a new tetrandrine derivative, TJN-220 has relatively long-lasting vasorelaxant properties, 2) the dilatory effects might not be related to adrenergic, muscarinic or endothelium-dependent mechanisms, and 3) the effects might partially be due to calcium entry antagonistic properties. PMID:1806292

  3. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Kyoto University and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji era of Japan (Part 5, Faculty members and training of doctors from Nagoya)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2010-09-01

    During the years when Dr. M. Matsuoka was professor of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University (June, 1907-January, 1914), seven doctors worked as his faculty members and founded the base of the current development and reputation of the Department. After resignation from their academic positions, they served in orthopaedic practice in several areas in Japan where orthopaedic surgery was not well recognized. In addition, Prof. Matsuoka trained three doctors from the Aichi Prefectural Medical College (School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in the orthopaedic practice, including x-ray technique and they contributed to the development of orthopaedic surgery in the areas of Nagoya city and Tokai. Backgrounds and achievements of these ten doctors are described. PMID:21560319

  4. Comparison of calcium import as a function of contraction in the aortic smooth muscle of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, M A; DeGray, G; David, V; Ampy, F R; Jones, L

    1999-04-15

    Genetic variations of far-reaching consequences have been established between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their controls, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The SHR strain is the most widely used model for the study of genetic hypertension. Calcium homeostasis in the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is controlled by calcium channels and calcium pumps located in both VSM and the overlying endothelial cells that line the large blood vessels and the heart. Hypertension adversely affects calcium homeostasis. Investigations on the import of calcium from extracellular spaces with alpha1-adrenergic stimulation as a function of contractility of VSM cells in SHR and WKY were made and compared with the contractility observed in VSM cells of Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. Experiments were performed on rings from thoracic aortas of three strains with endothelial lining intact or removed to discern the paracrine control of endothelium on contractility in response to calcium import. The internal stores of Ca2+ were depleted by repeated alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) and refilling of these stores was prevented by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and/or thapsigargin (TG), two known inhibitors of Ca2+ATPase, the enzyme that drives sarcoplasmic calcium pumps. The two components of tonic muscular contraction, T I and T II, which are known to be due to the flow of Ca2+ from the extracellular gradient controlled via the poly-phosphoinositide cascade and nifedipine sensitive Ca2+ channels were found to be variable among these strains. Implications of these variations are discussed in this report PMID:10209059

  5. Prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone 178-199 immunoreactivity is altered in the hypothalamus of the Wistar-Kyoto strain of rat.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Solberg, L C; Redei, E E; Handa, R J

    2001-09-21

    The rat prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) 178-199 is derived from prepro-TRH by the actions of the endopeptidases, prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and PC2. PPTRH 178-199 attenuates the synthesis and secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an inhibitory action on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. This peptide also acts centrally to increase activity and decrease anxiety related behaviors. To elucidate the involvement of this peptide in these functions, we have compared the expression of PPTRH 178-199, PPTRH mRNA, and PC1 and PC2 mRNAs in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar strains of rat. WKY rats have been shown to possess neuroendocrine abnormalities (HPA hyper-activity) and hyper-emotional behavioral characteristics. Immunohistochemical analysis of PPTRH 178-199 demonstrated significant strain differences in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the parastrial nucleus (PSN). WKY rats had significantly greater numbers of immunoreactive (IR) cell body profiles (P<0.0005) than Wistar rats in the PVN and a significantly lower fiber density (P<0.002) in the PSN. Levels of PPTRH, PC1, and PC2 mRNA were not different between strains in any brain region examined. These data suggest that altered levels of PPTRH 178-199 in WKY rats could cause, at least in part, the hyper-activity of the HPA axis and the hyper-emotional behavioral characteristics seen in this rat strain. Such data fit with the hypothesis that PPTRH 178-199 is involved in the regulation of the HPA axis and behavior. PMID:11549391

  6. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements (Part 6: Studying abroad of Dr. Matsuoka and opening to public, reputation and achievement of the department)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2011-03-01

    Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka studied orthopaedic surgery in Germany, Austria and other countries during the period from August, 1902 to May, 1906. He visited many university pathological institutes and surgical and orthopaedic clinics to study pathology and to learn the practice of orthopaedic surgery. After that, he started his practice at the newly established Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in the Medical School of Kyoto Imperial University in June, 1906. The department was opened in 1907 and in 1911 it was opened to all citizens and practical doctors in Kyoto City and exhibited many orthopaedic specimens and instruments. In particular, the x-ray apparatus of the Department was so well equipped that a German radiologist who visited the Department admired it in his article that was published in the journal of radiology in 1911. The Department was not surpassed by others for the number of patients with the dislocation of the hip and tuberculous spondylitis as well as the advanced quality and variety of roentgenological and pathological researches on these diseases. PMID:21797054

  7. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  8. THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIA IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY INJURY IN STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHRSP) AND WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated PM exposure with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and this effect seems to be enhanced in populations with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. One hypothesis for this exacerbation is that the higher underlying level of oxidative st...

  9. Regional Attribution of Ozone Production and Associated Radiative Forcing: a Step to Crediting NOx Emission Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2004-12-01

    The global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) depends on the location of emissions of its precursors in addition to chemical and dynamical factors. The global picture of O3 forcing is, therefore, a sum of regional forcings arising from emissions of precursors from different sources. The Kyoto Protocol does not include ozone as a greenhouse gas, and emission reductions of ozone precursors made under Kyoto or any similar agreement would presently receive no credit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the contribution of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the primary limiting O3 precursor in the non-urban atmosphere, from specific countries and regions of the world to global O3 concentration distributions. We then estimate radiative forcing resulting from the regional perturbations of NOx emissions. This analysis is intended as an early step towards incorporating O3 into the Kyoto Protocol or any successor agreement. Under such a system countries could obtain credit for improvements in local air quality that result in reductions of O3 concentrations because of the associated reductions in radiative forcing. We use the global chemistry transport model, MOZART-2, to simulate the global O3 distribution for base year 1990 and perturbations to this distribution caused by a 10% percent reduction in the base emissions of NOx from the United States, Europe, East Asia, India, South America, and Africa. We calculate the radiative forcing for the simulated base and perturbed O3 distributions using the GFDL radiative transfer model. The difference between the radiative forcing from O3 for the base and perturbed distributions provides an estimate of the marginal radiative forcing from a region's emissions of NOx. We will present a quantitative analysis of the magnitude, spatial, and temporal distribution of radiative forcing resulting from marginal changes in the NOx emissions from each region.

  10. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol–Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Abdulla, Mohammed H.; Khan, Safia A.; Azam, Maleeha; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH

  11. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs. PMID:25922088

  12. Alzheimer's Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get involved Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association ... Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association ...

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Opening Releases Endogenous Acetylcholine, which Contributes to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Induced by Mild Hypothermia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat but Not Wistar-Kyoto Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Q; Leung, S W S; Vanhoutte, P M

    2015-08-01

    Mild hypothermia causes endothelium-dependent relaxations, which are reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. The present study investigated whether endothelial endogenous acetylcholine contributes to these relaxations. Aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were contracted with prostaglandin F2 α and exposed to progressive mild hypothermia (from 37 to 31°C). Hypothermia induced endothelium-dependent, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxations, which were reduced by atropine, but not by mecamylamine, in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. The responses in SHR aortae were also reduced by acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine degradation), bromoacetylcholine (inhibitor of acetylcholine synthesis), hemicholinium-3 (inhibitor of choline uptake), and vesamicol (inhibitor of acetylcholine release). The mild hypothermia-induced relaxations in both SHR and WKY rat aortae were inhibited by AMTB [N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzamide; the transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 inhibitor]; only those in SHR aortae were inhibited by HC-067047 [2-methyl-1-[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]-5-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide; TRPV4 antagonist] while those in WKY rat aortae were reduced by HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide; TRPA1 antagonist]. The endothelial uptake of extracellular choline and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate was enhanced by mild hypothermia and inhibited by HC-067047 in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. Compared with WKY rats, the SHR preparations expressed similar levels of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase, but a lesser amount of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, located mainly in the endothelium. Thus, mild hypothermia causes nitric oxide-dependent relaxations by opening TRPA1 channels in WKY rat aortae

  14. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  15. Pathway-based analysis of primary biliary cirrhosis genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, SP; Seldin, MF; Chen, W; Lu, E; Hirschfield, GM; Invernizzi, P; Heathcote, J; Cusi, D; Gershwin, ME; Siminovitch, KA; Amos, CI

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P < 0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR < 0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P = 7.38 × 10−4, FDR = 0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P < 0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P < 0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P < 0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology. PMID:23392275

  16. Exploring the association between interleukin-1β and its interacting proteins in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    XIE, LUSHUANG; LAI, YU; LEI, FANG; LIU, SUJUAN; LIU, RAN; WANG, TINGHUA

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is of clinical concern. The association between the nervous and immune system is defined as an neuroimmunological theory that supports a model of pathology or treatment for AD. Interleukin (IL)-1β has a pro-inflammatory function in AD; however, the mechanism of its dysregulation in AD remains unknown. It is therefore of significance to understand the molecular mechanisms of IL-1β and how it may regulate AD. Proteins, which have been previously reported to be associated with IL-1β in AD, have been used in the present study as nodes to illustrate a net of protein interaction in Cytoscape. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was used to further analyze the association of these proteins with the pathology of AD. The present study identified and subsequently compared two AD and six IL-1β pathways with the network produced in Cytoscape. The present study identified important mechanisms in the pathology of AD and constructed two novel networks using Cytoscape. PMID:25585621

  17. Identification of key genes in glioblastoma-associated stromal cells using bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHENGYONG; SUN, CHONG; TANG, DONG; YANG, GUANGCHENG; ZHOU, XUANJUN; WANG, DONGHAI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify key genes and pathways in glioblastoma-associated stromal cells (GASCs) using bioinformatics. The expression profile of microarray GSE24100 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included the expression profile of 4 GASC samples and 3 control stromal cell samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using limma software in R language, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software. In addition, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Subsequently, a sub-network was constructed to obtain additional information on genes identified in the PPI network using CFinder software. In total, 502 DEGs were identified in GASCs, including 331 upregulated genes and 171 downregulated genes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin A2, mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase (BUB1), cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and transcription factor breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) were identified from the PPI network, and sub-networks revealed these genes as hub genes that were involved in significant pathways, including mitotic, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways. In conclusion, CDK1, BUB1, CDC20, PLK1 and BRCA1 may be key genes that are involved in significant pathways associated with glioblastoma. This information may lead to the identification of the mechanism of glioblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:27313730

  18. A novel method to identify pathways associated with renal cell carcinoma based on a gene co-expression network.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiyun; Li, Hongyun; Liu, Bo; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Shibao; Sun, Zeqiang; Liu, Shuangqing; Sun, Fahai; Liu, Qingyong

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a novel method for identifying pathways associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on a gene co-expression network. A framework was established where a co-expression network was derived from the database as well as various co-expression approaches. First, the backbone of the network based on differentially expressed (DE) genes between RCC patients and normal controls was constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database. The differentially co-expressed links were detected by Pearson's correlation, the empirical Bayesian (EB) approach and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). The co-expressed gene pairs were merged by a rank-based algorithm. We obtained 842; 371; 2,883 and 1,595 co-expressed gene pairs from the co-expression networks of the STRING database, Pearson's correlation EB method and WGCNA, respectively. Two hundred and eighty-one differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs were obtained from the merged network using this novel method. Pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and the network enrichment analysis (NEA) method were performed to verify feasibility of the merged method. Results of the KEGG and NEA pathway analyses showed that the network was associated with RCC. The suggested method was computationally efficient to identify pathways associated with RCC and has been identified as a useful complement to traditional co-expression analysis. PMID:26058425

  19. Antitumor effect and biological pathways of a recombinant adeno-associated virus as a human renal cell carcinoma suppressor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Ruan, Xiyun; Wang, Shaomei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Sun, Zeqiang; Liu, Qingyong

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this work are to study the antitumor effect of the adeno-associated virus on the xenografted tumors of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and predict potential genes and biological pathways which are associated with renal cell carcinoma. The adeno-associated virus NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta was constructed and identified. Then, chick embryos with xenografted tumor were divided into three groups and respectively inoculated with rAAV/NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta (group A), empty virus (group B), and phosphate-buffered saline (group C, the control subject). Antitumor effect in each group was investigated by means of immunofluorescence observation. Genes interacted with von Hippel-Lindau were screened by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, while pathway analysis were performed based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The growth of xenografted tumors inoculated with recombinant adeno-associated virus was slower than the control subjects. The tumor volumes of group A showed significant difference compared with group B and group C (P < 0.05). Growth of xenografted tumors which administered with the recombinant adeno-associated virus was inhibited. Among the protein-protein interaction network, TCEB2, HIF1A, TCEB1, CUL2, RBX1, and PHF17 were hub genes which might be involved in the development of renal cell carcinoma. The most significant signaling pathway was renal cell carcinoma. In this paper, we constructed and identified the recombinant adeno-associated virus NT4-TAT-6 × His-VHLbeta and studied the antitumor effect of the adeno-associated virus on xenografted tumors of chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. In addition, genes in the protein-protein interaction network which are associated with renal cell carcinoma were revealed and the biological pathway of renal cell carcinoma was identified. Our results provide a gene-therapeutic agent for the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25091575

  20. Restructuring of the Jordanian Utility Sector and its Associated Ghg Emissions: a Future Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Rami Hikmat; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Al-Khateeb, Mohammad; Bata, Hamada

    2008-10-01

    As a small, non-oil producing, Middle Eastern country of a young and growing population and rapid urbanization, Jordan, like many countries all over the world, was and is still facing the problem of meeting the rapidly increasing demand of electricity. The main objective of this study is to review many current aspects of the Jordanian electricity sector, including electricity generation, electricity consumption, energy related emissions, and future possibilities, based on time series forecasting, through the term of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol, in which the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan had signed lately, which allows industrialized countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. Several scenarios are proposed in this study, based on projected electricity consumption data until year 2028. Without attempting to replace the currently existing fossil-fuel based power plant technologies in Jordan by clean ones, electricity consumption and associated GHG emissions are predicted to rise by 138% by year 2028; however, if new clean technologies are adopted gradually over the same period, electricity consumption as well as GHG emissions will ascend at a lower rate.

  1. Molecular mechanisms associated with breast cancer based on integrated gene expression profiling by bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Han, Bing; Guo, Liang; Fan, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to gain more insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for breast cancer (BC) progression. Three gene expression profiles of human BC were integrated and used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between healthy breast samples and BC samples. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed by mapping DEGs into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database; then the subnetworks of PPI were constructed with plug-in, MCODE and DEGs in Subnetwork 1 were analysed based on Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database ( http://www.genome.jp/kegg /). In addition, co-expression network of DEGs was established using the Cytoscape. Totalally 931 DEGs were selected, including 340 up-regulated genes and 591 down-regulated genes. KEGG pathway analysis for DEGs in Subnetwork 1 showed that the pathogenesis of BC was associated with cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and p53 signalling pathways. Meanwhile, the most significant-related DEGs were found by co-expression network analysis of DEGs. In conclusion, CCNG1 might be involved in the progression of BC via inhibiting cell proliferation, and ADAMTS1 might play a crucial role in BC development through the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:26804550

  2. Characterization of Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Pathways Associated with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Yu, Beiqin; Li, Jianfang; Su, Liping; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Li, Chen; Zhu, Zhenggang; Liu, Bingya

    2015-01-01

    To explore the patterns of gene expression in gastric cancer, a total of 26 paired gastric cancer and noncancerous tissues from patients were enrolled for gene expression microarray analyses. Limma methods were applied to analyze the data, and genes were considered to be significantly differentially expressed if the False Discovery Rate (FDR) value was < 0.01, P-value was <0.01 and the fold change (FC) was >2. Subsequently, Gene Ontology (GO) categories were used to analyze the main functions of the differentially expressed genes. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, we found pathways significantly associated with the differential genes. Gene-Act network and co-expression network were built respectively based on the relationships among the genes, proteins and compounds in the database. 2371 mRNAs and 350 lncRNAs considered as significantly differentially expressed genes were selected for the further analysis. The GO categories, pathway analyses and the Gene-Act network showed a consistent result that up-regulated genes were responsible for tumorigenesis, migration, angiogenesis and microenvironment formation, while down-regulated genes were involved in metabolism. These results of this study provide some novel findings on coding RNAs, lncRNAs, pathways and the co-expression network in gastric cancer which will be useful to guide further investigation and target therapy for this disease. PMID:25928635

  3. Microdosimetry of epithermal neutron field at the Kyoto University reactor.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Y; Endo, S; Ishikawa, M; Hoshi, M; Takada, M; Kobayashi, T; Sakurai, Y; Utsumi, H; Uehara, S; Hayabuchi, N; Maeda, N; Takatuji, T; Fujika, K

    2002-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra were measured in order to gain the microdosimetric parameters of some epithermal neutron fields. Changes in dose mean lineal energy YD as a function of depth of heavy water showed a trend of softening with heavy water of the beam. The neutron absorbed dose was obtained by using the frequency mean lineal energy. Results show good agreement with measurements with the activation method using gold foil. This study demonstrated how microdosimetric parameters change in radiation quality as a function of heavy water depth. PMID:12194334

  4. My Coming out Story as a Gay Teacher in Kyoto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takatori, Shoji; Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    This essay is about the experiences, feelings, and thoughts of a Japanese teacher before and after an article appeared in a nationwide newspaper, "Asahi Shinbun". Here he discusses the reactions of administrators and students as well as his efforts in working with students in writing and producing a play about a lesbian high school student. This…

  5. Current status of numerical-relativity simulations in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    >. It is shown that the typical total neutrino luminosity of the HMNS is ˜(3-10) × 1053 ergs/s and the effective amplitude of gravitational waves from the HMNS is (2-6) × 10-22 at f ≈ 2-2.5 kHz for a source distance of 100 Mpc.

  6. Konno Operation: The 2015 Kyoto Symposium Konno Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    The Konno operation consists of a prosthetic aortic valve replacement by using an anterior enlargement of the small aortic annulus. The original procedure includes a longitudinal incision in the aortic septum placed near the midpoint between the two coronary ostia, a vertical incision in the outflow tract of the right ventricle to join the septal incision, prosthetic aortic valve replacement, and patch reconstruction of the outflow tracts of both ventricles by means of a fusiform Dacron patch. The concept of this operation has been applied in other complex operations, such as modified Konno operation, Ross-Konno operation, and aortic valve replacement after arterial switch operation. PMID:27587492

  7. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  8. The Role of Particulate Matter-Associated Zinc in Cardiac Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, Urmila P.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Gilmour, Peter S.; Wallenborn, J. Grace; Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Christiani, David C.; Runge, Marschall S.; Karoly, Edward D.; Costa, Daniel L.; Peddada, Shyamal; Jaskot, Richard; Richards, Judy H.; Thomas, Ronald; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Nyska, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity; however, causative components are unknown. Zinc is a major element detected at high levels in urban air. Objective We investigated the role of PM-associated zinc in cardiac injury. Methods We repeatedly exposed 12- to 14-week-old male Wistar Kyoto rats intratracheally (1×/week for 8 or16 weeks) to a) saline (control); b) PM having no soluble zinc (Mount St. Helens ash, MSH); or c) whole-combustion PM suspension containing 14.5 μg/mg of water-soluble zinc at high dose (PM-HD) and d ) low dose (PM-LD), e) the aqueous fraction of this suspension (14.5 μg/mg of soluble zinc) (PM-L), or f ) zinc sulfate (rats exposed for 8 weeks received double the concentration of all PM components of rats exposed for 16 weeks). Results Pulmonary inflammation was apparent in all exposure groups when compared with saline (8 weeks > 16 weeks). PM with or without zinc, or with zinc alone caused small increases in focal subepicardial inflammation, degeneration, and fibrosis. Lesions were not detected in controls at 8 weeks but were noted at 16 weeks. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA damage using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that all groups except MSH caused varying degrees of damage relative to control. Total cardiac aconitase activity was inhibited in rats receiving soluble zinc. Expression array analysis of heart tissue revealed modest changes in mRNA for genes involved in signaling, ion channels function, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, and cell cycle regulation in zinc but not in MSH-exposed rats. Conclusion These results suggest that water-soluble PM-associated zinc may be one of the causal components involved in PM cardiac effects. PMID:18197293

  9. A characterization of associativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for associativity of a function is given, in terms of a particular relation being a function. The concept of an associative function is generalized to the concept of a function being asssociative relative to a sequence and a characterization of such relative associativity is also given. These two characteristics are applied to the problem of proving the associativity, or relative associativity, of a function.

  10. Spondylitis Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Ankylosing Spondylitis About the Spondylitis Association of America Join Today Renew Your Membership Contact Us News ... Twitter Pinterest YouTube Copyright 2016 Spondylitis Association of America | Privacy Statement | Terms Of Use

  11. Leprosy associated with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Raiol, Theisla Kely Azevedo; Volpato, Solange Emanuelle; Santana, Jaci Maria; Ferreira, Isabelle Sousa Medeiros Torres; Takano, Daniela Mayumi

    2015-12-01

    Reported cases of leprosy and psoriasis coexistence are uncommon in the literature. Studies suggest a negative association between these two diseases. A case of association between these disorders has been reported. PMID:26964432

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells associated with metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Yao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Cao, Gang; Dong, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a frequent type of salivary gland cancer which is characterized by slow growth but high incidence of distant metastasis. We aimed to identify therapeutic targets which are associated with metastasis of SACC. Material and methods Total RNA was isolated from a low metastatic SACC cell line (ACC-2) and a highly metastatic SACC cell line (ACC-M), which was screened from ACC-2 by combination of in vivo selection and cloning in vitro. Then the total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from ACC-M compared with ACC-2, followed by Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Function annotation for DEGs also was performed. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed for DEGs. Results A total of 1128 DEGs were identified from ACC-M cells compared with ACC-2 cells. Both up- and down-regulated DEGs were enriched in different functions in biological process (BP), cellular component (CC) and molecular function (MF). Additionally, down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in “Apoptosis” and “Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction” pathways which involved IFN-α1, NTRK1 and TGF-β1. In the PPI network, PIK3CA, PTPN11 and PIK3R1 had a number of nodes greater than 10. Conclusions Transforming growth factor β1 might play a pivotal role during lung metastasis of SACC and be selected as a candidate target for treatment of metastatic SACC. IFNA1, NTRK1 and PIK3CA were also associated with tumor metastasis. PMID:27478471

  13. Whole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Multani, Shaleen; Dabholkar, Jyoti; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-03-01

    The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples. PMID:25663065

  14. Identification of hub genes and pathways associated with retinoblastoma based on co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q L; Chen, X; Zhang, M H; Shen, Q H; Qin, Z M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify hub genes and pathways associated with retinoblastoma using centrality analysis of the co-expression network and pathway-enrichment analysis. The co-expression network of retinoblastoma was constructed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) based on differentially expressed (DE) genes, and clusters were obtained through the molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Degree centrality analysis of the co-expression network was performed to explore hub genes present in retinoblastoma. Pathway-enrichment analysis was performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Validation of hub gene expression in retinoblastoma was performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The co-expression network based on 221 DE genes between retinoblastoma and normal controls consisted of 210 nodes and 3965 edges, and 5 clusters of the network were evaluated. By assessing the centrality analysis of the co-expression network, 21 hub genes were identified, such as SNORD115-41, RASSF2, and SNORD115-44. According to RT-PCR analysis, 16 of the 21 hub genes were differently expressed, including RASSF2 and CDCA7, and 5 were not differently expressed in retinoblastoma compared to normal controls. Pathway analysis showed that genes in 2 clusters were enriched in 3 pathways: purine metabolism, p53 signaling pathway, and melanogenesis. In this study, we successfully identified 16 hub genes and 3 pathways associated with retinoblastoma, which may be potential biomarkers for early detection and therapy for retinoblastoma. PMID:26662407

  15. Biogeochemical Changes Associated With Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Plantation Forests in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. A.; Tate, K. R.; Ross, D. J.; Parfitt, R.; Parshotam, A.; Halliday, J.; McMurtrie, R.

    2001-05-01

    Since the 1930s, large areas of marginally productive pasture and/or scrubland have been converted to plantation forests dominated by Pinus radiata. In the 1990s, up to 100,000 hectares of new plantings occurred each year, many into land used previously for pasture. Current plantation forest area is about 1.7 million hectares. This land-use change impacts many biogeochemical and hydrological processes, and plays an important role in several current environmental issues. Conversion of pasture to plantation forests increases evapotranspiration, and can reduce streamflow and regional water availability. However, afforestation also stabilizes pasture soils that would be highly erodible when covered with pasture vegetation. Soil temperatures are also lower in plantation forests than in pasture, influencing carbon and nitrogen cycling rates. Because of differences in plant litter quality and distribution of carbon inputs to the soil, afforestation often leads to a reduction in soil pH, lower soil carbon turnover rates, lower net N mineralization, lower total mineral soil N, and reduced numbers of soil invertebrates (particularly earthworms). At many sites, these changes can lead to a reduction in mineral soil C stocks, with the reduction sometimes greater than the C accumulated in the forest floor. High N availability associated with pastures can often lead to N leaching losses when tree seedlings are established and uptake of N by pasture grasses inhibited by e.g. herbicide application. We discuss the ability of ecosystem models to simulate these complex biogeochemical changes associated with afforestation, the potential importance of forest management on these changes, and the implications for key environmental issues such as the rate of carbon sequestration in Kyoto forests and decreased emissions of agricultural trace gases.

  16. ALDH1A3: A Marker of Mesenchymal Phenotype in Gliomas Associated with Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huimin; Huang, Hua; Bao, Zhaoshi; Yang, Pei; Wang, Yinyan; You, Gan; Yan, Wei; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Jiangfei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) is a family of enzymes including 19 members. For now, ALDH activity had been wildly used as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs). But biological functions of relevant isoforms and their clinical applications are still controversial. Here, we investigate the clinical significance and potential function of ALDH1A3 in gliomas. By whole-genome transcriptome microarray and mRNA sequencing analysis, we compared the expression of ALDH1A3 in high- and low- grade gliomas as well as different molecular subtypes. Microarray analysis was performed to identify the correlated genes of ALDH1A3. We further used Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis to explore the biological function of ALDH1A3. Finally, by mRNA knockdown we revealed the relationship between ALDH1A3 and the ability of tumor invasion. ALDH1A3 overexpression was significantly associated with high grade as well as the higher mortality of gliomas in survival analysis. ALDH1A3 was characteristically highly expressed in Mesenchymal (Mes) subtype gliomas. Moreover, we found that ALDH1A3 was most relevant to extracellular matrix organization and cell adhesion biological process, and the ability of tumor invasion was suppressed after ALDH1A3 knockdown in vitro. In conclusion, ALDH1A3 can serve as a novel marker of Mes phenotype in gliomas with potential clinical prognostic value. The expression of ALDH1A3 is associated with tumor cell invasion. PMID:26575197

  17. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  18. EXOS-B/Siple station VLF wave-particle interaction experiments. II - Transmitter signals and associated emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F.; Inan, U. S.; Kimura, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Mukai, T.

    1983-01-01

    New observations in the magnetosphere of coherent VLF waves from the Siple Station, Antarctica, transmitter and associated VLF emissions triggered by the transmitter signals are reported. The data analyzed were acquired on the EXOS-B high-altitude satellite during the period July 15-September 7, 1979, during joint VLF wave-injection experiments involving scientists from Kyoto, Tokyo, and Stanford universities. The experiments were carried out to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between coherent VLF waves and energetic particles in the magnetosphere, in particular, the whistler-mode instability through which both natural and stimulated VLF emissions are produced. Analysis of the emission-triggering events provides strong evidence that the triggering took place inside whistler-mode ducts and that the emissions reached the satellite only after being scattered at one end of the ducts by ionospheric irregularities. It is concluded that in the noon sector of the magnetosphere, the amplitude of nonducted signals from the Siple transmitter is generally less than the threshold level necessary for triggering in the nonducted mode.

  19. Integrated Pathway-Based Approach Identifies Association between Genomic Regions at CTCF and CACNB2 and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zapatka, Marc; Frank, Josef; Witt, Stephanie H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Treutlein, Jens; Strohmaier, Jana; Meier, Sandra; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Ripke, Stephan; Leber, Markus; Lange, Christoph; Schulze, Thomas G.; Mössner, Rainald; Nenadic, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Rujescu, Dan; Maier, Wolfgang; Børglum, Anders; Ophoff, Roel; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Brors, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an integrated hierarchical approach was applied to: (1) identify pathways associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia; (2) detect genes that may be potentially affected in these pathways since they contain an associated polymorphism; and (3) annotate the functional consequences of such single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the affected genes or their regulatory regions. The Global Test was applied to detect schizophrenia-associated pathways using discovery and replication datasets comprising 5,040 and 5,082 individuals of European ancestry, respectively. Information concerning functional gene-sets was retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology, and the Molecular Signatures Database. Fourteen of the gene-sets or pathways identified in the discovery dataset were confirmed in the replication dataset. These include functional processes involved in transcriptional regulation and gene expression, synapse organization, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For two genes, i.e. CTCF and CACNB2, evidence for association with schizophrenia was available (at the gene-level) in both the discovery study and published data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia study. Furthermore, these genes mapped to four of the 14 presently identified pathways. Several of the SNPs assigned to CTCF and CACNB2 have potential functional consequences, and a gene in close proximity to CACNB2, i.e. ARL5B, was identified as a potential gene of interest. Application of the present hierarchical approach thus allowed: (1) identification of novel biological gene-sets or pathways with potential involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as replication of these findings in an independent cohort; (2) detection of genes of interest for future follow-up studies; and (3) the highlighting of novel genes in previously reported candidate regions for schizophrenia. PMID:24901509

  20. Integrated pathway-based approach identifies association between genomic regions at CTCF and CACNB2 and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Juraeva, Dilafruz; Haenisch, Britta; Zapatka, Marc; Frank, Josef; Witt, Stephanie H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Treutlein, Jens; Strohmaier, Jana; Meier, Sandra; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Ripke, Stephan; Leber, Markus; Lange, Christoph; Schulze, Thomas G; Mössner, Rainald; Nenadic, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Rujescu, Dan; Maier, Wolfgang; Børglum, Anders; Ophoff, Roel; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Brors, Benedikt

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, an integrated hierarchical approach was applied to: (1) identify pathways associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia; (2) detect genes that may be potentially affected in these pathways since they contain an associated polymorphism; and (3) annotate the functional consequences of such single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the affected genes or their regulatory regions. The Global Test was applied to detect schizophrenia-associated pathways using discovery and replication datasets comprising 5,040 and 5,082 individuals of European ancestry, respectively. Information concerning functional gene-sets was retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology, and the Molecular Signatures Database. Fourteen of the gene-sets or pathways identified in the discovery dataset were confirmed in the replication dataset. These include functional processes involved in transcriptional regulation and gene expression, synapse organization, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For two genes, i.e. CTCF and CACNB2, evidence for association with schizophrenia was available (at the gene-level) in both the discovery study and published data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia study. Furthermore, these genes mapped to four of the 14 presently identified pathways. Several of the SNPs assigned to CTCF and CACNB2 have potential functional consequences, and a gene in close proximity to CACNB2, i.e. ARL5B, was identified as a potential gene of interest. Application of the present hierarchical approach thus allowed: (1) identification of novel biological gene-sets or pathways with potential involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as replication of these findings in an independent cohort; (2) detection of genes of interest for future follow-up studies; and (3) the highlighting of novel genes in previously reported candidate regions for schizophrenia. PMID:24901509

  1. American Association of Suicidology

    MedlinePlus

    ... AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SUICIDOLOGY Suicide Prevention is Everyone's Business AAS is a charitable, nonprofit membership organization ... Signs & Risk Factors Current Projects Mission History Financial Information At ...

  2. PADB : Published Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  3. Reversion of left ventricle remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats by valsartan is associated with the inhibition of caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities

    PubMed Central

    DENG, XU; XIA, KE; CHEN, PO; ALI SHEIKH, MD SAYED; YANG, DA-FENG; LI, SI-MIN; YANG, TIAN-LUN

    2015-01-01

    The development of hypertension is closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, and caspase-3, −8 and −9 are key enzymes of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of valsartan on left ventricle hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and to explore the mechanisms for valsartan against apoptosis. A total of 15 SHRs (16 weeks old) were randomly divided into two groups. The SHRs in the valsartan (n=8) and SHR groups (n=7) were fed with valsartan and distilled water for 8 weeks, respectively. Wistar-Kyoto rats (n=8) were the control group. At the end of the experiments, blood pressure, parameters regarding hypertrophy, apoptosis and activities of caspase-3, −8 and −9 were measured. The results showed that valsartan significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, improved left ventricular remodeling, attenuated the myocardial damage and apoptosis, and decreased the activities of caspase-3, −8 and −9 in SHRs. In conclusion, valsartan is able to reverse hypertension-induced left ventricle remodeling, which is associated with, at least in part, its inhibitory effect on myocardial apoptosis in the death receptor-mediated extrinsic, as well as the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathways. PMID:26171161

  4. Association between RABV G Proteins Transported from the Perinuclear Space to the Cell Surface Membrane and N-Glycosylation of the Sequon Asn(204).

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Noriko; Uda, Akihiko; Tobiume, Minoru; Park, Chun-Ho; Noguchi, Akira; Kaku, Yoshihiro; Okutani, Akiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, G proteins of the rabies virus (RABV) Kyoto strain were detected in the cytoplasm but not distributed at the cell membrane of mouse neuroblastoma (MNA) cells. G proteins of CVS-26 were detected in both the cell membrane and perinuclear space of MNA cells. We found that N-glycosylation of street RABV G protein by the insertion of the sequon Asn(204) induced the transfer of RABV G proteins to the cell surface membrane. Fixed RABV budding from the plasma membrane has been found to depend not only on G protein but also on other structural proteins such as M protein. However, the differing N-glycosylation of G protein could be associated with the distinct budding and antigenic features of RABV in street and fixed viruses. Our study of the association of N-glycan of G protein at Asn(204) with the transport of RABV G protein to the cell surface membrane contributes to the understanding of the evolution of fixed virus from street virus, which in turn would help for determine the mechanism underlying RABV budding and enhanced host immune responses. PMID:25766612

  5. Neuroscience: Incepting Associations.

    PubMed

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-07-25

    A recent study has used real-time fMRI neurofeedback to induce color-specific activity patterns in early visual cortex as participants viewed achromatic gratings. This procedure resulted in an association between the color and the displayed grating orientation, suggesting that early visual cortex can support associative learning of this type. PMID:27458913

  6. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  7. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  8. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  9. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases. PMID:26485472

  10. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  11. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  12. Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingping; Zheng, Min; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Lu, Jianguo; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female's highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species. PMID:27571066

  13. Transcriptome Analysis and Its Application in Identifying Genes Associated with Fruiting Body Development in Basidiomycete Hypsizygus marmoreus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Zhao, Mingwen; Shi, Liang; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of fruit body development in H. marmoreus, a total of 43609521 high-quality RNA-seq reads were obtained from four developmental stages, including the mycelial knot (H-M), mycelial pigmentation (H-V), primordium (H-P) and fruiting body (H-F) stages. These reads were assembled to obtain 40568 unigenes with an average length of 1074 bp. A total of 26800 (66.06%) unigenes were annotated and analyzed with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) databases. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the four transcriptomes were analyzed. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the mycelium pigmentation stage was associated with the MAPK, cAMP, and blue light signal transduction pathways. In addition, expression of the two-component system members changed with the transition from H-M to H-V, suggesting that light affected the expression of genes related to fruit body initiation in H. marmoreus. During the transition from H-V to H-P, stress signals associated with MAPK, cAMP and ROS signals might be the most important inducers. Our data suggested that nitrogen starvation might be one of the most important factors in promoting fruit body maturation, and nitrogen metabolism and mTOR signaling pathway were associated with this process. In addition, 30 genes of interest were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR to verify their expression profiles at the four developmental stages. This study advances our understanding of the molecular mechanism of fruiting body development in H. marmoreus by identifying a wealth of new genes that may play important roles in mushroom morphogenesis. PMID:25837428

  14. A novel method to identify pathways associated with renal cell carcinoma based on a gene co-expression network

    PubMed Central

    RUAN, XIYUN; LI, HONGYUN; LIU, BO; CHEN, JIE; ZHANG, SHIBAO; SUN, ZEQIANG; LIU, SHUANGQING; SUN, FAHAI; LIU, QINGYONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a novel method for identifying pathways associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on a gene co-expression network. A framework was established where a co-expression network was derived from the database as well as various co-expression approaches. First, the backbone of the network based on differentially expressed (DE) genes between RCC patients and normal controls was constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database. The differentially co-expressed links were detected by Pearson’s correlation, the empirical Bayesian (EB) approach and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). The co-expressed gene pairs were merged by a rank-based algorithm. We obtained 842; 371; 2,883 and 1,595 co-expressed gene pairs from the co-expression networks of the STRING database, Pearson’s correlation EB method and WGCNA, respectively. Two hundred and eighty-one differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs were obtained from the merged network using this novel method. Pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and the network enrichment analysis (NEA) method were performed to verify feasibility of the merged method. Results of the KEGG and NEA pathway analyses showed that the network was associated with RCC. The suggested method was computationally efficient to identify pathways associated with RCC and has been identified as a useful complement to traditional co-expression analysis. PMID:26058425

  15. Dynamics of associating networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengchang; Habicht, Axel; Wang, Muzhou; Li, Shuaili; Seiffert, Sebastian; Olsen, Bradley

    Associating polymers offer important technological solutions to renewable and self-healing materials, conducting electrolytes for energy storage and transport, and vehicles for cell and protein deliveries. The interplay between polymer topologies and association chemistries warrants new interesting physics from associating networks, yet poses significant challenges to study these systems over a wide range of time and length scales. In a series of studies, we explored self-diffusion mechanisms of associating polymers above the percolation threshold, by combining experimental measurements using forced Rayleigh scattering and analytical insights from a two-state model. Despite the differences in molecular structures, a universal super-diffusion phenomenon is observed when diffusion of molecular species is hindered by dissociation kinetics. The molecular dissociation rate can be used to renormalize shear rheology data, which yields an unprecedented time-temperature-concentration superposition. The obtained shear rheology master curves provide experimental evidence of the relaxation hierarchy in associating networks.

  16. Anthrax-associated shock.

    PubMed

    Goldman, David L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Recent events have brought attention to the potential of Bacillus anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism. The shock like state of anthrax is invariably associated with high mortality, despite anti-microbial and supportive therapy. Multi-system dysfunction is typical, including: enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and inflammation. Important questions concerning the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock remain unanswered, including the effects of B. anthracis infection on cardiac function. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock. PMID:18508494

  17. Catheter-associated UTI

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. American Podiatric Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the winners. Learn More about The National Advertisement Advertisement @APMA Tweets by @APMA Follow @APMA Featured Webinars ... plans for his term in office. Watch now! Advertisement © 2016 American Podiatric Medical Association, Inc. All rights ...

  19. American Music Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  20. Accreditation and the Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpe, Eugene

    1977-01-01

    A report to the Association on a study of the accreditation question. The topics covered are: a definition of accreditation; a listing of major accredited; a description of the process of accreditation; and procedures for becoming an accrediting agency. (AMH)

  1. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  2. American Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Network JAMA JAMA Cardiology JAMA Dermatology JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery JAMA Internal Medicine JAMA Neurology JAMA Oncology ... Medical Association) JAMA Cardiology JAMA Dermatology JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery JAMA Internal Medicine JAMA Neurology JAMA Oncology ...

  3. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  4. Government, Marketplace, and Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes events at the 1988 Canadian Library Association (CLA) annual conference, which addressed such issues as access to information, CLA finances, and the information marketplace. A list of CLA officers and awards is included. (MES)

  5. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form The American Brain Tumor Association was the first and is the only national organization committed to funding brain tumor research and providing ...

  6. Color Associations of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Deborah A.

    1983-01-01

    Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

  7. Overcoming associative learning.

    PubMed

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986019

  8. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support and Information View ...

  9. National Spasmodic Torticollis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone anymore. Welcome to National Spasmodic Torticollis Association web site The mission of the National Spasmodic Torticollis ... Signs and Symptoms Treatment Options Medications Botulinum Toxin Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Selective Denervation Surgery Physical Therapy ...

  10. Medical Library Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11th, 2016 Patricia Flatley Brennan, registered nurse, informatician, industrial engineer, and renowned researcher is appointed as Director of the National Library of Medicine Tweets Copyright © 2016 Medical Library Association. ...

  11. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  12. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... work hard to help your students fulfill their dreams, and play a crucial... Learn more Dental School ... Terms of Use | Website Feedback | Website Help ©2016 American Dental Education Association® (ADEA), 655 K Street, NW, ...

  13. American Osteopathic Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... program A study in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association examines communication techniques when caring for patients with infections. READ MORE Building dreams: New COM reflects diversity of surrounding community Located ...

  14. Thyroid associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Rajat; Weis, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves' orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. PMID:22446901

  15. Fibromyalgia syndrome. New associations.

    PubMed

    Waylonis, G W; Heck, W

    1992-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a number of conditions, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, spastic colon and mitral valve prolapse, associated with fibromyalgia. The present report describes additional symptoms and medical conditions that appear to be associated with the syndrome based on a survey of 554 individuals with fibromyalgia compared with a group of 169 controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia self report a greater incidence of bursitis, chondromalacia, constipation, diarrhea, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vertigo, sinus and thyroid problems. Symptomatic complaints found statistically more prevalent in fibromyalgia patients included concentration problems, sensory symptoms, swollen glands and tinnitus. Other associations occurring with significant increased frequency were chronic cough, coccygeal and pelvic pain, tachycardia and weakness. Our previous report on inheritance patterns in fibromyalgia was reaffirmed with 12% reporting symptomatic children and 25% reporting symptomatic parents. Of the respondents, 70% noted that their symptoms were aggravated by noise, lights, stress, posture and weather. PMID:1466872

  16. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  17. HPV-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevic, Suzana; Skerlev, Mihael

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 200 distinct human papilloma viruses (HPVs) have now been recognized, and each is associated with a specific set of clinical lesions. They are associated with a spectrum of diseases, from benign verrucae vulgares and condylomata acuminata to the malignancies of the cervix, vulva, anus, and penis. Disease associated with HPV can be divided into skin and mucosal lesion of the genital and extragenital regions. The relationship between HPV and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is important clinically, because NMSC is the most common form of malignancy among fair-skinned populations. HPVs have also been detected in skin tags, lichen sclerosus, seborrheic keratoses, actinic keratoses, epidermal cysts, psoriatic plaques, and plucked hairs, but cutaneous HPV can be found on healthy skin. PMID:24559558

  18. Adaptive bidirectional associative memories.

    PubMed

    Kosko, B

    1987-12-01

    Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural networks to produce two-way associative search for stored stimulus-response associations (A(i),B(i)). Two fields of neurons, F(A) and F(B), are connected by an n x p synaptic marix M. Passing information through M gives one direction, passing information through its transpose M(T) gives the other. Every matrix is bidirectionally stable for bivalent and for continuous neurons. Paired data (A(i),B(i)) are encoded in M by summing bipolar correlation matrices. The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) behaves as a two-layer hierarchy of symmetrically connected neurons. When the neurons in F(A) and F(B) are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of twopattern reverberation, or pseudoadaptive resonance, for every connection topology M. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. An adaptive BAM allows M to rapidly learn associations without supervision. Stable short-term memory reverberations across F(A) and F(B) gradually seep pattern information into the long-term memory connections M, allowing input associations (A(i),B(i)) to dig their own energy wells in the network state space. The BAM correlation encoding scheme is extended to a general Hebbian learning law. Then every BAM adaptively resonates in the sense that all nodes and edges quickly equilibrate in a system energy local minimum. A sampling adaptive BAM results when many more training samples are presented than there are neurons in F(B) and F(B), but presented for brief pulses of learning, not allowing learning to fully or nearly converge. Learning tends to improve with sample size. Sampling adaptive BAMs can learn some simple continuous mappings and can rapidly abstract bivalent associations from several noisy gray-scale samples. PMID:20523473

  19. Amyloid-Associated Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Steffens, David C.; Au, Rhoda; Folstein, Marshal; Summergrad, Paul; Yee, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Irwin; Mwamburi, D. Mkaya; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2010-01-01

    Context A high ratio of plasma amyloid-β peptide 40 (Aβ40) toAβ42, determined by both high Aβ40 and low Aβ42 levels, increases the risk of Alzheimer disease. In a previous study, we reported that depression is also associated with low plasma Aβ42 levels in the elderly population. Objective To characterize plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio and cognitive function in elderly individuals with and without depression. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Homecare agencies. Participants A total of 995 homebound elderly individuals of whom 348 were defined as depressed by a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression score of 16 or greater. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive domains of memory, language, executive, and visuospatial functions according to levels of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides. Results Subjects with depression had lower plasma Aβ42 levels (median, 14.1 vs 19.2 pg/mL; P = .006) and a higher plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio (median, 8.9 vs 6.4; P < .001) than did those without depression in the absence of cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. The interaction between depression and plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio was associated with lower memory score (β = −1.9, SE = 0.7, P = .006) after adjusting for potentially confounders. Relative to those without depression, “amyloid-associated depression,” defined by presence of depression and a high plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio, was associated with greater impairment in memory, visuospatial ability, and executive function; in contrast, nonamyloid depression was not associated with memory impairment but with other cognitive disabilities. Conclusion Amyloid-associated depression may define a subtype of depression representing a prodromal manifestation of Alzheimer disease. PMID:18458206

  20. Substratum-Associated Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Furey, Paula C; Deininger, Anne; Liess, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    This survey of literature on substratum associated microbiota from 2015 highlights research findings associated with benthic algae and bacteria from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. It focuses on topics of interest to the Water Environment Federation along with those of current emerging interest such as global change, oil spills, and environmental contaminants like pharmaceutical compounds, microplastics, nanoparticles and organic pollutants. Other interesting findings briefly covered include areas of general ecology, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions, water quality, nuisance and invasive species, bioindicators, and bioremediation. PMID:27620106

  1. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  2. Identification of microRNA-like RNAs from Curvularia lunata associated with maize leaf spot by bioinformation analysis and deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Hu, John; Zuo, Yuhu; Jin, Yazhong; Hou, Jumei

    2016-04-01

    Deep sequencing of small RNAs is a useful tool to identify novel small RNAs that may be involved in fungal growth and pathogenesis. In this study, we used HiSeq deep sequencing to identify 747,487 unique small RNAs from Curvularia lunata. Among these small RNAs were 1012 microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs), which are similar to other known microRNAs, and 48 potential novel milRNAs without homologs in other organisms have been identified using the miRBase© database. We used quantitative PCR to analyze the expression of four of these milRNAs from C. lunata at different developmental stages. The analysis revealed several changes associated with germinating conidia and mycelial growth, suggesting that these milRNAs may play a role in pathogen infection and mycelial growth. A total of 8334 target mRNAs for the 1012 milRNAs that were identified, and 256 target mRNAs for the 48 novel milRNAs were predicted by computational analysis. These target mRNAs of milRNAs were also performed by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of C. lunata's milRNA profiles. This information will provide a better understanding of pathogen development and infection mechanism. PMID:26481645

  3. American Lung Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Association Applauds EPA’s Update to Cross-State Air Pollution Rule September 7, 2016 In response to today’s ... to finalize an update to the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule to reduce ozone pollution, Harold P. Wimmer... ...

  4. Association genetics in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applied and basic barley geneticists have begun to use association genetics as a tool to identify and fine map polymorphisms directly in breeding populations or diversity panels. Barley presents an ideal system because its populations present different extents of LD, from long-range LD in elite cult...

  5. Endometriosis-associated Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, N.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Schmidt, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fehm, T.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition in women of reproductive age. According to several epidemiological studies endometriosis may be associated with increased risk of various malignancies. However, endometriosis-associated malignancy (EAM) is defined by certain histological criteria. About 80 % of EAM have been found in the ovary, whereas 20 % are localized in extragonadal sites like intestine, rectovaginal septum, abdominal wall, pleura and others. Some authors suggest that EAM arise from atypical endometriosis as an intermediate lesion between endometriosis and cancer. Moreover, a number of genetic alterations, like loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, ARID1 A and p53 mutations have been found in both endometriosis and EAM. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) is mostly a well or intermediately differentiated tumor of endometrioid or clear cell histological sub-type. Women affected by EAOC are on average five to ten years younger than non-EAOC patients; in most of the cases EAOC is a low stage disease with favorable clinical outcome. Since EAM is a rare condition systematic data on EAM are still missing. A systematic retrospective study on endometriosis-associated malignancies (EAM study) is currently being conducted by the Endometriosis Research Foundation together with the study groups on ovarian and uterine tumors of the working group for gynecological oncology (AGO) (gyn@mlk-berlin.de). PMID:26941451

  6. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  7. Association mapping in cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is becoming important in perennial crops because it is a better alternative to the classical QTL's mapping approaches. The development of large breeding populations (F2, backcrosses and recombinant inbred populations) is a requirement of QTL's discovery; however, this process req...

  8. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  9. Native American Homeschooling Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozon, Gina

    2000-01-01

    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  10. The National Education Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert

    1983-01-01

    Examines how the National Education Association (NEA) has shifted from a conservative position to a more progressive one, which emphasizes militancy on such issues as equity and abolition of normative testing. Suggests that, in concentrating on politically charged matters, NEA has neglected a more important concern: the successful schooling of…

  11. Researching Teacher Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard; Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue not only for more research "into" English language teacher associations (TAs) but also for research to be carried out "by" and "within" TAs. That is, we advocate their becoming "Researching TAs" themselves. This suggestion derives from our recent collaborative work with/within the…

  12. Family Day Care Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Robert

    This paper presents information on the organization and accomplishments of Family Day Care Associations, organized groups of individuals who provide day care services in their own homes. Although primarily based on experiences of day care mothers in New York State, the paper presents information relevant to day care providers in any area.…

  13. JWST Associated Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swade, D.; Alexov, A.; Bushouse, H.; Greene, G.; Swam, M.

    2015-09-01

    Associated science data products for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be generated within the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) of the Science and Operations Center at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Associations capture the relationship between exposures and higher level data products. Association Pools are generated to capture a list of exposures that could potentially form an association and provide relevant information about those exposures. The Association Generator runs within the calibration software to generate association definitions in an Association Table format. Based on the Association Table content, the calibration software creates the Associated Science Data Products.

  14. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:1393897

  15. Antibiotic-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Shamik; Darby, R Ryan; Raibagkar, Pooja; Gonzalez Castro, L Nicolas; Berkowitz, Aaron L

    2016-03-01

    Delirium is a common and costly complication of hospitalization. Although medications are a known cause of delirium, antibiotics are an underrecognized class of medications associated with delirium. In this article, we comprehensively review the clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiologic features of antibiotic-associated encephalopathy (AAE). AAE can be divided into 3 unique clinical phenotypes: encephalopathy commonly accompanied by seizures or myoclonus arising within days after antibiotic administration (caused by cephalosporins and penicillin); encephalopathy characterized by psychosis arising within days of antibiotic administration (caused by quinolones, macrolides, and procaine penicillin); and encephalopathy accompanied by cerebellar signs and MRI abnormalities emerging weeks after initiation of antibiotics (caused by metronidazole). We correlate these 3 clinical phenotypes with underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of antibiotic neurotoxicity. Familiarity with these types of antibiotic toxicity can improve timely diagnosis of AAE and prompt antibiotic discontinuation, reducing the time patients spend in the delirious state. PMID:26888997

  16. Multitasking Associative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a bipartite, diluted and frustrated, network as a sparse restricted Boltzmann machine and we show its thermodynamical equivalence to an associative working memory able to retrieve several patterns in parallel without falling into spurious states typical of classical neural networks. We focus on systems processing in parallel a finite (up to logarithmic growth in the volume) amount of patterns, mirroring the low-level storage of standard Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky theory. Results obtained through statistical mechanics, the signal-to-noise technique, and Monte Carlo simulations are overall in perfect agreement and carry interesting biological insights. Indeed, these associative networks pave new perspectives in the understanding of multitasking features expressed by complex systems, e.g., neural and immune networks.

  17. Amenorrhea associated with carotenemia.

    PubMed

    Kemmann, E; Pasquale, S A; Skaf, R

    1983-02-18

    Data are presented for ten women with anovulation, nine of them with amenorrhea, who have associated carotenemia. Classic explanations for carotenemia in amenorrheic patients have been weight loss or anorexia nervosa, yet carotenemia in our patients appeared to be diet induced. All patients consumed a pure or predominantly vegetarian diet; there was no intake of red meats. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients are presented. The amenorrhea of the patient is consistent with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic anovulation (HHA). It appeared that diet modification not only led to reduction in carotene levels, but also improved the menstrual status. The association of carotenemia and menstrual disorders is reviewed. The possibility that carotenemia is related to the development of HHA is discussed. PMID:6823046

  18. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  19. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m < min(n, p)--pattern number is bounded by pattern dimensionality. BAM optical implementations are divided into two approaches: matrix vector multipliers and holographic correlators. The four optical BAMs described respectively emphasize a spatial light modulator, laser diodes and high-speed detectors, a reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  20. Discovering General Multidimensional Associations

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ben; Murrell, Daniel; Murrell, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    When two variables are related by a known function, the coefficient of determination (denoted R2) measures the proportion of the total variance in the observations explained by that function. For linear relationships, this is equal to the square of the correlation coefficient, ρ. When the parametric form of the relationship is unknown, however, it is unclear how to estimate the proportion of explained variance equitably—assigning similar values to equally noisy relationships. Here we demonstrate how to directly estimate a generalised R2 when the form of the relationship is unknown, and we consider the performance of the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC)—a recently proposed information theoretic measure of dependence. We show that our approach behaves equitably, has more power than MIC to detect association between variables, and converges faster with increasing sample size. Most importantly, our approach generalises to higher dimensions, estimating the strength of multivariate relationships (Y against A, B, …) as well as measuring association while controlling for covariates (Y against X controlling for C). An R package named matie (“Measuring Association and Testing Independence Efficiently”) is available (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/matie/). PMID:26991498

  1. Sudoku associative memory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiann-Ming; Hsu, Pei-Hsun; Liou, Cheng-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    This work presents bipolar neural systems for check-rule embedded pattern restoration, fault-tolerant information encoding and Sudoku memory construction and association. The primitive bipolar neural unit is generalized to have internal fields and activations, which are respectively characterized by exponential growth and logistic differential dynamics, in response to inhibitory and excitatory stimuli. Coupling extended bipolar units induces multi-state artificial Potts neurons which are interconnected with inhibitory synapses for Latin square encoding, K-alphabet Latin square encoding and Sudoku encoding. The proposed neural dynamics can generally restore Sudoku patterns from partial sparse clues. Neural relaxation is based on mean field annealing that well guarantees reliable convergence to ground states. Sudoku associative memory combines inhibitory interconnections of Sudoku encoding with Hebb's excitatory synapses of encoding conjunctive relations among active units over memorized patterns. Sudoku associative memory is empirically shown reliable and effective for restoring memorized patterns subject to typical sparse clues, fewer partial clues, dense clues and perturbed or damaged clues. On the basis, compound Sudoku patterns are further extended to emulate complex topological information encoding. PMID:24981308

  2. Reminders Through Association.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine's Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. PMID:27207873

  3. [Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): with special reference to age-associated pathologies and their modulation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, T

    1996-07-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) has been under development by our research team at Kyoto University since 1970 through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson Laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. At present, there are 12 lines of SAM; the 9 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) include SAMP1, SAMP2, SAMP3, SAMP6, SAMP7, SAMP8, SAMP9, SAMP10 and SAMP11, and the 3 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) SAMR1, SANR4 and SAMR5. Data from survival curves, the Gompertzian function and the grading score of senescence, together with growth patterns of body weight of these SAMP and SAMR mice revealed that the characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP mice is "accelerated senescence": early onset and irreversible advance of senescence manifested by several signs and gross lesions such as the loss of normal behavior, various skin lesions, increased lordokyphosis, etc., after a period of normal development. Routine postmortem examinations and the pathobiological features revealed by systematically designed studies have shown several pathologic phenotypes, which are often characteristic enough to differentiate among the various SAM strains: senile amyloidosis in SAMP1, -P2, -P7, -P9, -P10 and -P11, secondary amyloidosis in SAMP2 and -P6, contracted kidney in SAMP1, -P2, -P10, -P11, immunoblastic lymphoma in SAMR1 and -R4, histiocytic sarcoma in SAMR1 and -R4, ovarian cysts in SAMR1, impaired immune response in SAMP1, -P2 and -P8, hyperinflation of the lungs in SAMP1, hearing impairment in SAMP1, degenerative temporomandibular joint disease in SAMP3, senile osteoporosis in SAMP6, deficits in learning and memory in SAMP8 and -P10, emotional disorders in SAMP8 and -P10, cataracts in SAMP9, and brain atrophy in SAMP10. These are all age-associated pathologies, the incidence and severity of which increase with advancing age. The SAM model in which these

  4. An Investigation of Highly Geo-effective Solar Transients and Associated Geoeffectivness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-07-01

    The solar Cycle 23 has shown some peculiar features, i.e. slow and prolonged decline phase. It is when combined with the ascending phase of Cycle 24, it provides us a long phase during which the overall magnetic activity was very low. During this interval the average sunspot number appeared on the solar disk were very low and signifies the weak polar magnetic fields, and solar wind streams mainly originating from coronal holes. The study investigate the relationship between magnetic structure of coronal holes and/or coronal mass ejection (CME) source region and their influence on Earth's geomagnetic field, i.e. storms and sub storms. Mainly considering very intense geomagnetic storms that occurred during Solar Cycle 23. The disturbance storm time index Dst is taken as an indicator of geomagnetic activity by setting a value of Dstmin ≤ -200 nT as threshold. By examining halo CMEs that erupted between 2000 to 2008. We selected 07 events associated with M-class and X-class solar flares. Furthermore, as the geomagnetic field (BGeomag) puts a lower cutoff rigidity (Rc) to the entry of cosmic particles in to the earth, depending upon the geomagnetic activity. Sometimes when this entry of charged particles exhibits very sudden sharp and short lived increases in cosmic ray intensities, registered by neutron monitor, it is termed as Ground-level enhancement (GLEs). These enhancements are known to take place during the result of powerful solar eruption. In this present investigation we also studied GLE events associated with solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CMEs). The spacecraft data acquired by various spacecraft mission and those provided by Omni web and geomagnetic stations like WDC-Kyoto are utilized in the study. We observed that IMF B is highly geo-effective during the main phase of magnetic storms, while it more significant at the time of storm peak, which is further contributed by southward component of IMF Bz, substantiating earlier findings. The correlation

  5. 2011 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…

  6. 2007 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Provides the 2007 reports of APA's Regional Associations. Included are the annual meeting reports from the Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern Psychological Association, and…

  7. Expression of proteins associated with adipocyte lipolysis was significantly changed in the adipose tissues of the obese spontaneously hypertensive/NDmcr-cp rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of the metabolic syndrome is complex, and is determined by the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors. The present study was designed to identify genes and proteins in the adipose tissues with altered expression in the spontaneously hypertensive/NIH –corpulent rat, SHR/NDmcr-cp (CP) and to find possible molecular targets associated with the pathogenesis or progression of obesity related to the metabolic syndrome. Methods We extracted RNAs and proteins from the epididymal adipose tissues in CP, SHR/Lean (Lean), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and performed microarray analysis and two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) linked to a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Results The results showed different mRNA and protein expression levels in the adipose tissue: oligo DNA microarray identified 33 genes that were significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated and 17 genes significantly down-regulated in CP compared with WKY and Lean rats at both 6 and 25 weeks of age. The affected genes-proteins were associated with lipolytic enzymes stimulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling. Further analysis using the 2D-DIGE connected with MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, the expression of monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was significantly up-regulated and that of carboxylesterase 3 (CES3) was significantly down-regulated in 6- and 25-week-old CP compared with age-matched control (WKY and Lean rats). Conclusions Our results suggest the possible involvement of proteins associated with adipocyte lipolysis in obesity related to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24468282

  8. Mouse Endometrium Temporal and Spatial Expression mRNA and MicroRNA Associated With Embryo Implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chen, Xuemei; He, Junlin; Ding, Yubin; Geng, Yanqing; Liu, Shangjing; Liu, Xueqing; Wang, Yingxiong

    2015-11-01

    Embryo implantation is a dynamic physiological process involving morphological and molecular changes in the endometrium during the pre-receptivity, receptivity, and implantation phases. A comprehensive analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) profiles during implantation will likely provide new clues to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing embryo implantation. We characterized the mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) of the endometrium 1 day postcoitum (dpc) and 4dpc and the implantation site (IMS) and inter-implantation (IIM) site of the endometrium on 5dpc. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on selected miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs to validate their negatively correlated expression. Statistical analysis of the data based on Gene Ontology (GO) group annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis demonstrated that the genes with significant expression at the IIM site were primarily involved in glucose, protein, and lipoprotein metabolism to provide energy for embryo implantation, while the genes identified at the IMS were involved in RNA functions to produce proteins in support of embryo development and trophoblast invasion. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions between cells and the ECM was the most remarkable event during implantation. The miRNA-mRNA interaction network unraveled the regulatory relationship between miRNAs and mRNAs. Hub miRNAs (mmu-miR-96 and mmu-miR-200b) were identified to target B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Kruppel-like factor 13 (Klf13), and Progesterone receptor (PGR), which are associated with the preparation of the receptive condition or the maintenance of early pregnancy. PMID:25862677

  9. Co-expression network-based analysis of hippocampal expression data associated with Alzheimer's disease using a novel algorithm

    PubMed Central

    YUE, HONG; YANG, BO; YANG, FANG; HU, XIAO-LI; KONG, FAN-BIN

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in bioinformatics has facilitated the clarification of biological processes associated with complex diseases. Numerous methods of co-expression analysis have been proposed for use in the study of pairwise relationships among genes. In the present study, a combined network based on gene pairs was constructed following the conversion and combination of gene pair score values using a novel algorithm across multiple approaches. Three hippocampal expression profiles of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls were extracted from the ArrayExpress database, and a total of 144 differentially expressed (DE) genes across multiple studies were identified by a rank product (RP) method. Five groups of co-expression gene pairs and five networks were identified and constructed using four existing methods [weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), empirical Bayesian (EB), differentially co-expressed genes and links (DCGL), search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins database (STRING)] and a novel rank-based algorithm with combined score, respectively. Topological analysis indicated that the co-expression network constructed by the WGCNA method had the tendency to exhibit small-world characteristics, and the combined co-expression network was confirmed to be a scale-free network. Functional analysis of the co-expression gene pairs was conducted by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The co-expression gene pairs were mostly enriched in five pathways, namely proteasome, oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and AD. This study provides a new perspective to co-expression analysis. Since different methods of analysis often present varying abilities, the novel combination algorithm may provide a more credible and robust outcome, and could be used to complement to traditional co-expression analysis. PMID:27168792

  10. Regorafenib- associated panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Ramya; Aung, Phyu; Patel, Anisha B

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib is a second-generation multikinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of metastatic colon cancer and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Hand-foot skin reaction, alopecia, and oral mucositis are well-established side effects of this medication. Herein, we discuss a 60-year-old woman who developed a lobular and septal granulomatous panniculitis after six months of therapy with regorafenib. Biopsy demonstrated focal lobular and septal granulomatous inflammation admixed with septal fibrosis and lobular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate associated with fat necrosis. To our knowledge, regorafenib-induced panniculitis has not been previously described. Increased awareness of this presentation can facilitate more timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27617607

  11. HIV Associated Opportunistic Pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Ismail, T; Lee, C

    2011-03-01

    Opportunistic pneumonias are major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. The majority of new HIV infections in Malaysia are adults aged 20 to 39 years old and many are unaware of their HIV status until they present with an opportunistic infection. HIV associated opportunistic pneumonias can progress rapidly without appropriate therapy. Therefore a proper diagnostic evaluation is vital and prompt empiric treatment of the suspected diagnosis should be commenced while waiting for the results of the diagnostic studies. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and recurrent bacterial pneumonias are common causes of AIDS-defining diseases and are discussed in this article. PMID:23765154

  12. Dermatosis associated with menopause.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A

    2014-10-01

    Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising. PMID:25540566

  13. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:23948626

  14. Arthritis-associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Osial, T A; Cash, J M; Eisenbeis, C H

    1993-12-01

    There are a number of diseases characterized by inflammatory arthropathy that, although not as commonly seen as rheumatoid arthritis, often present to the family physician as difficult diagnostic problems. The diagnosis is frequently most difficult during the early course of these diseases. During recent years, new and altered concepts have arisen regarding both diagnostic and therapeutic management of this challenging group of arthropathies. This article presents a review of the more common arthritis-associated syndromes with emphasis on the differential diagnosis and medicinal therapeutics. PMID:8310085

  15. Alternate Rules of Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2014-11-01

    The Weyl correspondence rule (107) is not unique: there are a host of alternate equivalent association rules which specify corresponding representations. All these representations with equivalent formalisms are typified by characteristic quasi-distribution functions and ⋆-products, all systematically inter-convertible among themselves. They have been surveyed comparatively and organized in [Lee95, BJ84], on the basis of seminal classification work by Cohen [Coh66, Coh76]. Like different coordinate transformations, they may be favored by virtue of their different characteristic properties in varying applications...

  16. Dermatosis associated with menopause

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising. PMID:25540566

  17. Perindopril-associated pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Benard, A; Melloni, B; Gosselin, B; Bonnaud, F; Wallaert, B

    1996-06-01

    We report two cases of perindopril-associated pneumonitis with typical drug-induced clinical features. In the first case, biopsies showed granulomatous sarcoid-like lesions; in the second, bronchial wall eosinophil infiltratf2p4was reported with increased blood eosinophil count. In these two cases, improvement was obtained by withdrawal of the drug and was completed with steroids. All other causes were ruled out. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced pneumonitis is still rare but has to be recognized as a real side-effect. PMID:8804953

  18. Hemimyeloschisis associated with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Izci, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Hemimyeloschisis is a very rare congenital malformation of the spine which is characterized by a split cord malformation associated with complete exposureof the one hemicord to the exterior. We report a case of hemimyeloschisis on the right hemicord in a patient with hydrocephalus. The patient was a female neonate with myeloschisis, skin defect, and hypertrichosis visible at birth in the upper lumbar region. There was also skin defect around the myeloschisis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a bony septum at the L2 level as well as the myeloschisis on the right hemicord, which enabled us to make a precise preoperative diagnosis of this rare malformation. There was also mild hydrocephalus in cranial CT scan. Closure of the myeloschisis and removal of the septum were successfully performed associated with the closure of the skin in one stage surgery to prevent subsequent infection and neurological deterioration. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was performed for hydrocephalus. The presence of combined split cord malformation and myeloschisis is consistent with the hypothesis of an ontogenic basis of development. This combination also emphasizes the importance of early imaging for diagnosis in this complex malformation. PMID:26607795

  19. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a New Young Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  20. Endosymbiotic associations within protists

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Eva C. M.; Melkonian, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host's limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most significant examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts. In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation. PMID:20124339

  1. Optoelectronic associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

  2. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2011-01-01

    The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

  3. CALIFORNIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Donald D.; Hunton, John

    1959-01-01

    Almost every doctor who visits England comes back wanting to write an article or give a speech about socialized medicine. Because there has been so much said so many times on the subject, it has lost much of its interest. Yet, the headquarters of the California Academy of General Practice in San Francisco recently had a visitor from England who had some startling, frightening things to say of interest to every American doctor. The visitor was Dr. Alastair J. Marshall, Luton, England, who is visiting in this country under a Ford Foundation Grant. As an area executive in the British Medical Association and on the executive area council (one-third physicians, two-thirds laymen) for the national health system, Dr. Marshall can competently speak on this subject. Here are some of the questions presented to Dr. Marshall by the Academy's Executive Secretary Bill Rogers. PMID:18732196

  4. Transfusion associated circulatory overload.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2014-06-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) is an established, but grossly under diagnosed and underreported complication of blood transfusion. We present the case of a 46-year-old diabetic and hypertensive patient admitted to our hospital for recurrent episodes of urinary retention. Over initial 3 days of the admission, the patient received multiple units of packed red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma, uneventfully. However, the patient developed signs and symptoms suggestive of TACO with only small amount of the 4(th) unit of RBC. The patient had to be shifted to the Intensive Care Unit for further management of this complication. Etiology of TACO is more complex than a mere circulatory overload and is still not completely understood. TACO leads to a prolonged hospital stay and morbidity in the patients developing this complication. TACO thus needs to be suspected in patients at risk for this complication. PMID:24987240

  5. Sepsis-associated hyperlactatemia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alvarez, Mercedes; Marik, Paul; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2014-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that sepsis and septic shock are associated with hyperlactatemia (sepsis-associated hyperlactatemia (SAHL)). SAHL is a strong independent predictor of mortality and its presence and progression are widely appreciated by clinicians to define a very high-risk population. Until recently, the dominant paradigm has been that SAHL is a marker of tissue hypoxia. Accordingly, SAHL has been interpreted to indicate the presence of an 'oxygen debt' or 'hypoperfusion', which leads to increased lactate generation via anaerobic glycolysis. In light of such interpretation of the meaning of SAHL, maneuvers to increase oxygen delivery have been proposed as its treatment. Moreover, lactate levels have been proposed as a method to evaluate the adequacy of resuscitation and the nature of the response to the initial treatment for sepsis. However, a large body of evidence has accumulated that strongly challenges such notions. Much evidence now supports the view that SAHL is not due only to tissue hypoxia or anaerobic glycolysis. Experimental and human studies all consistently support the view that SAHL is more logically explained by increased aerobic glycolysis secondary to activation of the stress response (adrenergic stimulation). More importantly, new evidence suggests that SAHL may actually serve to facilitate bioenergetic efficiency through an increase in lactate oxidation. In this sense, the characteristics of lactate production best fit the notion of an adaptive survival response that grows in intensity as disease severity increases. Clinicians need to be aware of these developments in our understanding of SAHL in order to approach patient management according to biological principles and to interpret lactate concentrations during sepsis resuscitation according to current best knowledge. PMID:25394679

  6. Happiness by Association: Breadth of Free Association Influences Affective States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Paczynski, Martin; Shenhav, Amitai; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that affective states influence the number of associations formed between remotely related concepts. Someone in a neutral or negative affective state might draw the association between "cold" and "hot", whereas someone in a positive affective state might spontaneously form the more distant association between…

  7. Attentive multidirectional associative memory with application to pattern association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Heng-Ming

    1992-07-01

    An attentive multidirectional hetero-associative memory network (AMAM) is proposed. The convergence and encoding strategies of AMAM are described. This network enables multiple associations, but with certain associations embedding more attention. This model is inspired by speculation about how associative learning and storage might occur in the nervous system. AMAM has much better error correcting capability and memory capacity than the multidirectional associative memory. Examples are illustrated to show the advantages of this model. In addition, we demonstrate and compare its recall ability for pattern recognition.

  8. High density associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layered, thin-film, digital memory having associative recall. There is a first memory matrix and a second memory matrix. Each memory matrix comprises, a first layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated row conductors; a second layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated column conductors intersecting but electrically separated from the row conductors; and, a plurality of resistance elements electrically connected between the row condutors and the column conductors at respective intersections of the row conductors and the column conductors, each resistance element comprising, in series, a first resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct a sensible element current therethrough with virtually no heat-generating power consumption when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross and a second resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct no sensible current therethrough when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross, the second resistor having the quality of breaking down to create a short therethrough upon the application of a breakdown level voltage across the first and second resistors.

  9. [ANCA associated vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Monika; Hruby, Zbigniew; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Vasculitis is a process caused by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel walls and results in a variety of disorders. An accepted classification system for vasculitis is categorized by the size or type of the involved blood vessel as large-, medium-, or small-vessel vasculitis. Small-vessel vasculitis is defined as vasculitis that affects vessels smaller than arteries (i.e., arterioles, venules, and capillaries); however, small-vessel vasculitis can also involve medium-sized arteries. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Microscopoc polyangiitis, Churg Strauss syndrome and Renal Limited Vasculitis where the kidney is the only organ involved are clasified as a small vesselvasculitis. These disorders are described to be commonly associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA). The etiology is not known and the incidence of vasculitis is incresasing occuring more often in elderly population. These diseases can cause the focal necrotizing lesions witch affect vessels and organs. In the lung it may cause alveolar hemorrhage, in the kidneys crescentic glomerulonephritis with acute renal failure, in the skin purpuric rash and ulcerations. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids, immunosupresive therapy and in some cases plasmapheresis. Advances in clinical management have been achieved during the past few years. PMID:24003670

  10. Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Cristina; Cavallo, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    Polyomaviruses BK and JC are ubiquitous viruses with high seroprevalence rates in general population. Following primary infection, polyomaviruses BK and JC persist latently in different sites, particularly in the reno-urinary tract. Reactivation from latency may occur in normal subjects with asymptomatic viruria, while it can be associated to nephropathy (PVAN) in kidney transplantat recipients. PVAN may occur in 1%-10% of renal transplant patients with loss of the transplanted organ in 30% up to 80% of the cases. Etiology of PVAN is mainly attributable to BK virus, although approximately 5% of the cases may be due to JC. Pathogenesis of PVAN is still unknown, although viral replication and the lack of immune control play a major role. Immunosuppression represents the condicio sine qua non for the development of PVAN and the modulation of anti-rejection treatment represents the first line of intervention, given the lack of specific antiviral agents. At moment, an appropriate immunemodulation can only be accomplished by early identification of viral reactivacation by evaluation of polyomavirus load on serum and/or urine specimens, particularly in the first year post-trasplantation. Viro-immunological monitoring of specific cellular immune response could be useful to identify patients unable to recover cellular immunity posttransplantation, that are at higher risk of viral reactivation with development of PVAN. Herein, the main features of polyomaviruses BK and JC, biological properties, clinical characteristics, etiopathogenesis, monitoring and diagnosing of PVAN will be described and discussed, with an extended citation of related relevant literature data. PMID:24175200

  11. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Neera; Duggal, Ashish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26556425

  12. [Healthcare associated pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Adrián; González, Alejandra; Heres, Marcela; Peluffo, Graciela; Monteverde, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a different entity from community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. There exist several risk factors that lead to it. Different features, severity and pathogens are described and there is controversy about the initial empirical treatment. The aim of this work was to analyze the etiology, clinical characteristics and evolution of the HCAP. It is a prospective and observational study that includes 60 patients; 32 had previous hospitalization during the last 90 days, 9 were under hemodialysis, 12 residents in nursing homes and 7 received outpatient intravenous therapy. The mean age was 63 years and the severity index was high. The most frequent comorbidities were cardiac. The radiological compromise was more than one lobe in 42% of cases and 18% had pleural effusion. Germ isolation was obtained in 30% of patients where the most isolated germ was Streptococcus pneumoniae (9 cases). There was only one case of multidrug-resistance. The mean length hospital stay was 11 days, six patients had complications and mortality was 5%. Complications but not mortality were significantly higher in the group of patients on hemodialysis (p value = 0.011 and 0.056 respectively). The antibiotic-resistance found do not justify a change in the antibiotic treatment commonly used for community acquired pneumonia. PMID:24561835

  13. Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cotena, Simona; Piazza, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is defined as a diffuse or multifocal cerebral dysfunction induced by the systemic response to the infection without clinical or laboratory evidence of direct brain infection. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial. SAE generally occurs early during severe sepsis and precedes multiple-organ failure. The most common clinical feature of SAE is the consciousness alteration which ranges from mildly reduced awareness to unresponsiveness and coma. Diagnosis of SAE is primarily clinical and depends on the exclusion of other possible causes of brain deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) is almost sensitive, but it is not specific for SAE. Computed Tomography (CT) head scan generally is negative in case of SAE, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can show brain abnormalities in case of SAE, but they are not specific for this condition. Somatosensitive Evoked Potentials (SEPs) are sensitive markers of developing cerebral dysfunction in sepsis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CBF) analysis is generally normal, a part an inconstant elevation of proteins concentration. S100B and NSE have been proposed like biomarkers for diagnosis of SAE, but the existing data are controversial. SAE is reversible even if survivors of severe sepsis have often long lasting or irreversible cognitive and behavioral sequel; however the presence of SAE can have a negative influence on survival. A specific therapy of SAE does not exist and the outcome depends on a prompt and appropriate treatment of sepsis as whole. PMID:23905041

  14. [Travel-associated pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Geerdes-Fenge, H F

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory infections are responsible for up to 11% of febrile infections in travellers or immigrants from tropical and subtropical regions. The main pathogens are the same as in temperate climate zones: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza viruses, Legionella pneumophila. However, some pulmonary diseases can be attributed to bacterial, parasitic, viral or fungal pathogens that are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The most commonly imported infections are malaria, dengue, and tuberculosis. Pulmonary symptoms and eosinophilia in returning travellers and migrants may be caused by several parasitic infections such as Katayama syndrome, Loeffler syndrome, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, amebiasis, paragonimiasis, echinococcosis, and toxocariasis. In Asia, Tsutsugamushi fever is transmitted by chiggers, spotted fever rickettsiae are transmitted by ticks. Transmission of zoonotic diseases occurs mainly via contact with infected animals or their excretions, human-to-human transmission is generally rare: MERS-CoA (dromedary camels), pulmonary hantavirus infection (rodents), tularemia (rabbits and hares), leptospirosis (rats), Q-fever (sheep and goats), very rarely anthrax (hides of ruminants) and pest (infected rats and wildlife). Inhalation of contaminated dust can cause infections with dimorphic fungi: histoplasmosis (bat guano) and coccidioidomycosis in America and parts of Africa, blastomycosis in America. Some infections can cause symptoms years after a stay in tropical or subtropical regions (melioidosis, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension). Noninfectious respiratory diseases caused by inhalation of high amounts of air pollution or toxic dusts may also be considered. PMID:25290923

  15. Pregnancy associated brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis zoonotic infection caused by Brucella spp. In endemic countries, the disease does not spare the pregnant. There is evidence that brucellosis can induce abortion in humans. Positive cultures of brucella from human placenta, aborted fetuses, and other products of conception were reported previously. It is speculated that brucellosis causes fewer spontaneous abortions in humans than animals due to the absence of Erythritol in the human placenta and fetus. In addition, the presence of anti-brucella activity in human amniotic fluid may also play a role. Rifampin is considered the mainstay of treatment of brucellosis during pregnancy, in various combinations. In a retrospective study of brucellosis in pregnancy, antepartum treatment with antimicrobial agents was more protective against the occurrence of abortion than no or inadequate treatment. It seems that the incidence of abortion is not different among patients treated with either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with or without rifampicin. With therapy during pregnancy, the overall success rate resulting in normal delivery is 90%. The article discussed few of the patents associated with brucellosis. PMID:22812618

  16. Downregulation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor and Associated Antioxidant Genes Contributes to Redox-Sensitive Vascular Dysfunction in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rhéure A; Neves, Karla B; Tostes, Rita C; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in vascular dysfunction in hypertension. Although mechanisms regulating vascular pro-oxidants are emerging, there is a paucity of information on antioxidant systems, particularly nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidants enzymes. We evaluated the vascular regulatory role of Nrf2 in hypertension and examined molecular mechanisms, whereby Nrf2 influences redox signaling in small arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Cells were stimulated with angiotensin II in the absence/presence of Nrf2 activators (bardoxolone/L-sulforaphane). Increased vascular reactive oxygen species production (chemiluminescence and amplex red) was associated with reduced Nrf2 activity in arteries (18%) and vascular smooth muscle cells (48%) in SHRSP (P<0.05 versus WKY). Expression of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase-1 (64%), catalase (60%), peroxiredoxin 1 (75%), and glutathione peroxidase (54%), was reduced in SHRSP. L-sulforaphane reversed these effects. Angiotensin II increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 in vascular smooth muscle cells from WKY (197% versus vehicle), with blunted effects in SHRSP (44% versus vehicle). These responses were associated with increased antioxidant expression (superoxide dismutase-1, 32%; catalase, 42%; thioredoxin, 71%; peroxiredoxin, 1%-90%; quinone oxidoreductase, 84%; P<0.05 versus vehicle) and increased activity of superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, and thioredoxin in WKY but not in SHRSP, which exhibited increased Bach1 expression. Nrf2 activators blocked angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species generation. Vascular function demonstrated increased contractility (Emax WKY 113.4±5.6 versus SHRSP 159.0±8.3) and decreased endothelial-dependent relaxation (Emax WKY 88.6±3.1 versus SHRSP 74.6±3.2, P<0.05) in SHRSP, effects corrected by L-sulforaphane. Our findings suggest that

  17. Co-expression network analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with metastasis in prolactin pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zang, Zhenle; Song, Yechun; Yang, Hui; Yin, Qing

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct a co‑expression network of differently expressed genes (DEGs) in prolactin pituitary (PRL) tumor metastasis. The gene expression profile, GSE22812 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and including five non‑invasive, two invasive and six aggressive‑invasive PRL tumor samples. Compared with non‑invasive samples, DEGs were identified in invasive and aggressive‑invasive samples using a limma package in R language. The expression values of DEGs were hierarchically clustered. Next, Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of DEGs were performed via The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Finally, gene pairs of DEGs between non‑invasive and aggressive‑invasive samples were identified using the Spearman cor( ) function in R language. Compared with the non‑invasive samples, 61 and 89 DEGs were obtained from invasive and aggressive‑invasive samples, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that four genes were shared by the two samples, including upregulated solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11 (SLC2A11) and teneurin transmembrane protein 1 (TENM1) and downregulated importin 7 (IPO7) and chromogranin B (CHGB). In the invasive samples, the most significant GO terms responded to cyclic adenosine monophosphate and a glucocorticoid stimulus. However, this occurred in the cell cycle, and was in response to hormone stimulation in aggressive‑invasive samples. The co‑expression network of DEGs showed different gene pairs and modules, and SLC2A11 and CHGB occurred in two co‑expression networks within different co‑expressed pairs. In the present study, the co‑expression network was constructed using bioinformatics methods. SLC2A11, TENM1, IPO7 and CHGB are hypothesized to be closely associated with metastasis of PRL. Furthermore, CHGB and SLC2A11 may be significant in PRL

  18. Creating a New Professional Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Reading and Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This was the task assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE)…

  19. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  20. The Association of Christian Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Patricia W.

    The Association of Christian Librarians is an interdenominational organization of 300 members made up of Christian librarians sharing interests in library service in Christian higher education. From its birth at a 1957 conference of 17 librarians, the association has grown to over 300 members. The association strives to promote, develop, and…

  1. Assembly of Associations: Communique, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Helle, Comp.; Brown, Gerald R., Comp.

    This document reports developments in school librarianship from around the world. Reports from the following countries, regions, and organizations are included: Austria; the Australian School Library Association; the Botswana Secondary School Librarians Association; Burundi; the Association for Teacher-Librarianship in Canada; the Canadian School…

  2. Minority Students and Professional Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The role of professional associations in facilitating minority access to graduate and professional education is addressed. Information on minority applications, financial aid, recruitment, and support activities was requested from 29 associations; 16 responded. The general posture of the associations appears to be limited to expressions of support…

  3. Is Association Membership Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel Singer

    2004-01-01

    Librarians looking for an increased connection with the profession have traditionally gotten involved with associations. They become American Library Association (ALA) members, join a division or round table, perhaps volunteer for a committee. They take part in their state association, attend state conferences, perhaps present a poster session or…

  4. Associated particle imaging (API)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab.

  5. Healthcare associated infections (HAI) perspectives.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Tambyah, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are among the major complications of modern medical therapy. The most important HAIs are those related to invasive devices: central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) as well as surgical site infections (SSI). HAIs are associated with significant mortality, morbidities and increasing healthcare cost. The cited case-fatality rate ranges from 2.3% to 14.4% depending on the type of infection. In this mini-review, we shed light on these aspects as well as drivers to decrease HAIs. PMID:24861643

  6. Associative learning and animal cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action. PMID:22927572

  7. Polarimetric Investigations of Stellar Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, E. Ye.; Eritsian, M. A.; Hovhannessian, R. Kh.

    2002-07-01

    The degree of polarization of light from stars in 44 O B associations as a function of interstellar absorption is investigated. It is shown that the character of the dependence of P on A V for stars in associations and stars not in associations depends on the value of A V: for A V 2 m .5 it has a linear character and is the same for both groups of stars. For A V > 2 m .5 the dependence of P on A V for stars in and not in associations departs from linearity and for A V = 4 m .5 it reaches P ass = 1.8% and P nonass = 1%, respectively. Such a difference is explained by the additional depolarization in stellar associations. Such strong depolarization in associations may be due to the overall magnetic field of the Galaxy and to physical peculiarities in the association itself.

  8. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now Healthy Children Project Learning Disabilities Association of America created the Healthy Children Project to raise awareness, promote policies and practices, and ...

  9. Familiarizing with science editors' associations

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The number of science editors' associations is growing to resolve a variety of professional problems. The main objective of the associations is to educate their members by facilitating dissemination of information, publishing scholarly journals, books, networking of experts, and regular meetings. There are many science editing associations – general and specialized, traditional, and new. The article presents activities of some of these associations, which include upholding standards of science writing, editing, indexing, research reporting, peer review, editorial independence, and other editorial policies. PMID:22180273

  10. Cutaneous manifestations associated with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Ritva; Selph, Jacqueline; Gerstenblith, Meg R

    2016-06-01

    Melanoma is a malignancy most commonly arising from the skin; therefore, primary melanoma characteristics are usually the first cutaneous manifestations of melanoma. Cutaneous metastases, which can occur locally or diffusely, are important to detect in a timely manner as treatments for advanced melanoma that impact survival are now available. Melanoma can be associated with local or diffuse pigmentation changes, including depigmentation associated with the leukodermas and hyperpigmentation associated with diffuse melanosis cutis. The leukodermas occur frequently, illustrate the immunogenic nature of melanoma, and may impact prognosis. Paraneoplastic syndromes in association with melanoma are rare, though can occur. PMID:27178692

  11. Changes in the Proteome of Langat-Infected Ixodes scapularis ISE6 Cells: Metabolic Pathways Associated with Flavivirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Jeffrey M.; Perera, Rushika; Roumani, Ali M.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Inerowicz, Halina D.; Hill, Catherine A.; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ticks (Family Ixodidae) transmit a variety of disease causing agents to humans and animals. The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs; family Flaviviridae) are a complex of viruses, many of which cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and represent global threats to human health and biosecurity. Pathogenesis has been well studied in human and animal disease models. Equivalent analyses of tick-flavivirus interactions are limited and represent an area of study that could reveal novel approaches for TBF control. Methodology/Principal Findings High resolution LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the proteome of Ixodes scapularis (Lyme disease tick) embryonic ISE6 cells following infection with Langat virus (LGTV) and identify proteins associated with viral infection and replication. Maximal LGTV infection of cells and determination of peak release of infectious virus, was observed at 36 hours post infection (hpi). Proteins were extracted from ISE6 cells treated with LGTV and non-infectious (UV inactivated) LGTV at 36 hpi and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The Omics Discovery Pipeline (ODP) identified thousands of MS peaks. Protein homology searches against the I. scapularis IscaW1 genome assembly identified a total of 486 proteins that were subsequently assigned to putative functional pathways using searches against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. 266 proteins were differentially expressed following LGTV infection relative to non-infected (mock) cells. Of these, 68 proteins exhibited increased expression and 198 proteins had decreased expression. The majority of the former were classified in the KEGG pathways: “translation”, “amino acid metabolism”, and “protein folding/sorting/degradation”. Finally, Trichostatin A and Oligomycin A increased and decreased LGTV replication in vitro in ISE6 cells, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Proteomic analyses revealed ISE6 proteins that were differentially expressed at the peak of LGTV

  12. Associative Asymmetry of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…

  13. INTRAVERBAL ASSOCIATIONS IN SENTENCE BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PRENTICE, JOAN L.

    PRE-EXISTING ASSOCIATION BETWEEN WORDS WAS HYPOTHESIZED TO BE A VARIABLE INFLUENCING CHOICE OF WORDS DURING THE PROCESS OF SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, 32 SS (SUBJECTS) ENGAGED IN A PACED-RECALL TASK. MATERIALS WERE SETS OF THREE SENTENCES WHICH VARIED ONLY IN TWO NON-ASSOCIATED EMBEDDED ADJECTIVES WHICH COULD BE INTERCHANGED…

  14. Predictors of Alumni Association Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Melissa D.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors associated with membership of university graduates in the dues-based alumni association of their alma mater. Logistic regression was used to analyze variables that came from survey responses and from an existing database. All participants had attended a public doctoral-granting research university in the South.…

  15. Hepatoblastoma Associated with Trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Leonardo I; Perez, Luis; Masand, Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Very few reports exist in the literature regarding a possible association between trisomy 18 patients and the incidence of hepatoblastoma. Fewer reports exist on patients with multifocal hepatoblastoma. We reviewed our institutional database for the past 10 years and found three cases with this possible association to the tumor. PMID:27617134

  16. Washington Education Association Directory, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This directory presents profiles of 73 higher education associations located in the Washington, DC (and northern Virginia) area. Preliminary information includes an alphabetical list of the associations by full name and an alphabetical list by organizational acronym. Each profile includes the organization's address, telephone numbers, e-mail and…

  17. Employee Associations and Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLorenzo, Andrea

    This report reviews the opinions of the National Education Association (NEA) and the approaches taken by and concerns of employee associations that are state affiliates of the NEA. The NEA supports the concept of charters if appropriate standards are upheld and appropriate practices are enforced. The energy and enthusiasm being brought to the…

  18. What's elementary about associative learning?

    PubMed

    Wasserman, E A; Miller, R R

    1997-01-01

    The scientific study of associative learning began nearly 100 years ago with the pioneering studies of Thorndike and Pavlov, and it continues today as an active area of research and theory. Associative learning should be the foundation for our understanding of other forms of behavior and cognition in human and nonhuman animals. The laws of associative learning are complex, and many modern theorists posit the involvement of attention, memory, and information processing in such basic conditioning phenomena as overshadowing and blocking, and the effects of stimulus preexposure on later conditioning. An unresolved problem for learning theory is distinguishing the formation of associations from their behavioral expression. This and other problems will occupy future generations of behavioral scientists interested in the experimental investigation of associative learning. Neuroscientists and cognitive scientists will both contribute to and benefit from that effort in the next 100 years of inquiry. PMID:9046569

  19. Transcriptome Characterization of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' Using 454 Pyrosequencing and Its Application in the Identification of Genes Associated with Leaf Color Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Genfa; Yang, Fengxi; Shi, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Hailin; Huang, Dan; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable leaf color of Cymbidium sinense significantly improves its horticultural and economic value, and makes it highly desirable in the flower markets in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism underlying leaf-color variations. In this study, we found the content of photosynthetic pigments, especially chlorophyll degradation metabolite in the leaf-color mutants is distinguished significantly from that in the wild type of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma'. To further determine the candidate genes controlling leaf-color variations, we first sequenced the global transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. More than 0.7 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 445.9 bp were generated and assembled into 103,295 isotigs representing 68,460 genes. Of these isotigs, 43,433 were significantly aligned to known proteins in the public database, of which 29,299 could be categorized into 42 functional groups in the gene ontology system, 10,079 classified into 23 functional classifications in the clusters of orthologous groups system, and 23,092 assigned to 139 clusters of specific metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Among these annotations, 95 isotigs were designated as involved in chlorophyll metabolism. On this basis, we identified 16 key enzyme-encoding genes in the chlorophyll metabolism pathway, the full length cDNAs and expressions of which were further confirmed. Expression pattern indicated that the key enzyme-encoding genes for chlorophyll degradation were more highly expressed in the leaf color mutants, as was consistent with their lower chlorophyll contents. This study is the first to supply an informative 454 EST dataset for Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' and to identify original leaf color-associated genes, which provide important resources to facilitate gene discovery for molecular breeding, marketable trait discovery, and investigating various biological

  20. Mitigation of Insulin Resistance by Mangiferin in a Rat Model of Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Modulation of CD36 Redistribution in the Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Pan, Yongquan; Chonan, Ritsu; Batey, Robert; Rong, Xianglu; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin is one of the prominent active components responsible for the antidiabetic property of many traditional herbs, but its underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. CD36 in skeletal muscle is known to contribute to the etiology of insulin resistance by facilitating fatty acid uptake. This study investigated the effect of mangiferin on insulin resistance. The results showed that treatment of Wistar-Kyoto rats with mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) for 7 weeks inhibited chronic liquid fructose consumption-induced increases in plasma insulin concentrations at the baseline and during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. It also suppressed the increases in fasted plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration and the adipose tissue insulin resistance index. Mechanistically, mangiferin neither affected intakes of fructose and chow, and the increase in epididymal and perirenal fat, nor attenuated fructose-induced hypertension. In contrast, mangiferin attenuated fructose-induced acceleration of plasma NEFA clearance during OGTT, and tended to decrease excessive triglyceride accumulation in gastrocnemius. Immunofluorescence staining and subsequent rating of CD36-expressing fibers in gastrocnemius revealed that mangiferin restored fructose-stimulated sarcolemmal CD36 overexpression and decreased intracellular CD36 distribution. In addition, the effects of mangiferin on the parameters associated with insulin resistance and abnormal fatty acid metabolism were absent in the spontaneously hypertensive rats carrying numerous nonfunctional mutations in the CD36 gene. Thus, these results suggest that mangiferin treatment mitigates insulin resistance in a rat model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome by modulating sarcolemmal and intracellular CD36 redistribution in the skeletal muscle. PMID:26498906

  1. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Reveals New Genes Associated with Floral Organ Differentiation of the Orchid Plant Cymbidium ensifolium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengxi; Zhu, Genfa

    2015-01-01

    Cymbidium ensifolium belongs to the genus Cymbidium of the orchid family. Owing to its spectacular flower morphology, C. ensifolium has considerable ecological and cultural value. However, limited genetic data is available for this non-model plant, and the molecular mechanism underlying floral organ identity is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterize the floral transcriptome of C. ensifolium and present, for the first time, extensive sequence and transcript abundance data of individual floral organs. After sequencing, over 10 Gb clean sequence data were generated and assembled into 111,892 unigenes with an average length of 932.03 base pairs, including 1,227 clusters and 110,665 singletons. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous group terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the plant transcription factor database. From these annotations, 131 flowering-associated unigenes, 61 CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) unigenes and 90 floral homeotic genes were identified. In addition, four digital gene expression libraries were constructed for the sepal, petal, labellum and gynostemium, and 1,058 genes corresponding to individual floral organ development were identified. Among them, eight MADS-box genes were further investigated by full-length cDNA sequence analysis and expression validation, which revealed two APETALA1/AGL9-like MADS-box genes preferentially expressed in the sepal and petal, two AGAMOUS-like genes particularly restricted to the gynostemium, and four DEF-like genes distinctively expressed in different floral organs. The spatial expression of these genes varied distinctly in different floral mutant corresponding to different floral morphogenesis, which validated the specialized roles of them in floral patterning and further supported the effectiveness of our in silico analysis. This dataset generated in our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying floral

  2. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Reveals New Genes Associated with Floral Organ Differentiation of the Orchid Plant Cymbidium ensifolium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengxi; Zhu, Genfa

    2015-01-01

    Cymbidium ensifolium belongs to the genus Cymbidium of the orchid family. Owing to its spectacular flower morphology, C. ensifolium has considerable ecological and cultural value. However, limited genetic data is available for this non-model plant, and the molecular mechanism underlying floral organ identity is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterize the floral transcriptome of C. ensifolium and present, for the first time, extensive sequence and transcript abundance data of individual floral organs. After sequencing, over 10 Gb clean sequence data were generated and assembled into 111,892 unigenes with an average length of 932.03 base pairs, including 1,227 clusters and 110,665 singletons. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous group terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the plant transcription factor database. From these annotations, 131 flowering-associated unigenes, 61 CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) unigenes and 90 floral homeotic genes were identified. In addition, four digital gene expression libraries were constructed for the sepal, petal, labellum and gynostemium, and 1,058 genes corresponding to individual floral organ development were identified. Among them, eight MADS-box genes were further investigated by full-length cDNA sequence analysis and expression validation, which revealed two APETALA1/AGL9-like MADS-box genes preferentially expressed in the sepal and petal, two AGAMOUS-like genes particularly restricted to the gynostemium, and four DEF-like genes distinctively expressed in different floral organs. The spatial expression of these genes varied distinctly in different floral mutant corresponding to different floral morphogenesis, which validated the specialized roles of them in floral patterning and further supported the effectiveness of our in silico analysis. This dataset generated in our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying floral

  3. Transcriptome Characterization of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' Using 454 Pyrosequencing and Its Application in the Identification of Genes Associated with Leaf Color Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Hailin; Huang, Dan; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable leaf color of Cymbidium sinense significantly improves its horticultural and economic value, and makes it highly desirable in the flower markets in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism underlying leaf-color variations. In this study, we found the content of photosynthetic pigments, especially chlorophyll degradation metabolite in the leaf-color mutants is distinguished significantly from that in the wild type of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma'. To further determine the candidate genes controlling leaf-color variations, we first sequenced the global transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. More than 0.7 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 445.9 bp were generated and assembled into 103,295 isotigs representing 68,460 genes. Of these isotigs, 43,433 were significantly aligned to known proteins in the public database, of which 29,299 could be categorized into 42 functional groups in the gene ontology system, 10,079 classified into 23 functional classifications in the clusters of orthologous groups system, and 23,092 assigned to 139 clusters of specific metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Among these annotations, 95 isotigs were designated as involved in chlorophyll metabolism. On this basis, we identified 16 key enzyme-encoding genes in the chlorophyll metabolism pathway, the full length cDNAs and expressions of which were further confirmed. Expression pattern indicated that the key enzyme-encoding genes for chlorophyll degradation were more highly expressed in the leaf color mutants, as was consistent with their lower chlorophyll contents. This study is the first to supply an informative 454 EST dataset for Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' and to identify original leaf color-associated genes, which provide important resources to facilitate gene discovery for molecular breeding, marketable trait discovery, and investigating various biological

  4. ASSOCIATIVE CONCEPT LEARNING IN ANIMALS

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R.; Wasserman, Edward A.; Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that have been associated with the same reinforced comparison response (i.e., many-to-one matching) by describing manipulations for distinguishing possible representations. Associative concepts provide one foundation for human language such that spoken and written words and the objects they represent become members of a class of interchangeable stimuli. The mechanisms of associative concept learning and the behavioral flexibility it allows, however, are also evident in the adaptive behaviors of animals lacking language. PMID:24170540

  5. Association mapping in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, J K; Stephens, M; Rosenberg, N A; Donnelly, P

    2000-07-01

    The use, in association studies, of the forthcoming dense genomewide collection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been heralded as a potential breakthrough in the study of the genetic basis of common complex disorders. A serious problem with association mapping is that population structure can lead to spurious associations between a candidate marker and a phenotype. One common solution has been to abandon case-control studies in favor of family-based tests of association, such as the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT), but this comes at a considerable cost in the need to collect DNA from close relatives of affected individuals. In this article we describe a novel, statistically valid, method for case-control association studies in structured populations. Our method uses a set of unlinked genetic markers to infer details of population structure, and to estimate the ancestry of sampled individuals, before using this information to test for associations within subpopulations. It provides power comparable with the TDT in many settings and may substantially outperform it if there are conflicting associations in different subpopulations. PMID:10827107

  6. Interfacial Protein-Protein Associations

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Blake B.; Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    While traditional models of protein adsorption focus primarily on direct protein-surface interactions, recent findings suggest that protein-protein interactions may play a central role. Using high-throughput intermolecular resonance energy transfer (RET) tracking, we directly observed dynamic, protein-protein associations of bovine serum albumin on poly(ethylene glycol) modified surfaces. The associations were heterogeneous and reversible, and associating molecules resided on the surface for longer times. The appearance of three distinct RET states suggested a spatially heterogeneous surface – with areas of high protein density (i.e. strongly-interacting clusters) coexisting with mobile monomers. Distinct association states exhibited characteristic behavior, i.e. partial-RET (monomer-monomer) associations were shorter-lived than complete-RET (protein-cluster) associations. While the fractional surface area covered by regions with high protein density (i.e. clusters) increased with increasing concentration, the distribution of contact times between monomers and clusters was independent of solution concentration, suggesting that associations were a local phenomenon, and independent of the global surface coverage. PMID:24274729

  7. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev-Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  8. Pulsar-supernova remnant associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, R. N.

    1994-04-01

    Pulsars and supernova remnants (SNRs) are both believed to be formed in the supernova explosions of massive stars. Therefore one might expect to see associations between the two classes of object. In fact, up until a couple of years ago, there was only a handful of believable associations and even now there are only nine or ten. It is relatively easy to explain why such a small fraction of the 600 or so known pulsars are associated with supernova remnants. The average pulsar lifetime is of the order of 106 years, whereas the average supernova remnant is detectable for about 104 years. Therefore, one would expect only about one percent of pulsars to be still associated, as is observed. It is somewhat more difficult to explain why so few of the 150 known supernova remnants have associated pulsars. The main factor is that supernova remnants are seen throughout the Galaxy whereas most pulsars are detectable only relatively close to the Sun, within a few kiloparsec. Another factor is that pulsar emission is beamed, so even if a pulsar exists in a relatively nearby supernova remnant, it may be undetectable. The most believable of the suggested associations are listed. Associations which are possible but by no means certain are indicated by question mark. For the more certain associations, the pulsar position is within the SNR boundaries (an exception is 'The Duck', where the pulsar is at the tip of the 'beak'), the distance estimates for the pulsar and SNR are compatible, and the age estimates are likewise compatible. References to most of these associations may be found in the pulsar catalog of Taylor, Manchester and Lyne (1993, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 88, 529). Recent references not included in the catalog are for PSR B1706-44 (McAdam, Osborne and Parkinson, 1993, Nature, 361, 516) and PSR B2334+61 (Kulkarni et al., 1993, Nature, 362, 135).

  9. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group... Petroleum Association of America, and Process Gas Consumers Group (collectively, the Associations), filed...

  10. Governing decisions of your association.

    PubMed

    Dziwlik, Jay T

    2013-01-01

    Every association has some sort of internal structure to make decisions and to do the business of the association. Though the IDA is a member organization, we use a representative form of governing to allow selected members to represent the entire membership. For the Indiana Dental Association, there are two major parts to this governance structure: the administrative body in the Board of Trustees and a legislative body called the House of Delegates. Both are made up of representative members from each of the local component societies or districts. PMID:25286498

  11. Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Sole Mate™ Children and adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often need to wear two different sizes of ... and Stroke Association has created the CHASA Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Shoe Exchange program to assist families in exchanging ...

  12. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  14. Microtubules, Tubulins and Associated Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raxworthy, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews much of what is known about microtubules, which are biopolymers consisting predominantly of subunits of the globular protein, tubulin. Describes the functions of microtubules, their structure and assembly, microtube associated proteins, and microtubule-disrupting agents. (TW)

  15. Associative memory through rigid origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.

  16. British Association of Clinical Anatomists

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented. PMID:19310890

  17. Statin-Associated Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul D; Panza, Gregory; Zaleski, Amanda; Taylor, Beth

    2016-05-24

    Hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins are well tolerated, but associated with various statin-associated symptoms (SAS), including statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and central nervous system complaints. These are "statin-associated symptoms" because they are rare in clinical trials, making their causative relationship to statins unclear. SAS are, nevertheless, important because they prompt dose reduction or discontinuation of these life-saving mediations. SAMS is the most frequent SAS, and mild myalgia may affect 5% to 10% of statin users. Clinically important muscle symptoms, including rhabdomyolysis and statin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (SINAM), are rare. Antibodies against HMG-CoA reductase apparently provoke SINAM. Good evidence links statins to DM, but evidence linking statins to other SAS is largely anecdotal. Management of SAS requires making the possible diagnosis, altering or discontinuing the statin treatment, and using alternative lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:27199064

  18. Associated with Health Care-Associated Infections in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Giampaolo; Shi, Wei; Michler, Robert E.; Meltzer, David O.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Hohmann, Samuel F.; Thourani, Vinod; Argenziano, Michael; Alexander, John; Sankovic, Kathy; Gupta, Lopa; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Acker, Michael A.; Russo, Mark J.; Lee, Albert; Burks, Sandra G.; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Bagiella, Emilia; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are the most common noncardiac complications after cardiac surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current information about their economic burden is limited. OBJECTIVES To determine the cost associated with major types of HAIs during the first 2 months after cardiac surgery. METHODS Prospectively collected data from a multicenter observational study of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Clinical Trials Network, in which patients were monitored for infections for 65 days after surgery, were merged with related financial data, routinely collected by the University HealthSystem Consortium. Incremental length of stay (LOS) and cost associated with HAIs were estimated using generalized linear models, adjusting for patient demographics, clinical history, baseline laboratory values, and surgery type. RESULTS Among 4,320 cardiac surgery patients, mean age of 64 ± 13 years, 119 (2.8%) experienced a major HAI during the index hospitalization. The most common HAIs were pneumonia (48%), sepsis (20%) and C. Difficile colitis (18%). On average, the estimated incremental cost associated with a major HAI was nearly $38,000, of which 47% was related to intensive care unit services. The incremental LOS was 14 days. Overall, there were 849 readmissions, among these, 8.7% were attributed to major HAIs. The cost of readmissions due to major HAI was on average nearly three times as much as readmissions not related to HAI. CONCLUSIONS Hospital cost, length of stay, and readmissions are strongly associated with HAIs. These associations suggest the potential for large reductions in costs if HAIs following cardiac surgery can be reduced. PMID:25572505

  19. Arthritis associated with hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, R; Sequeira, W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review the presentation and clinical findings of arthritis associated with hidradenitis suppurativa. METHOD--Medical records from the rheumatology clinics of two major teaching hospitals were reviewed for arthritis and hidradenitis suppurativa. The nine patient records fulfilling these criteria were reviewed and compared with 20 previous reports. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION--The arthritis associated with hidradenitis suppurativa is rare and most commonly affects the peripheral joints. The axial skeleton is less frequently involved and is often asymptomatic. Images PMID:8311560

  20. Phenomena Associated with EIT Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with 'EIT Wave' transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to infer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  1. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  2. Associative Interference and Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    Three experiments tested the generality of the conclusion that associative unlearning is minimal in the A-B, A-D paradigm. In Experiment 1, single-trial study of A-D, following single-trial study of A-B, did not produce retroactive inhibition in the recognition of A-B. In Experiment 2, A-B was acquired by associative matching. The interpolated…

  3. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities. PMID:26238884

  4. 47 CFR 69.603 - Association functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Association functions. 69.603 Section 69.603... Exchange Carrier Association § 69.603 Association functions. (a) The Association shall not engage in any... untariffed basis shall be deemed to be authorized association activities. (c)-(e) (f) The association...

  5. Population Association of China (PAC).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y

    1983-12-01

    In the past 3 years, the Population Association of China, an independent, academic, and nongovernment organization established in February 1981, organized demographers throughout China to tackle the population problems that emerged in the course of the nation's socioeconomic development. Thus, by organizing and promoting exchanges, the Association did help to push forward the vigorous development of population science. Now PAC has over 500 individuals and organized units as members. It has 90 council members and 19 permanent council members. Its annual tasks and research priorities are discussed and decided by the permanent council, and then implemented in various departments and localities by its council or association members. The Population Association has organized various academic activities among demographers to study the characteristics of different periods. 1983 is an important year for the reform of social and economic systems in China. The new situation and problems brought about by the reform are bound to affect the control of population growth. Consequently, the Association decided to emphasize the control of population growth in rural areas. At the same time, the Association advocated a style of study which required people to delve into the realities of life and to investigate and study these realities thoroughly. For this purpose, 3 discussions were either financed or authorized by the Association in a single year. At the symposiums, demographers and field workers, proceeding from their country's reality and by applying the Marxist point of view, tried to find effective solutions to the demographic problems. As a result, they produced a number of valuable academic reports. In the last few years, PAC played an important role in international academic activities and exchanges. Reviewing the past and looking ahead to the future, PAC will further unite China's demographers to make new contributions to the development of the country's population science

  6. Family-based association tests for genomewide association scans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Min; Abecasis, Goncalo R

    2007-11-01

    With millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified and characterized, genomewide association studies have begun to identify susceptibility genes for complex traits and diseases. These studies involve the characterization and analysis of very-high-resolution SNP genotype data for hundreds or thousands of individuals. We describe a computationally efficient approach to testing association between SNPs and quantitative phenotypes, which can be applied to whole-genome association scans. In addition to observed genotypes, our approach allows estimation of missing genotypes, resulting in substantial increases in power when genotyping resources are limited. We estimate missing genotypes probabilistically using the Lander-Green or Elston-Stewart algorithms and combine high-resolution SNP genotypes for a subset of individuals in each pedigree with sparser marker data for the remaining individuals. We show that power is increased whenever phenotype information for ungenotyped individuals is included in analyses and that high-density genotyping of just three carefully selected individuals in a nuclear family can recover >90% of the information available if every individual were genotyped, for a fraction of the cost and experimental effort. To aid in study design, we evaluate the power of strategies that genotype different subsets of individuals in each pedigree and make recommendations about which individuals should be genotyped at a high density. To illustrate our method, we performed genomewide association analysis for 27 gene-expression phenotypes in 3-generation families (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees), in which genotypes for ~860,000 SNPs in 90 grandparents and parents are complemented by genotypes for ~6,700 SNPs in a total of 168 individuals. In addition to increasing the evidence of association at 15 previously identified cis-acting associated alleles, our genotype-inference algorithm allowed us to identify associated alleles at 4

  7. Cancer-Associated Myeloproliferation: Old Association, New Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    The association between malignancy and development of a paraneoplastic leukocytosis, the so-called leukemoid reaction, has long been appreciated. Although a leukemoid reaction has conventionally been defined as a peripheral blood leukocytosis composed of both mature and immature granulocytes that exceeds 50,000/μL, a less profound leukocytosis may be appreciated in many patients harboring a malignant disease. More recent insights have shed new light on this long-recognized association, because research performed in both murine models and cancer patients has uncovered multiple mechanisms by which tumors both drive myelopoiesis, sometimes leading to a clinically apparent leukocytosis, and inhibit the differentiation of myeloid cells, resulting in a qualitative change in myelopoiesis. This qualitative change leads to the accumulation of immature myeloid cells, which due to their immune suppressive effects have been collectively called myeloid-derived suppressor cells. More recently, myeloid cells have been shown to promote tumor angiogenesis. Cancer-associated myeloproliferation is not merely a paraneoplastic phenomenon of questionable importance but leads to the suppression of host immunity and promotion of tumor angiogenesis, both of which play an integral part in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, cancer-associated myeloproliferation represents a novel therapeutic target in cancer that, decades after its recognition, is only now being translated into clinical practice. PMID:20592171

  8. Forward Association, Backward Association, and the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Wright, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range…

  9. Dissecting hydrophobic hydration and association.

    PubMed

    Remsing, Richard C; Weeks, John D

    2013-12-12

    We use appropriately defined short-ranged reference models of liquid water to clarify the different roles local hydrogen bonding, van der Waals attractions, and long-ranged electrostatic interactions play in the solvation and association of apolar solutes in water. While local hydrogen bonding interactions dominate hydrophobic effects involving small solutes, longer-ranged electrostatic and dispersion interactions are found to be increasingly important in the description of interfacial structure around large solutes. The hydrogen bond network sets the solute length scale at which a crossover in solvation behavior between these small and large length scale regimes is observed. Unbalanced long-ranged forces acting on interfacial water molecules are also important in hydrophobic association, illustrated here by analysis of the association of model methane and buckminsterfullerene solutes. PMID:23944226

  10. Viral-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.

    PubMed

    Lopes da Silva, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies encompass a group of disorders characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia associated with hyaline thrombi (comprised primarily of platelet aggregates in the microcirculation), and varying degrees of end-organ failure. Many primary (genetic) and secondary etiological predisposing factors have been described-namely pregnancy, autoimmune disorders, cancer, drugs and antineoplastic therapy, bone marrow transplantation/solid organ transplantation, and infections. In the setting of infectious diseases, the association with Shiga or Shiga-like exotoxin of Escherichia coli 0157:h7 or Shigella dysenteriae type 1-induced typical hemolytic uremic syndrome is well known. Recently however, an increasing body of evidence suggests that viruses may also play an important role as trigger factors in the pathogenesis of thrombotic microangiopathies. This is a comprehensive review focusing on the current understanding of viral associated/induced endothelial stimulation and damage that ultimately leads to the development of this life-threatening multisystemic disorder. PMID:21727765

  11. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    PubMed

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  12. Nontraumatic Myelopathy Associated With Surfing

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Hernández, Israel; García-Zozaya, Inigo; DeVillasante, Jorge M

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Ischemic nontraumatic spinal cord injury associated with surfing is a novel diagnosis believed to be related to prolonged spine hyperextension while lying prone on the surfboard. Only 9 cases have been documented. This report features possible risk factors, etiology, diagnostic imaging, and outcomes of surfer's myelopathy. Design: Case report. Results: A 37-year-old man developed T11 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A paraplegia shortly after surfing. The clinical history and magnetic resonance imaging findings were compatible with an ischemic insult to the distal thoracic spinal cord. Our patient did not have any of the proposed risk factors associated with this condition, and, contrary to most reports, he sustained a complete spinal cord lesion without neurological recovery by 8 weeks post injury. Conclusions: Surfer's myelopathy, because of its proposed mechanism of injury, is amenable to medical intervention. Increased awareness of this condition may lead to early recognition and treatment, which should contribute to improved neurological outcomes. PMID:17684897

  13. Appendix E. The Path I Have Followed ---at Shimogamo, Kyoto, in April 1974---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, H.

    This is an English translation, adopted from an essay written in Japanese as the preface to the book, Order and Chaos (on Hideki Yukawa), by Sosuke Taka-uchi; it was published by Kosakusha, Tokyo in 1974 and in 1979 (enlarged revised edition). For his book, Taka-uchi, a poet, was awarded a prize by the (well-known) Rekitei group of poets. Translated by M. Konuma by kind permission of Professor H. Yukawa and the publisher.

  14. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR) TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is linked to increases in cardiovascular effects. This is enhanced in individuals with pre-existing disease. Animal models of cardiovascular disease are used to study this susceptibility. The heart is rich in mitochondria, which produce ...

  15. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  16. Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Kyoto. Peace Education Reports No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    Conference sessions of the Peace Education Commission (PEC), a transnational network of people interested in peace education and research related to peace education, are reported in this document. Following an introductory overview of the conference as a whole, the report is divided into four parts. The first part contains three area studies; that…

  17. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  18. [Nephrotic syndrome associated with ampulloma].

    PubMed

    López-Navidad, A; Colomina, J; Domingo, P; Franco, M; Algaba, F

    1989-06-01

    A patient is reported who presented simultaneously classic nephrotic syndrome and adenocarcinoma of the Vater ampulla. Morphological study of the renal biopsy revealed changes characteristic of membranous glomerulonephritis and subepithelial deposits. These deposits stained specifically for IgG and C'3 with a granular pattern, but deposits of CEA-antiCEA immune complexes were not found in glomerular capillaries. The association of nephrotic syndrome with lymphoproliferative diseases and a large variety of solid tumors, like carcinoma of the breast, bronchogenic, colon and stomach has been communicated, but the present case constitutes the first known association with adenocarcinoma of the Vater ampulla. PMID:2772382

  19. Floating patella associated with lymphoedema

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Shen Hwa; Bayam, Levent; Drampalos, Efstathios; Jesry, Mohammed; Fadel, George

    2015-01-01

    Ipsilateral injury of more than one component of the knee extensor apparatus is rare. It is mostly associated with previous trauma, surgery, immunosuppression therapy and systemic disease. We present the first documented case of a spontaneous bifocal disruption of the knee extensor apparatus (i.e. floating patella) associated with lymphoedema. This case highlights the importance of considering lymphoedema as another risk factor for rupture of the knee extensor apparatus. It also highlights the importance of assessing all components of the knee extensor apparatus in patients presenting with acute knee injuries. PMID:25802253

  20. [The Polish Medical Association, Londyn].

    PubMed

    Nowak, K

    1994-01-01

    The Polish Medical Association, founded in 1944 in London and celebrating its Golden Jubilee in 1944, is a unique organisation of doctors brought together by the shared experience of serving in the Polish armed forces on the fronts of the II World War. Preparing themselves for the return to a free Poland and later facing the realities of the emigré existence, they formed an association based on an identity with patriotic ideals and espousing a loyalty to the national cause, solidarity with the aspirations and goals of the expatriate community and commitment to the integrity in the performance of their professional duties. It was created against a background of the already existing Polish Medical Faculty at the University of Edinburgh and supported by strong lobbying on the part of the Polish Government and the favourable political climate. The need for a professional body of Polish doctors became evident. During the first few years the Association, originally called the Polish Medical Association in the British Empire, numbered over 700 doctors and achieved notable succeses for its members. The most significant were the endeavours which contributed to the inclusion of the so-called Clause 5 of the Polish Resettlement Act 1947, which in practice allowed Polish doctors serving in the Polish forces under British command to obtain full medical registration. Almost 800 doctors benefitted from this legislature and by coincidence, with the introduction of the National Health Service, they constituted the single most significant injection of non-British doctors into the British health care system. Throughout the years the Association, which originally comprised doctors with an Army background acquired more and more civilian members. The second generation followed, smaller waves of post-war emigration brought in new members from Poland. With time the administrative structure of the Association--initially comprising ten divisions in the UK and overseas--has changed; the

  1. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. PMID:27015434

  2. [Nephropathy associated with electrolyte disorders].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, K; Nakauchi, M; Hondo, I; Nihei, H

    1995-08-01

    It is well known that renal dysfunction is associated with several types of electrolyte disorders. On the other hand, renal manifestations have been attributed to electrolyte disorders. Hypokalemia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality encountered in clinical practice. The main cause of hypokalemia is due to abuse of laxatives and diuretics or to anorexia nervosa. Hypercalcemia is another major electrolyte abnormality, associated with numerous renal manifestations. Renal tubules damages and chronic interstitial nephritis are characteristic pathological findings in prolonged electrolyte disorders. The mechanism of renal involvement and characteristic clinical manifestations of the electrolyte disorders are reviewed. PMID:7563640

  3. Policy Statements for the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree, and the Associate Degree in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The policy statements contained in this document present the position of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC) on the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree (AAS), and the Associate Degree in Nursing. In its statement on the Associate Degree, the AACJC: (1) stresses the responsibility of faculty and…

  4. Measurement Services Association Questionnaire Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lewis J.; Gillis, Rod

    This paper presents the results of a questionnaire sent to 211 Measurement Services Association members. Sixty-four centers responded. The main purpose of the questionnaire was to find out what hardware and software are used by testing centers throughout the country. Results indicate that 52 institutions use mainframe computers, 50 use…

  5. Hyperactivity Not Associated with MBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ellidee D.

    1976-01-01

    Available from: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Child Study Center, 1100 N.E. 13th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73117. Reviewed is selected literature concerning conditions other than minimal brain dysfunction which may have hyperactivity as a symptom, and presented are case studies of two 5-year-old children with hyperactivity associated with…

  6. The ground vehicle manager's associate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Gary R.; Burnard, Robert H.; Bewley, William L.; Bullock, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of MAX, a software framework for manager's associate systems, is presented. MAX is used to develop and execute a problem-solving strategy for the task planning of semi-autonomous agents with the assistance of human performance. This paper describes the use of MAX in the supervisory management of robotic vehicles as they explore a planetary surface.

  7. Voluntary Associations and Community Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Don A.; And Others

    This study examined overlapping membership of voluntary associations as the basis of a statistical technique for analyzing community structure. An underlying assumption was that organizations select certain membership linkages in preference to others within a community. Thus one would expect to find points of integration and cleavage among…

  8. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, R. Joel, II, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" published during 1996. The focus of the journal is on communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling. Issue number 1 includes the following articles: "Commitment through…

  9. Associating fluids near solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, Chad James

    1998-09-01

    The properties of fluids near interfaces, in particular, the fluid-solid interfaces on which this work is concentrated, are important in many processes, such as: wettability as related to oil recovery and environmental cleanup, biochemical separation, bio-compatibility of materials, membrane separation, adsorption in porous solids and micro- or nanomanufacturing of thin films. However, little of the past simulation and theoretical work in the field has considered associating fluids. In this work we perform Metropolis Monte Carlo computer simulations for one-sited (dimerizing), two-sited (linear chain forming), and four-sited (cluster forming) hard spheres against hard, smooth walls. Reported are results for density and fraction of monomers (which determines the change in Helmholtz free energy due to association according to Wertheim's theory) versus distance from the surface. Also computed are adsorption and for the four- site fluid, orientation, cluster size, and fraction of sites bonded as functions of distance from the surfaces. We also consider binary mixtures and an associating fluid near active surfaces. Except for orientation and cluster size, results are compared (favorably, in general) against a new density functional theory, which combines elements of the Tarazona density functional for hard spheres and Wertheim's theory of association. This dissertation concludes with ideas for further work in the area.

  10. The Top 100: Associate Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This year, Diverse has added a new addition to its annual Top 100 degree producers series--recognizing, with this edition, the institutions that award the most associate degrees to students of color. More than half of minority undergraduate students start their degree quest at a community college with 55 percent of all Hispanic and Native American…

  11. Eye Bank Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... donation decision with family & friends via text, email, Facebook, or Twitter! Apple® and Donate Life America have ... DonateLife #GiftofSight ... See More See Less View on Facebook · Share Eye Bank Association of America 2 weeks ...

  12. Associative architecture for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adar, Rutie; Akerib, Avidan

    1997-09-01

    This article presents a new generation in parallel processing architecture for real-time image processing. The approach is implemented in a real time image processor chip, called the XiumTM-2, based on combining a fully associative array which provides the parallel engine with a serial RISC core on the same die. The architecture is fully programmable and can be programmed to implement a wide range of color image processing, computer vision and media processing functions in real time. The associative part of the chip is based on patented pending methodology of Associative Computing Ltd. (ACL), which condenses 2048 associative processors, each of 128 'intelligent' bits. Each bit can be a processing bit or a memory bit. At only 33 MHz and 0.6 micron manufacturing technology process, the chip has a computational power of 3 billion ALU operations per second and 66 billion string search operations per second. The fully programmable nature of the XiumTM-2 chip enables developers to use ACL tools to write their own proprietary algorithms combined with existing image processing and analysis functions from ACL's extended set of libraries.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Lycopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jennifer L; Friedman, William E

    2008-01-01

    This study characterizes the molecular and phylogenetic identity of fungi involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations in extant Huperzia and Lycopodium (Lycopodiaceae). Huperzia and Lycopodium are characterized by a life cycle with long-lived autotrophic sporophytes and long-lived mycoheterotrophic (obtain all organic carbon from fungal symbionts) gametophytes. 18S ribosomal DNA was isolated and sequenced from Glomus symbionts in autotrophic sporophytes of seven species of Huperzia and Lycopodium and mycoheterotrophic Huperzia gametophytes collected from the Páramos of Ecuador. Phylogenetic analyses recovered four Glomus A phylotypes in a single clade (MH3) that form AM associations with Huperzia and Lycopodium. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of Glomus symbionts from other nonphotosynthetic plants demonstrate that most AM fungi that form mycoheterotrophic associations belong to at least four specific clades of Glomus A. These results suggest that most mycoheterotrophic plants that form AM associations do so with restricted clades of Glomus A. Moreover, the correspondence of identity of AM symbionts in Huperzia sporophytes and gametophytes raises the possibility that photosynthetic sporophytes are a source of carbon to conspecific mycoheterotrophic gametophytes via shared fungal networks. PMID:17971070

  14. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  15. Brain Injury Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  16. Crewman's associate advanced technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, Robert F.; Mariani, Daniele

    1994-06-01

    The Crewman's Associate will use Virtual Prototyping to evaluate different design concepts. Virtual Prototyping is a process by which advanced computer simulation is used to enable early evaluation of concepts and technologies without actually building those concepts or technologies. The Virtual Prototyping Process will provide the means by which the User is continuously involved in the crew station's design.

  17. Associations among Major Psychiatric Diagnoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Abraham W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined the frequency and associations of multiple diagnoses in 205 psychiatric inpatients, assessing past and current episodes of illness. Over one-half of the sample received more than one diagnosis. Alcoholism, antisocial personality, and drug dependence formed one group; primary depression, primary mania, and secondary affective disorder,…

  18. Automatic Association of News Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  19. Spina Bifida Association of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  20. Unveiling new associations in Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Vega, A. M.; Martínez, R. E.

    2016-04-01

    A combined photometric and polarimetric analysis of OB stars known from two searches of OB stars in the Puppis region resulted in the identification of a new OB association located at a distance of 2.6 kpc from the Sun and with a main concentration at l=249fdg 3, b=-4fdg 6. There is another young group at a greater distance (4.4 kpc) that partially overlaps the first one on the (l,b) plane. The polarization efficiency of the dust towards the association is very low (1.25). The parameters of the ISM in the central region of the association are P_V=1.21± 0.18(%) and theta_V=140fdg 2± 3fdg 3; the dust grains are of normal size, similar to the mean for the ISM (0.55 μm). We discuss the location of both groups and propose the OB association as part of the local arm, while the other group would be part of the Perseus arm, according to the four-arm model of Hou & Han.

  1. Child Development Associate Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This training guide presents information about the Child Development Associate (CDA) program, which is a nationwide experimental program that embodies a new concept for career preparation and credentials of child care staff. The information in this guide concerns the CDA concept, competencies, pilot training projects, and the CDA Consortium. The…

  2. [Child Development Associate Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development Associate Training Program, Fall River, MA.

    This collection contains Child Development Associate (CDA) training materials from the Fall River, Massachusetts, training program, including a booklet for trainers, a chapter on curriculum planning, and three modules covering the areas of preschool environment, daily schedule and transitions, and observations of children. Each module contains a…

  3. Differential Association and Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Brenda S.; Griffin, Charles T.

    Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory was posited to explain all types of criminal or delinquent behavior. While research efforts have generally been confined to a focus on general criminal or delinquent behavior of the individual, it appears that the theory may also be applied to specific criminal or delinquent acts such as marijuana…

  4. Montessori Transformation at Computer Associates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes the growth of the all-day Montessori program for children ages 6 weeks to 6 years at Computer Associates' corporate headquarters and multiple sites worldwide. Focuses on placement of AMI Montessori-trained teachers, refurbishing of the child development centers to fit Montessori specifications, and the Nido--the children's community--and…

  5. [Transfusion-associated circulatory overload].

    PubMed

    Ozier, Y; Mouquet, F; Rieux, C; Mertes, P-M; Muller, J-Y; Caldani, C; Boudjedir, K; Carlier, M

    2012-11-01

    A working group of the French National Hemovigilance Committee has been in charge of heightening awareness of Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) among physicians and nurses. This multidisciplinary group has produced the present document that focuses on epidemiological data provided by the French haemovigilance network, physiopathology, diagnosis, treatment and specific actions that could prevent or minimize the risk of TACO. PMID:23039960

  6. Central California Action Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortor, Maia, Comp.

    The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

  7. Casein nomenclature, structure and association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter of the Encyclopedia of Dairy Science deals with the recent developments in the nomenclature, classification, structures, and associations of the major milk proteins: the caseins. Identification of the caseins continues to be based upon their primary structures. Significant findings re...

  8. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a savings association as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the deposits of...

  9. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a savings association as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the deposits of...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agricultural credit association (hereinafter association(s)), such association(s) may invest in notes... total amount which an association may invest in such obligations at any one time shall not exceed 15.... In addition, the total amount which an association may invest in such obligations that are...

  13. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  14. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with coccidiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramsi, Musaab; Alvira, Cristina; Purohit, Prashant; Cornfield, David

    2014-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rapidly fatal disease caused by dysregulated histiocytes leading to an excessive inflammatory reaction. While genetic forms of HLH exist, the most common form is acquired, frequently associated with infection. Here we report the first case of HLH associated with a coccidiomycosis infection. This patient is a 13-year-old previously healthy boy who presented with a flu-like illness, which rapidly progressed to refractory shock, severe ARDS, multiorgan failure and death despite maximal medical therapy, including broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat well-established causes of acquired HLH. Autopsy findings revealed the diagnosis of HLH in the setting of pulmonary coccidiomycosis. Antifungal therapy should be considered in cases of acquired HLH when the underlying aetiology is not clear. PMID:25139924

  15. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Laura A.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Das, Shiva K.; Miften, Moyed; Li, X. Allen; Pan, Charlie; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2010-03-01

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  16. Associativity and normative credal probability.

    PubMed

    Snow, P

    2002-01-01

    Cox's Theorem is a widely cited motivation for probabilistic models of uncertain belief. The theorem relates the associativity of the logical connectives to that of the arithmetic operations of probability. Recent questions about the correctness of Cox's Theorem have been resolved, but there are new questions about one functional equation used by Cox in 1946. This equation is missing from his later work. Advances in knowledge since 1946 and changes in Cox's research interests explain the equation's disappearance. Other associativity-based motivations avoid functional equations altogether, and so may be more transparently applied to finite domains and discrete beliefs. A discrete counterpart of Cox's Theorem can be assembled from results that have been in the literature since 1959. PMID:18238098

  17. Transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, S J; Friedman, L I; Dodd, R Y

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of sepsis caused by transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood components is similar to or less than that of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection, yet significantly exceeds those currently estimated for transfusion-associated human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses. Outcomes are serious and may be fatal. In addition, transfusion of sterile allogenic blood can have generalized immunosuppressive effects on recipients, resulting in increased susceptibility to postoperative infection. This review examines the frequency of occurrence of transfusion-associated sepsis, the organisms implicated, and potential sources of bacteria. Approaches to minimize the frequency of sepsis are discussed, including the benefits and disadvantages of altering the storage conditions for blood. In addition, the impact of high levels of bacteria on the gross characteristics of erythrocyte and platelet concentrates is described. The potentials and limitations of current tests for detecting bacteria in blood are also discussed. PMID:7923050

  18. Cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Govind Babu, K; Bhat, Gita R

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy refers to a group of disorders characterised by microvascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and ischaemic end-organ damage. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are the two major subtypes. It can be a manifestation of the malignancy itself or a complication of its therapy. The addition of several new drugs to the therapeutic armamentarium of cancer has brought to light several novel causative factors of this hitherto uncommon complication. This review covers the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications, and the management of cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Careful review of the patient’s medical records coupled with the correlation of clinical findings and laboratory reports can help clinch the diagnosis and institute appropriate treatment on time. PMID:27433282

  19. Designed protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Grueninger, Dirk; Treiber, Nora; Ziegler, Mathias O P; Koetter, Jochen W A; Schulze, Monika-Sarah; Schulz, Georg E

    2008-01-11

    The analysis of natural contact interfaces between protein subunits and between proteins has disclosed some general rules governing their association. We have applied these rules to produce a number of novel assemblies, demonstrating that a given protein can be engineered to form contacts at various points of its surface. Symmetry plays an important role because it defines the multiplicity of a designed contact and therefore the number of required mutations. Some of the proteins needed only a single side-chain alteration in order to associate to a higher-order complex. The mobility of the buried side chains has to be taken into account. Four assemblies have been structurally elucidated. Comparisons between the designed contacts and the results will provide useful guidelines for the development of future architectures. PMID:18187656

  20. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article.

    PubMed

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-11-16

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  1. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated. PMID:15219082

  2. Cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Govind Babu, K; Bhat, Gita R

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy refers to a group of disorders characterised by microvascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and ischaemic end-organ damage. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are the two major subtypes. It can be a manifestation of the malignancy itself or a complication of its therapy. The addition of several new drugs to the therapeutic armamentarium of cancer has brought to light several novel causative factors of this hitherto uncommon complication. This review covers the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications, and the management of cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Careful review of the patient's medical records coupled with the correlation of clinical findings and laboratory reports can help clinch the diagnosis and institute appropriate treatment on time. PMID:27433282

  3. Waardenburg syndrome associated with laryngomalacia.

    PubMed

    Thapa, R; Mallick, D; Ghosh, A; Ghosh, A

    2009-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, in conjunction with pigmentary abnormalities and defects of the neural crest-derived tissues. Depending on the additional phenotypic characteristics, WS is classified into four types, viz. WS1, WS2, WS3 and WS4. We report a 45-day-old male infant with WS1, who presented with inspiratory stridor associated with difficulty in respiration. Direct flexible laryngoscopic examination during evaluation confirmed laryngomalacia as the cause of the symptoms. The baby was managed conservatively and was discharged with appropriate advice to the mother, including the need for evaluation at regular intervals. There was gradual improvement in his symptoms, and by one year of age, he was completely symptom free. To our knowledge, laryngomalacia as a part of WS has not been documented to date in the English literature. We also briefly discussed the probable embryological basis for the observed association. PMID:20087539

  4. Infections associated with religious rituals.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, James; Edmond, Michael B

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates the medical literature for religious rituals or ceremonies that have been reported to cause infection. These include an ultra-orthodox Jewish circumcision practice known as metzitzah b'peh, the Christian common communion chalice, Islamic ritual ablution, and the Hindu 'side-roll'. Infections associated with participation in the Islamic Hajj have been extensively reviewed and will not be discussed. PMID:23791225

  5. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  6. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur. PMID:27386050

  7. Propofol-associated QTc prolongation

    PubMed Central

    Scalese, Michael J.; Herring, Holly R.; Rathbun, R. Chris; Skrepnek, Grant H.; Ripley, Toni L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Propofol is a preferred agent for sedation in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) due, in part, to its established safety profile. Despite this, recent case reports have suggested a potential for prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc) in ICU patients receiving propofol, though limited empirical work has been conducted to evaluate this association. As such, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between propofol infusion and QTc prolongation in a historical cohort of ICU patients. Methods: A single-center, historical, observational, pre-post cohort analysis of medical records from admitted patients ⩾18 years old with cardiovascular disease was conducted, involving cases who received propofol infusion for ⩾3 hours with sequential electrocardiogram monitoring from 2006 to 2012. A multivariable, generalized linear model regression was employed to assess the primary outcome of on-propofol QTc interval (QTc2), controlling for various demographic and clinical factors. Results: A total of 96 patients met inclusion criteria, averaging 56.1 ± 14.1 years of age and 86.1 ± 25.0 kg, with 37.5% being female. A mean prolongation in QTc interval of 30.4 ± 55.5 ms (p < 0.001) was observed during the propofol infusion, with 43.8% of cases exhibiting an on-infusion QTc2 of ⩾ 500 ms. Regression analyses suggested that prolongation in on-propofol QTc was independently associated with baseline QTc interval and amiodarone use, while weight as inversely associated with QTc2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This historical cohort analysis of adult ICU patients receiving propofol suggests that on-infusion QTc prolongation was associated with increasing baseline QTc interval and with amiodarone use. Further research is needed to evaluate the clinical significance and cause-and-effect relationship between potential QTc changes and propofol use in the ICU. PMID:27298717

  8. Canagliflozin-Associated Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajanshu

    2016-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a new drug in class of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We describe a patient who developed moderately severe acute pancreatitis as an untoward consequence after being initiated on this drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canagliflozin-associated acute pancreatitis in clinical literature. PMID:25187092

  9. Enzyme-Inhibitor Association Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Resat, Haluk; Marrone, Tami J.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Studying the thermodynamics of biochemical association reactions at the microscopic level requires efficient sampling of the configurations of the reactants and solvent as a function of the reaction pathways. In most cases, the associating ligand and receptor have complementary interlocking shapes. Upon association, loosely connected or disconnected solvent cavities at and around the binding site are formed. Disconnected solvent regions lead to severe statistical sampling problems when simulations are performed with explicit solvent. It was recently proposed that, when such limitations are encountered, they might be overcome by the use of the grand canonical ensemble. Here we investigate one such case and report the association free energy profile (potential of mean force) between trypsin and benzamidine along a chosen reaction coordinate as calculated using the grand canonical Monte Carlo method. The free energy profile is also calculated for a continuum solvent model using the Poisson equation, and the results are compared to the explicit water simulations. The comparison shows that the continuum solvent approach is surprisingly successful in reproducing the explicit solvent simulation results. The Monte Carlo results are analyzed in detail with respect to solvation structure. In the binding site channel there are waters bridging the carbonyl oxygen groups of Asp189 with the NH2 groups of benzamidine, which are displaced upon inhibitor binding. A similar solvent-bridging configuration has been seen in the crystal structure of trypsin complexed with bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The predicted locations of other internal waters are in very good agreement with the positions found in the crystal structures, which supports the accuracy of the simulations. ImagesFIGURE 5 PMID:9017183

  10. Zeolite exposure and associated pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, K.R.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Rom, W.N.; Moatamed, F.

    1985-06-01

    Naturally occurring zeolite minerals are aluminum silicates widespread in the earth's crust. Several of these minerals have fibrous forms and have been implicated as a possible cause of benign and malignant diseases of the lung and pleura in Turkey. This report describes a patient, living in an area of Nevada rich in zeolites, who presented with idiopathic pleural thickening and pulmonary fibrosis associated with extensive pulmonary deposition of zeolites.

  11. Endolymphatic hydrops associated with otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J; Ge, X; Orchik, D J

    1994-05-01

    Endolymphatic hydrops (EH) associated with otosclerosis has been noted for many years. However, the causal relationship of these two entities remains controversial. Having reviewed the records of patients with otosclerosis describing fluctuant hearing loss and vertiginous symptoms, the authors found the EH may coexist with otosclerosis preoperatively; they may be two separate diseases that exist coincidentally; or EH may be caused by the otosclerotic process. Secondly, EH may occur with a fistula after surgery. Occurring after stapedectomy, EH may be caused by fistulization of the bony labyrinth, which is effectively treated by surgery to seal the fistula, which may cause EH to subside and hearing to improve. Thirdly, delayed EH may occur months or years after stapedectomy, possibly as a result of otosclerotic foci or surgical insult to the labyrinth. Dexamethasone, diuretics, and a room air rebreather can be used in the treatment of delayed EH. Hearing may be maintained or may deteriorate, but there usually is no dizziness. The clinical manifestations of EH associated with otosclerosis include a conductive or mixed type of hearing loss; the presence of fullness, tinnitus, fluctuation of hearing, episodic vertigo, an elevated negative summating potential (SP), and an increased summating potential:action potential (SP:AP) ratio shown by ECoG. This report presents five cases of EH associated with otosclerosis. PMID:8579139

  12. [Hemorrhagic stroke associated to neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Tellez-Zenteno, J F; Negrete-Pulido, O; Cantú, C; Márquez, C; Vega-Boada, F; García Ramos, G

    2003-06-01

    A well-known complication of neurocysticercosis is cerebral arteritis, which is usually manifested by cerebral ischemia. Only anecdotal cases of hemorrhagic stroke associated to this parasitosis have been described. Previously there are only two reported cases of this association. One of these cases had an intracystic hemorrhage confirmed by autopsy without cerebrovascular risk factors. Autopsy revealed an inflammatory arteriopathy adjacent to the cyst intracystic hemorrhage. The second case had a subarachnoidal hemorrhage secondary to the rupture of an aneurysm in the right anteroinferior cerebellar artery. At surgery, the aneurysm was found to be surrounded by a thickened-leptomeninges, which histologically showed the presence of cysticercous with dense inflammation. Our first patient was a 32 year-old female developed a lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage around a cysticercotic lesion. The second patient was a 34 year-old male developed an intracystic hemorrhage. As cerebral angiography was normal in both patients, cerebral hemorrhages were considered to be related to cysticercotic arteritis of small penetrating vessels. We conclude that cysticercosis is associated with differenttypes of intracranial hemorrhage, as documented the present cases. In neurocysticercosis endemic areas, cysticercotic arteritis should be added to the list of causes of intracranial hemorrhage in young people. PMID:12768515

  13. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  14. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  15. Imprinting genes associated with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Much work has been carried out to investigate the genetic and epigenetic basis of endometriosis and proposed that endometriosis has been described as an epigenetic disease. The purpose of this study was to extract the imprinting genes that are associated with endometriosis development. Methods: The information on the imprinting genes can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://www.geneimprint.com/site/genes-by-species. Results: In the current version, the database contains 150 human imprinted genes derived from the literature. We searched gene functions and their roles in particular biological processes or events, such as development and pathogenesis of endometriosis. From the genomic imprinting database, we picked 10 genes that were highly associated with female reproduction; prominent among them were paternally expressed genes (DIRAS3, BMP8B, CYP1B1, ZFAT, IGF2, MIMT1, or MIR296) and maternally expressed genes (DVL1, FGFRL1, or CDKN1C). These imprinted genes may be associated with reproductive biology such as endometriosis, pregnancy loss, decidualization process and preeclampsia. Discussion: This study supports the possibility that aberrant epigenetic dysregulation of specific imprinting genes may contribute to endometriosis predisposition. PMID:26417259

  16. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  17. Circulating miRNA profiles provide a biomarker for severity of stroke outcomes associated with age and sex in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, Amutha; Williams, Madison H.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Sohrabji, Farida

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNA [miRNA (microRNA)] found in the circulation have been used successfully as biomarkers and mechanistic targets for chronic and acute disease. The present study investigated the impact of age and sex on miRNA expression following ischaemic stroke in an animal model. Adult (6 month) and middle-aged (11–12 months) female and male rats were subject to MCAo (middle cerebral artery occlusion) using ET-1 (endothelin-1). Circulating miRNAs were analysed in blood samples at 2 and 5 days post-stroke, and brain miRNAs were analysed at 5 days post-stroke. Although stroke-associated infarction was observed in all groups, infarct volume and sensory-motor deficits were significantly reduced in adult females compared with middle-aged females, adult males or middle-aged males. At 2 days post-stroke, 21 circulating miRNAs were differentially regulated and PCA (principal component analysis) confirmed that most of the variance was due to age. At 5 days post-stroke, 78 circulating miRNAs exhibited significantly different regulation, and most of the variance was associated with sex. A small cohort (five) of miRNAs, miR-15a, miR-19b, miR-32 miR-136 and miR-199a-3p, were found to be highly expressed exclusively in adult females compared with middle-aged females, adult males and middle-aged males. Predicted gene targets for these five miRNAs analysed for KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways revealed that the top ten KEGG pathways were related to growth factor signalling, cell structure and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling. Overall, the pattern of circulating miRNA expression suggests an early influence of age in stroke pathology, with a later emergence of sex as a factor for stroke severity. PMID:24428837

  18. Systematic Pathway Enrichment Analysis of a Genome-Wide Association Study on Breast Cancer Survival Reveals an Influence of Genes Involved in Cell Adhesion and Calcium Signaling on the Patients’ Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Woltmann, Andrea; Chen, Bowang; Lascorz, Jesús; Johansson, Robert; Eyfjörd, Jorunn E.; Hamann, Ute; Manjer, Jonas; Enquist-Olsson, Kerstin; Henriksson, Roger; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Hemminki, Kari; Lenner, Per; Försti, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) may help to understand the effects of genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer (BC) progression and survival. However, they give only a focused view, which cannot capture the tremendous complexity of this disease. Therefore, we investigated data from a previously conducted GWAS on BC survival for enriched pathways by different enrichment analysis tools using the two main annotation databases Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The goal was to identify the functional categories (GO terms and KEGG pathways) that are consistently overrepresented in a statistically significant way in the list of genes generated from the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. The SNPs with allelic p-value cut-offs 0.005 and 0.01 were annotated to the genes by excluding or including a 20 kb up-and down-stream sequence of the genes and analyzed by six different tools. We identified eleven consistently enriched categories, the most significant ones relating to cell adhesion and calcium ion binding. Moreover, we investigated the similarity between our GWAS and the enrichment analyses of twelve published gene expression signatures for breast cancer prognosis. Five of them were commonly used and commercially available, five were based on different aspects of metastasis formation and two were developed from meta-analyses of published prognostic signatures. This comparison revealed similarities between our GWAS data and the general and the specific brain metastasis gene signatures as well as the Oncotype DX signature. As metastasis formation is a strong indicator of a patient’s prognosis, this result reflects the survival aspect of the conducted GWAS and supports cell adhesion and calcium signaling as important pathways in cancer progression. PMID:24886783

  19. Sang-qi Granula Reduces Blood Pressure and Myocardial Fibrosis by Suppressing Inflammatory Responses Associated with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Nuclear Factor κ B Protein in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan-Yu; Pan, Chun-Shui; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Li, Lin; Han, Jing-Yan; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Sang-qi Granula (SQ) is a compound prepared from Chinese herbs and is currently used for treatment of hypertension in China. Given its protective effects on cardial function in decreasing blood pressure, we investigated the mechanism of protective effects of SQ on myocardium. Methods. 16 male normal Wistar-Kyoto rats and 16 spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR) were employed without medical treatment. 16 SHR were employed with SQ treatment. Rats in each group were sacrificed at two time points (8-week treatment and 16-week treatment). Blood pressure (BP), and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) were measured. The expression of myeloperoxidase (MCP-1), ICAM-1, TNF- α , and CD68-positive cells was assessed. The interstitial collagen volume fraction (CVF), perivascular collagen volume area (PVCA), and the expression of TGF- β , Smad-3, PPAR α , γ , and NF- κ B (P65 and P50) were observed. Results. SQ significantly inhibited the elevation of the blood pressure and HW/BW of SHR. Next, SQ prevented myocardial fibrosis. Finally, a proinflammatory mediator associated with NF- κ B (TNF- α , ICAM-1, MCP-1, CD68), TGF- β , and Smad-3 related to collagen deposition, which is upregulated in SHR group, was significantly suppressed by SQ. Expression of NF- κ B was decreased in SHQ+SQ group compared to PPAR α , and γ expression was increased by SQ. Conclusion. Treatment with SQ ameliorates cardial fibrosis induced by hypertension by attenuating the upregulation of ICAM-1, TNF- α , MCP-1, TGF- β , Smad-3, P65, and P50 expression and improving PPAR α and PPAR γ expression level. The results suggest that SQ may be an option for preventing cardial fibrosis through PPAR signalling pathway. PMID:24171042

  20. Arthropathy associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Szanto, E; Linse, U

    1991-06-01

    A survey of 170 patients with a diagnosis of palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) has been undertaken. Detailed family histories of our patients were compiled, dermatological and rheumatological examinations were made. Radiography was performed in patients with clinical suspicions of spinal and/or sacroiliacal, sternoclavicular and sternocostal joint involvement. Active chest-wall symptoms were screened by scintigraphy. Twenty-five patients (16 females, 9 males, with an age range of 32-66, mean 51 years) had some rheumatic complaints. Fifteen of them (60%) had anterior chest-wall involvement, 6 (24%) sacroiliitis (3 of whom also had AS) and 11 (44%) peripheral arthropathy. Six other patients suffered from transient and migratory joint pain. The joint disease was mild in all but 6 cases. Laboratory tests showed increased ESR in 6 patients (24%); only 3 of these patients had elevated CRP. A slightly elevated haptoglobin and/or orosomucoid were found in 12 cases (48%). Elevated IgA was present in 4, IgG in 2 and IgM in 1 patient. Fungal and bacteriological cultures of the skin were negative. A family history of psoriasis was present in 4 patients (16%), of psoriatic arthropathy in 1 patients (4%) and of PPP in 2 patients (8%). Six patients (24%) had concomitant psoriasis. No association between PPP H1a-AC antigens was found. A high incidence of HLA-B27 antigen, present in 8 patients (32%), was documented. A similar association with HLA-B27 has been found in patients with psoriatic arthritis (16). The feeble association with HLA-B13,-17,-37 and CW6 found in psoriasis was not present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1914411

  1. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Saif, M Wasif

    2006-09-01

    The reported incidence of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) associated with oxaliplatin in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is approximately 12%, with 1 - 2% of patients developing grade 3 or 4 in severity. However, the recent rising incidence of HSR to oxaliplatin observed is the result of increasing clinical use. HSR to oxaliplatin may manifest as facial flushing, rash/hives, tachycardia, dyspnoea, erythema, pruritus, fever, tongue swelling, headache, chills, weakness, vomiting, burning sensations, dizziness and oedema. Anaphylactic shock is rare but serious, and must be considered in the event of hypotension. No definitive approaches to prevent and treat HSR associated with oxaliplatin are available; however, few successful strategies have been reported. Such strategies include: slowing the infusion rate, use of steroids and antagonists of type 1 and 2 histamine receptors, and desensitisation. Successful implementation of oxaliplatin desensitisation protocols based on other platinum-containing compounds have been reported, which could enable a small number of patients who experience severe HSR to further receive an effective therapy for CRC. However, reintroductions have only been reported as single case studies or small cohorts. Large-scale validation on desensitisation strategies are still missing. Recently, subcutaneous adrenaline has also been utilised as an alternative approach to manage HSR to oxaliplatin. Knowledge of this rare but real toxicity of oxaliplatin is paramount because the use of this drug continues to increase not only for the treatment of patients with stage II-IV CRC, but also other solid malignancies. In this article, the author discusses the incidence, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, risk factors and current strategies of management of HSR associated with oxaliplatin. PMID:16907658

  2. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Associated with Sex

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, Sam; Morrison, Edwin; Elahi, Maqsood

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) associated with sex. A 22-year-old lesbian with a history of asthma, cigarette and illicit drug smoking was diagnosed with a SPM after developing chest pain and dyspnoea in the context of performing oral sex. The main finding was subcutaneous emphysema involving the neck. SPM is an important differential diagnosis for chest pain in young people. It is a benign condition and diagnosis mainly limited to chest X-ray with increased incidence in asthmatics, smokers and drug addicts. PMID:22470723

  3. Biomarkers associated with checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Manson, G; Norwood, J; Marabelle, A; Kohrt, H; Houot, R

    2016-07-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI), namely anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1/PD-L1 antibodies, demonstrated efficacy across multiple types of cancer. However, only subgroups of patients respond to these therapies. Additionally, CPI can induce severe immune-related adverse events (irAE). Biomarkers that predict efficacy and toxicity may help define the patients who may benefit the most from these costly and potentially toxic therapies. In this study, we review the main biomarkers that have been associated with the efficacy (pharmacodynamics and clinical benefit) and the toxicity (irAE) of CPIs in patients. PMID:27122549

  4. Variant of association of sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubro, V. G.

    2008-03-01

    The variant of association of sciences, offered in the given work, is based on the multilevel description complex (with dynamic treelike structure and with number of levels > 2) systems. In its basis the definition such physical, but dimensionless functions of interactions, as quality and quantity of the information, developed at interaction, lays. Thus levels are defined by hierarchy of interactions and "subordinates" to itself physical functions (space - time systems of readout, energy, pulse, moment of a pulse, information, etc.). The relations, traditional for them, and laws remain, but as special cases of more general (common) relations, i.e. they are formulated anew on some new uniform base of the reconsidered concepts.

  5. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin

    PubMed Central

    Indu, T. H.; Basutkar, Roopa Satyanarayan

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in the literature. Prevention of the adverse effects with AEDs is a multi-stage process, which requires implementation of preventive measures through careful monitoring and prompts interventions. PMID:26692739

  6. VLF sferics associated with TGFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezentsev, Andrew; Østgaard, Nikolai; Gjesteland, Thomas; Skeltved, Alexander; Cummer, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are produced by the runaway electron beams inside the thunderclouds by bremsstrahlung. Numerous satellite observations of the TGFs cannot provide a definite answer about the details of the generation processes of TGFs. There exist two TGF production models. According to one a TGF is produced during the upward negative IC leader propagation. Another one supposes that relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) producing TGFs can develop in strong thundercloud electric fields without involving a leader discharge mechanism. One of the most promising observation instruments to investigate the TGF production is LF radio waves emitted by the RREAs or RREA generated secondary currents. Detection and analyses of the radio waveforms from these currents provide new possibilities to better understanding of TGF generation mechanisms. In this work we analyze RHESSI TGF data detected between 2004 and 2011 in association with the VLF waveforms recorded by the VLF magnetic field receiver deployed at the Duke University. Pairs of associated TGF-VLF events identified in combination with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) catalogue which provides independent lightning locations and timings. Selection criteria retrieved only the pairs with WWLLN-RHESSI nadir distances less than 500 km and time difference between the TGF start time and VLF sferic start time (recalculated to a WWLLN provided location) less than 150 μs, which is based on the RHESSI-WWLLN-Duke combined timing accuracy. In total 15 events within these limits were identified. These events support the possibility of detection of VLF radio waveforms produced by RREAs or RREA associated secondary currents. Further search in the RHESSI data and Duke recordings without having WWLLN confirmed locations revealed about a hundred TGF-VLF associated pairs. These are also simultaneous within 150 μs and less than 500 km from nadir point. In this work we compare the distribution

  7. Glomerulopathy Associated with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    van Velthuysen, M.-L. F.; Florquin, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although parasitic infections do not usually present with disturbance in renal function, glomerular lesions can be seen in most of these infections. The glomerular lesions observed in parasitic infections cover the whole range of glomerular lesions known, but most of them are proliferative. Little is known of the exact pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we try to explain the glomerular lesions associated with parasitic infections in terms of the specific immunologic events observed during these diseases against the background of recent developments in the general knowledge of the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. PMID:10627491

  8. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  9. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Indu, T H; Basutkar, Roopa Satyanarayan

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in the literature. Prevention of the adverse effects with AEDs is a multi-stage process, which requires implementation of preventive measures through careful monitoring and prompts interventions. PMID:26692739

  10. Environmental factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus; Stokes, Lynette D.; Warren, Rueben

    2003-01-01

    Asthma, a disease of attacks and remission, continues to account for substantial morbidity and direct economic costs. Numerous studies--epidemiologic, toxicologic and clinical--present evidence for a broad spectrum of environmental risk factors associated with asthma. This review summarizes current thinking on a subset of these factors. Knowledge of potential environmental determinants of asthma is important to both the patient and healthcare professional in the application of multiple modalities of medical and environmental intervention for management of the development, and exacerbation of this chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. PMID:12760611

  11. 12 CFR 619.9050 - Associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Associations. 619.9050 Section 619.9050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9050 Associations. The term associations includes (individually or collectively) Federal land bank associations, Federal...

  12. 7 CFR 1150.119 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1150.119 Section 1150.119... Order Definitions § 1150.119 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which is organized under the provisions of the Act of Congress...

  13. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 583.21 Section 583.21... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of...

  14. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings association. 583.21 Section 583.21... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which the Secretary determines is qualified under the provisions of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.25 - State association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State association. 1230.25 Section 1230.25... association. State association means the single organization of producers in a State that is organized under... may cease to recognize a State association and instead recognize another organization of producers...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9050 - Associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Associations. 619.9050 Section 619.9050 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9050 Associations. The term associations includes (individually or collectively) Federal land bank associations, Federal...

  18. New Associate Degree Requirements. The Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document contains a brief history of the development of the associate degree in British Columbia and reviews the degrees presently conferred. A major portion of the document focuses on newly approved (May 30, 2000) requirements for the Associate Degree of Arts (AA) and the Associate Degree of Science (AS). The associate degree formally became…

  19. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John W.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2002-01-01

    This section includes reports from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), and Council on Library and Information Resources. (LRW)

  20. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  1. Radiation-associated valvular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.G.; Mayfield, W.R.; Normann, S.; Alexander, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The prevalence of radiation-associated cardiac disease is increasing due to prolonged survival following mediastinal irradiation. Side effects of radiation include pericarditis, accelerated coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis and valvular injury. We evaluated the cases of three young patients with evidence of significant valvular disease following mediastinal irradiation. One patient underwent the first reported successful aortic and mitral valve replacement for radiation-associated valvular disease (RAVD) as well as concurrent coronary artery revascularization. A review of the literature revealed 35 reported cases of RAVD, with only one successful case of valve replacement that was limited to the aortic valve. Asymptomatic RAVD is diagnosed 11.5 years after mediastinal irradiation compared with 16.5 years for symptomatic patients, emphasizing that long-term follow-up is important for patients receiving mediastinal irradiation. This study defines a continuum of valvular disease following radiation that begins with mild asymptomatic valvular thickening and progresses to severe valvular fibrosis with hemodynamic compromise requiring surgical intervention. 32 refs.

  2. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Min

    2016-05-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures. It leads not only to secondary distortion of skull shape but to various complications including neurologic, ophthalmic and respiratory dysfunction. Craniosynostosis is very heterogeneous in terms of its causes, presentation, and management. Both environmental factors and genetic factors are associated with development of craniosynostosis. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis accounts for more than 70% of all cases. Syndromic craniosynostosis with a certain genetic cause is more likely to involve multiple sutures or bilateral coronal sutures. FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR1, TWIST1 and EFNB1 genes are major causative genes of genetic syndromes associated with craniosynostosis. Although most of syndromic craniosynostosis show autosomal dominant inheritance, approximately half of patients are de novo cases. Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Antley-Bixler syndrome are related to mutations in FGFR family (especially in FGFR2), and mutations in FGFRs can be overlapped between different syndromes. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Muenke syndrome, and craniofrontonasal syndrome are representative disorders showing isolated coronal suture involvement. Compared to the other types of craniosynostosis, single gene mutations can be more frequently detected, in one-third of coronal synostosis patients. Molecular diagnosis can be helpful to provide adequate genetic counseling and guidance for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:27226847

  3. Thrombosis Associated with Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Luca; Gerdes, Victor E.A.; Guasti, Luigina; Squizzato, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Viral hepatitis may promote the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and, more specifically, portal vein thrombosis (PVT). In this narrative review, we summarize the clinical data and discuss the possible pathogenetic roles of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis A, B, and C viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV) in the occurrence of VTE. CMV is the first qualified candidate to enter the list of VTE minor risk factors, and in the rare case of fulminant infection, both EBV and CMV, like any severe infection or inflammatory disease, increase risk for thrombosis. In chronic hepatitis B and C, it remains controversial whether antiphospholipid antibodies are important for thrombotic complications or merely an epiphenomenon. Retinal vein occlusion described in chronic hepatitis C is usually attributed to the treatment with interferon. Eltrombopag, used for HCV-related thrombocytopenia, has been associated with increased thrombotic risk. The imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors associated with chronic liver disease may have clinical implications. This may help to explain why these patients are not protected from clinical events such as VTE, PVT, and the progression of liver fibrosis. PMID:26357629

  4. Dabigatran-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Szarlej, Dorota K.; Rincon, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolization in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Although dabigatran has a favorable safety profile, predictable pharmacokinetics, fewer drug interactions than warfarin, and does not require monitoring, clinical data regarding dabigatran reversal are limited. In addition, currently available laboratory assays allow measurement of the presence, but not extent, of dabigatran-associated anticoagulation. Patient age, renal function, weight, concurrent drug therapy, adherence, and concomitant disease states can affect dabigatran’s efficacy and safety. Management of dabigatran-related intracranial hemorrhage must be approached on a case-by-case basis and include assessment of degree of anticoagulation, severity of hemorrhage, renal function, timing of last dabigatran dose, and risk of thromboembolic events. Initial management includes dabigatran discontinuation and general supportive measures. Oral activated charcoal should be administered in those who ingested dabigatran within 2 hours. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4PCCs), activated PCC, or recombinant activated factor VII use may be reasonable but is not evidence based. Reserve fresh frozen plasma for patients with dilutional coagulopathy. If readily available, hemodialysis should be considered, particularly in patients with advanced kidney injury or excessive risk of thromboembolic events. More clinical studies are needed to determine a standardized approach to treating dabigatran-associated intracranial hemorrhage. Institutional protocol development will facilitate safe, efficacious, and timely use of the limited management options. PMID:26425251

  5. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sanmarti, Montserrat; Ibáñez, Laura; Huertas, Sonia; Badenes, Dolors; Dalmau, David; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Jaen, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Currently, neuropsychological impairment among HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy leads to a reduction in the quality of life and it is an important challenge due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its concomitant consequences in relation to morbidity and mortality- including those HIV+ patients with adequate immunological and virological status. The fact that the virus is established in CNS in the early stages and its persistence within the CNS can help us to understand HIV-related brain injury even when highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective. The rising interest in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders has let to development new diagnostic tools, improvement of the neuropsychological tests, and the use of new biomarkers and new neuroimaging techniques that can help the diagnosis. Standardization and homogenization of neurocognitive tests as well as normalizing and simplification of easily accessible tools that can identify patients with increased risk of cognitive impairment represent an urgent requirement. Future efforts should also focus on diagnostic keys and searching for useful strategies in order to decrease HIV neurotoxicity within the CNS. PMID:25945248

  6. Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Jernej; Korva, Misa; Tul, Nataša; Popović, Mara; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Mraz, Jerica; Kolenc, Marko; Resman Rus, Katarina; Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina; Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna; Vizjak, Alenka; Pižem, Jože; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2016-03-10

    A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain. PMID:26862926

  7. Parkinsonism Associated with Glucocerebrosidase Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Mun-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Min; Lee, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Background Gaucher's disease is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations of the β-glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA). There is increasing evidence that GBA mutations are a genetic risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We report herein a family of Koreans exhibiting parkinsonism-associated GBA mutations. Case Report A 44-year-old woman suffering from slowness and paresthesia of the left arm for the previous 1.5years, visited our hospital to manage known invasive ductal carcinoma. During a preoperative evaluation, she was diagnosed with Gaucher's disease and double mutations of S271G and R359X in GBA. Parkinsonian features including low amplitude postural tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia and shuffling gait were observed. Genetic analysis also revealed that her older sister, who had also been diagnosed with PD and had been taking dopaminergic drugs for 8-years, also possessed a heterozygote R359X mutation in GBA. 18F-fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane positron-emission tomography in these patients revealed decreased uptake of dopamine transporter in the posterior portion of the bilateral putamen. Conclusions This case study demonstrates Korean familial cases of PD with heterozygote mutation of GBA, further supporting the association between PD and GBA mutation. PMID:21779299

  8. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures. It leads not only to secondary distortion of skull shape but to various complications including neurologic, ophthalmic and respiratory dysfunction. Craniosynostosis is very heterogeneous in terms of its causes, presentation, and management. Both environmental factors and genetic factors are associated with development of craniosynostosis. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis accounts for more than 70% of all cases. Syndromic craniosynostosis with a certain genetic cause is more likely to involve multiple sutures or bilateral coronal sutures. FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR1, TWIST1 and EFNB1 genes are major causative genes of genetic syndromes associated with craniosynostosis. Although most of syndromic craniosynostosis show autosomal dominant inheritance, approximately half of patients are de novo cases. Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Antley-Bixler syndrome are related to mutations in FGFR family (especially in FGFR2), and mutations in FGFRs can be overlapped between different syndromes. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Muenke syndrome, and craniofrontonasal syndrome are representative disorders showing isolated coronal suture involvement. Compared to the other types of craniosynostosis, single gene mutations can be more frequently detected, in one-third of coronal synostosis patients. Molecular diagnosis can be helpful to provide adequate genetic counseling and guidance for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:27226847

  9. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  10. Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.; Reyes, Edison P.; García, Isaac E.; Pinto, Bernardo; Martínez, Agustín D.; González, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) and gap junction channels (GJCs) formed by protein subunits called connexins (Cxs) are major pathways for intercellular communication. While HCs connect the intracellular compartment with the extracellular milieu, GJCs allow the interchange of molecules between cytoplasm of two contacting cells. Under physiological conditions, HCs are mostly closed, but they can open under certain stimuli allowing the release of autocrine and paracrine molecules. Moreover, some pathological conditions, like ischemia or other inflammation conditions, significantly increase HCs activity. In addition, some mutations in Cx genes associated with human diseases, such as deafness or cataracts, lead to the formation of more active HCs or “leaky HCs.” In this article we will revise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the appearance of leaky HCs, and the consequences of their expression in different cellular systems and animal models, in seeking a common pattern or pathological mechanism of disease. PMID:26283912

  11. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Kaufman, Bella; Meirow, Dror

    2008-10-01

    The frequency of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, a rare but serious occurrence, may increase in light of the secular trends for lower parity in general and for older age at first full-term delivery in particular Data on PABC in individuals who are at high risk for breast cancer are limited. A computerized search of Pubmed showed that the reported incidence of PABC is 1:3000 pregnancies; it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is inferior compared to non-PABC Carriers of mutations in the genes BRCA1/2 may present a specific high risk group for PABC especially at younger ages. Women treated with fertility treatment drugs may be at a higher risk for PABC as well. PMID:19009954

  12. Corneal amyloidosis associated with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Stern, G A; Knapp, A; Hood, C I

    1988-01-01

    Nodular, gray-white, central corneal opacities which extended from the subepithelial zone through the anterior four fifths of the stroma developed in a 50-year-old man with a longstanding history of hard contact lens wear for keratoconus. Results of histopathologic analysis of the corneal button obtained at the time of penetrating keratoplasty disclosed that the opacities were composed of amyloid. Corneal amyloidosis is rarely found in association with keratoconus. Although there were some similarities in the pattern of amyloid deposition to that seen in primary familial amyloidosis of the cornea, the authors believe that their patient is more likely to have had a secondary amyloidosis. Corneal amyloidosis should be considered in keratoconus patients with development of unusual forms of central corneal opacification. PMID:3278260

  13. Hippocampus, microcircuits and associative memory.

    PubMed

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Wennekers, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most widely studied brain region. One of its functional roles is the storage and recall of declarative memories. Recent hippocampus research has yielded a wealth of data on network architecture, cell types, the anatomy and membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons, and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the functional roles of different families of hippocampal neurons in information processing, synaptic plasticity and network oscillations poses a great challenge but also promises deep insight into one of the major brain systems. Computational and mathematical models play an instrumental role in exploring such functions. In this paper, we provide an overview of abstract and biophysical models of associative memory with particular emphasis on the operations performed by the diverse (inter)neurons in encoding and retrieval of memories in the hippocampus. PMID:19647982

  14. Costs Associated With Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Bready, Lois L; Luber, M Philip

    2016-02-01

    Texas needs more physicians to care for a rapidly growing population, and new physicians who complete medical training in Texas are likely to remain in the state to practice. The expansion of existing Texas medical schools, along with the development of new schools, has created a need for a corresponding increase in residency and fellowship (graduate medical education, or GME) positions in Texas, and the 2013 and 2015 legislative sessions have funded expanded GME support. While the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services pays for the majority of GME positions nationally, those numbers were capped in 1997. Growing populations, particularly in the southern states, have led many institutions--when funds are available--to increase GME positions "over the cap." Texas physicians need to be aware of costs associated with development of accredited GME positions, as well as other measures being taken to support the growth of the physician workforce in the state. PMID:26859373

  15. Assessing the animal associated environment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1987-01-01

    Although assessments of the animal associated environment remain largely at the stage of gross description, it is clear that more precise and comprehensive expressions of resulting exposure are desirable. Both the problems to be overcome and the means of addressing technical imperatives have been characterized, and it appears that interest in this area will soon enter a "log phase" of growth. As a result, we may hope soon to deal with animal allergens in quantitative terms of dose and response and to appreciate how indoor ecosystems modulate challenge. It is realistic to hope that allowable exposure limits may follow and that from these will emerge innovative strategies ensuring healthful human-animal interactions. PMID:3477685

  16. Risks associated with spinal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence about the risks of spinal manipulation. Articles were located through searching three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library), contacting experts (n =9), scanning reference lists of relevant articles, and searching departmental files. Reports in any language containing data relating to risks associated with spinal manipulation were included, irrespective of the profession of the therapist. Where available, systematic reviews were used as the basis of this article. All papers were evaluated independently by the authors. Data from prospective studies suggest that minor, transient adverse events occur in approximately half of all patients receiving spinal manipulation. The most common serious adverse events are vertebrobasilar accidents, disk herniation, and cauda equina syndrome. Estimates of the incidence of serious complications range from 1 per 2 million manipulations to 1 per 400,000. Given the popularity of spinal manipulation, its safety requires rigorous investigation. PMID:12015249

  17. Systemic associations of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, John J; Kimball, Alexa B; Davis, Mark D P

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a progressive, inflammatory disease that affects mostly young women and appears to be caused by inflammation of hair follicles in areas of friction in the body (eg, the axillae, groin, perineum, and medial aspects of the thighs). Given this pathophysiology, one might expect comorbidities that contribute to inflammation and friction. Observed comorbidities fall into several categories: obesity and the metabolic syndrome, hormone-related disorders, deleterious health habits and mood, autoimmune disease, inflammatory disease and finally, the risk of skin cancer and sequelae of nonhealing wounds. The available literature on comorbid diseases of HS is limited but rapidly increasing. In this review, we summarize recent and major studies of HS disease association. PMID:26470611

  18. Schistosoma hematobium-associated glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Seck, S. M.; Sarr, M. L.; Dial, M. C.; Ka, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most devastating tropical parasitic disease worldwide and is responsible for many urological complications. However, glomerular injury is a rare complication mainly described with Schistosoma mansoni. We report a case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) associated with Schistosoma hematobium infection in a young Senegalese boy living in a rural area. Clinical presentation was with steroid-resistant with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy showed type 1 MPGN with the presence of S. hematobium eggs surrounded by a gigantocellular granuloma. Despite therapy with antihelminthic and immunosuppressive drugs, evolution was characterized by progression to end-stage renal disease over 1 year. More efforts should be made on the prevention and early detection of schistosomiasis among at-risk populations. PMID:21886983

  19. Imaging Virus-Associated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, De-Xue; Foss, Catherine A.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Ambinder, Richard F.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer remains an important and growing health problem. Researchers have made great progress in defining genetic and molecular alterations that contribute to cancer formation and progression. Molecular imaging can identify appropriate patients for targeted cancer therapy and may detect early biochemical changes in tumors during therapy, some of which may have important prognostic implications. Progress in this field continues largely due to a union between molecular genetics and advanced imaging technology. This review details uses of molecular-genetic imaging in the context of tumor-associated viruses. Under certain conditions, and particularly during pharmacologic stimulation, gammaherpesviruses will express genes that enable imaging and therapy in vivo. The techniques discussed are readily translatable to the clinic. PMID:18991718

  20. Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga H.; Kim, Nick H.; Mandel, Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Schistosomiasis, a parasite-borne disease, is highly prevalent in Africa and Asia; it is estimated that close to 20 million people worldwide have a severe form of the disease. The chronic form can affect the gastrointestinal system and lead to hepatosplenic disease, and it may cause cardiopulmonary complications, including pulmonary hypertension. The exact pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension (Sch-PH) remains unclear, although several mechanisms, including parasitic arterial embolization, pulmonary arteriopathy, and portopulmonary hypertension–like pathophysiology, have been suggested. The immunopathology of the disease is also unclear, although there are similarities with the immunology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Finally, the treatment of Sch-PH has not been well studied. There is some evidence on treating the underlying infection, with unclear effect on Sch-PH, and advanced PAH therapies are now being suggested, but more studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25610596

  1. [Cystic fibrosis and associated complications].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, C; Staab, D

    2015-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease. The mutation is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Due to a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, chloride ion transport is reduced across the cell membrane. As a result, the disease can be described as an exocrinopathy. In all organs with exocrine glands, disorders occur in association with the defective chloride transport. The main impact of this defect is manifested in the lungs. Therefore, the most common cause of death is pulmonary disease with respiratory insufficiency due to recurrent infections. Unfortunately, a cure for the disease is still not available. However, new therapies that may affect the CFTR mutation more specifically give new hope for better therapeutic options in the future. The long-term goal of therapy is to develop a causal therapy for all six different mutation classes and thus for about 2000 mutations. PMID:25693903

  2. [Priapism associated with Fabry's disease].

    PubMed

    Jaureguizar Monereo, E; López Pereira, P; Cabo, J; Gutiérrez, J M; García-Consuegra, J; Martínez Olivas, J; López Santamaría, M

    1990-07-01

    We present a rare case of priapism in a child, ten years old, in association with Fabry's disease. The child had a history of disseminated nodular enlargement, crises of fever, intermittent pain in the extremities and ten hours persistent painful erection of the penis. We don't obtain pain or erection relief with sedation, epidural block and irrigation of the corporal bodies. A saphenous-cavernous shunt, in the Grayhack fashion made, being results satisfactory. In the follow-up, the child had sporadic pain in the extremities and no erection of the penis. The cavernosography showed the shunt open. Fabry's disease was confirmed by nodular biopsy and the demonstration of deficient alpha-galactosidase. PMID:2127372

  3. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  4. Cataracts associated with allopurinol therapy.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, F T; Hanna, C; Dreis, M W; Cosgrove, K W

    1982-08-01

    The National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects has accumulated 30 cases of suspected allopurinol-induced lens changes. The cataracts associated with this antihyperuricemic agent are initially anterior and posterior lens capsule changes with anterior subcapsular vacuoles. With time, wedge-shaped anterior and posterior cortical haze occurs, along with dense posterior subcapsular cataracts. Histologic studies of these cataracts showed no unique or identifying features. These cases do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship, but raise the suspicion that allopurinol may be cataractogenic in some patients. Additional case reports and lens material should be sent to the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Rd., Portland, OR 97201. PMID:7114136

  5. Recollections on the Association over Five Decades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents contributions that present recollections on the Australian Association of Adult Education (AAAE) over five decades. In these contributions, the authors talk about the association in the 1960s, 70s, 80s, 90s, and 2000s.

  6. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  12. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.2 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.2 Association. Association means an avocado organization established by State statute in a State with...

  17. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27056852

  18. Seven fatalities associated with ethylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Maskell, P D; Smith, P R; Cole, R; Hikin, L; Morley, S R

    2016-08-01

    Ethylphenidate is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance that is an analogue of the prescription drug methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)). Methylphenidate is used commonly for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to its stimulant effects ethylphenidate is being abused. There is a single case report of a death associated with ethylphenidate in Germany, and a case series of 19 deaths in the East of Scotland, but otherwise, the contribution of ethylphenidate to death is poorly documented. We report the analytical results of 7 cases (between February 2013 and January 2015) in which ethylphenidate was detected and quantitated with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). The individuals (all male) ranged in age from 23 to 49 years (median 25 years). The concentration of ethylphenidate in the cases ranged from 0.026mg/L to 2.18mg/L in unpreserved post-mortem femoral blood. Only one case had ethylphenidate present as a sole drug. All other cases had at least 2 other drug classes present (benzodiazepines, heroin, methadone antipsychotics, other new psychoactive compounds). Ethylphenidate toxicity was the sole contribution to the cause of death in one case. Hanging was the cause of death in 2 cases, with the other 4 cases being reported as having occurred due to mixed drug toxicity. These data will further help with the interpretation of post-mortem ethylphenidate levels. PMID:26829338

  19. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH FXTAS

    PubMed Central

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Ortigas, Melina; Seritan, Stefan; Bourgeois, James A.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the FMR1 premutation (with 55-200 CGG repeats) may present with multiple medical and psychiatric disorders. Middle-aged carriers (males more often than females) may suffer from fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a newly discovered neurodegenerative disease characterized by intention tremor and ataxia, along with several other neurological features. Psychiatric manifestations are common in premutation carriers of both genders and include attention deficits, anxiety, depression, irritability, impulse dyscontrol, and substance abuse or dependence. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia are among the psychiatric diagnoses often encountered in premutation carriers, including those with FXTAS. Later in the course of the illness, cognitive deficits (including dementia) may occur. In this paper, we discuss common psychiatric phenotypes in FXTAS, based on a thorough review of the literature, as well as our own research experience. Symptomatic pharmacologic treatments are available, although disease modifying agents have not yet been developed. PMID:25620899

  20. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F.

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Chemical evolution of OB associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    It is determined that the existence of Al-26 and Pd-107 in meteorites in the early solar system indicates that our solar system probably formed inside an OB association that had been contaminated by the debris of at least one supernova. In addition to these radioactive tracers, the contamination of the material out of which the solar system formed would have significantly enriched the heavy element composition of the solar system relative to that of the average interstellar medium. It is found that the solar system would be enriched in those isotopes which are produced by the more massive stars, such as O-16, C-12, Ne-20, and some other r-process material. It is proposed that specific isotopic ratios and elemental ratios reflecting these differences would include the Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio, which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium and the cosmic rays, the C-12/C-13 ratio which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio, which would also be higher in the solar system than in the typical interstellar medium.

  2. Endometriosis-associated Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Matalliotakis, I M; Cakmak, H; Ziogos, M D E; Kalogeraki, A; Kappou, D; Arici, A

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is to report three cases of patients with endometriosis and infertility, and associated with Lyme disease. The medical files of 405 women with endometriosis and 200 without endometriosis were studied retrospectively. We report 3 cases with endometriosis and Lyme disease. Of 405 patients with endometriosis treated in our study over a 6-year period, 3(0.8%) had Lyme disease. All cases presented with typical erythema migraines, fever and fatigue. The serological findings were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, for 3 cases. Two out of 3 women underwent IVF-ET procedures and one of them conceived in the first cycle without complication during pregnancy or after childbirth recorded. We concluded that women with endometriosis are more likely to have chronic fatigue syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune inflammatory and endocrine diseases. A review of the literature confirms the uniqueness of the co-existence of Lyme disease in women with endometriosis in these cases. PMID:20143981

  3. Viruses Associated with Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 15–20% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance. PMID:18201576

  4. Discoid Meniscus Associated With Achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Atanda, Alfred; Dean-Davis, Ellen; Gupta, Sumit K

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. This form of dwarfism is caused by a point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, leading to inhibition of endochondral ossification for these patients. This results in a normal trunk height but shortened limbs. The discoid meniscus may be an important associated finding to better understand the common complaints of leg pain for these patients. Although the incidence for a discoid meniscus is between 3% and 5% for the general population, it is unknown with achondroplasia. This case series includes 4 patients, with ages ranging from adolescence to early adulthood, with symptoms of knee pain that were not attributable to some of the more common findings seen in this patient population. Typically, patients with achondroplasia who experience knee pain are evaluated for more common and well-known etiologies such as genu varum, ligamentous instability, and neurogenic claudication. However, the authors propose that symptomatic discoid lateral meniscus should be added to the differential diagnosis for lower-extremity pain in the achondroplasia population. A thorough history and physical examination, in combination with magnetic resonance imaging, can aid in making the diagnosis. Treatment with arthroscopic debridement, saucerization of the meniscus, and repair for unstable injuries has yielded good outcomes for this patient population. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e498-e503.]. PMID:27135452

  5. Infections associated with body modification.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures. PMID:23265745

  6. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gurleyik, Gunay; Gurleyik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH), very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves' disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe. PMID:26185699

  7. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Monika B; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a hereditary progressive disorder and the most frequent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). PKAN patients present with a progressive movement disorder, dysarthria, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. In magnetic resonance imaging, PKAN patients exhibit the pathognonomic "eye of the tiger" sign in the globus pallidus which corresponds to iron accumulation and gliosis as shown in neuropathological examinations. The discovery of the disease causing mutations in PANK2 has linked the disorder to coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism. PANK2 is the only one out of four PANK genes encoding an isoform which localizes to mitochondria. At least two other NBIA genes (PLA2G6, C19orf12) encode proteins that share with PANK2 a mitochondrial localization and all are suggested to play a role in lipid homeostasis. With no causal therapy available for PKAN until now, only symptomatic treatment is possible. A multi-centre retrospective study with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with NBIA revealed a significant improvement of dystonia. Recently, studies in the PANK Drosophila model "fumble" revealed improvement by the compound pantethine which is hypothesized to feed an alternate CoA biosynthesis pathway. In addition, pilot studies with the iron chelator deferiprone that crosses the blood brain barrier showed a good safety profile and some indication of efficacy. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial will start in 2012. This review summarizes clinical presentation, neuropathology and pathogenesis of PKAN. PMID:22515741

  8. Ventilator-associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kuchnicka, Katarzyna; Maciejewski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of disease-affected lungs, as well as being an inadequate mode of ventilation for initially healthy lungs, can cause significant changes in their structure and function. In order to differentiate these processes, two terms are used: ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In both cases, lung injury primarily results from differences in transpulmonary pressure - a consequence of an imbalance between lung stress and strain. This paper focuses on changes in lung structure and function due to this imbalance. Moreover, in this context, barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectrauma are interpreted, and the importance of signal transduction as a process inducing local and systemic inflammatory responses (biotrauma), is determined. None of the assessed methods of reducing VALI and VILI has been found to be entirely satisfactory, yet studies evaluating oscillatory ventilation, liquid ventilation, early ECMO, super-protective ventilation or noisy ventilation and administration of certain drugs are under way. Low tidal volume ventilation and adequately adjusted PEEP appear to be the best preventive measures of mechanical ventilation in any setting, including the operating theatre. Furthermore, this paper highlights the advances in VILI/VALI prevention resulting from better understanding of pathophysiological phenomena. PMID:24092514

  9. Radiation problems associated with Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braly, J. E.; Heaton, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Radiation tests were conducted on the various types of Skylab film to establish the total radiation dosages compatible with an acceptable level of film fogging, and on the S190 borosilicate window to establish radiation limits for an acceptable darkening level. The results verified that most of the films would be unusable when returned to earth, and that the borosilicate window would be darkened beyond allowable limit, unless additional protection was provided. The operational solutions to these problems involve protecting the film with five film vaults and protecting the window with a radiation shield. The largest vault is made of aluminum and weighs over 2000 lb (its thickest compartment wall is 3.4 in.). The window radiation shield is a light honeycomb structure which is swung away for limited astronaut viewing or when the S190 experiment is in operation. Although the shield is light weight, it is heavy enough to stop the large number of low energy electrons making up a major part of the external environment and which are potentially damaging to the window. A brief description is given of the Skylab mission and some of the associated experiments. The radiation environment the spacecraft will encounter is discussed.

  10. Temporal structure in associative retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Barnes, Gareth; Sejdinovic, Dino; Dolan, Ray; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological data disclose rich dynamics in patterns of neural activity evoked by sensory objects. Retrieving objects from memory reinstates components of this activity. In humans, the temporal structure of this retrieved activity remains largely unexplored, and here we address this gap using the spatiotemporal precision of magnetoencephalography (MEG). In a sensory preconditioning paradigm, 'indirect' objects were paired with 'direct' objects to form associative links, and the latter were then paired with rewards. Using multivariate analysis methods we examined the short-time evolution of neural representations of indirect objects retrieved during reward-learning about direct objects. We found two components of the evoked representation of the indirect stimulus, 200 ms apart. The strength of retrieval of one, but not the other, representational component correlated with generalization of reward learning from direct to indirect stimuli. We suggest the temporal structure within retrieved neural representations may be key to their function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04919.001 PMID:25615722

  11. Ocular Myasthenia Gravis Associated With Thymic Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kristin O; Beneck, Debra M; Dinkin, Marc J

    2016-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman with ptosis and diplopia was found to have myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with amyloidosis of the thymus gland. Systemic MG is frequently associated with thymomas or thymic hyperplasia but has only once previously been reported in association with amyloidosis of the thymus. This case demonstrates that isolated ocular MG rarely may also be associated with amyloidosis of the thymus. PMID:25822660

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Myocardial Collagen Remodeling in Association with Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Jin, Hongfang; Sun, Lujing; Chen, Siyao; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Manman; Sun, Yan; Tang, Chaoshu; Zhao, Bin; Du, Junbao

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the role and possible mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the regulation of myocardial collagen remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We treated nine-week-old male SHRs and age- and sex-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKYs) with NaHS (90 μmol/kg−1·day−1) for 9 wks. At 18 wks, plasma H2S, tail arterial pressure, morphology of the heart, myocardial ultrastructure and collagen volume fraction (CVF), myocardial expressions of collagen I and III protein and procollagen I and III mRNA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I), type II receptor (TβR-II), p-Smad2 and 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-1 proteins were determined. TGF-β1-stimulated cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were used to further study the mechanisms. The results showed that compared with WKYs, SHRs showed a reduced plasma H2S, elevated tail artery pressure and increased myocardial collagen, TGF-β1, TβR-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 expressions. However, NaHS markedly decreased tail artery pressure and inhibited myocardial collagen, TGF-β1, TβR-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 protein expressions, but H2S had no effect on the expressions of MMP-13 and TIMP-1. Hydralazine reduced blood pressure but had no effect on myocardial collagen, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expressions and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. H2S prevented activation of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and abnormal collagen synthesis in CFs. In conclusion, the results suggested that H2S could prevent myocardial collagen remodeling in SHR. The mechanism might be associated with inhibition of collagen synthesis via TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:25222913

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes and signalling pathways in bark of Hevea brasiliensis seedlings associated with secondary laticifer differentiation using gene expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Loh, Swee Cheng; Thottathil, Gincy P; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-10-01

    The natural rubber of Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is the main crop involved in industrial rubber production due to its superior quality. The Hevea bark is commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. The laticifer is well defined in the aspect of morphology; however, only some genes associated with its development have been reported. We successfully induced secondary laticifer in the jasmonic acid (JA)-treated and linolenic acid (LA)-treated Hevea bark but secondary laticifer is not observed in the ethephon (ET)-treated and untreated Hevea bark. In this study, we analysed 27,195 gene models using NimbleGen microarrays based on the Hevea draft genome. 491 filtered differentially expressed (FDE) transcripts that are common to both JA- and LA-treated bark samples but not ET-treated bark samples were identified. In the Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) analysis, 491 FDE transcripts belong to different functional categories that reflect the diverse processes and pathways involved in laticifer differentiation. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and KOG analysis, the profile of the FDE transcripts suggest that JA- and LA-treated bark samples have a sufficient molecular basis for secondary laticifer differentiation, especially regarding secondary metabolites metabolism. FDE genes in this category are from the cytochrome (CYP) P450 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) family. The data includes many genes involved in cell division, cell wall synthesis, and cell differentiation. The most abundant transcript in FDE list was SDR65C, reflecting its importance in laticifer differentiation. Using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) as part of annotation and functional prediction, several characterised as well as uncharacterized transcription factors and genes were found in the

  14. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL) using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3888 were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in

  15. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T.; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L.; Li, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 µL/mL) using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in branched-chain amino acid degradation

  16. Position Paper: Creating a New Professional Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David; Barrow, Hilda; Carpenter, Kathy; Hodges, Russ; McGrath, Jane; Newell, Pat; Norton, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This task was assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE) Working…

  17. 28 CFR 36.205 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Association. 36.205 Section 36.205... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.205 Association. A public accommodation... individual with whom the individual or entity is known to have a relationship or association....

  18. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  19. 28 CFR 36.205 - Association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Association. 36.205 Section 36.205... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.205 Association. A public accommodation... individual with whom the individual or entity is known to have a relationship or association....

  20. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  1. Optoelectronic Terminal-Attractor-Based Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Barhen, Jacob; Farhat, Nabil H.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental study of optically and electronically addressable optical implementation of artificial neural network that performs associative recall. Shows by computer simulation that terminal-attractor-based associative memory can have perfect convergence in associative retrieval and increased storage capacity. Spurious states reduced by exploiting terminal attractors.

  2. Endocrine Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Churku Mohan

    1980-01-01

    Endocrine disorders associated with mental retardation are described in relation to clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. Some endocrine disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, nephrogenic-diabetes insipidus, and hypoglycemic conditions, are frequently associated with mental retardation. Early diagnosis and prompt and proper management reduce mortality and the incidence of mental retardation associated with endocrine disorders. PMID:7392067

  3. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its...

  8. Omphalocele with dextrotardia-A rare association.

    PubMed

    Shakya, V C; Agrawal, C S; Shrestha, N R; Dhungel, K; Adhikary, S

    2009-01-01

    Omphalocele is frequently associated with many other congenital malformations. In cardiac anomalies, association of omphalocele with dextrocardia has been rarely noticed before. We present here a child with dextrocardia and omphalocele alongwith a brief review of the literature on this rare association. PMID:20795468

  9. Association, Syntax, and Instructions in Sentence Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Sheldon

    Ninety-six subjects were assigned randomly to eight groups of 12 subjects. The independent variables were (1) controlled association strength between groups of words within a string (high association [HA] versus low association [LA]), (2) syntactic structure (grammatical [G] versus ungrammatical [U] strings), and (3) instructions (ordered learning…

  10. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  11. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  12. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  13. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  14. Proteasome inhibitor associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Yui, Jennifer C; Van Keer, Jan; Weiss, Brendan M; Waxman, Adam J; Palmer, Matthew B; D'Agati, Vivette D; Kastritis, Efstathios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Vij, Ravi; Bansal, Dhruv; Dingli, David; Nasr, Samih H; Leung, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    A variety of medications have been implicated in the causation of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Recently, a few case reports have emerged of TMA attributed to the proteasome inhibitors (PI) bortezomib and carfilzomib in patients with multiple myeloma. The aim of this case series was to better characterize the role of PI in the etiology of drug-induced TMA. We describe eleven patients from six medical centers from around the world who developed TMA while being treated with PI. The median time between medication initiation and diagnosis of TMA was 21 days (range 5 days to 17 months). Median laboratory values at diagnosis included hemoglobin-7.5 g dL(-1) , platelet count-20 × 10(9) /L, LDH-698 U L(-1) , creatinine-3.12 mg dL(-1) . No patient had any other cause of TMA, including ADAMTS13 inhibition, other malignancy or use of any other medication previously associated with TMA. Nine patients had resolution of TMA without evidence of hemolysis after withdrawal of PI. Two patients had stabilization of laboratory values but persistent evidence of hemolysis despite medication withdrawal. One patient had recurrence of TMA with rechallenge of PI. There is a strong level of evidence that PI can cause DITMA. In evaluating patients with suspected TMA, PI use should be recognized as a potential etiology, and these medications should be discontinued promptly if thought to be the cause of TMA. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E348-E352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27286661

  15. Molecular films associated with LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. R.; Warner, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular films deposited on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) originated from the paints and room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone materials intentionally used on the satellite and not from residual contaminants. The high silicone content of most of the films and the uniformity of the films indicates a homogenization process in the molecular deposition and suggests a chemically most favored composition for the final film. The deposition on interior surfaces and vents indicated multiple bounce trajectories or repeated deposition-reemission cycles. Exterior surface deposits indicated a significant return flux. Ultraviolet light exposure was required to fix the deposited film as is indicated by the distribution of the films on interior surfaces and the thickness of films at the vent locations. Thermal conditions at the time of exposure to ultraviolet light seems to be an important factor in the thickness of the deposit. Sunrise facing (ram direction) surfaces always had the thicker film. These were the coldest surfaces at the time of their exposure to ultraviolet light. The films have a layered structure suggesting cyclic deposition. As many as 34 distinct layers were seen in the films. The cyclic nature of the deposition and the chemical uniformity of the film one layer to the next suggest an early deposition of the films though there is evidence for the deposition of molecular films throughout the nearly six year exposure of the satellite. A final 'spray' of an organic material associated with water soluble salts occurred very late in the mission. This may have been the result of one of the shuttle dump activities.

  16. Nonspecific leukoencephalopathy associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Golomb, J; Kluger, A; Gianutsos, J; Ferris, S H; de Leon, M J; George, A E

    1995-02-01

    With advancing age, the periventricular and subcortical white matter becomes susceptible to a heterogeneous assortment of tissue alterations that cannot be easily categorized in terms of traditionally defined neuropathologic disease. These alterations, which appear radiolucent on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MR imaging, are more common in patients with chronic hypertension and perhaps other microvascular arteriosclerotic risk factors. Examination of the affected tissue reveals a spectrum of histologic change that is graded with respect to pathologic severity. The majority of the alterations are of low histopathologic grade and exert minimal clinical effects. Frequently observed microscopic changes include dilated perivascular (Virchow-Robin) spaces, mild demyelination, gliosis, and diffuse regions neuropil vacuolation. Associated clinical abnormalities, when present, are usually confined to deficits of attention, mental processing speed, and psychomotor control. These deficits may often be demonstrable only through neuropsychologic testing. There is some evidence that the cognitive symptoms of AD may be exacerbated by the concomitant presence of these white matter alterations, but an etiologic link between AD and radiographically detectible white matter changes remains speculative. Occasionally, histologically severe white matter lesions may occur that result in dementia and focal neurologic impairment. These lesions are characterized by extensive arteriosclerosis, diffuse white matter necrosis, and lacunar infarction; affected patients may receive a diagnosis of Binswanger's disease or subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Nevertheless, severe ischemic white matter pathology of this type is uncommon as an explanation for serious neurologic dysfunction, and clinicians must carefully weigh other categories of neuropathology before making a diagnosis of Binswanger's disease. Alternative diagnostic considerations include neurodegenerative illnesses such

  17. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  18. YAGM: a web tool for mining associated genes in yeast based on diverse biological associations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigating association between genes can be used in understanding the relations of genes in biological processes. STRING and GeneMANIA are two well-known web tools which can provide a list of associated genes of a query gene based on diverse biological associations such as co-expression, co-localization, co-citation and so on. However, the transcriptional regulation association and mutant phenotype association have not been used in these two web tools. Since the comprehensive transcription factor (TF)-gene binding data, TF-gene regulation data and mutant phenotype data are available in yeast, we developed a web tool called YAGM (Yeast Associated Genes Miner) which constructed the transcriptional regulation association, mutant phenotype association and five commonly used biological associations to mine a list of associated genes of a query yeast gene. Description In YAGM, we collected seven kinds of datasets including TF-gene binding (TFB) data, TF-gene regulation (TFR) data, mutant phenotype (MP) data, functional annotation (FA) data, physical interaction (PI) data, genetic interaction (GI) data, and literature evidence (LE) data. Then by using the hypergeometric test to calculate the association scores of all gene pairs in yeast, we constructed seven biological associations including two transcriptional regulation associations (TFB association and TFR association), MP association, FA association, PI association, GI association, and LE association. Moreover, the expression profile association from SPELL database was also included in YAGM. When using YAGM, users can input a query gene and choose any possible subsets of the eight biological associations, then a list of associated genes of the query gene will be returned based on the chosen biological associations. Conclusions In this study, we presented the YAGM which provides eight biological associations for mining associated genes of a query gene in yeast. Among the eight biological associations

  19. [Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions of the studies presented at Digestive Disease Week this year (2015) related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, developing countries continue to have substantial infection rates. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly higher in most countries and continues to rise. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely prevent its development; the presence of precancerous lesions--intestinal atrophy and metaplasia--is associated with a higher risk of developing this neoplasm, despite H. pylori eradication. The use of molecular diagnostic methods (polymerase chain reaction) in faecal samples could allow non-invasive evaluation of the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decrease. The effectiveness of sequential therapy in recent studies is lower than initially described and consequently this treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. In penicillin-allergic patients, quadruple therapy with bismuth is the treatment of choice in our environment. After the failure of standard triple therapy, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and, moreover, is simpler and better tolerated than quadruple therapy with bismuth. Quadruple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, levofloxacin and amoxicillin is an effective (≥ 90% eradication), simple and safe second-line therapy if triple or quadruple therapy without bismuth (sequential or concomitant) fails to eradicate the infection. The new-generation quinolones, such as moxifloxacin or sitafloxacin, could be useful in second- or third-line rescue eradication therapy. Even after the failure of 3 eradication treatments, a

  20. Cancer-associated bone disease.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, R; Body, J-J; Brandi, M-L; Cannata-Andia, J; Chappard, D; El Maghraoui, A; Glüer, C C; Kendler, D; Napoli, N; Papaioannou, A; Pierroz, D D; Rahme, M; Van Poznak, C H; de Villiers, T J; El Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2013-12-01

    Bone is commonly affected in cancer. Cancer-induced bone disease results from the primary disease, or from therapies against the primary condition, causing bone fragility. Bone-modifying agents, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, are efficacious in preventing and delaying cancer-related bone disease. With evidence-based care pathways, guidelines assist physicians in clinical decision-making. Of the 57 million deaths in 2008 worldwide, almost two thirds were due to non-communicable diseases, led by cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Bone is a commonly affected organ in cancer, and although the incidence of metastatic bone disease is not well defined, it is estimated that around half of patients who die from cancer in the USA each year have bone involvement. Furthermore, cancer-induced bone disease can result from the primary disease itself, either due to circulating bone resorbing substances or metastatic bone disease, such as commonly occurs with breast, lung and prostate cancer, or from therapies administered to treat the primary condition thus causing bone loss and fractures. Treatment-induced osteoporosis may occur in the setting of glucocorticoid therapy or oestrogen deprivation therapy, chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure and androgen deprivation therapy. Tumour skeletal-related events include pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, surgery and radiotherapy to bone and may or may not include hypercalcaemia of malignancy while skeletal complication refers to pain and other symptoms. Some evidence demonstrates the efficacy of various interventions including bone-modifying agents, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, in preventing or delaying cancer-related bone disease. The latter includes treatment of patients with metastatic skeletal lesions in general, adjuvant treatment of breast and prostate cancer in particular, and the prevention of cancer-associated bone disease. This has led to the development of guidelines by several societies and

  1. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4530 - Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. 614.4530 Section 614.4530 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT..., production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. Under policies approved by the...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4530 - Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special loans, production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. 614.4530 Section 614.4530 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT..., production credit associations and agricultural credit associations. Under policies approved by the...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other...

  5. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies. 562.4 Section 562.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATORY REPORTING STANDARDS § 562.4 Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies. (a) General....

  6. NASA/OAI Research Associates program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The intent of this activity was the development of a cooperative program between the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Lewis Research Center with the objective of better preparing recent university graduates for careers in government aerospace research laboratories. The selected individuals were given the title of research associate. To accomplish the aims of this effort: (1) the research associates were introduced to the NASA Lewis Research Center and its mission/programs, (2) the research associates directly participated in NASA research and development programs, and (3) the research associates were given continuing educational opportunities in specialized areas. A number of individuals participated in this project during the discourse of this cooperative agreement. Attached are the research summaries of eight of the research associates. These reports give a very good picture of the research activities that were conducted by the associates.

  7. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  8. A Unifying Probabilistic View of Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Two important ideas about associative learning have emerged in recent decades: (1) Animals are Bayesian learners, tracking their uncertainty about associations; and (2) animals acquire long-term reward predictions through reinforcement learning. Both of these ideas are normative, in the sense that they are derived from rational design principles. They are also descriptive, capturing a wide range of empirical phenomena that troubled earlier theories. This article describes a unifying framework encompassing Bayesian and reinforcement learning theories of associative learning. Each perspective captures a different aspect of associative learning, and their synthesis offers insight into phenomena that neither perspective can explain on its own. PMID:26535896

  9. Associate ISS Program Scientist Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Associate ISS Program Scientist Pete Hasbrook participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek S...

  10. A Unifying Probabilistic View of Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Samuel J

    2015-11-01

    Two important ideas about associative learning have emerged in recent decades: (1) Animals are Bayesian learners, tracking their uncertainty about associations; and (2) animals acquire long-term reward predictions through reinforcement learning. Both of these ideas are normative, in the sense that they are derived from rational design principles. They are also descriptive, capturing a wide range of empirical phenomena that troubled earlier theories. This article describes a unifying framework encompassing Bayesian and reinforcement learning theories of associative learning. Each perspective captures a different aspect of associative learning, and their synthesis offers insight into phenomena that neither perspective can explain on its own. PMID:26535896

  11. Lysosome-associated miniSOG as a photosensitizer for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ryumina, Alina P; Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O; Staroverov, Dmitry B; Zlobovskaya, Olga A; Shcheglov, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Lukyanov, Konstantin A

    2016-01-01

    Genetically encoded photosensitizers represent a promising optogenetic tool for the induction of light-controlled oxidative stress strictly localized to a selected intracellular compartment. Here we tested the phototoxic effects of the flavin-containing phototoxic protein miniSOG targeted to the cytoplasmic surfaces of late endosomes and lysosomes by fusion with Rab7. In HeLa Kyoto cells stably expressing miniSOG-Rab7, we demonstrated a high level of cell death upon blue-light illumination. Pepstatin A completely abolished phototoxicity of miniSOG-Rab7, showing a key role for cathepsin D in this model. Using a far-red fluorescence sensor for caspase-3, we observed caspase-3 activation during miniSOG-Rab7-mediated cell death. We conclude that upon illumination, miniSOG-Rab7 induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and leakage of cathepsins into the cytosol, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27528074

  12. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  13. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  14. Ozone inactivation of cell-associated viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, M A; Sproul, O J; Buck, C E

    1982-01-01

    The inactivation of HEp-2 cell-associated poliovirus (Sabin 1) and coxsackievirus A9 was investigated in three experimental systems, using ozone as a disinfectant. The cell-associated viral samples were adjusted to a turbidity of 5 nephelometric turbidity units. The cell-associated poliovirus and coxsackievirus samples demonstrated survival in a continuous-flow ozonation system at applied ozone dosages of 4.06 and 4.68 mg/liter, respectively, for 30 s. Unassociated viral controls were inactivated by the application of 0.081 mg of ozone per liter for 10 s. Ultrasonic treatment of cell-associated enteric viruses did not increase inactivation of the cell-associated viruses. The batch reactor with a declining ozone residual did not effect total inactivation of either cell-associated enteric virus. These cell-associated viruses were completely inactivated after exposure to ozone in a batch reactor using continuous ozonation. Inactivation of cell-associated poliovirus required a 2-min contact period with an applied ozone dosage of 6.82 mg/liter and a residual ozone concentration of 4.70 mg/liter, whereas the coxsackievirus was completely inactivated after a 5-min exposure to an applied ozone dosage of 4.81 mg/liter with an ozone residual of 2.18 mg/liter. These data indicate that viruses associated with cells or cell fragments are protected from inactivation by ozone concentrations that readily inactivate purified virus. The cell-associated viral samples used in this research contained particles that were 10 to 15 microns in size. Use of a filtration system before ozonation would remove these particles, thereby facilitating inactivation of any remaining viruses associated with cellular fragments. PMID:6280611

  15. 7 CFR 1001.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1001.18 Section 1001.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  16. 47 CFR 69.603 - Association functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... proportion to the revenues associated with each component. The first component (“Category I.A Expenses”) shall be in proportion to the Universal Service Fund and Lifeline Assistance revenues. The second component (“Category I.B Expenses”) shall be in proportion to the sum of the association End User...

  17. 7 CFR 1033.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1033.18 Section 1033.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1007.18 Section 1007.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  19. 7 CFR 1126.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1126.18 Section 1126.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  20. 7 CFR 1124.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1124.18 Section 1124.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  1. 7 CFR 1124.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1124.18 Section 1124.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  2. 7 CFR 1006.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1006.18 Section 1006.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  3. 7 CFR 1007.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1007.18 Section 1007.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  4. 7 CFR 1032.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1032.18 Section 1032.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  5. 7 CFR 1033.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1033.18 Section 1033.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  6. 7 CFR 1030.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1030.18 Section 1030.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  7. 7 CFR 1001.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1001.18 Section 1001.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  8. 7 CFR 1030.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1030.18 Section 1030.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  9. 7 CFR 1006.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1006.18 Section 1006.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  10. 7 CFR 1131.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1131.18 Section 1131.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  11. 7 CFR 1032.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1032.18 Section 1032.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  12. 7 CFR 1131.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1131.18 Section 1131.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  13. 7 CFR 1126.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1126.18 Section 1126.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  14. Strategies for Maintaining Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilton, Theodore

    As part of the national campaign of the American Nurses Association (ANA) to create two levels of nursing, one for bachelor of science nurses (BSN's) and one for associate degree nurses (ADN's), Illinois has been targeted for a legislative push to change the laws governing nurse licensure, which, if successful, would signal the beginning of the…

  15. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  16. The Lambda Orionis association. [star cluster anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdin, P.; Penston, M. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Lambda Orionis association has the photometric properties of a typical young cluster with an age of about 4 million yr. Its distance is 400 + or - 40 pc. Attention is drawn to the lack of a dense molecular cloud and associated infrared sources in this young grouping

  17. Pennsylvania Library Association, Membership Survey, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, Dave

    This report contains the results of a survey sent to 2,883 librarians throughout Pennsylvania, both members and nonmembers of the Pennsylvania Library Association (PLA). The nonmembers of PLA were members of the American Library Association (ALA), however. The total response rate was 21% (n=620). There were recurring themes in the responses from…

  18. Celebrations: American Camping Association Annual Report 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1986 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews the year's achievements and outlines goals for the future. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan notes successful fund raising to improve the association's national headquarters, passage of federal legislation exempting camps from paying federal unemployment…

  19. The Top 100 Associate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 250,000 students of color received associate degrees in academic year 2008-09. This represents 30 percent of all associate degree recipients, which is just slightly below the 33 percent representation of these racial/ethnic groups in the general U.S. population. In this edition of the Top 100 series, researchers highlight the institutions…

  20. 27 CFR 10.22 - Employee associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employee associations. 10.22 Section 10.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.22 Employee associations....