Science.gov

Sample records for astatine complexes

  1. Preparation of astatine-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Milesz, S.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Szucs, Z. |

    1995-07-01

    In the cationic state astatine forms a stable complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Thanks to this complex, astatine can be bound to monoclonal antibodies of the RYa{sub 1} type. The most favorable conditions for preparing astatine-labeled antibodies are established. The chromatographic analysis and electromigration experiments showed that astatine is firmly linked to a biomolecule in vitro and it did not escape from labeled monoclonal antibodies even under treatment with such highly effective astatine-complexing agent as thiourea. The immune activity of astatine-labeled antibodies did not change even after 20 h.

  2. Complexation study on no-carrier-added astatine with insulin: a candidate radiopharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Susanta; Roy, Kamalika; Sen, Souvik

    2008-12-01

    No-carrier-added astatine radionuclides produced in the (7)Li-irradiated lead matrix were separated from bulk lead nitrate target by complexing At with insulin, followed by dialysis. The method offers simultaneous separation of At from lead as well as its complexation with insulin. The At-insulin complex might be a potential radiopharmaceutical in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability of At-insulin complex was checked by dialysis against deionized water and Ringer lactate (RL) solution. It has been found that the half-life of At-insulin complex is about approximately 12h, when dialyzed against deionized water and is only 6h, when dialyzed against RL solution having the same composition as blood serum. The 6h half-life of this Insulin-At complex is perfect for killing cancer cells from external cell surfaces as the half-life of internalization of insulin molecule inside the cell is 7-12h. PMID:18674921

  3. Radiochemistry of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, T.J.; Dombsky, M.; D'Auria, J.M.; Ward, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    This monograph is a review of the literature through 1987 and covers the methods of producing the radioisotopes of astatine and the inorganic, nuclear, and organic chemistry of astatine. The discussion is limited to chemical and physical chemical properties of astatine. The monograph, after the introduction, is divided into chapters titled: production methods, nuclear spectroscopy, chemistry of astatine, separation and isolation (dry and wet), and selected procedures. 209 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs. (DLC)

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Stability and in vivo behavior of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At complex: a potential precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Pruszynski, Marek; Łyczko, Monika; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The heavy halogen 211At is of great interest for targeted radiotherapy because it decays by the emission of short-range, high-energy α-particles. However, many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking other 211At labeling strategies. One relatively unexplored approach is to utilize prosthetic groups based on astatinated rhodium(III) complex stabilized with a tetrathioether macrocyclic ligand - Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of this complex in comparison to its iodine analogue - Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I. Methods Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At and Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I complexes were synthesized and purified by HPLC. The stability of both complexes was evaluated in vitro by incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum at different temperatures. The in vivo behavior of the two radiohalogenated complexes was assessed by a paired-label biodistribution study in normal Balb/c mice. Results Both complexes were synthesized in high yield and purity. Almost no degradation was observed for Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I in PBS over a 72 h incubation. The astatinated analogue exhibited good stability in PBS over 14 h. A slow decline in the percentage of intact complex was observed for both tracers in human serum. In the biodistribution study, retention of 211At in most tissues was higher than that of 131I at all time points, especially in spleen and lungs. Renal clearance of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At and Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I predominated, with 84.1 ± 2.3% and 94.6 ± 0.9% of injected dose excreted via the urine at 4 h. Conclusions The Rh[16aneS4-diol]211At complex might be useful for constructing prosthetic groups for the astatination of biomolecules and further studies are planned to evaluate this possibility. PMID:25687450

  6. Condensed Astatine: Monatomic and Metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2013-09-01

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine).

  7. Condensed astatine: monatomic and metallic.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2013-09-13

    The condensed matter properties of the nominal terminating element of the halogen group with atomic number 85, astatine, are as yet unknown. In the intervening more than 70 years since its discovery significant advances have been made in substrate cooling and the other techniques necessary for the production of the element to the point where we might now enquire about the key properties astatine might have if it attained a condensed phase. This subject is addressed here using density functional theory and structural selection methods, with an accounting for relativistic physics that is essential. Condensed astatine is predicted to be quite different in fascinating ways from iodine, being already at 1 atm a metal, and monatomic at that, and possibly a superconductor (as is dense iodine). PMID:24074111

  8. Assessment of an effective quasirelativistic methodology designed to study astatine chemistry in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Champion, Julie; Seydou, Mahamadou; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Renault, Eric; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    A cost-effective computational methodology designed to study astatine (At) chemistry in aqueous solution has been established. It is based on two-component spin-orbit density functional theory calculations and solvation calculations using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model in conjunction with specific astatine cavities. Theoretical calculations are confronted with experimental data measured for complexation reactions between metallic forms of astatine (At(+) and AtO(+)) and inorganic ligands (Cl(-), Br(-) and SCN(-)). For each reaction, both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes are evidenced. The experimental trends regarding the thermodynamic constants (K) can be reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively. The mean signed error on computed Log K values is -0.4, which corresponds to a mean signed error smaller than 1 kcal mol(-1) on free energies of reaction. Theoretical investigations show that the reactivity of cationic species of astatine is highly sensitive to spin-orbit coupling and solvent effects. At the moment, the presented computational methodology appears to be the only tool to gain an insight into astatine chemistry at a molecular level. PMID:21769335

  9. Astatine Radiopharmaceuticals: Prospects and Problems.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2008-09-01

    For the treatment of minimum residual diseases such micrometastases and residual tumor margins that remain after debulking of the primary tumor, targeted radiotherapy using radiopharmaceuticals tagged with alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides is very attractive. In addition to the their short range in tissue, which helps minimize harmful effects on adjacent normal tissues, alpha-particles, being high LET radiation, have several radiobiological advantages. The heavy halogen, astatine-211 is one of the prominent alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in practice. Being a halogen, it can often be incorporated into biomolecules of interest by adapting radioiodination chemistry. A wide spectrum of compounds from the simple [(211)At]astatide ion to small organic molecules, peptides, and large proteins labeled with (211)At have been investigated with at least two reaching the stage of clinical evaluation. The chemistry, cytotoxic advantages, biodistribution studies, and microdosimetry/pharmacokinetic modeling of some of these agents will be reviewed. In addition, potential problems such as the harmful effect of radiolysis on the synthesis, lack of sufficient in vivo stability of astatinated compounds, and possible adverse effects when they are systemically administered will be discussed. PMID:20150978

  10. Astatine Radiopharmaceuticals: Prospects and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    For the treatment of minimum residual diseases such micrometastases and residual tumor margins that remain after debulking of the primary tumor, targeted radiotherapy using radiopharmaceuticals tagged with α-particle-emitting radionuclides is very attractive. In addition to the their short range in tissue, which helps minimize harmful effects on adjacent normal tissues, α-particles, being high LET radiation, have several radiobiological advantages. The heavy halogen, astatine-211 is one of the prominent α-particle-emitting radionuclides in practice. Being a halogen, it can often be incorporated into biomolecules of interest by adapting radioiodination chemistry. A wide spectrum of compounds from the simple [211At]astatide ion to small organic molecules, peptides, and large proteins labeled with 211At have been investigated with at least two reaching the stage of clinical evaluation. The chemistry, cytotoxic advantages, biodistribution studies, and microdosimetry/pharmacokinetic modeling of some of these agents will be reviewed. In addition, potential problems such as the harmful effect of radiolysis on the synthesis, lack of sufficient in vivo stability of astatinated compounds, and possible adverse effects when they are systemically administered will be discussed. PMID:20150978

  11. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol](211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol](211)At complexes as potential precursors for astatine radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with (211)At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different (211)At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of (211)At(-) and *I(-) (*I = (131)I or (125)I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I(-) anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with (211)At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0-4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1-1.5 h at 75-80 degrees C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol](131)I and Ir[16aneS4-diol](131)I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to

  12. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211 At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]211 At Complexes as Potential Precursors for Astatine Radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with 211At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different 211At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of 211At− and *I− (*I = 131I or 125I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I− anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with 211At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/211At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/211 At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0–4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1–1.5 h at 75–80 °C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I and Ir[16aneS4-diol]131I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to microwave

  13. Astatine and Yttrium Resonant Ionization Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigelhoefer, Andrea

    Providing intense, contamination-free beams of rare isotopes to experiments is a challenging task. At isotope separator on-line facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF, the choice of production target and ion source are key to the successful beam delivery. Due to their element-selectivity, high efficiency and versatility, resonant ionization laser ion sources (RILIS) gain increasingly in importance. The spectroscopic data available are typically incomplete in the region of excited- and autoionizing atomic states. In order to find the most efficient ionization scheme for a particular element, further spectroscopy is often required. The development of efficient laser resonant ionization schemes for yttrium and astatine is presented in this thesis. For yttrium, two ionization schemes with comparable relative intensities were found. Since for astatine, only two transitions were known, the focus was to provide data on atomic energy levels using resonance ionization spectroscopy. Altogether 41 previously unknown astatine energy levels were found.

  14. Astatine-211: production and availability.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, Michael R; Pruszynski, Marek

    2011-07-01

    The 7.2-h half life radiohalogen (211)At offers many potential advantages for targeted α-particle therapy; however, its use for this purpose is constrained by its limited availability. Astatine-211 can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets via the (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At nuclear reaction utilizing straightforward methods. There is some debate as to the best incident α-particle energy for maximizing 211At production while minimizing production of (210)At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life α-particle emitting daughter, (210)Po. The intrinsic cost for producing (211)At is reasonably modest and comparable to that of commercially available (123)I. The major impediment to (211)At availability is attributed to the need for a medium energy α-particle beam for its production. On the other hand, there are about 30 cyclotrons in the world that have the beam characteristics required for (211)At production. PMID:22201707

  15. Astatine-211: Production and Availability

    PubMed Central

    Zalutsky, Michael R.; Pruszynski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The 7.2-h half life radiohalogen 211At offers many potential advantages for targeted α-particle therapy; however, its use for this purpose is constrained by its limited availability. Astatine-211 can be produced in reasonable yield from natural bismuth targets via the 209Bi( α,2n)211At nuclear reaction utilizing straightforward methods. There is some debate as to the best incident α-particle energy for maximizing 211At production while minimizing production of 210At, which is problematic because of its 138.4-day half life α-particle emitting daughter, 210Po. The intrinsic cost for producing 211At is reasonably modest and comparable to that of commercially available 123I. The major impediment to 211At availability is attributed to the need for a medium energy α-particle beam for its production. On the other hand, there are about 30 cyclotrons in the world that have the beam characteristics required for 211At production. PMID:22201707

  16. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules: comparison of the in vivo distribution and stability of some radioiodinated/astatinated benzamidyl and nido-carboranyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Kegley, Brian B; Risler, Reudi; Pathare, Pradip M; Quinn, Janna; Vessella, Robert L; Foulon, Catherine; Zalutsky, Michael; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2004-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to assess the in vivo stability of a series of astatinated benzamides and astatinated nido-carborane compounds in mice. It was hypothesized that the higher bond strength of boron-astatine bonds in the nido-carboranes might provide increased stability toward in vivo deastatination. Four tri-n-butylstannylbenzamides were prepared for radiohalogenation and evaluation in vivo. Those compounds were N-propyl-4-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzamide 1a, N-propyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzamide 2a, ethyl 4-tri-n-butylstannylhippurate 3a, and 4-tri-n-butylstannyl-hippuric acid 4a. Seven mono-nido-carboranyl derivatives were prepared for radiohalogenation and in vivo evaluation. Four of the seven mono-carboranyl derivatives (5a, 6a, 7a, 13a) contained a 3-(nido-carboranyl)propionamide functionality, and the remaining compounds (8a, 8g, 10a) contained a 4-(nido-carboranyl)aniline functionality. Two additional derivatives (11a, 12a) were prepared that contained bis-(nido-carboranylmethyl)benzene moieties (also referred to as Venus flytrap complexes (VFCs). All benzamide and nido-carborane compounds underwent facile iodination and radiohalogenation, except a 4-(nido-carboranyl)aniline derivative, 8a. Iodination of 8a resulted in a mixture, of which the desired iodinated product was a minor component. Therefore, radiohalogenation was not attempted. It is believed that the mixture of products is due to the presence of a thiourea bond. Previous studies have shown that thiourea bonds can interfere with halogenation reactions. In vivo comparisons of the compounds were conducted by co-injection of dual labeled (125/131I and 211At) compounds. Tissue distribution data were obtained at 1 and 4 h postinjection of the radiolabeled compounds, as that was sufficient to determine if astatine was being released. Stability of the astatinated compound was assessed by the difference in concentration of radioiodine and astatine in lung and spleen. All of the benzamides

  17. Establishment of an European Astatine Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Weinreich, R. |

    1994-12-31

    {sup 211}At is an extremely radiotoxic nuclide. It decays with a half-life of 7.2 hrs by emission of (on average) one {alpha}-particle and a number of Auger and Coster-Kronig electrons per decay. The maximum range of the a-particles is 80 {mu}m, consequently a few cell diameters. In the last years, the general interest in astatine labelled compounds for radionuclide therapy has been reinforced: studies of the radiobiological behaviour of {sup 211}At in cell culture-experiments confirmed clearly its usefulness for radiotherapeutic applications. Astatine compounds have been found which are relatively stable and useful as linkers between the nuclide and carrier proteins. A clinical study using {sup 211}At-Methylene blue as radiotoxic substance as well as tumour-seeking ligand is now under consideration. On the other hand, the low availability of the nuclide is still the most important limitation for a broader clinical application: for production of this nuclide, {alpha}-particles of 28 MeV are needed. These particles are mostly generated in medium-energy multi-particle accelerators of variable energy. Such accelerators, however, are generally used by different research groups with different research aims and consequently different beamtime modes.

  18. Production and separation of Astatine Radionuclides: some new addition to Astatine Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kamalika; Lahiri, Susanta

    2008-05-01

    For the first time no-carrier-added (nca) (209,210)At radionuclides were produced by heavy ion ((7)Li) activation from 4 mg/cm(2) lead nitrate target. Astatine was separated from the bulk target by three different approaches. Nca astatine radionuclide was selectively partitioned in the (i) polymer rich phase of an aqueous biphasic system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 (50% w/w) and 2M Na(2)SO(4) solution (ii) aqueous phase of a liquid liquid extraction system being comprised of a liquid cation exchanger, HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) (0.5%) and liquor ammonia (iii) liquid phase of a solid liquid extraction system of cation exchange resin Dowex-50 and 10(-6)M HCl. Very high separation factors have been achieved in all the three methods. PMID:18222695

  19. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-15

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  20. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A process for reliably and consistently producing astatine-211 in small controlled volumes of a solution, which is selected from a choice of solvents that are useful in selected radiopharmaceutical procedures in which the At-211 activities are to be applied.

  1. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1984-04-10

    A process is described for reliably and consistently producing astatine-211 in small controlled volumes of a solution, which is selected from a choice of solvents that are useful in selected radiopharmaceutical procedures in which the At-211 activities are to be applied. 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Incorporation of thiosemicarbazide in Amberlite IRC-50 for separation of astatine from alpha-irradiated bismuth oxide.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kamalika; Basu, S; Ramaswami, A; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2004-06-01

    A chelating resin was synthesized by incorporating thiosemicarbazide into Amberlite IRC-50, a weakly acidic polymer. Astatine radionuclides produced by alpha-irradiating bismuth oxide were separated using the newly synthesized chelating resin. The resin showed high selectivity for astatine. The adsorbed astatine was recovered using 0.1M EDTA at pH approximately 10. PMID:15110342

  4. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  5. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  6. Graphs for Isotopes of 85-At(Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 85-At (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85).

  7. Scrutinizing "Invisible" astatine: A challenge for modern density functionals.

    PubMed

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; David, Grégoire; Montavon, Gilles; Maurice, Rémi; Galland, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The main-group 6p elements did not receive much attention in the development of recent density functionals. In many cases it is still difficult to choose among the modern ones a relevant functional for various applications. Here, we illustrate the case of astatine species (At, Z = 85) and we report the first, and quite complete, benchmark study on several properties concerning such species. Insights on geometries, transition energies and thermodynamic properties of a set of 19 astatine species, for which reference experimental or theoretical data has been reported, are obtained with relativistic (two-component) density functional theory calculations. An extensive set of widely used functionals is employed. The hybrid meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) PW6B95 functional is overall the best choice. It is worth noting that the range-separated HSE06 functional as well as the old and very popular B3LYP and PBE0 hybrid-GGAs appear to perform quite well too. Moreover, we found that astatine chemistry in solution can accurately be predicted using implicit solvent models, provided that specific parameters are used to build At cavities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27059181

  8. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; van den Bergh, P.; van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-05-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine.

  9. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine. PMID:23673620

  10. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rothe, S; Andreyev, A N; Antalic, S; Borschevsky, A; Capponi, L; Cocolios, T E; De Witte, H; Eliav, E; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V N; Fink, D A; Fritzsche, S; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Imai, N; Kaldor, U; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U; Lane, J F W; Lassen, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Pauwels, D; Pershina, V; Popescu, L; Procter, T J; Radulov, D; Raeder, S; Rajabali, M M; Rapisarda, E; Rossel, R E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Sjödin, A M; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Wendt, K D A

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine. PMID:23673620

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Astatinated N-[2-(Maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Aneheim, Emma; Gustafsson, Anna; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Svedhem, Sofia; Lindegren, Sture

    2016-03-16

    Effective treatment of metastasis is a great challenge in the treatment of different types of cancers. Targeted alpha therapy utilizes the short tissue range (50-100 μm) of α particles, making the method suitable for treatment of disseminated occult cancers in the form of microtumors or even single cancer cells. A promising radioactive nuclide for this type of therapy is astatine-211. Astatine-211 attached to tumor-specific antibodies as carrier molecules is a system currently under investigation for use in targeted alpha therapy. In the common radiolabeling procedure, astatine is coupled to the antibody arbitrarily on lysine residues. By instead coupling astatine to disulfide bridges in the antibody structure, the immunoreactivity of the antibody conjugates could possibly be increased. Here, the disulfide-based conjugation was performed using a new coupling reagent, maleimidoethyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide (MSB), and evaluated for chemical stability in vitro. The immunoconjugates were subsequently astatinated, resulting in both high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. The MSB-conjugate was shown to be stable with a long shelf life prior to the astatination. In a comparison of the in vivo distribution of the new immunoconjugate with other tin-based immunoconjugates in tumor-bearing mice, the MSB conjugation method was found to be a viable option for successful astatine labeling of different monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26791409

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-274 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-274 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 274).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-240 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-240 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 240).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-256 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-256 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 256).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-233 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-233 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 233).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-261 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-261 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 261).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-216 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-216 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 216).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-285 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-285 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 285).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-224 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-224 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 224).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-278 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-278 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 278).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-282 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-282 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 282).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-277 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-277 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 277).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-253 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-253 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 253).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-266 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-266 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 266).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-276 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-276 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 276).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-275 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-275 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 275).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-270 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-270 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 270).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-250 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-250 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 250).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-242 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-242 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 242).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-229 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-229 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 229).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-241 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-241 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 241).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-215 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-215 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 215).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-230 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-230 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 230).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-249 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-249 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 249).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-251 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-251 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 251).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-231 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-231 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 231).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-281 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-281 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 281).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-283 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-283 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 283).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-218 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-218 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 218).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-217 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-217 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 217).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-236 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-236 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 236).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-244 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-244 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 244).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-268 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-268 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 268).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-262 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-262 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 262).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-284 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-284 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 284).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-248 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-248 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 248).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-220 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-220 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 220).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-265 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-265 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 265).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-257 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-257 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 257).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-239 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-239 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 239).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-214 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-214 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 214).

  12. Astatine-211-tellurium radiocolloid cures experimental malignant ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Neirinckx, R.D.; Adelstein, S.J.; Gordon, P.R.; Ruth, T.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-04-17

    An investigation of the efficacy of astatine-211-tellurium colloid for the treatment of experimental malignant ascites in mice reveals that this ..cap alpha..-emitting radiocolloid can be curative without causing undue toxicity to normal tissue. By comparison, negatron-emitting phosphorus-32 as colloidal chromic phosphate had no antineoplastic activity. The most compelling explanation for this striking difference is the dense ionization and short range of action associated with ..cap alpha..-emission. These results have important implications for the development and use of ..cap alpha..-emitters as radiocolloid therapy for the treatment of human tumors.

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-225 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-225 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 225).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-222 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-222 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 222).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-235 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-235 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 235).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-226 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-226 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 226).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-255 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-255 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 255).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-263 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-263 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 263).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-267 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-267 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 267).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-234 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-234 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 234).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-246 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-246 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 246).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-258 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-258 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 258).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-223 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-223 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 223).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-243 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-243 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 243).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-271 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-271 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 271).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-279 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-279 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 279).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-228 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-228 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 228).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-232 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-232 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 232).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-264 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-264 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 264).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-252 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-252 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 252).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-238 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-238 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 238).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-273 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-273 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 273).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-272 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-272 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 272).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-269 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-269 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 269).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-254 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-254 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 254).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-221 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-221 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 221).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-219 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-219 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 219).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-237 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-237 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 237).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-259 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-259 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 259).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-247 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-247 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 247).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-245 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-245 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 245).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-227 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-227 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 227).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-280 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-280 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 280).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-260 (Astatine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-260 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 260).

  5. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cederwall, B.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; HerzáÅ, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2+ state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2+ state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2+ state and the spherical 9/2- ground state in 203Fr and 205Fr.

  6. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, U. Cederwall, B.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  7. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-07-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method that combines dry distillation of astatine-211 and a synthesis module for producing radiopharmaceuticals into a process platform. This platform will standardize production of astatinated radiopharmaceuticals, and hence, it will facilitate large clinical studies focused on this promising, but chemically challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies.

  8. Astatinated trastuzumab, a putative agent for radionuclide immunotherapy of ErbB2-expressing tumours.

    PubMed

    Persson, M I; Gedda, L; Jensen, H J; Lundqvist, H; Malmström, P-U; Tolmachev, V

    2006-03-01

    The anti-ErbB2 antibody trastuzumab is used for the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer, resulting in a response rate of 40-60%. Coupling with a cytotoxic nuclide, e.g. alpha-emitting 211At, may further increase tumour response. The tumour-targeting properties of trastuzumab, astatinated using N-succinimidyl-para-(tri-n-methylstannyl)-benzoate, were evaluated and compared with those of radioiodinated trastuzumab in this study. We found that astatinated trastuzumab retains high specificity towards ErbB2. While the immunoreactive fraction of radioiodinated trastuzumab was higher than that of astatinated trastuzumab (76+/-9% versus 54+/-28%), both radioconjugates showed high affinity (KD 0.75+/-0.16 nM versus 1.8+/-0.3 nM). A growth inhibition study indicated a dose-dependent cell deactivation, in which approximately 74 cell-associated astatine decays per cell gave a survival fraction of 4.5+/-0.8x10(-4). Results of a comparative animal study on normal mice gave no indication that astatination would have any adverse effects on the biodistribution of the antibody. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that astatinated trastuzumab is a promising candidate for treating ErbB2-expressing tumours. PMID:16465429

  9. Automated astatination of biomolecules--a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method that combines dry distillation of astatine-211 and a synthesis module for producing radiopharmaceuticals into a process platform. This platform will standardize production of astatinated radiopharmaceuticals, and hence, it will facilitate large clinical studies focused on this promising, but chemically challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies. PMID:26169786

  10. Automated astatination of biomolecules – a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method that combines dry distillation of astatine-211 and a synthesis module for producing radiopharmaceuticals into a process platform. This platform will standardize production of astatinated radiopharmaceuticals, and hence, it will facilitate large clinical studies focused on this promising, but chemically challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies. PMID:26169786

  11. Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2009-02-01

    To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

  12. Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2009-02-15

    To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of {sup 209-211}At comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

  13. Modeling astatine production in liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, J. C.; Boudard, A.; Cugnon, J.; Ghali, S.; Leray, S.; Mancusi, D.; Zanini, L.

    2013-03-01

    Astatine isotopes can be produced in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic targets through proton-induced double charge exchange reactions on bismuth or in secondary helium-induced interactions. Models implemented into the most common high-energy transport codes generally have difficulties to correctly estimate their production yields as was shown recently by the ISOLDE Collaboration, which measured release rates from a lead-bismuth target irradiated by 1.4 and 1 GeV protons. In this paper, we first study the capability of the new version of the Liège intranuclear cascade model, INCL4.6, coupled to the deexcitation code ABLA07 to predict the different elementary reactions involved in the production of such isotopes through a detailed comparison of the model with the available experimental data from the literature. Although a few remaining deficiencies are identified, very satisfactory results are found, thanks in particular to improvements brought recently on the treatment of low-energy helium-induced reactions. The implementation of the models into MCNPX allows identifying the respective contributions of the different possible reaction channels in the ISOLDE case. Finally, the full simulation of the ISOLDE experiment is performed, taking into account the likely rather long diffusion time from the target, and compared with the measured diffusion rates for the different astatine isotopes, at the two studied energies, 1.4 and 1 GeV. The shape of the isotopic distribution is perfectly reproduced as well as the absolute release rates, assuming in the calculation a diffusion time between 5 and 10hours. This work finally shows that our model, thanks to the attention paid to the emission of high-energy clusters and to low-energy cluster induced reactions, can be safely used within MCNPX to predict isotopes with a charge larger than that of the target by two units in spallation targets, and, probably, more generally to isotopes created in secondary reactions induced by composite

  14. Unexpected Behavior of the Heaviest Halogen Astatine in the Nucleophilic Substitution of Aryliodonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Guérard, François; Lee, Yong-Sok; Baidoo, Kwamena; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2016-08-22

    Aryliodonium salts have become precursors of choice for the synthesis of (18) F-labeled tracers for nuclear imaging. However, little is known on the reactivity of these compounds with heavy halides, that is, radioiodide and astatide, at the radiotracer scale. In the first comparative study of radiohalogenation of aryliodonium salts with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , initial experiments on a model compound highlight the higher reactivity of astatide compared to iodide, which could not be anticipated from the trends previously observed within the halogen series. Kinetic studies indicate a significant difference in activation energy (Ea =23.5 and 17.1 kcal mol(-1) with (125) I(-) and (211) At(-) , respectively). Quantum chemical calculations suggest that astatination occurs via the monomeric form of an iodonium complex whereas iodination occurs via a heterodimeric iodonium intermediate. The good to excellent regioselectivity of halogenation and high yields achieved with diversely substituted aryliodonium salts indicate that this class of compounds is a promising alternative to the stannane chemistry currently used for heavy radiohalogen labeling of tracers in nuclear medicine. PMID:27305065

  15. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE. PMID:20014840

  16. Microdosimetric model of astatine-211 labeled antibodies for radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Humm, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    Astatine-211 is an alpha-emitter with a short half-life (7.2 hr). This paper discusses the potential of /sup 211/At targeted by antibodies for tumor therapy and the possible advantage of /sup 211/At over beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides such as /sup 131/I currently employed in the field of radioimmunotherapy. Since the longest range alpha-particle from /sup 211/At is only 67 microns and the rate of energy loss is high (track averaged linear energy transfer LT approximately 120 keV/micron), a disintegration of /sup 211/At produces a large and extremely localized deposition of energy. A Monte-Carlo model has been developed for studying the stochastic fluctuation of alpha-particle hits and energy deposition in cell nuclei in an attempt to determine the efficacy of /sup 211/At-labeled antibodies for tumor cell inactivation. Calculations have been performed for 2 extreme conditions: (a) the case of /sup 211/At retained in the capillary, and (b) for a homogeneous distribution of /sup 211/At-labeled antibody in the tumor. The results of these two calculations represent the boundary conditions between which any real solution must lie. Finally, developments to the model to include antibody transport across the capillary membrane and through the tumor tissue are discussed.

  17. Feasibility of the radioastatination of a monoclonal antibody with astatine-211 purified by wet extraction.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Mickaël; Guerard, François; Alliot, Cyrille; Mougin-Degraef, Marie; Rajérison, Holisoa; Remaud-Le Saëc, Patricia; Gestin, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain

    2008-10-15

    Astatine-211, a most promising α-particle emitter for targeted radiotherapy, is generally obtained by high-temperature distillation. However, a liquid-liquid extraction procedure (wet extraction) has also been described. The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize the labelling of the stannylated-activated ester N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-meta-trimethylstannylbenzoate ester (MeSTB) with astatine-211 extracted in di-isopropylether (DIPE) in the presence of the oxidant N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS). The effect of final volume, incubation duration and NCS amounts on radiolabelling yield was studied. The best yields (85-90%) of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate ester (SAB) were obtained with 20 nmol of MeSTB, 100 nmol of NCS in 120 µL of DIPE after 15 min. The astatine-211-labelled-activated ester was then used to radiolabel a monoclonal antibody (mAb). The labelling yield was 20-25% and the radiochemical purity was 97-99%. These results show that mAbs may be efficiently labelled with astatine-211 obtained by wet extraction, a fully automatable technique that may prove to be a useful alternative to dry distillation for high activity labelling of radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26148336

  18. Advances on the Determination of the Astatine Pourbaix Diagram: Predomination of AtO(OH)2 (-) over At(-) in Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; Teze, David; Sabatié-Gogova, Andréa; Alliot, Cyrille; Guo, Ning; Bassal, Fadel; Silva, Isidro Da; Deniaud, David; Maurice, Rémi; Champion, Julie; Galland, Nicolas; Montavon, Gilles

    2016-02-24

    It is generally assumed that astatide (At(-) ) is the predominant astatine species in basic aqueous media. This assumption is questioned in non-complexing and non-reductive aqueous solutions by means of high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography. Contrary to what is usually believed, astatide is found to be a minor species at pH=11. A different species, which also bears a single negative charge, becomes predominant when the pH is increased beyond 7. Using competition experiments, an equilibrium constant value of 10(-6.9) has been determined for the formation of this species from AtO(OH) with the exchange of one proton. The identification of this species, AtO(OH)2 (-) , is achieved through relativistic quantum mechanical calculations, which rule out the significant formation of the AtO2 (-) species, while leading to a hydrolysis constant of AtO(OH) in excellent agreement with experiment when the AtO(OH)2 (-) species is considered. Beyond the completion of the Pourbaix diagram of astatine, this new information is of interest for the development of (211) At radiolabeling protocols. PMID:26773333

  19. Dry-distillation of astatine-211 from irradiated bismuth targets: a time-saving procedure with high recovery yields.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jensen, H J

    2001-08-01

    Astatine-211 was produced via the 209Bi(alpha,2n) 211At reaction. The radionuclide was isolated with a novel procedure employing dry-distillation of the irradiated target material. The astatine was condensed as a dry residue in a PEEK-capillary cryotrap. Distillation was completed within 1-2 min with isolation yields of 92 +/- 3%. Subsequent work-up of the nuclide resulted in final recovery yields of 79 +/- 3%. PMID:11393754

  20. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  1. In-source spectroscopy on astatine and radium for resonant laser ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeder, Sebastian; Lassen, Jens; Heggen, Henning; Teigelhöfer, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    At on-line isotope separator facilities, rare isotopes of radioactive elements such as astatine, radium or polonium are demanded for fundamental research on nuclear structure. These elements are generally suitable for a resonance ionization laser ion source, but more data on the atomic structure is necessary to develop efficient laser ionization schemes. Due to the missing stable reference isotopes spectroscopic investigation of the atomic structure can only be performed during on-line operation. At the Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, the elements astatine and radium were investigated by in-source laser spectroscopy to optimize the laser ionization efficiency. For astatine, laser spectroscopy was performed to search for high lying bound states as well as for auto-ionizing resonances. This led to the identification of four new high lying bound states of odd parity, while no auto-ionizing resonances were observed in the investigated region. Furthermore, the feasibility and the impact of laser ionization on the yield of radium isotopes was investigated using an activated target after proton irradiation.

  2. Astatination of nanoparticles containing silver as possible carriers of 211At.

    PubMed

    Kucka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin; Konák, Cestmír; Kozempel, Ján; Lebeda, Ondrej

    2006-02-01

    The alpha emitter 211At is a prospective radionuclide for the therapy of smaller tumours and metastases. However, the chemical properties of 211At together with the fact that it is available only in trace amounts, makes the labelling of prospective astatine carriers rather complicated. In this context we have studied a new class of possible astatine carriers--nanoparticle systems, which tend to concentrate themselves in some types of tumours by means of the EPR effect. Additionally, such nanoparticles have the advantage that they may be chemically modified by the attachment of a tumour-seeking agent, and also directly applied to the target site. In order to reach high labelling yields, and in order to protect the nanoparticles from rapid degradation by the immune system, silver-containing particles covalently coated by poly(ethylene oxide) were developed and tested. The effect of the different reducing and oxidizing agents on the labelling yield was also determined. It was found that labelling yields were almost quantitative and well reproducible under reducing conditions, while under oxidizing conditions they dropped to ca. 50%. In the absence of any reducing or oxidizing agent, the labelling yields were randomly distributed between a range of 50% and 97%. The labelled nanoparticles were stable even in a large surplus of competing chloride ions. PMID:16154358

  3. Production of [(211)At]-astatinated radiopharmaceuticals and applications in targeted α-particle therapy.

    PubMed

    Guérard, François; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-02-01

    (211)At is a promising radionuclide for α-particle therapy of cancers. Its physical characteristics make this radionuclide particularly interesting to consider when bound to cancer-targeting biomolecules for the treatment of microscopic tumors. (211)At is produced by cyclotron irradiation of (209)Bi with α-particles accelerated at ~28 MeV and can be obtained in high radionuclidic purity after isolation from the target. Its chemistry resembles iodine, but there is also a tendency to behave as a metalloid. However, the chemical behavior of astatine has not yet been clearly established, primarily due to the lack of any stable isotopes of this element, which precludes the use of conventional analytical techniques for its characterization. There are also only a limited number of research centers that have been able to produce this element in sufficient amounts to carry out extensive investigations. Despite these difficulties, chemical reactions typically used with iodine can be performed, and a number of biomolecules of interest have been labeled with (211)At. However, most of these compounds exhibit unacceptable instability in vivo due to the weakness of the astatine-biomolecule bond. Nonetheless, several compounds have shown high potential for the treatment of cancers in vitro and in several animal models, thus providing a promising basis that has allowed initiation of the first two clinical studies. PMID:23075373

  4. Astatine-211 labeling of an anti-melanoma antibody and its Fab fragment using N-succinimidyl para[{sup 211} At]astatobenzoate : comparisons In Vivo with the para-[{sup 125}1]iodobenzoyl conjugate.

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S. W.; Wilbur, D. S.; Gray, M. A.; Atcher, R. W.; Chemistry; NeoRx Corp.; Univ. of Washington Medical Center

    1991-01-01

    Astatine-211 labeling of an anti-melanoma antibody, NR-ML-05, and its Fab fragment using N-succinimidyl para[{sup 211} At]astatobenzoate has been described. Preparation of the astatinated intermediate 2a was accomplished by distilling astatine-211 from an irradiated bismuth target directly into a reaction mixture containing an organometallic compound, N-succinimidyl p-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (1), and an oxidant, N-chlorosuccinimide, in 5% HOAc/MeOH. Trapping of distilled astatine as 2a was found to be efficient, resulting in 70-90% yields based on the amount of astatine-211 which ranged from 20% to 75%. Conjugation of 2a to NR-ML-05 and its Fab fragment was accomplished in 40-60% yields. The [{sup 211}At]astatobenzoyl-conjugated antibodies were found to be stable in vitro when challenged by strong denaturants and nucleophilic reagents. Coinjected dual-labeled studies of the 2a astatinated antibodies and the same antibodies labeled with N-succinimidyl p-[{sup 125}I]iodobenzoate (2b) in athymic mice bearing the human tumor xenograft A375 Met/Mix demonstrated that both radiolabeled antibodies had equivalent tumor localization. Data from the dual-labeled biodistribution of the intact antibody suggests that the astatine is stably attached. Data from the dual-labeled Fab fragment suggests that a portion of the astatine label is released as astatide, either from the astatinated Fab or from a catabolite.

  5. Investigation of astatine(III) hydrolyzed species: experiments and relativistic calculations.

    PubMed

    Champion, Julie; Sabatié-Gogova, Andréa; Bassal, Fadel; Ayed, Tahra; Alliot, Cyrille; Galland, Nicolas; Montavon, Gilles

    2013-03-01

    This work aims to resolve some controversies about astatine(III) hydroxide species present in oxidant aqueous solution. AtO(+) is the dominant species existing under oxidizing and acidic pH conditions. This is consistent with high-performance ion-exchange chromatography data showing the existence of one species holding one positive charge. A change in speciation occurs as the pH changes from 1 to 4, while remaining under oxidizing conditions. Dynamic experiments with ion-exchange resins evidence the existence of a neutral species witnessed by its elution in the void volume. Batch-experiments using a competition method show the exchange of one proton indicating the formation of the AtO(OH) species. The hydrolysis thermodynamic constant, extrapolated to zero ionic strength, was determined to be 10(-1.9). This value is supported by two-component relativistic quantum calculations and therefore allows disclosing unambiguously the structure of the formed species. PMID:23373677

  6. Transcriptional response of BALB/c mouse thyroids following in vivo astatine-211 exposure reveals distinct gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Astatine-211 (211At) is an alpha particle emitting halogen with almost optimal linear energy transfer for creating DNA double-strand breaks and is thus proposed for radionuclide therapy when bound to tumor-seeking agents. Unbound 211At accumulates in the thyroid gland, and the concept of basal radiation-induced biological effects in the thyroid tissue is, to a high degree, unknown and is most valuable. Methods Female BALB/c nude mice were intravenously injected with 0.064 to 42 kBq of 211At, resulting in absorbed doses of 0.05 to 32 Gy in the thyroid gland. Thyroids were removed 24 h after injection; total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and processed in triplicate using Illumina MouseRef-8 Whole-Genome Expression Beadchips. Results Thyroids exposed to 211At revealed distinctive gene expression profiles compared to non-irradiated controls. A larger number of genes were affected at low absorbed doses (0.05 and 0.5 Gy) compared to intermediate (1.4 Gy) and higher absorbed doses (11 and 32 Gy). The proportion of dose-specific genes increased with decreased absorbed dose. Additionally, 1.4 Gy often exerted opposite regulation on gene expression compared to the other absorbed doses. Using Gene Ontology data, an immunological effect was detected at 0.05 and 11 Gy. Effects on cellular response to external stress and cell cycle regulation and proliferation were detected at 1.4 and 11 Gy. Conclusions Conclusively, the cellular response to ionizing radiation is complex and differs with absorbed dose. The response acquired at high absorbed doses cannot be extrapolated down to low absorbed doses or vice versa. We also demonstrated that the thyroid - already at absorbed doses similar to those obtained in radionuclide therapy - responds with expression of a high number of genes. Due to the increased heterogeneous irradiation at low absorbed doses, we suggest that this response partly originates from non-irradiated cells in the tissue, i.e., bystander cells

  7. Specific inactivation of sensitized lymphocytes in vitro using antigens labelled with astatine-211

    PubMed Central

    Smit, J. A.; Myburgh, J. A.; Neirinckx, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    This is a study of the use of astatine-211 as an alternative to iodine isotopes in radioactive antigen suicide experiments. The theoretical advantages of 211At are that it is a high energy (5·87 MeV), short half-life (7·2 hr)α-emitter with a short path length of 60 μm. Its destructive effect, measured in terms of degree of ionization per micron is 300 times that of 125I and 131I. Streptokinase (SK), tuberculin (PPD) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were labelled electrolytically with 211At (3–9% incorporation). These antigens were not destroyed by the labelling technique or by self-irradiation during radioactive decay. Autoradiography showed that only a small fraction of lymphocytes bound 211At-labelled SK and PPD whilst most lymphocytes bound 211At-labelled PHA. Lymphocytes exposed for 40 min to 0·35–1·40 μCi of labelled antigens lost 35–83% of their ability to transform upon subsequent exposure to the unlabelled antigens. The inhibition was specific in that responsiveness to unrelated antigens was retained. These results extend our previous findings with the use of 211At in in vivo antigen suicide experiments. ImagesFig. 1(a)Fig. 1(b) PMID:4716099

  8. Production of [211At]-Astatinated Radiopharmaceuticals and Applications in Targeted α-Particle Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guérard, François; Gestin, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Abstract 211At is a promising radionuclide for α-particle therapy of cancers. Its physical characteristics make this radionuclide particularly interesting to consider when bound to cancer-targeting biomolecules for the treatment of microscopic tumors. 211At is produced by cyclotron irradiation of 209Bi with α-particles accelerated at ∼28 MeV and can be obtained in high radionuclidic purity after isolation from the target. Its chemistry resembles iodine, but there is also a tendency to behave as a metalloid. However, the chemical behavior of astatine has not yet been clearly established, primarily due to the lack of any stable isotopes of this element, which precludes the use of conventional analytical techniques for its characterization. There are also only a limited number of research centers that have been able to produce this element in sufficient amounts to carry out extensive investigations. Despite these difficulties, chemical reactions typically used with iodine can be performed, and a number of biomolecules of interest have been labeled with 211At. However, most of these compounds exhibit unacceptable instability in vivo due to the weakness of the astatine–biomolecule bond. Nonetheless, several compounds have shown high potential for the treatment of cancers in vitro and in several animal models, thus providing a promising basis that has allowed initiation of the first two clinical studies. PMID:23075373

  9. Ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and ionic radii of element Uus (Z = 117) and astatine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhiwei; Li, Jiguang; Dong, Chenzhong

    2010-12-30

    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs, and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data therefore can be used to predict some unknown physicochemical properties of element Uus, Astatine, and their compounds. PMID:21141866

  10. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-decaborate(2-) and closo-dodecaborate(2-) moieties as reactive groups for labeling with astatine-211.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Perry, Matthew A

    2009-03-18

    In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the alpha-particle emitting radionuclide (211)At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B(10)H(9)R](2-)) moiety for (211)At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B(12)H(11)R](2-)) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as (211)At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regard to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g., 79-96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et(3)NH](2)B(12)H(10)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1 h, 19.8%ID/g; 4 h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et(3)NH](2)B(10)H(8)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1 h, 6.6%ID/g; 4 h, 0.27%ID

  11. Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-Decaborate(2-) and closo-Dodecaborate(2-) Moieties as Reactive Groups for Labeling with Astatine-211

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the α-particle emitting radionuclide 211At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B10H9R]2−) moiety for 211At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B12H11R]2−) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as 211At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regards to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g. 79–96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et3NH]2B12H10I-CONHpropyl, [125I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1h, 19.8 %ID/g; 4h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et3NH]2B10H8I-CONHpropyl, [125I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1h, 6.6%ID/g; 4h, 0.27%ID/g). Interestingly, when another salt of the

  12. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At

  13. Therapeutic Efficacy of Astatine-211-Labeled Trastuzumab on Radioresistant SKOV-3 Tumors in Nude Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, Stig Baeck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Danielsson, Anna; Elgqvist, Joergen; Frost, Sofia; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential use of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At)-labeled trastuzumab for the treatment of HER-2-positive, radioresistant ovarian carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Four-week-old nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 . 10{sup 6} SKOV-3 cells in 0.4 mL saline on Day 0. The endpoint was the total tumor weight in each mouse on Day 63. Three experiments were performed in which the response to single-dose and fractionated treatment with unlabeled and {sup 211}At-labeled antibody was evaluated. Results: Experiment 1 showed, for the same total amount of trastuzumab, a dose-response relationship between {sup 211}At activity (0-400 kBq on Day 7) and therapeutic efficacy (p = 0.001). The effect of varying the amount of unlabeled trastuzumab was studied in Experiment 2. All mice, except for the controls, received 400 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab, and different groups received 5, 50, or 500 {mu}g trastuzumab on Day 7. The increase from 5 to 50 {mu}g trastuzumab reduced the tumors by 78% in weight. No tumors were present in mice given 500 {mu}g trastuzumab. In Experiment 3, the effect of a fractionated treatment regimen was studied. Mice that received 100 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab on Days 7 and 8 had a 42% smaller tumor burden than did controls. Groups of mice injected with 200 + 100 kBq on Days 7 and 21 and mice injected with 100 kBq on Days 7, 8, and 21 both had 24% less tumor weight than the corresponding controls. Conclusion: The combination of 500 {mu}g trastuzumab and 400 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab had the greatest effect, with complete eradication of the tumors in this nude mouse model.

  14. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 2. Conjugation of anionic boron cage pendant groups to a protein provides a method for direct labeling that is stable to in vivo deastatination.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Vessella, Robert L; Wedge, Timothy J; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-targeting biomolecules labeled with 211At must be stable to in vivo deastatination, as control of the 211At distribution is critical due to the highly toxic nature of alpha-particle emission. Unfortunately, no astatinated aryl conjugates have shown in vivo stability toward deastatination when (relatively) rapidly metabolized proteins, such as monoclonal antibody Fab' fragments, are labeled. As a means of increasing the in vivo stability of 211At-labeled proteins, we have been investigating antibody conjugates of boron cage moieties. In this investigation, protein-reactive derivatives containing a nido-carborane (2), a bis-nido-carborane derivative (Venus Flytrap Complex, 3), and four 2-nonahydro-closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (4-7) were prepared and conjugated with an antibody Fab' fragment such that subsequent astatination and in vivo tissue distributions could be obtained. To aid in determination of stability toward in vivo deastatination, the Fab'-borane conjugates were also labeled with 125I, and that material was coinjected with the 211At-labeled Fab'. For comparison, direct labeling of the Fab' with 125I and 211At was conducted. Direct labeling with Na[125I]I and Chloramine-T gave an 89% radiochemical yield. However, direct labeling of the Fab' with Na[211At]At and Chloramine-T resulted in a yield of <1% after quenching with NaS2O5. As another comparison, the same Fab' was conjugated with p-[211At]astatobenzoate NHS ester, [211At]1c-Fab', and (separately) with p-[125I]iodobenzoate NHS ester, [125I]1b-Fab'. An evaluation in athymic mice demonstrated that [211At]1c-Fab' underwent deastatination. In contrast, the high in vivo stability of [125I]1b-Fab' allowed it to be used as a tracer control for the natural distribution of Fab'. Although found to be much more stable in vivo than [211At]1c-Fab', the biodistributions of nido-carborane conjugated Fab' ([125I]2-Fab'/ [211At]2-Fab') and the bis-nido-carborane (VFC) ([125I]3-Fab'/[211At]3-Fab') had very

  15. High-efficiency astatination of antibodies using N-iodosuccinimide as the oxidising agent in labelling of N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Karlsson, B; Skarnemark, G

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies C215, reactive with colorectal carcinomas, and MOv18, reactive with most of the ovarian carcinomas, were radiohalogenated with [211At]astatine. The radiohalogen was conjugate coupled to antibodies via the intermediate labelling reagent N-succinimidyl-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (m-MeATE) in a two-step, single-pot reaction. Optimisation of the labelling of the reagent was achieved using N-iodosuccinimide, NIS, as the oxidising agent. The yields ranged from 69-95% in the labelling of 0.1-1.0 nmole of the m-MeATE precursor. Subsequent conjugation to antibodies resulted in yields of 58+/-7%. In vitro binding to tumour cells showed that the immunoreactivity of both antibodies was retained after astatine labelling. PMID:11182562

  16. 211Astatine-Conjugated Monoclonal CD45 Antibody-Based Nonmyeloablative Conditioning for Stem Cell Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Burtner, Christopher R.; Chandrasekaran, Devikha; Santos, Erlinda B.; Beard, Brian C.; Adair, Jennifer E.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy studies require host conditioning to allow for efficient engraftment of gene-modified cells. Conditioning regimens with lower treatment-related toxicities are especially relevant for the treatment of nonmalignant blood disorders, such as hemoglobinopathies and immunodeficiencies, and for patients who are otherwise ineligible for conventional high-dose conditioning. Radioimmunotherapy, which employs an α- or a β-emitting radionuclide conjugated to a targeting antibody, is effective for delivering cytotoxic doses of radiation to a cell type of interest while minimizing off-target toxicity. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using a nonmyeloablative dose of a monoclonal anti-CD45 antibody conjugated to the α-emitter Astatine-211 (211At) to promote engraftment of an autologous gene-modified stem cell graft in the canine model. The doses used provided myelosuppression with rapid autologous recovery and minimal off-target toxicity. Engraftment levels were low in all dogs and reflected the low numbers of gene-modified cells infused. Our data suggest that a cell dose exceeding 1×106 cells/kg be used with nonmyeloablative doses of 211At-anti-CD45 monoclonal antibodies for sustained engraftment in the dog model. PMID:25919226

  17. (211)Astatine-Conjugated Monoclonal CD45 Antibody-Based Nonmyeloablative Conditioning for Stem Cell Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Burtner, Christopher R; Chandrasekaran, Devikha; Santos, Erlinda B; Beard, Brian C; Adair, Jennifer E; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2015-06-01

    Most hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy studies require host conditioning to allow for efficient engraftment of gene-modified cells. Conditioning regimens with lower treatment-related toxicities are especially relevant for the treatment of nonmalignant blood disorders, such as hemoglobinopathies and immunodeficiencies, and for patients who are otherwise ineligible for conventional high-dose conditioning. Radioimmunotherapy, which employs an α- or a β-emitting radionuclide conjugated to a targeting antibody, is effective for delivering cytotoxic doses of radiation to a cell type of interest while minimizing off-target toxicity. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using a nonmyeloablative dose of a monoclonal anti-CD45 antibody conjugated to the α-emitter Astatine-211 ((211)At) to promote engraftment of an autologous gene-modified stem cell graft in the canine model. The doses used provided myelosuppression with rapid autologous recovery and minimal off-target toxicity. Engraftment levels were low in all dogs and reflected the low numbers of gene-modified cells infused. Our data suggest that a cell dose exceeding 1×10(6) cells/kg be used with nonmyeloablative doses of (211)At-anti-CD45 monoclonal antibodies for sustained engraftment in the dog model. PMID:25919226

  18. Single-cell irradiation from [211At] astatine-labeled C215 monoclonal antibody: improved estimates of radiosensitivity from measurements on cellular uptake and retention.

    PubMed

    Palm, Stig; Bäck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Delle, Ulla; Hultborn, Ragnar; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2003-01-01

    New data on the biological effect of 211At-C215 monoclonal antibody in a slowly rotating, widely dispersed single-cell suspension of the human cancer cell line Colo-205 is presented. Cell growth curves of each experiment were used to calculate an apparent cell survival after irradiation. Uptake measurements provided the data needed to calculate the average number of 211At decays per cell in the cell suspension. The results from each experiment were then fit to a mono-exponential function. From the exponential fit, an average of 35 +/- 2 (SD) astatine-211 decays per cell are required for 37% apparent cell survival (D0). PMID:12820374

  19. Final Report for research grant "Development of Methods for High Specific Activity Labeling of Biomolecules Using Astatine-211 in Different Oxidation States"

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, D., Scott

    2011-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort was to develop methods for labeling biomolecules with higher oxidation state species of At-211. This was to be done in an effort to develop reagents that had higher in vivo stability than the present carbon-bonded At-211-labeled compounds. We were unsuccessful in that effort, as none of the approaches studied provided reagents that were stable to in vivo deastatination. However, we gained a lot of information about At-211 in higher oxidation states. The studies proved to be very difficult as small changes in pH and other conditions appeared to change the nature of the species that obtained (by HPLC retention time analyses), with many of the species being unidentifiable. The fact that there are no stable isotopes of astatine, and the chemistry of the nearest halogen iodine is quite different, made it very difficult to interpret results of some experiments. With that said, we believe that a lot of valuable information was obtained from the studies. The research effort evaluated: (1) methods for chemical oxidation of At-211, (2) approaches to chelation of oxidized At-211, and (3) approaches to oxidation of astatophenyl compounds. A major hurdle that had to be surmounted to conduct the research was the development of HPLC conditions to separate and identify the various oxidized species formed. Attempts to develop conditions for separation of iodine and astatine species by normal and reversed-phase TLC and ITLC were not successful. However, we were successful in developing conditions (from a large number of attempts) to separate oxidized forms of iodine ([I-125]iodide, [I-125]iodate and [I-125]periodate) and astatine ([At-211]astatide, [At-211]astatate, [At-211]perastatate, and several unidentified At-211 species). Information on the basic oxidation and characterization of At-211 species is provided under Objective 1. Conditions were developed to obtain new At-211 labeling method where At-211 is chelated with the DOTA and

  20. Establishment of radioactive astatine and iodine uptake in cancer cell lines expressing the human sodium/iodide symporter.

    PubMed

    Petrich, T; Helmeke, H-J; Meyer, G J; Knapp, W H; Pötter, E

    2002-07-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for radioiodine-mediated cancer gene therapy. In this study we investigated the role of human NIS for cellular uptake of the high LET alpha-emitter astatine-211 ((211)At) in comparison with radioiodine as a potential radionuclide for future applications. A mammalian NIS expression vector was constructed and used to generate six stable NIS-expressing cancer cell lines (three derived from thyroid carcinoma, two from colon carcinoma, one from glioblastoma). Compared with the respective control cell lines, steady state radionuclide uptake of NIS-expressing cell lines increased up to 350-fold for iodine-123 ((123)I), 340-fold for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(4)(-)) and 60-fold for (211)At. Cellular (211)At accumulation was found to be dependent on extracellular Na(+) ions and displayed a similar sensitivity towards sodium perchlorate inhibition as radioiodide and (99m)TcO(4)(-) uptake. Heterologous competition with unlabelled NaI decreased NIS-mediated (211)At uptake to levels of NIS-negative control cells. Following uptake both radioiodide and (211)At were rapidly (apparent t(1/2) 3-15 min) released by the cells as determined by wash-out experiments. Data of scintigraphic tumour imaging in a xenograft nude mice model of transplanted NIS-modified thyroid cells indicated that radionuclide uptake in NIS-expressing tumours was up to 70 times ((123)I), 25 times ((99m)TcO(4)(-)) and 10 times ((211)At) higher than in control tumours or normal tissues except stomach (3-5 times) and thyroid gland (5-10 times). Thirty-four percent and 14% of the administered activity of (123)I and (211)At, respectively, was found in NIS tumours by region of interest analysis ( n=2). Compared with cell culture experiments, the effective half-life in vivo was greatly prolonged (6.5 h for (123)I, 5.2 h for (211)At) and preliminary dosimetric calculations indicate high tumour absorbed doses (3.5 Gy

  1. (211)At-labeled agents for alpha-immunotherapy: On the in vivo stability of astatine-agent bonds.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Tahra; Pilmé, Julien; Tézé, David; Bassal, Fadel; Barbet, Jacques; Chérel, Michel; Champion, Julie; Maurice, Rémi; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2016-06-30

    The application of (211)At to targeted cancer therapy is currently hindered by the rapid deastatination that occurs in vivo. As the deastatination mechanism is unknown, we tackled this issue from the viewpoint of the intrinsic properties of At-involving chemical bonds. An apparent correlation has been evidenced between in vivo stability of (211)At-labeled compounds and the At-R (R = C, B) bond enthalpies obtained from relativistic quantum mechanical calculations. Furthermore, we highlight important differences in the nature of the At-C and At-B bonds of interest, e.g. the opposite signs of the effective astatine charges, which implies different stabilities with respect to the biological medium. Beyond their practical use for rationalizing the labeling protocols used for (211)At, the proposed computational approach can readily be used to investigate bioactive molecules labeled with other heavy radionuclides. PMID:27061979

  2. Theoretical insights into the nature of halogen bonding in prereactive complexes.

    PubMed

    Hill, J Grant; Hu, Xiaojun

    2013-03-11

    Benchmark quality geometries and interaction energies for the prereactive halogen-bonded complexes of dihalogens and ammonia, including hypothetical astatine containing dihalogens, have been produced via explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods. The application of local electron correlation partitioning reveals dispersion, electrostatics and ionic substitutions all contribute significantly to the interaction energy, with a linear relationship between the ionic substitutions and the degree of charge transfer. Potential energy curves for H3 N⋅⋅⋅ClF show that as the relative orientations of the two subunits are manipulated appreciable interactions can be found at considerably angular displaced geometries, signifying lower directionality in halogen bonding than previously supposed. PMID:23417990

  3. Theoretical Insights into the Nature of Halogen Bonding in Prereactive Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J Grant; Hu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark quality geometries and interaction energies for the prereactive halogen-bonded complexes of dihalogens and ammonia, including hypothetical astatine containing dihalogens, have been produced via explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods. The application of local electron correlation partitioning reveals dispersion, electrostatics and ionic substitutions all contribute significantly to the interaction energy, with a linear relationship between the ionic substitutions and the degree of charge transfer. Potential energy curves for H3N⋅⋅⋅ClF show that as the relative orientations of the two subunits are manipulated appreciable interactions can be found at considerably angular displaced geometries, signifying lower directionality in halogen bonding than previously supposed. PMID:23417990

  4. Biotin reagents in antibody pretargeting. 6. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of astatinated and radioiodinated aryl- and nido-carboranyl-biotin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Hamlin, Donald K; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Kegley, Brian B; Quinn, Janna; Vessella, Robert L

    2004-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to prepare and evaluate several radiohalogenated biotin derivatives as part of our studies to develop reagents for carrying (211)At in cancer pretargeting protocols. The primary goal of the investigation was to determine the in vivo stability and distribution properties of astatinated biotin derivatives. In addition to astatination, the biotin derivatives were radioiodinated for in vitro and in vivo comparison. Biodistributions were conducted in athymic mice, with sacrifice times of 1, 4, and 24 h to correspond to 9%, 32%, and 90% of (211)At decay (t(1/2) = 7.21 h). In the investigation, two biotin derivatives, 1a and 2a, were synthesized which had structures that contain a biotin moiety, a biotinidase-blocking moiety, an ether linker moiety, and an aryl stannane moiety for radiohalogenation. Biotin derivatives 1a and 2a were radiolabeled with (125/131)I to give [(125)/(131)I]1b or [(125)I]2b and with (211)At to give [(211)At]1c or [(211)At]2c. In vivo studies demonstrated that co-injected [(125)I]2b and [(131)I]1b had very similar tissue distributions in athymic mice. Co-injection of [(211)At]2c and [(125)I]2b provided data that indicated that rapid deastatination occurred in vivo. A second set of biotin derivatives, 3a, 4a, and 5a, were synthesized which had structures that contain a biotin moiety, a biotinidase-blocking moiety, and an anionic nido-carborane moiety for radiohalogenation. The biotin derivatives 4a and 5a contained an aryl moiety not present in 3a, and 5a had a trialkylamine functionality not present in 3a or 4a. Biotin derivative 3a was radioiodinated, but was not further investigated. Biotin derivatives 4a and 5a were radiolabeled with (211)At and (125)I to produce [(125)I]4b/[(211)At]4c and [(125)I]5b/[(211)At]5c. Comparison of [(125)I]4b and (separately) [(125)I]5b with [(131)I]1b showed that the nido-carborane containing biotin derivatives were retained in blood and tissue more than the aryl iodide

  5. Biodistributions, myelosuppression, and toxicities in mice treated with an anti-CD45 antibody labeled with the alpha-emitting radionuclides bismuth-213 or astatine-211.

    PubMed

    Nakamae, Hirohisa; Wilbur, D Scott; Hamlin, Donald K; Thakar, Monica S; Santos, Erlinda B; Fisher, Darrell R; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Pagel, John M; Press, Oliver W; Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2009-03-15

    We previously investigated the potential of targeted radiotherapy using a bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled anti-CD45 antibody to replace total body irradiation as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation in a canine model. Although this approach allowed sustained marrow engraftment, limited availability, high cost, and short half-life of (213)Bi induced us to investigate an alternative alpha-emitting radionuclide, astatine-211 ((211)At), for the same application. Biodistribution and toxicity studies were conducted with conjugates of the anti-murine CD45 antibody 30F11 with either (213)Bi or (211)At. Mice were injected with 2 to 50 muCi on 10 microg or 20 muCi on 2 or 40 microg of 30F11 conjugate. Biodistribution studies showed that the spleen contained the highest concentration of radioactivity, ranging from 167 +/- 23% to 417 +/- 109% injected dose/gram (% ID/g) after injection of the (211)At conjugate and 45 +/- 9% to 166 +/- 11% ID/g after injection of the (213)Bi conjugate. The higher concentrations observed for (211)At-labeled 30F11 were due to its longer half-life, which permitted better localization of isotope to the spleen before decay. (211)At was more effective at producing myelosuppression for the same quantity of injected radioactivity. All mice injected with 20 or 50 muCi (211)At, but none with the same quantities of (213)Bi, had lethal myeloablation. Severe reversible acute hepatic toxicity occurred with 50 muCi (213)Bi, but not with lower doses of (213)Bi or with any dose of (211)At. No renal toxicity occurred with either radionuclide. The data suggest that smaller quantities of (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 antibody are sufficient to achieve myelosuppression and myeloablation with less nonhematologic toxicity compared with (213)Bi-labeled antibody. PMID:19244101

  6. Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using α-emitter astatine-211–labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Kornblit, Brian; Hamlin, Donald K.; Sale, George E.; Santos, Erlinda B.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storer, Barry E.; Storb, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To reduce toxicity associated with external γ-beam radiation, we investigated radioimmunotherapy with an anti-CD45 mAb labeled with the α-emitter, astatine-211 (211At), as a conditioning regimen in dog leukocyte antigen-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Dose-finding studies in 6 dogs treated with 100 to 618 μCi/kg 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) without HCT rescue demonstrated dose-dependent myelosuppression with subsequent autologous recovery, and transient liver toxicity in dogs treated with 211At doses less than or equal to 405 μCi/kg. Higher doses of 211At induced clinical liver failure. Subsequently, 8 dogs were conditioned with 155 to 625 μCi/kg 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) before HCT with dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow followed by a short course of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Neutropenia (1-146 cells/μL), lymphopenia (0-270 cells/μL), and thrombocytopenia (1500-6560 platelets/μL) with prompt recovery was observed. Seven dogs had long-term donor mononuclear cell chimerism (19%-58%), whereas 1 dog treated with the lowest 211At dose (155 μCi/kg) had low donor mononuclear cell chimerism (5%). At the end of follow-up (18-53 weeks), only transient liver toxicity and no renal toxicity had been observed. In conclusion, conditioning with 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb is safe and efficacious and provides a platform for future clinical trials of nonmyeloablative transplantation with radioimmunotherapy-based conditioning. PMID:22134165

  7. Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using α-emitter astatine-211-labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Kornblit, Brian; Hamlin, Donald K; Sale, George E; Santos, Erlinda B; Wilbur, D Scott; Storer, Barry E; Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2012-02-01

    To reduce toxicity associated with external γ-beam radiation, we investigated radioimmunotherapy with an anti-CD45 mAb labeled with the α-emitter, astatine-211 ((211)At), as a conditioning regimen in dog leukocyte antigen-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Dose-finding studies in 6 dogs treated with 100 to 618 μCi/kg (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) without HCT rescue demonstrated dose-dependent myelosuppression with subsequent autologous recovery, and transient liver toxicity in dogs treated with (211)At doses less than or equal to 405 μCi/kg. Higher doses of (211)At induced clinical liver failure. Subsequently, 8 dogs were conditioned with 155 to 625 μCi/kg (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) before HCT with dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow followed by a short course of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Neutropenia (1-146 cells/μL), lymphopenia (0-270 cells/μL), and thrombocytopenia (1500-6560 platelets/μL) with prompt recovery was observed. Seven dogs had long-term donor mononuclear cell chimerism (19%-58%), whereas 1 dog treated with the lowest (211)At dose (155 μCi/kg) had low donor mononuclear cell chimerism (5%). At the end of follow-up (18-53 weeks), only transient liver toxicity and no renal toxicity had been observed. In conclusion, conditioning with (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb is safe and efficacious and provides a platform for future clinical trials of nonmyeloablative transplantation with radioimmunotherapy-based conditioning. PMID:22134165

  8. Alpha imaging confirmed efficient targeting of CD45-positive cells after astatine-211 (211At)-radioimmunotherapy for hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H.L.; Miller, Brian W.; Bäck, Tom A.; Santos, Erlinda B.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Storb, Rainer; Press, Oliver W.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-radioimmunotherapy targeting CD45 may substitute for total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) preparative regimens for lymphoma. Our goal was to optimize the anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MAb; CA12.10C12) protein dose for astatine-211 (211At)-radioimmunotherapy, extending the analysis to include intra-organ 211At activity distribution and α-imaging-based small-scale dosimetry, along with immunohistochemical staining. Methods Eight normal dogs were injected with either 0.75 (n=5) or 1.00 mg/kg (n=3) of 211At-B10-CA12.10C12 (11.5–27.6 MBq/kg). Two were euthanized and necropsied 19–22 hours post injection (p.i.), and six received autologous HCT three days after 211At-radioimmunotherapy, following lymph node and bone marrow biopsies at 2–4 and/or 19 hours p.i. Blood was sampled to study toxicity and clearance; CD45 targeting was evaluated by flow cytometry. 211At localization and small-scale dosimetry were assessed using two α-imaging systems: α-camera and iQID. Results Uptake of 211At was highest in spleen (0.31–0.61 %IA/g), lymph nodes (0.02–0.16 %IA/g), liver (0.11–0.12 %IA/g), and marrow (0.06–0.08 %IA/g). Lymphocytes in blood and marrow were efficiently targeted using either MAb dose. Lymph nodes remained unsaturated, but displayed targeted 211At localization in T lymphocyte-rich areas. Absorbed doses to blood, marrow, and lymph nodes were estimated at 3.1, 2.4, and 3.4 Gy/166 MBq, respectively. All transplanted dogs experienced transient hepatic toxicity. Liver enzyme levels were temporarily elevated in 5 of 6 dogs; 1 treated with 1.00 mg MAb/kg developed ascites and was euthanized 136 days after HCT. Conclusion 211At-anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy with 0.75 mg MAb/kg efficiently targeted blood and marrow without severe toxicity. Dosimetry calculations and observed radiation-induced effects indicated that sufficient 211At-B10-CA12.10C12 localization was achieved for efficient conditioning for HCT. PMID:26338894

  9. Treatment of cultured glioma cells with the EGFR-TKI gefitinib ("Iressa", ZD1839) increases the uptake of astatinated EGF despite the absence of gefitinib-mediated growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren; Almqvist, Ylva; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen

    2003-05-01

    The EGFR-TKI (epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) gefitinib ("Iressa", ZD1839), a reversible growth inhibitor of EGFR-expressing tumour cells, has been shown to enhance the antitumour effect of ionising radiation, and also to increase the uptake of radioiodinated EGF. Thus, combination of gefitinib treatment and radionuclide targeting is an interesting option for therapy of brain tumours that are difficult to treat with conventional methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate how pre-treatment with gefitinib affects binding of astatinated EGF ((211)At-EGF) to cultured glioma U343 cells, which express high levels of EGFR. The growth of U343 cells in the presence of gefitinib was investigated, and it was found that gefitinib does not significantly inhibit the growth of these cells. Nevertheless, the uptake of (211)At-EGF in U343 cells was markedly increased (up to 3.5 times) in cells pre-treated with gefitinib (1 microM). This indicates that a combination of gefitinib treatment and radionuclide targeting to EGFR might be a useful therapeutic modality, even for patients who do not respond to treatment with gefitinib alone. PMID:12740721

  10. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 5. Evaluation of hydrazone linkers in (211)At- and (125)I-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates of Fab' as a means of decreasing kidney retention.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Nguyen, Holly; Vessella, Robert L

    2011-06-15

    Evaluation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragments (e.g., Fab', Fab, or engineered fragments) as cancer-targeting reagents for therapy with the α-particle emitting radionuclide astatine-211 ((211)At) has been hampered by low in vivo stability of the label and a propensity of these proteins localize to kidneys. Fortunately, our group has shown that the low stability of the (211)At label, generally a meta- or para-[(211)At]astatobenzoyl conjugate, on mAb Fab' fragments can be dramatically improved by the use of closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates. However, the higher stability of radiolabeled mAb Fab' conjugates appears to result in retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. This investigation was conducted to evaluate whether the retention of radioactivity in kidney might be decreased by the use of an acid-cleavable hydrazone between the Fab' and the radiolabeled closo-decaborate(2-) moiety. Five conjugation reagents containing sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups, a hydrazone functionality, and a closo-decaborate(2-) moiety were prepared. In four of the five conjugation reagents, a discrete poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker was used, and one substituent adjacent to the hydrazone was varied (phenyl, benzoate, anisole, or methyl) to provide varying acid sensitivity. In the initial studies, the five maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagents were radioiodinated ((125)I or (131)I), then conjugated with an anti-PSMA Fab' (107-1A4 Fab'). Biodistributions of the five radioiodinated Fab' conjugates were obtained in nude mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). In contrast to closo-decaborate(2-) conjugated to 107-1A4 Fab' through a noncleavable linker, two conjugates containing either a benzoate or a methyl substituent on the hydrazone functionality displayed clearance rates from kidney, liver, and spleen that were similar to those obtained with directly radioiodinated Fab' (i.e., no conjugate). The maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagent containing a

  11. Some microdosmetric data on Astatine-211.

    PubMed

    Unak, Turan

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclides which emit short range, high LET radiations such as alpha and Auger electrons have very promising applications in cancer therapy. Such radionuclides should eventually be incorporated into cell nuclei to achieve high radiotoxic effectiveness. This means that the dose distribution within the cell nucleus at microscopic levels is very important for comparison of the real differences between the radiotoxic effectiveness of different radionuclides. An experimental setup to determine real dose absorption on the microscopic scale is extremely difficult to design. For this reason, calculation procedures for microscopic dose absorption are of special interest for the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radionuclides which emit short-range and high LET radiations. A specific calculation method for microscopic energy absorptions within the cell nucleus from Auger electrons of 125I was described earlier. In this study, the radiotoxic effectiveness of 211At and 125I has been compared using the data obtained by this calculation method. The data obtained show clearly that the radiotoxicity of the alpha and Auger emitter radionuclide 211At is comparable to that of 125I. PMID:12485672

  12. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  13. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  14. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  15. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  16. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  17. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  18. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science – which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour – is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  19. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  20. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe ...

  1. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  2. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  3. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  4. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, D; Michal, M; Síma, R; Grossmann, P; Kazakov, D V

    2011-10-01

    Carney complex is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, with at least two genetic loci including the PRKAR1A gene located on chromosome 17 and the CNC2 locus mapped to chromosome 2. Clinically this syndrome is characterized by multiple myxomas occurring in different anatomic sites, mucocutaneous pigmentary lesions, and a variety of non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, often causing endocrine abnormalities, involving various organs. Knowledge of morphological findings in CNC patients with their typical locations is necessary to raise suspicion of this syndrome by pathologists. Confirmation of the diagnosis allows regular clinical check-ups and early treatment of these patients. PMID:22145222

  5. Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Carney complex is a rare, dominantly inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, affecting endocrine glands as the adrenal cortex (causing Cushing's syndrome), the pituitary and the thyroid. It is associated with many other nonendocrine tumors, including cardiac myxomas, testicular tumors, melanotic schwannoma, breast myxomatosis, and abnormal pigmentation (lentiginosis) or myxomas of the skin. The gene located on the CNC1 locus was identified 12 years ago as the regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) located at 17q22-24. Inactivating heterozygous germline mutations of PRKAR1A are observed in about two thirds of Carney complex patients with some genotype-phenotype correlation useful for follow-up and prognosis. More rarely, mutations of phosphodiesterase genes have been reported in patients presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies help to understand how R1A inactivation leads to tumorigenesis. PRKAR1A appears to be a relatively weak tumorigenic signal which can cooperate with other signaling pathways and tumor suppressors. PMID:23652670

  6. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  7. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  8. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Losada Grande, Eladio José; Al Kassam Martínez, Daniel; González Boillos, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, and endocrine overactivity. Skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi. Myxomas may occur in breast, skin and heart. Cardiac myxomas may be multiple and occur in any cardiac chamber, and are more prone to recurrence. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD may occur isolated, with no other signs of CNC. Pituitary and thyroid glands and gonads are also involved. The PRKAR1A gene, located in 17 q22-24, encodes type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found in 70% of patients with CNC. PRKAR1A is a key component of the c-AMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis. Many different mutations have been reported in the PRKAR1A gene. In almost all cases the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and the resultant mutant mRNA was subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with CNC. Genetic analysis should be performed in all CNC index cases. All affected patients should be monitored for clinical signs of CNC at least once a year. Genetic diagnosis allows for more effective preparation of more appropriate and effective therapeutic strategies and genetic counseling for patients and gene carriers, and to avoid unnecessary tests to relatives not carrying the gene. PMID:21536508

  9. Gas-chromatographic characterization of physicochemical properties of astatine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.

    1995-07-01

    The organoastatine compounds obtained were identified by gas-liquid chromatography on a specially designed gas radiochromatograph with detection of eluted compounds both by their radioactivity and by thermal conductivity. Gas-liquid chromatography is the most efficient method for separation and identification of volatile organoastatine compounds.

  10. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1987-07-21

    A one-step chemical manipulation is described in combination with a distillation and collection process for producing At-211 comprising; a. providing a target of irradiated Bismuth coated to a predetermined thickness of a backing member, b. providing a vapor-producing still operably connected with a condenser that has a water cooled condensate collector formed of a dry silica gel mesh maintained at a temperature above the freezing point of water, and providing an effluent gas filter that is operably connected to receive effluent gas from the condenser, c. heating the target in the still at a temperature in the range of about 630/sup 0/-680/sup 0/C for a time period in the range of 50 to 80 minutes, to evole At-211 vapor from the target, c. providing a dry carrier gas having an oxygen concentration that is sufficient to form Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thereby to essentially preclude vaporization of Bi metal, passing the carrier gas through the still to carry the At-211 vapor to the condenser, and to carry effluent from the condenser to the effluent gas filter, e. eluting At-211 from the condensate collector of the condenser with a controlled volume of eluent containing predetermined solvents that are compatible with a given desired radiopharmaceutical procedure, and f. collecting the At-211 in the controlled volume of eluent for use in the given radiopharmaceutical procedure.

  11. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  12. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  13. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread ... has worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic ...

  14. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  15. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on ... related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. ...

  18. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  19. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that can affect any area of the ... Bailey A, Audette JF. Complex regional pain syndrome. In: Frontera ... of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  2. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  3. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  4. Complex-I-ty in aging

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Devon A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in aging has been studied in both C. elegans and Drosophila, where RNAi knock down of specific complex I subunits has been shown to extend lifespan. More recently, studies in Drosophila have shown that an increase in mitochondrial activity, including complex I-like activity, can also slow aging. In this review, we discuss this apparent paradox. Improved maintenance of mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial homeostasis, may be responsible for lifespan extension in both cases. Decreased electron transport chain activity caused by reducing complex I subunit expression prompts an increase in stress response signaling that leads to enhanced mitochondrial homeostasis during aging. Increased complex I activity, as well as mitochondrial biogenesis, is expected to both directly counteract the decline in mitochondrial health that occurs during aging and may also increase cellular NAD+ levels, which have been linked to mitochondrial homeostatic mechanisms through activation of sirtuins. We suggest that manipulations that increase or decrease complex I activity both converge on improved mitochondrial homeostasis during aging, resulting in prolonged lifespan. PMID:24961226

  5. Palladium (II) Hydrazopyrazolone Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maraghy, Salah B.; Salib, K. A.; Stefan, Shaker L.

    1989-12-01

    Palladium (II) complexes with 1-pheny1-3-methy1-4-(arylhydrazo)-5- pyrazolone dyes were studied spectrophotometrically. Pd (II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with the ligands by the replacement of their phenolic and hydrazo protons. The ligands behave as tridentate in the 1:1 complex and as bidentate in the 1:2 complex. The sability constants of these complexes are dependent on the type of substituents in the benzene ring of the arylazo moiety.

  6. Heuristic dynamic complexity coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škorupa, Jozef; Slowack, Jürgen; Mys, Stefaan; Lambert, Peter; Van de Walle, Rik

    2008-04-01

    Distributed video coding is a new video coding paradigm that shifts the computational intensive motion estimation from encoder to decoder. This results in a lightweight encoder and a complex decoder, as opposed to the predictive video coding scheme (e.g., MPEG-X and H.26X) with a complex encoder and a lightweight decoder. Both schemas, however, do not have the ability to adapt to varying complexity constraints imposed by encoder and decoder, which is an essential ability for applications targeting a wide range of devices with different complexity constraints or applications with temporary variable complexity constraints. Moreover, the effect of complexity adaptation on the overall compression performance is of great importance and has not yet been investigated. To address this need, we have developed a video coding system with the possibility to adapt itself to complexity constraints by dynamically sharing the motion estimation computations between both components. On this system we have studied the effect of the complexity distribution on the compression performance. This paper describes how motion estimation can be shared using heuristic dynamic complexity and how distribution of complexity affects the overall compression performance of the system. The results show that the complexity can indeed be shared between encoder and decoder in an efficient way at acceptable rate-distortion performance.

  7. Assessing physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Burggren, W W; Monticino, M G

    2005-09-01

    Physiologists both admire and fear complexity, but we have made relatively few attempts to understand it. Inherently complex systems are more difficult to study and less predictable. However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. We begin this essay with a tour of some mathematical views of complexity. After briefly exploring chaotic systems, information theory and emergent behavior, we reluctantly conclude that, while a mathematical view of complexity provides useful perspectives and some narrowly focused tools, there are too few generally practical take-home messages for physiologists studying complex systems. Consequently, we attempt to provide guidelines as to how complex systems might be best approached by physiologists. After describing complexity based on the sum of a physiological system's structures and processes, we highlight increasingly refined approaches based on the pattern of interactions between structures and processes. We then provide a series of examples illustrating how appreciating physiological complexity can improve physiological research, including choosing experimental models, guiding data collection, improving data interpretations and constructing more rigorous system models. Finally, we conclude with an invitation for physiologists, applied mathematicians and physicists to collaborate on describing, studying and learning from studies of physiological complexity. PMID:16109885

  8. Artistic forms and complexity.

    PubMed

    Boon, J-P; Casti, J; Taylor, R P

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the inter-relationship between various concepts of complexity by introducing a complexity 'triangle' featuring objective complexity, subjective complexity and social complexity. Their connections are explored using visual and musical compositions of art. As examples, we quantify the complexity embedded within the paintings of the Jackson Pollock and the musical works of Johann Sebastian Bach. We discuss the challenges inherent in comparisons of the spatial patterns created by Pollock and the sonic patterns created by Bach, including the differing roles that time plays in these investigations. Our results draw attention to some common intriguing characteristics suggesting 'universality' and conjecturing that the fractal nature of art might have an intrinsic value of more general significance. PMID:21382264

  9. Hypergraph coloring complexes.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-08-28

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes-a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen-Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  10. Two giant stellar complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  11. Complexation of Optoelectronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Il‧in, M. Yu.; Konyaev, M. A.; Mikhailenko, A. S.; Morozov, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Problems of increasing the efficiency and the functionality of complex optoelectronic systems for monitoring real atmospheric conditions and of their use are discussed. It is shown by the example of a meteorological complex comprising an infrared wind-sensing lidar and an X-range Doppler radar that the complexation of probing systems working in different electromagnetic-radiation ranges opens up new opportunities for determining the meteorological parameters of a turbulent atmosphere and investigating the interaction of radiation with it.

  12. Complexity and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Alberto; Gómez, Carlos; Hornero, Roberto; López-Ibor, Juan José

    2013-08-01

    Complexity estimators have been broadly utilized in schizophrenia investigation. Early studies reported increased complexity in schizophrenia patients, associated with a higher variability or "irregularity" of their brain signals. However, further investigations showed reduced complexities, thus introducing a clear divergence. Nowadays, both increased and reduced complexity values are reported. The explanation of such divergence is a critical issue to understand the role of complexity measures in schizophrenia research. Considering previous arguments a complementary hypothesis is advanced: if the increased irregularity of schizophrenia patients' neurophysiological activity is assumed, a "natural" tendency to increased complexity in EEG and MEG scans should be expected, probably reflecting an abnormal neuronal firing pattern in some critical regions such as the frontal lobes. This "natural" tendency to increased complexity might be modulated by the interaction of three main factors: medication effects, symptomatology, and age effects. Therefore, young, medication-naïve, and highly symptomatic (positive symptoms) patients are expected to exhibit increased complexities. More importantly, the investigation of these interacting factors by means of complexity estimators might help to elucidate some of the neuropathological processes involved in schizophrenia. PMID:22507763

  13. The Tom Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahting, Uwe; Thun, Clemens; Hegerl, Reiner; Typke, Dieter; Nargang, Frank E.; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of ∼2.1 nm and a height of ∼7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  14. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  15. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  16. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  17. Visual Complexity: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  18. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  19. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  20. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

  1. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  2. Gold trifluoromethyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Gil-Rubio, Juan; Vicente, José

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the synthesis, reactivity and applications of gold trifluoromethyl complexes, which are the only isolated perfluoroalkyl complexes of gold. The most reported examples are neutral Au(i) complexes of the type [Au(CF3)L], whereas only two Au(ii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been reported, both being diamagnetic and containing a strong Au-Au bond. A number of Au(iii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been prepared by oxidative addition of halogens or iodotrifluoromethane to Au(i) complexes or, in a few cases, by transmetallation reactions. Owing to the limitations of the available synthetic methods, a lower number of examples is known, particularly for the oxidation states (ii) and (iii). Gold trifluoromethyl complexes present singular characteristics, such as thermal stability, strong Au-C bonds and, in some cases, reactive α-C-F bonds. Some of the Au(iii) complexes reported, show unusually easy reductive elimination reactions of trifluoromethylated products which could be applied in the development of gold-catalyzed processes for the trifluoromethylation of organic compounds. PMID:26169553

  3. Complexity in Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  4. [Complexity: an introduction].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  5. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization. PMID:25815410

  6. Nickel Hydride Complexes.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Nathan A; Guan, Hairong

    2016-08-10

    Nickel hydride complexes, defined herein as any molecules bearing a nickel hydrogen bond, are crucial intermediates in numerous nickel-catalyzed reactions. Some of them are also synthetic models of nickel-containing enzymes such as [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The overall objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of this specific type of hydride complexes, which has been studied extensively in recent years. This review begins with the significance and a very brief history of nickel hydride complexes, followed by various methods and spectroscopic or crystallographic tools used to synthesize and characterize these complexes. Also discussed are stoichiometric reactions involving nickel hydride complexes and how some of these reactions are developed into catalytic processes. PMID:27437790

  7. Profil'-1 measuring complex

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V.R.; Petrov, A.P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes the Profil'-1 hydroacoustic measuring complex. The complex provides documentary information on the bottom profile of reservoirs, the configuration and geometric dimensions of underwater trenches, the spatial position of pipes in uncovered or washedout trenches, the thickness of a layer covering underwater pipes, etc. The complex can also be used to solve other industrial problems such as hydraulic exploration and searching for sunken objects. The Profil'-1 complex is designed for use on board small craft under field conditions with periodic transportation from storage bases to the operating location and back. The complex uses an echo-pulse method for determining the distance and coordinates of objects with the aid of an ultrasonic transceiver in an aqueous medium. Structurally, the complex consists of four main units: a BA-1 vertical sounding antenna unit; a BAS-1 antenna scanning unit; a BFOS-1 signal shaping and processing unit, and a BR-1 recording unit. Use of the complex in pipeline construction and the oil and gas industry will provide a considerable economic gain by reducing the number of diver inspections of underwater pipelines.

  8. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.J.

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  9. Complexity and robustness

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J. M.; Doyle, John

    2002-01-01

    Highly optimized tolerance (HOT) was recently introduced as a conceptual framework to study fundamental aspects of complexity. HOT is motivated primarily by systems from biology and engineering and emphasizes, (i) highly structured, nongeneric, self-dissimilar internal configurations, and (ii) robust yet fragile external behavior. HOT claims these are the most important features of complexity and not accidents of evolution or artifices of engineering design but are inevitably intertwined and mutually reinforcing. In the spirit of this collection, our paper contrasts HOT with alternative perspectives on complexity, drawing on real-world examples and also model systems, particularly those from self-organized criticality. PMID:11875207

  10. Controllability of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  11. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  12. Complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkouri, Abdulazeez (Moh'd. Jumah) S.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a new concept of complex intuitionistic fuzzy set (CIFS) which is generalized from the innovative concept of a complex fuzzy set (CFS) by adding the non-membership term to the definition of CFS. The novelty of CIFS lies in its ability for membership and non-membership functions to achieve more range of values. The ranges of values are extended to the unit circle in complex plane for both membership and non-membership functions instead of [0, 1] as in the conventional intuitionistic fuzzy functions. We define basic operations namely complement, union, and intersection on CIFSs. Properties of these operations are derived.

  13. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  14. Complex equiangular tight frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, Joel A.

    2005-08-01

    A complex equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a tight frame consisting of N unit vectors in Cd whose absolute inner products are identical. One may view complex ETFs as a natural geometric generalization of an orthonormal basis. Numerical evidence suggests that these objects do not arise for most pairs (d, N). The goal of this paper is to develop conditions on (d, N) under which complex ETFs can exist. In particular, this work concentrates on the class of harmonic ETFs, in which the components of the frame vectors are roots of unity. In this case, it is possible to leverage field theory to obtain stringent restrictions on the possible values for (d, N).

  15. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    PubMed

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized. PMID:19038373

  16. Complexity at mesoscopic lengthscale.

    PubMed

    Egami, T

    2015-09-01

    Modern materials are often complex in the structure at mesoscale. The method of pair-density function (PDF) is a powerful tool to characterize mesoscopic structure, bridging short- and long-range structures. PMID:26306189

  17. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  18. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes.

    PubMed

    Guibas, Leonidas J; Oudot, Steve Y

    2008-10-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew's surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  19. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  20. Specialist complex care.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Susan

    2016-08-01

    I agree with your editorial on how NHS England and the Department of Health (DH) have failed to realise that specialist care for complex diseases requires experienced and knowledgeable support. PMID:27484551

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  2. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of ... to take.tell your doctor if you have meningitis. Your doctor will probably not want you to ...

  3. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  4. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  5. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  6. Inside the complexity labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    Although the world we live in is complex, complexity as a science does not have a long history. For generations, most physicists tried to understand everything in terms of interactions between pairs of idealized "test particles". Then, about a 100 years ago, Henri Poincaré pointed out that a fully interacting three-body system was not just the sum of its three component pairs. The famous "three-body problem" was born.

  7. Interglacial complex and solcomplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    All younger Pleistocene interglacials form interglacial complexes. The term interglacial complex is a short term for a tight complex of interglacials, interstadials and breviglacials, separating a complex of warm periods from the long glacial periods (euglacials). In the terrestric environment the interglacial complexes are represented by soil clusters (solcomplexes). Therein which occur interglacial and interstadial soils of different types in the loess environment separated by thin beds of loess or loess derivates (breviglacials). This article considers the mutilation and simulation of solcomplexes. Frequently, fossil solcomplexes present themselves as diminished to a few soils or to one single soil. This mutilation of solcomplexes can be due to soil convergence (soils of different warm periods — interglacials, interstadials — merge to form optically one soil), syn-solcomplex erosion or post-solcomplex erosion and sometimes to soil disguise. Conversely solcomplexes may be simulated by narrowing of soils which belong to different interglacial complexes and moreover by soil divergence (splitting of a soil of one single warm period by an interlayer of rock) or by reworked soil sediment.

  8. Synchronization in complex dynamical networks coupled with complex chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Bo

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates synchronization in complex dynamical networks with time delay and perturbation. The node of complex dynamical networks is composed of complex chaotic system. A complex feedback controller is designed to realize different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function when complex dynamical networks realize synchronization. The synchronization scaling function is changed from real field to complex field. Synchronization in complex dynamical networks with constant delay and time-varying coupling delay are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  10. Controllability of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  11. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

  12. Complexes and imagination.

    PubMed

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. PMID:25331506

  13. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G.; Buchanan, J. Michael; Stryker, Jeffrey M.; Wax, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  14. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  15. Nonergodic complexity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  16. Synchronization in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alex; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Kurths, Jurgen; Moreno, Yamir; Zhou, Changsong

    2008-12-01

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understanding synchronization phenomena in natural systems now take advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also take an overview of the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying patterns of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  17. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed. PMID:27060566

  18. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  19. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  20. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Corneillie, Todd M.; Xu, Jide

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  1. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  2. Complex matrix model duality

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T. W.

    2011-04-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 noncritical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of operators which preserve half the supersymmetry in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich-Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces.

  3. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    DOEpatents

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  4. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  5. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  6. Dynamic and topological complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turalska, Malgorzata; Geneston, Elvis; Grigolini, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Cooperative phenomena in complex networks are expected to display unusual characteristics, associated with the peculiar topology of these systems. In this context we study networks of interacting stochastic two-state units as a model of cooperative decision making. Each unit in isolation generates a Poisson process with rate g. We show that when the cooperation is introduced, the decision-making process becomes intermittent. The decision-time distribution density characterized by inverse power-law behavior is defined as a dynamic complexity. Further, the onset of intermittency, expressed in terms of the coupling parameter K, is used as a measure of dynamic efficiency of investigated topologies. We find that the dynamic complexity emerges from regular and small-world topologies. In contrast, both random and scale-free networks correspond to fast transition into exponential decision-time distribution. This property is accompanied by high dynamic efficiency of the decision-making process. Our results indicate that complex dynamical processes occurring on networks could be related to relatively simple topologies.

  7. Unifying Complexity and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Da-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Complex systems, arising in many contexts in the computer, life, social, and physical sciences, have not shared a generally-accepted complexity measure playing a fundamental role as the Shannon entropy H in statistical mechanics. Superficially-conflicting criteria of complexity measurement, i.e. complexity-randomness (C-R) relations, have given rise to a special measure intrinsically adaptable to more than one criterion. However, deep causes of the conflict and the adaptability are not much clear. Here I trace the root of each representative or adaptable measure to its particular universal data-generating or -regenerating model (UDGM or UDRM). A representative measure for deterministic dynamical systems is found as a counterpart of the H for random process, clearly redefining the boundary of different criteria. And a specific UDRM achieving the intrinsic adaptability enables a general information measure that ultimately solves all major disputes. This work encourages a single framework coving deterministic systems, statistical mechanics and real-world living organisms.

  8. Surface complexation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adsorption-desorption reactions are important processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the environment. Surface complexation models are chemical models that can account for the effects of variable chemical conditions, such as pH, on adsorption reactions. These models define specific ...

  9. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  10. E Complex groundbreaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Representatives from NASA, Orbital Sciences Corp. and Aerojet participate in a ribbon-cutting ceremony for construction of a flame deflector trench at Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. Participants included Orbital CEO J.R. Thompson (center, left) and Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center, right).