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Sample records for aster volcano archive

  1. Eruptions on A Virtual Globe: The Aster Volcano Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Abrams, M. J.; Tan, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    The systematic study of the world's most frequent volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for orbital remote sensing techniques, informing a range of investigations from basic volcanology to societal risk assessments. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER--a joint project of Japan and the United States), with its high spatial resolution (15, 30, 90m/pixel), multispectral character (0.52- 0.86μm; 1.6-2.4μm; 8.1-11.6μm), and stereophotogrammetric capability is in many ways an ideal imaging instrument for this task. Since launch in December 1999, an ASTER volcano target list of over 1500 volcanoes has yielded a (still growing) inventory of over 140,000 volcano views on over 70,000 individual ASTER day and night images. A significant emerging challenge for ASTER is how to effectively access a burgeoning data archive in a way that allows the survey, extraction, and distribution of important information in a timely way. This issue is particularly acute in general for ASTER, which has produced a multi-spectral, high spatial resolution, feature-specific targeted global data base of over 1 million image data granules worldwide. To promptly and efficiently access and manage voluminous volcano data within a large ASTER image library, and to house other ancillary correlative volcanological data from MISR, MODIS, EO-1 data sets, SRTM, and related in situ data, we have created a specialty domain called the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov). We will discuss and illustrate the myriad challenges and scientific opportunities that this unprecedentedly large, but accessible, global volcanological remote sensing data set represents in terms of data mining, data analysis, and data distribution to the scientific community, to disaster responders, the general public, and to educators, and will conduct a live AVA demonstration. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of

  2. The JPL ASTER Volcano Archive: the development and capabilities of a 15 year global high resolution archive of volcano data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linick, J. P.; Pieri, D. C.; Sanchez, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The physical and temporal systematics of the world's volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for the exercise of orbital remote sensing techniques, informing studies ranging from basic volcanology to societal risk. Comprised of over 160,000 frames and spanning 15 years of the Terra platform mission, the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) is the world's largest (100+Tb) high spatial resolution (15-30-90m/pixel), multi-spectral (visible-SWIR-TIR), downloadable (kml enabled) dedicated archive of volcano imagery. We will discuss the development of the AVA, and describe its growing capability to provide new easy public access to ASTER global volcano remote sensing data. AVA system architecture is designed to facilitate parameter-based data mining, and for the implementation of archive-wide data analysis algorithms. Such search and analysis capabilities exploit AVA's unprecedented time-series data compilations for over 1,550 volcanoes worldwide (Smithsonian Holocene catalog). Results include thermal anomaly detection and mapping, as well as detection of SO2 plumes from explosive eruptions and passive SO2 emissions confined to the troposphere. We are also implementing retrospective ASTER image retrievals based on volcanic activity reports from Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). A major planned expansion of the AVA is currently underway, with the ingest of the full 1972-present LANDSAT, and NASA EO-1, volcano imagery for comparison and integration with ASTER data. Work described here is carried out under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. ASTER Images Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image of Mt Usu volcano is dominated by Lake Toya, an ancient volcanic caldera. On the south shore is the active Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 11,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. 'Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption,' said Yoshio Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University. This was the seventh major eruption of Mount Usu in the past 300 years. Fifty people died when the volcano erupted in 1822, its worst known eruption.

    In the image, most of the land is covered by snow. Vegetation, appearing red in the false color composite, can be seen in the agricultural fields, and forests in the mountains. Mt. Usu is crossed by three dark streaks. These are the paths of ash deposits that rained out from eruption plumes two days earlier. The prevailing wind was from the northwest, carrying the ash away from the main city of Date. Ash deposited can be traced on the image as far away as 10 kilometers (16

  4. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken during 2012–2013 in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Since completion of this study, a new lahar modeling program (LAHAR_pz) has been released, which may produce slightly different modeling results from the LAHARZ model used in this study. The maps and data from this study should not be used in place of existing volcano hazard maps published by local authorities. For volcanoes without hazard maps and (or) published lahar-related hazard studies, this work will provide a starting point from which more accurate hazard maps can be produced. This is the first dataset to provide digital maps of altered volcanoes and adjacent watersheds that can be used for assessing volcanic hazards, hydrothermal alteration, and other volcanic processes in future studies.

  5. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Perspective View with Lava SRTM / ASTER / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This computer-generated visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of both the volcano and the city of Goma, looking slightly east of north. Additionally, image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano on the right, Lake Kivu is in the foreground, and the city of Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shoreline. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the left background. Topographic expression has been exaggerated vertically by a factor of 1.5 for this visualization.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired

  6. Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM

  7. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  8. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  9. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  10. Archiving, processing, and disseminating ASTER products at the USGS EROS Data Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.; Tolk, B.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center archives, processes, and disseminates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. The ASTER instrument is one of five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite launched December 18, 1999. ASTER collects broad spectral coverage with high spatial resolution at near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths with ground resolutions of 15, 30, and 90 meters, respectively. The ASTER data are used in many ways to understand local and regional earth-surface processes. Applications include land-surface climatology, volcanology, hazards monitoring, geology, agronomy, land cover change, and hydrology. The ASTER data are available for purchase from the ASTER Ground Data System in Japan and from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center in the United States, which receives level 1A and level 1B data from Japan on a routine basis. These products are archived and made available to the public within 48 hours of receipt. The level 1A and level 1B data are used to generate higher level products that include routine and on-demand decorrelation stretch, brightness temperature at the sensor, emissivity, surface reflectance, surface kinetic temperature, surface radiance, polar surface and cloud classification, and digital elevation models. This paper describes the processes and procedures used to archive, process, and disseminate standard and on-demand higher level ASTER products at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.

  11. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  12. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, J.C.; Rowan, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 ??m and 2.31-2.33 ??m, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 ??m caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 ??m due to muscovite and illite. Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 ??m (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a pre existing geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 ??m, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain musco vite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator. A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  13. ASTER-SRTM Perspective of Mount Oyama Volcano, Miyake-Jima Island, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mount Oyama is a 820-meter-high (2,700 feet) volcano on the island of Miyake-Jima, Japan. In late June 2000, a series of earthquakes alerted scientists to possible volcanic activity. On June 27, authorities evacuated 2,600 people, and on July 8 the volcano began erupting and erupted five times over that week. The dark gray blanket covering green vegetation in the image is the ash deposited by prevailing northeasterly winds between July 8 and 17. This island is about 180 kilometers (110 miles) south of Tokyo and is part of the Izu chain of volcanic islands that runs south from the main Japanese island of Honshu. Miyake-Jima is home to 3,800 people. The previous major eruptions of Mount Oyama occurred in 1983 and 1962, when lava flows destroyed hundreds of houses. An earlier eruption in 1940 killed 11 people.

    This image is a perspective view created by combining image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard NASA's Terra satellite with an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Vertical relief is exaggerated, and the image includes cosmetic adjustments to clouds and image color to enhance clarity of terrain features.

    The ASTER instrument is a cooperative project between NASA, JPL, and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the

  14. ASTER Observations of 2000-2007 Thermal Features at Pavlof Volcano and Mt. Hague (Emmons Lake Volcanic Center), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Schneider, D.; Ramsey, M.; Mangan, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) is a 15 km by 30 km area of nested calderas, stratovolcanoes, lava domes, hyaloclastite rings, and cinder cones aligned along the arc axis. Pavlof Volcano is the most active volcano along the ELVC, with more than 40 historic eruptions since 1790. The most recent eruption of Pavlof Volcano began in August 2007 after almost 11 years of quiescence. Mount Hague is a prominent intracaldera vent with no known historical eruptions that lies approximately 7 kilometers to the southwest of Pavlof. The southern crater of Mount Hague commonly fluctuates between a crater-filling lake to a dry crater floor with vigorously steaming fumaroles. Mount Hague has another fumarole field on the southeast flank at nearly the same elevation as the crater floor. To better document the behavior of persistent thermal features at these remote volcanoes, we have compiled temperature and dimension data using a seven-year long time series of satellite data. Over 25 daytime and 40 nighttime clear thermal infrared (TIR) images (90 m resolution) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have recorded variations in the thermal activity at both volcanic vents since July 2000. All cloud-free ASTER TIR observations document persistent low- temperature features at both Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague during this period. The size and temperature of each thermal feature varies throughout the study period. The data show that the 2518 m summit of Pavlof Volcano is occasionally snow-free in early summer whereas neighboring peaks at lower elevations are still snow-clad. FLIR data acquired near the summit of Pavlof in 2004 show that the majority of warm ground was at 20°C to 40°C. These warm areas commonly persist snow-free into the winter. Temperature variations observed at Mt Hague crater usually correlate to the size of the ephemeral crater lake. As the lake grows, the pixel-integrated ASTER TIR temperature increases. Measurements

  15. East-Asia land surface emissivity maps generated from Terra/ASTER data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Urai, Minoru

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-spatial-resolution multispectral imager on the Terra satellite launched in December 1999. The ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) subsystem has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90 m in the TIR spectral region, which are used for generation of the standard products of surface temperature and surface spectral emissivity. High-resolution surface emissivity at five spectral bands is unique, and is particularly useful for geological mapping. However, the emissivity product is not always easy to use, because (1) its image size is about 60 km square which is not large enough for regional-scale studies, (2) its imaged area is not fixed to the world reference system (WRS) due to a flexible pointing system, and (3) standard atmospheric correction often fails under humid conditions. Thus, in order to improve the usability of the ASTER emissivity product, we are generating land surface emissivity maps in a regional scale by applying improved retrieval algorithms and stack/mosaic processing to an ASTER orthogonal projection dataset which have been produced from the ASTER data archives by the Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. In the present paper, we introduce East-Asia land surface emissivity maps as the first result of this project. A comparison study with MODIS monthly emissivity products (MOD11C3) indicates that the generated maps give more reasonable emissivity spectra with higher spatial resolution than the MODIS emissivity products, though the maps have missing pixels in high latitude areas and humid areas.

  16. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  17. Building a Massive Volcano Archive and the Development of a Tool for the Science Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has traditionally housed one of the world's largest databases of volcanic satellite imagery, the ASTER Volcano Archive (10Tb), making these data accessible online for public and scientific use. However, a series of changes in how satellite imagery is housed by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data Information System has meant that JPL has been unable to systematically maintain its database for the last several years. We have provided a fast, transparent, machine-to-machine client that has updated JPL's database and will keep it current in near real-time. The development of this client has also given us the capability to retrieve any data provided by NASA's Earth Observing System Clearinghouse (ECHO) that covers a volcanic event reported by U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). We will also provide a publicly available tool that interfaces with ECHO that can provide functionality not available in any of ECHO's Earth science discovery tools.

  18. ASTER Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  19. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  20. Temporal monitoring of radiative heat flux from the craters of Tendürek volcano (East Anatolia, Turkey) using ASTER satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2014-05-01

    Tendürek volcano is situated in the Eastern Anatolia near Turkish-Iranian border. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia and it is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive basalt flows. Tendürek is characterized by alkaline volcanism. Holocene and historical activity has been reported. Hydrothermal activity have been observed on the twin summit craters. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. In order to quantify and to determine a base value for the current thermal state of the volcano, we used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Four ASTER daytime and nighttime images have been used to calculate radiative heat flux from the craters. Heat flux calculations have been made using three nighttime images and a daytime image acquired in 2002, 2004, 2008 and 2012. Images have been atmospherically corrected, temperature and emissivity have been separated and Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated from 5 thermal bands. LST images have been topographically corrected. Heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. Maximum temperature anomalies observed were 9.0 °C and 15.9 °C for the western and eastern craters respectively. Heat flux is estimated between 14.4 and 25.2 W/m² at the western crater and between 16.5 and 49.4 W/m² at the eastern crater. These values are well correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes such as Yellowstone, Stromboli and Nisyros, whereas they are lower than that of observed at Vulcano.

  1. ASTER Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  2. ASTER Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  3. ASTER Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of the Andes along the Chile-Bolivia border, the visible and infrared data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color differences of the different materials. The scene is dominated by the Pampa Luxsar lava complex, occupying the upper right two-thirds of the scene. Lava flows are distributed around remnants of large dissected cones, the largest of which is Cerro Luxsar. On the middle left edge of the image are the Olca and Parumastrato volcanoes, which appear in blue due to a lack of vegetation (colored red in this composite). This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (37 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It was acquired on April 7, 2000.

    The image is located at 21 degrees south latitude, 68.3 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial

  4. ASTER Mexicali

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  5. ASTER Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  6. Estimating Thermal Energy Emission and Eruption Rates at Guatemalan Volcanoes Using Thermal Data From a FLIR Camera, ASTER and MODIS Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Kapelanczyk, L.; Colvin, A. S.; Matias, O.; Rose, W. I.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of thermal images taken with a Forward-Looking Infrared camera has allowed us to establish a baseline data set for three open vent volcanoes in Guatemala that vary in composition from dacite (Santiaguito) to basalt (Fuego and Pacaya). This allows for the evaluation of eruption rates using remote sensing and provides satellite thermal remote sensing validations. The field data were collected during two field trips in 2008. The Santiaguito data have been atmospherically corrected and analyzed to allow estimates of the emitted thermal energy and also the equivalent eruption rate (Rose, et al 2008). Using similar techniques, data from Pacaya volcano were analyzed to obtain estimated emission of thermal energy along with observations of vent morphology. The long term goal is to employ a variety of thermal remote sensing tools, including data comparison from ASTER and MODIS sources, in order to closely monitor eruption rates at open vent volcanoes, such as Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya. Ultimately, eruption rate estimates at these volcanoes may lead to improved hazard forecasts.

  7. ASTER Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples

  8. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) imager onboard the NASA Terra Spacecraft is a joint project of the Japanese Ministry for Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and NASA. ASTER has acquired over one million multi-spectral 60km by 60 km images of the earth over the last six years. It consists of three sub-instruments: (a) a four channel VNIR (0.52-0.86um) imager with a spatial resolution of 15m/pixel, including three nadir-viewing bands (1N, 2N, 3N) and one repeated rear-viewing band (3B) for stereo-photogrammetric terrain reconstruction (8-12m vertical resolution); (b) a SWIR (1.6-2.43um) imager with six bands at 30m/pixel; and (c) a TIR (8.125-11.65um) instrument with five bands at 90m/pixel. Returned data are processed in Japan at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) and at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS Center for Earth Resource Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Within the ASTER Project, the JPL Volcano Data Acquisition and Analyses System (VDAAS) houses over 60,000 ASTER volcano images of 1542 volcanoes worldwide and will be accessible for downloads by the general public and on-line image analyses by researchers in early 2007. VDAAS multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) de-correlation stretch products are optimized for volcanic ash detection and have a spatial resolution of 90m/pixel. Digital elevation models (DEM) stereo-photogrammetrically derived from ASTER Band 3B/3N data are also available within VDAAS at 15 and 30m/pixel horizontal resolution. Thus, ASTER visible, IR, and DEM data at 15-100m/pixel resolution within VDAAS can be combined to provide useful boundary conditions on local volcanic eruption plume location, composition, and altitude, as well as on topography of underlying terrain. During and after eruptions, low- altitude winds and ash transport can be affected by topography, and other orographic thermal and water vapor

  9. Detection of Low Temperature Volcanogenic Thermal Anomalies with ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Baxter, S.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting volcanic eruptions is a thorny problem, as volcanoes typically exhibit idiosyncratic waxing and/or waning pre-eruption emission, geodetic, and seismic behavior. It is no surprise that increasing our accuracy and precision in eruption prediction depends on assessing the time-progressions of all relevant precursor geophysical, geochemical, and geological phenomena, and on more frequently observing volcanoes when they become restless. The ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra Earth Observing System satellite in low earth orbit provides important capabilities in the area of detection of volcanogenic anomalies such as thermal precursors and increased passive gas emissions. Its unique high spatial resolution multi-spectral thermal IR imaging data (90m/pixel; 5 bands in the 8-12um region), bore-sighted with visible and near-IR imaging data, and combined with off-nadir pointing and stereo-photogrammetric capabilities make ASTER a potentially important volcanic precursor detection tool. We are utilizing the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) to systematically examine 80,000+ ASTER volcano images to analyze (a) thermal emission baseline behavior for over 1500 volcanoes worldwide, (b) the form and magnitude of time-dependent thermal emission variability for these volcanoes, and (c) the spatio-temporal limits of detection of pre-eruption temporal changes in thermal emission in the context of eruption precursor behavior. We are creating and analyzing a catalog of the magnitude, frequency, and distribution of volcano thermal signatures worldwide as observed from ASTER since 2000 at 90m/pixel. Of particular interest as eruption precursors are small low contrast thermal anomalies of low apparent absolute temperature (e.g., melt-water lakes, fumaroles, geysers, grossly sub-pixel hotspots), for which the signal-to-noise ratio may be marginal (e.g., scene confusion due to clouds, water and water vapor, fumarolic emissions, variegated ground emissivity, and

  10. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  11. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  12. Volcanoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, L. N. S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)

  13. Volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.

  14. Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilling, Robert I.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…

  15. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  16. ASTER Suez Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  17. IR Asterisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam

    2010-09-01

    Observing asterisms for photometric calibration provides a "happy medium" between observing single stars which areobservable from the ground but lack statistics, and star clusters which have excellent statistics but are too crowded to observe from the ground.Asterisms in the IR for calibration have been less available than in the optical, e.g., Landolt's standard fields.While ad-hoc asterisms for calibration could be formed from 2MASS calibration, the photometric precision of 2MASSis relatively low, 0.02-0.05, for the fainter stars, m=9-13, that can still be observed without saturation in WFC3-IR.However, IR monitoring of variable phenomena {e.g., AGN SNe, stellar variables} from the ground has produced calibration of stars in asterisms with m=9-13 with a relative uncertainty of 0.001 to 0.01 mag due to the high frequency of monitoring. We have selected 4 such asterisms to observe. Because the stars are bright we need to use subarrays of 64x64 or 128x128 to get read out short enough to avoid saturation. The observations are obtained in pairs of 3 close stars, i.e., 2x3=6 stars per orbit in F125W and F160W as well as a F555W full frame to verify astrometry. In all we expect to measure 24 stars with m=9 to 14. The goal is to provide 2 calibrations, an independent zeropoint and its uncertainty as well as a measure of count rate non linearity. For the latter, an expected CRNL over 2 dex {5 mag} is expected tobe 0.02 mag.

  18. NASA and USGS ASTER Expedited Satellite Data Services for Disaster Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Significant international disasters related to storms, floods, volcanoes, wildfires and numerous other themes reoccur annually, often inflicting widespread human suffering and fatalities with substantial economic consequences. During and immediately after such events it can be difficult to access the affected areas and become aware of the overall impacts, but insight on the spatial extent and effects can be gleaned from above through satellite images. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft has offered such views for over a decade. On short notice, ASTER continues to deliver analysts multispectral imagery at 15 m spatial resolution in near real-time to assist participating responders, emergency managers, and government officials in planning for such situations and in developing appropriate responses after they occur. The joint U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team has developed policies and procedures to ensure such ongoing support is accessible when needed. Processing and distribution of data products occurs at the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center in South Dakota. In addition to current imagery, the long-term ASTER mission has generated an extensive collection of nearly 2.5 million global 3,600 km2 scenes since the launch of Terra in late 1999. These are archived and distributed by LP DAAC and affiliates at Japan Space Systems in Tokyo. Advanced processing is performed to create higher level products of use to researchers. These include a global digital elevation model. Such pre-event imagery provides a comparative basis for use in detecting changes associated with disasters and to monitor land use trends to portray areas of increased risk. ASTER imagery acquired via the expedited collection and distribution process illustrates the utility and relevancy of such data in crisis situations.

  19. ASTER Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow are all visible in this image of Washington, D.C. With its 15-meter spatial resolution, ASTER can see individual buildings. Taken on June 1, 2000, this image covers an area 14 kilometers (8.5 miles) wide and 13.7 kilometers (8.2 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of visible and near infrared bands displays vegetation in red and water in dark grays. The Potomac River flows from the middle left to the bottom center. The large red area west of the river is Arlington National Cemetery.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands

  20. CALIPSO Borehole Instrumentation Project at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI: Data Acquisition, Telemetry, Integration, and Archival Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Malin, P. E.; Shalev, E.; Elsworth, D.; Hidayat, D.; Voight, B.; Young, S. R.; Dunkley, P. N.; Herd, R.; Norton, G.

    2003-12-01

    The CALIPSO Project (Caribbean Andesite Lava Island-volcano Precision Seismo-geodetic Observatory) has greatly enhanced the monitoring and scientific infrastructure at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat with the recent installation of an integrated array of borehole and surface geophysical instrumentation at four sites. Each site was designed to be sufficiently hardened to withstand extreme meteorological events (e.g. hurricanes) and only require minimum routine maintenance over an expected observatory lifespan of >30 y. The sensor package at each site includes: a single-component, very broad band, Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, a three-component seismometer ( ˜Hz to 1 kHz), a Pinnacle Technologies series 5000 tiltmeter, and a surface Ashtech u-Z CGPS station with choke ring antenna, SCIGN mount and radome. This instrument package is similar to that envisioned by the Plate Boundary Observatory for deployment on EarthScope target volcanoes in western North America and thus the CALIPSO Project may be considered a prototype PBO installation with real field testing on a very active and dangerous volcano. Borehole sites were installed in series and data acquisition began immediately after the sensors were grouted into position at 200 m depth, with the first completed at Trants (5.8 km from dome) in 12-02, then Air Studios (5.2 km), Geralds (9.4 km), and Olveston (7.0 km) in 3-03. Analog data from the strainmeter (50 Hz sync) and seismometer (200 Hz) were initially digitized and locally archived using RefTek 72A-07 data acquisition systems (DAS) on loan from the PASSCAL instrument pool. Data were downloaded manually to a laptop approximately every month from initial installation until August 2003, when new systems were installed. Approximately 0.2 Tb of raw data in SEGY format have already been acquired and are currently archived at UARK for analysis by the CALIPSO science team. The July 12th dome collapse and vulcanian explosion events were recorded at 3 of the 4

  1. Nyiragonga Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Nyiragonga volcano eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the volcano's summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the

  2. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  3. The ASTER Global Topographic Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Bailey, B.; Tsu, H.; Hato, M.

    2009-12-01

    The availability of an up-to-date, high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) has been a priority of the Earth observation community for a long time. Until now, the best publicly available global data set has been the 100 m SRTM topography, covering 60 degrees north to 57 degrees south latitude On June 29 Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) released the ASTER Global (GDEM) created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. ASTER is an imaging instrument built by METI and operating on the NASA Terra platform. ASTER has a backward- looking stereo band, producing stereo pairs in the near-infrared wavelength region; from these stereo pairs, DEMs with 30 m postings (1 arc-second) can be produced. The joint US/Japan ASTER Project completed a program to produce a global DEM (GDEM). The ASTER GDEM was created by stereo-correlating the entire 1,200,000-scene ASTER archive; stacking and averaging the individual DEMs; cloud screening; and filling voids or holes using SRTM 100 m or other data where available. An extensive validation program was completed prior to release of the GDEM. Validation of the GDEM involved comparisons against higher resolution DEMs worldwide by many organizations. Results indicate that globally, the GDEM meets the 20 m vertical accuracy requirement at the 95% confidence level. Accompanying each tile is another data plane indicating the number of individual DEMs that went into the stack, or identifying the data source used to fill the void. At the November 2007 GEO Ministerial Summit, NASA and METI were invited by GEO to contribute this global DEM to GEOSS. Both countries accepted the invitation. Consequently, the ASTER GDEM is offered at no charge to users worldwide. It is packaged in 1 degree-by-1 degree tiles, and covers the Earth’s land surfaces between 83 degree N and 83 degree S latitudes with

  4. ASTER Scheduling Prioritization Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    ASTER schedules are generated by an automated scheduling system. This scheduler will generate psuedo-optimal schedules based on a priority scheme. This priority scheme is controlled by the Science Team.

  5. ASTER: Imaging with antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, R.

    1988-01-01

    Antiprotons are of great promise in biomedical research and in practical biomedical and industrial applications. It is likely that antiprotons will be of far greater utility in the next century than x-rays have been in this century. Antiprotonic STEReography (ASTER), a 3-D photography-like imaging technique, is basic to most of the foreseen applications. This dissertation explores realistic models of ASTER analytically, numerically, and with computer simulations. It carries the understanding of ASTER further than previous work, and its models are adaptable to more powerful computers. In particular, ASTER is portrayed as a robust alternative to the ambiguities inherent in the imaging techniques used in x-ray computer tomography, CT. The scattering of the antiprotons lateral to their initial direction is the limiting factor in ASTERs ability to resolve fine anatomical details. This lateral scattering is calculated with a mathematical term ignored in previous studies, which overestimate the scattering of heavy charged particles in homogeneous media. Optimization techniques are explored and found to provide twice the resolution for a given radiation dose, and to reduce the needed detector size. Proper choice of orientation of the antiproton beam is shown to improve the resolution/dose ratio by an order of magnitude. Comparison of simulated ASTER scans with actual CT scans shows that ASTER imparts about one to two orders of magnitude less dose than that imparted by CT at comparable resolutions. The scanned targets include a random pattern. The target and the image are shown to be more correlated as the number of antiprotons used is increased. Finally, the future of ASTER is considered: further computer simulations are suggested, and implications for medicine and industry are discussed.

  6. AsTeRICS.

    PubMed

    Drajsajtl, Tomáš; Struk, Petr; Bednárová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    AsTeRICS - "The Assistive Technology Rapid Integration & Construction Set" is a construction set for assistive technologies which can be adapted to the motor abilities of end-users. AsTeRICS allows access to different devices such as PCs, cell phones and smart home devices, with all of them integrated in a platform adapted as much as possible to each user. People with motor disabilities in the upper limbs, with no cognitive impairment, no perceptual limitations (neither visual nor auditory) and with basic skills in using technologies such as PCs, cell phones, electronic agendas, etc. have available a flexible and adaptable technology which enables them to access the Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMI) on the standard desktop and beyond. AsTeRICS provides graphical model design tools, a middleware and hardware support for the creation of tailored AT-solutions involving bioelectric signal acquisition, Brain-/Neural Computer Interfaces, Computer-Vision techniques and standardized actuator and device controls and allows combining several off-the-shelf AT-devices in every desired combination. Novel, end-user ready solutions can be created and adapted via a graphical editor without additional programming efforts. The AsTeRICS open-source framework provides resources for utilization and extension of the system to developers and researches. AsTeRICS was developed by the AsTeRICS project and was partially funded by EC. PMID:23739379

  7. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  8. ASTER Images the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the Island of Hawaii were acquired on March 19, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Data are shown from the short wavelength and thermal infrared spectral regions, illustrating how different and complementary information is contained in different parts of the spectrum.

    Left image: This false-color image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 120 kilometers (75 miles) long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region. While, much of the island was covered in clouds, the dominant central Mauna Loa volcano, rising to an altitude of 4115 meters (13,500 feet), is cloud-free. Lava flows can be seen radiating from the central crater in green and black tones. As they reach lower elevations, the flows become covered with vegetation, and their image color changes to yellow and orange. Mauna Kea volcano to the north of Mauna Loa has a thin cloud-cover, producing a bluish tone on the image. The ocean in the lower right appears brown due to the color processing.

    Right image: This image is a false-color composite of three thermal infrared bands. The brightness of the colors is proportional to the temperature, and the hues display differences in rock composition. Clouds are black, because they are the coldest objects in the scene. The ocean and thick vegetation appear dark green because they are colder than bare rock surfaces, and have no thermal spectral features. Lava flows are shades of magenta, green, pink and yellow, reflecting chemical changes due to weathering and relative age differences.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  9. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  10. The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) -for societal benefit -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, M.; Tsu, H.; Tachikawa, T.; Abrams, M.; Bailey, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the agreement of contribution to GEOSS and a public release was started on June 29th. ASTER GDEM can be downloaded to users from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) free of charge. The ASTER instrument was built by METI and launched onboard NASA’s Terra spacecraft in December 1999. It has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its near infrared spectral band (NIR) and its nadir-viewing and backward-viewing telescopes to acquire stereo image data with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The ASTER GDEM was produced by applying newly-developed automated algorithm to more than 1.2 million NIR data Produced DEMs of all scene data was stacked after cloud masking and finally partitioned into 1° x 1°unit (called ‘tile’) data for convenience of distribution and handling by users. Before start of public distribution, ERSDAC and USGS/NASA together with many volunteers did validation and characterization by using a preliminary product of the ASTER GDEM. As a result of validation, METI and NASA evaluated that Version 1 of the ASTER GDEM has enough quality to be used as “experimental” or “research grade” data and consequently decided to release it. The ASTER GDEM covering almost all land area of from 83N to 83S on the earth represents as an important contribution to the global earth observation community. We will show our effort of development of ASTER GDEM and its accuracy and character.

  11. Concept of ASTER calibration requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The document of ASTER Calibration Requirement specifies the following items related to spectral and radiometric characteristics of the ASTER instrument: (1) characteristics whose knowledge is specified, (2) requirement for knowledge of the characteristics, (3) methodology for characteristics evaluation, and (4) supplementary information and data related with characteristics evaluation. This document is applicable to the document of the ASTER Instrument Specification on Observational Performances, and will be a part of the ASTER Calibration Plan. ASTER Calibration Requirement is scheduled to establish the concept and framework by March 1992 when the 5th Calibration and Data Validation Panel Meeting is held, and to determine details including requirement values and evaluation methodologies by October 1992 around which the Calibration Peer Review may be held. The ASTER Calibration Plan is planned to finish by the same time.

  12. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is

  13. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  14. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  15. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  16. ASTER DEM performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  17. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.; Hook, Simon J.; Nichols, David A.; Schier, Marguerite L.; Tsu, Hiroji

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a multispectral imaging radiometer scheduled to fly in Earth orbit in 1998 on NASA's Earth Observation System platform. The instrument will have 14 spectral bands from the visible to thermal infrared wavelength regions with high spectral and spatial resolution and with along-track stereoscopic capability. ASTER imagery will be used to study such phenomena as Earth surface properties, elements of the surface heat balance, cloud cover characteristics, glacier and sea ice extent, patterns of vegetation and land use, volcanoes, coral reefs and coastal processes, geology and topography, and hydrology. ASTER will have three separate radiometer subsystems, each with a swath width of 60 km. Any point on the globe will be accessible at least once every 16 days for the short wavelength infrared and thermal infrared subsystems, and once every five days for the visible and near infrared subsystem. Instrument and spacecraft resources are allocated to support an 8 percent average duty cycle, corresponding to over 700 60 by 60-km scenes per day. ASTER data will be acquired and processed according to specific user requirements over its five-year mission.

  18. Intercomparison Calibration Study of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Thome, K. J.; McCorkel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for the Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform - the Earth Observing System flagship. ASTER has a swath width of 60km with 8 bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15m (bands 1-3) and 90m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250m (bands 1-2), 500m (bands 3-7), and 1km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the 'zoom' lens and MODIS is the 'keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley Playa is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for the intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on averages of ground measurements of the test site.

  19. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  20. Remote sensing of volcanic plumes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, Lorna Alison

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) has been used to quantify SO2 emissions from passively degassing volcanoes. This dissertation explores ASTER's capability to detect SO 2 with satellite validation, enhancement techniques and extensive processing of images at a variety of volcanoes. ASTER is compared to the Mini UV Spectrometer (MUSe), a ground based instrument, to determine if reasonable SO2 fluxes can be quantified from a plume emitted from Lascar, Chile. The two sensors were in good agreement with ASTER proving to be a reliable detector of SO2. ASTER illustrated the advantages of imaging a plume in 2D, with better temporal resolution than the MUSe. SO2 plumes in ASTER imagery are not always discernible in the raw TIR data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Decorrelation Stretch (DCS) enhancement techniques were compared to determine how well they highlight a variety of volcanic plumes. DCS produced a consistent output and the composition of the plumes was easy to identify from explosive eruptions. As the plumes became smaller and lower in altitude they became harder to distinguish using DCS. PCA proved to be better at identifying smaller low altitude plumes. ASTER was used to investigate SO2 emissions at Lascar, Chile. Activity at Lascar has been characterized by cyclic behavior and persistent degassing (Matthews et al. 1997). Previous studies at Lascar have primarily focused on changes in thermal infrared anomalies, neglecting gas emissions. Using the SO2 data along with changes in thermal anomalies and visual observations it is evident that Lascar is at the end an eruptive cycle that began in 1993. Declining gas emissions and crater temperatures suggest that the conduit is sealing. ASTER and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used to determine the annual contribution of SO2 to the troposphere from the Central and South American volcanic arcs between 2000 and 2011. Fluxes of 3.4 Tg/a for Central America and 3

  1. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A

  2. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  3. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. An assessment of ASTER surface reflectance products generated by GEO Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kamei, Akihide; Moriyama, Masao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The GEO Grid is an e-infrastructure, which is capable in archiving large amount of satellite data and conducting higher level processing using the advanced grid technologies.1 The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Level 0 data are stored in a cluster system on GEO Grid, and ASTER ortho-rectified radiance and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) products are able to be generated on this system globally since 2000. This research shows validation of new ASTER surface reflectance products generated by the GEO Grid system, which can apply the radiometric and atmospheric correction to ASTER ortho-rectified radiance data of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR).

  5. Size scaling of microtubule asters in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, James; Field, Christine; Krutkramelis, Kaspars; Fakhri, Nikta; Oakey, John; Gatlin, Jay; Mitchison, Timothy

    Microtubule asters are radial arrays of microtubules (MTs) nucleated around organizing centers (MTOCs). Across a wide range of cell types and sizes, aster positioning influences cellular organization. To investigate aster size and positioning, we reconstituted dynamic asters in Xenopus cytoplasmic extract, confined in fluorous oil microfluidic emulsions. In large droplets, we observed centering of MTOCs. In small droplets, we observed a breakdown in natural positioning, with MTOCs at the droplet edge and buckled or bundled MTs along the interface. In different systems, asters are positioned by different forces, such as pushing due to MT polymerization, or pulling due to bulk or cortical dynein. To estimate different contributions to aster positioning, we biochemically perturbed dynactin function, or MT or actin polymerization. We used carbon nanotubes to measure molecular motions and forces in asters. These experimental results inform quantitative biophysical models of aster size and positioning in confinement. JFP was supported by a Fannie and John Hertz Graduate Fellowship.

  6. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM

  7. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  8. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  9. Recent Release of the ASTER Global DEM Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Hall, A.; Meyer, D.; Sohre, T.; Doescher, C.

    2009-12-01

    On June 29th, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) release was announced to the public and to a very eager audience. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). ASTER is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan's Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). On June 21, NASA Headquarters along with colleagues in Japan (METI) signed a plan for distribution of this product. The global digital elevation model of Earth is available online to users everywhere at no cost from NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Sioux Falls, SD. The DAAC is a joint project of NASA and the USGS and is a key component of NASA's EOSDIS. The new ASTER GDEM was created from nearly 1.3 million individual stereo-pair images acquired by the Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Aster) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. The ASTER elevation model was jointly developed by NASA and METI under contract to Sensor Information Laboratory Corp., Tsukuba, Japan. On June 29, the NASA press release was picked up quickly by numerous news organizations and online sites. Response to the product was incredible! The news of the release of the product was carried on websites across the globe, this fueled a tremendous response from users. Here are a few interesting metrics about the release: - over 41,000 unique visitors to website in first week following release - top countries in order were: US (approx. 20%), Germany, U.K., Brazil, Austria, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Japan - approximately 29,000 visitors came to the news page in the first week and about 11,000 of these users downloaded the actual press release - by the end of August, over 2 Million ASTER GDEM files had been downloaded from the Land

  10. Prospecting from Space Using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    15 meter resolution Visible and Near Infrared image (1.2 MB) 30 meter resolution Shortwave Infrared image (1 MB) 90 meter Thermal Infrared image (628 KB) These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER is the highest resolution instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The images cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the information gained by looking at the Earth's surface in different wavelengths of light. The top image displays visible and near infrared bands 3 (.81um), 2 (.56um), and 1 (.66um) in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow, and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. The middle image displays short wavelength infrared bands 4 (1.65um), 6 (2.205um), and 8 (2.33um) as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have unique absorption features, resulting in distinct colors in the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich (kaolinite is a clay mineral). The bottom image displays thermal infrared bands 13 (10.6um), 12 (9.1um) and 10 (8.3um) as RGB. In these wavelengths, variations in quartz content are more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple (mafic rocks have high proportions of elements like magnesium and iron). ASTER's ability to identify different types of rock and soil from space using thermal infrared wavelengths of light is one of its unique capabilities. Image courtesy NASA, GSFC, MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Measuring volcanic degassing of SO 2 in the lower troposphere with ASTER band ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Robin; Salerno, Giuseppe Giovanni; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clarisse, Lieven; Kazahaya, Kohei; Burton, Michael; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Clerbaux, Cathy; Bernard, Alain

    2010-07-01

    We present a new method for measuring SO 2 with the data from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance radiometer) orbital sensor. The method consists of adjusting the SO 2 column amount until the ratios of radiance simulated on several ASTER bands match the observations. We present a sensitivity analysis for this method, and two case studies. The sensitivity analysis shows that the selected band ratios depend much less on atmospheric humidity, sulfate aerosols, surface altitude and emissivity than the raw radiances. Measurements with < 25% relative precision are achieved, but only when the thermal contrast between the plume and the underlying surface is higher than 10 K. For the case studies we focused on Miyakejima and Etna, two volcanoes where SO 2 is measured regularly by COSPEC or scanning DOAS. The SO 2 fluxes computed from a series of ten images of Miyakejima over the period 2000-2002 is in agreement with the long term trend of measurement for this volcano. On Etna, we compared SO 2 column amounts measured by ASTER with those acquired simultaneously by ground-based automated scanning DOAS. The column amounts compare quite well, providing a more rigorous validation of the method. The SO 2 maps retrieved with ASTER can provide quantitative insights into the 2D structure of non-eruptive volcanic plumes, their dispersion and their progressive depletion in SO 2.

  12. Radiometric cross-calibration of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Karen; Thome, Kurt; McCorkel, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform. ASTER has a swath width of 60 km with 8 spectral bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15-m (bands 1-3) and 90-m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300 km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), and 1 km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the `zoom' lens and MODIS is the `keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and the current work relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for an intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on seasonal averages of EO-1 Hyperion spectral range. Results indicate that the calibrated radiance products from the two sensors agree to within the

  13. The ASTER Data System: An Overview of the Data Products in Japan and in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Bailey, Bryan; Duda, Kenneth; Kannari, Yoshiaki; Miura, Akira; Ramachandran, Bhaskar

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data system is a cooperative system, which is operated jointly by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) through its Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC), and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) primarily through its Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). ASTER is a moderate-resolution land remote sensing system onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft. ASTER-acquired data are received at the White Sands, New Mexico, ground receiving station, and then transmitted via land network to the EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) within the Goddard DAAC, located at the GSFC. EDOS pre-processes raw ASTER data to Level-0 (L0) data, and sends them via the high-speed Asia-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN) to the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) in Japan. ASTER GDS processes the L0 data to level-1 (L1) datasets; they distribute these data to users, and also use them to generate higher-level products for their user community. ASTER GDS sends a copy of all L1A data they produce to NASA's LP DAAC, located at the U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. All L1 data received from Japan are ingested, archived, and available for users at LP DAAC. The LP DAAC also generates and distributes higher-level products from L1 data based on requests from users. To meet time-critical needs related to sensor health and performance, natural disasters, national emergencies, and certain field campaigns, the ASTER Expedited Data System (EDS) was developed, and is operated jointly by U.S. and Japanese partners.

  14. Geometric validation plan for ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1998-12-01

    The ASTER system is a multispectral imager which covers a spectral range from visible to thermal infrared light by combining three subsystems composed of four telescopes. To ensure the high-quality data products concerning to the geolocation and band-to-band matching performance, the geometric registration is needed. This paper describes the geometric validation procedure for a multi-telescope imager with a cross-track pointing function. The strategy for the maintenance of database files and the preparation a GCP library is also shown.

  15. ASTER THERMAL INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OVER NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than a dozen clear sky ASTER scenes over the Jornada, New Mexico LTER site have been acquired since the launch of NASA's Terra satellite in December, 1999. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has 5 channels in the 8 to 12 micrometer wave band with ...

  16. Comparison of ASTER TOA Radiance with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Hiroto; Iwasaki, Akira

    Synergistic fusion of multi-resolution remote sensing images is important to data users that require observation frequency, spatial resolution and observation wavelength. However, it requires compatibility of these data products. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiances of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and it is found that the sensitivity of MODIS is slightly higher and that the ASTER radiance is higher at the lower reflectance regions. ASTER suffers from stray light phenomena because of the nature of a pushbroom sensor, which stands out for SWIR. In contrast, MODIS is free from ghost phenomena in reflective bands, although existence of stray light is known in thermal bands. In this work, correction of stray light in ASTER is carried out using MODIS images with a wider swath, which makes the correction of full scene of ASTER images.

  17. ASTER, a multinational Earth observing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Graham W.; Geller, Gary N.; Larson, Steven A.; Morrison, Andrew D.; Nichols, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a facility instrument selected for launch in 1998 on the first in a series of spacecraft for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The ASTER instrument is being sponsored and built in Japan. It is a three telescope, high spatial resolution imaging instrument with 15 spectral bands covering the visible through to the thermal infrared. It will play a significant role within EOS providing geological, biological, land hydrological information necessary for intense study of the Earth. The operational capabilities for ASTER, including the necessary interfaces and operational collaborations between the US and Japanese participants, are under development. EOS operations are the responsibility of the EOS Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Although the primary EOS control center is at GSFC, the ASTER control facility will be in Japan. Other aspects of ASTER are discussed.

  18. Nicaraguan Volcanoes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  19. Measurements of volcanic SO2 with ASTER. Comparison with automated scanning DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, R. A.; Salerno, G. G.; Bernard, A. M.; Burton, M.; Coheur, P.; Caltabiano, T.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by volcanoes has an important impact on the environment and climate and is also a critical parameter for volcano monitoring. A number of satellites operating in the ultra violet and in the Thermal infrared can measure SO2. However a lot of work has still to be done towards a rigorous validation of SO2 measurements from space. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection radiometer) acquires images in the thermal infrared (TIR) with a resolution of 90m/pixel, which enables to quantify the SO2 fluxes emitted in small-scale tropospheric plumes. ASTER images are processed with radiative transfer simulations and a band ratio algorithm to produce maps of SO2 column amounts. The band ratios (B10+B12)/B11 and B14/B11 are used for their insensitivity to variations in ground altitude and atmospheric humidity, two variables that often complicate SO2 retrievals in the TIR. Their sensitivity to surface emissivity is also reduced. So far, the ground validation of satellite SO2 measurements has been complex due to logistics difficulties and the lack of strictly simultaneous measurements. Recently the development of permanent networks of scanning DOAS on several active volcanoes has provide a wealth of ground based SO2 measurements that can be exploited for validating satellite-based measurements. We will present the results of comparisons between SO2 Column Amount (CA) and fluxes measured by ASTER and by the FLAME network of Mt. Etna. The two independent measurements sets are in good agreement in magnitude. Fluxes range from 2000 to 5000 T/days and column amounts from 0 to 4 g/m2. CAs measured by ASTER present a 0.5g/m2 random dispersion and no systematic bias compared to DOAS measurements. However the CAs measured by DOAS are subject to increase at low-scanning angles. These results constitute a rigorous ground validation of ASTER SO2, and provides valuable insights into accuracy and precision on both methodologies. Figure 1: Comparison

  20. Asterism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A readily recognizable group or arrangement of (usually bright) stars, which are not necessarily members of a single constellation. Well-known examples are the Plough (part of the constellation Ursa Major), and the False Cross, the Summer Triangle and the Square of Pegasus, all of which comprise stars from more than one constellation. The term is also occasionally used to denote a close group of ...

  1. Evapotranspiration estimates using ASTER thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Kustas, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of multi-band thermal infrared imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite has made feasible the estimation of evapotranspiration at 90 meter resolution. One critical variable in evapotranspiration models is surface temperature. With ASTER the temperature can be reliably determined over a wide range of vegetative conditions. The requirements for accurate temperature measurement include minimization of atmospheric effects, correction for surface emissivity variations and sufficient resolution for the type of vegetative cover. When ASTER imagery are combined with meteorological observations, these requirements are usually met and result in surface temperatures accurate within 1-2 C. ASTER-based evapotranspiration estimates were made during September 2000 over a sub-humid regions at the USDA/ARS Grazinglands research laboratory near El Reno in central Oklahoma. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated by applying instantaneous ASTER surface temperatures, as well as ASTER-based vegetation indices from visible-near infrared bands, to a two-source energy flux model and combining the result with separately acquired hourly solar radiation data. The estimates of surface fluxes show reasonable agreement (within 50-100 W/m2) with ground-based Bowen Ratio Energy Balance measurements and illustrate how ASTER measurements can be applied to heterogeneous terrain. There are some significant discrepancies, however, and these may in part be due to difficulty quantifying fractional cover of senescent vegetation.

  2. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Davies, Ashley G.; Schneider, David J.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 °C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 °C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  3. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R.G.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Schneider, D.J.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 ??C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 ??C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  4. Correlation Between Landforms And Ground Deformation At Nisyros Volcano (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camiz, S.; Papageorgiou, E.; Poscollieri, M.; Parcharidis, Is.

    2013-12-01

    Relief represents a major element in the characterization of a landscape that can be affected even by slight modifications on its shape, often due to ground deformation. These terrain characteristics are both linked to the topography of a given area, through a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Topographical attributes, such as slope, aspect, elevation gradients, and others, can be provided by DEM analysis and used further as input to classification methods for defining terrain units. In this study, we explore the relationship between ground deformation and landforms in Nisyros volcano, as ground deformation seems to follow existing geomorphological patterns. Possible correlations between morphological information, collected by classifying landforms on the basis of the ~30 m spatial resolution ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model, and deformation observations resulting from Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) are performed, taking also into consideration the geostructural setting of the study area. Nisyros volcano, located at the eastern part of the active Hellenic Volcanic Arc, was investigated for the time period 2002-2010, during a dormant phase where the topography is mostly described by the geological/tectonic structure. In terms of DInSAR technique, the entire archive of ENVISAT images was used, in both ascending and descending mode, to derive the deformation rates. For the geomorphic consideration Tandem Analysis was implemented through a mixed classification procedure following a principal component analysis applied to local elevation gradients, extracted considering each pixel of the DEM and its nearest neighbours. The projection of the DInSAR results on the obtained factor spaces allows evaluating the homogeneity of the deformation in the pixels belonging to the same classes.

  5. Theoretical validation of ASTER_SW algorithm used for the monitoring of hot volcanic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.; Campion, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic lakes act as calorimeters trapping most of the heat released by the magmatic-hydrothermal system. Their temperatures are reflecting the balance between heat input from hydrothermal fluids and heat output by radiation and evaporation of the lake surface to the atmosphere. The lake surface temperature is one of the key parameters used to detect any changes occurring in the activity of the volcano. Many volcanic lakes are located in remote areas with difficult accessibility; these lakes are rarely visited or monitored. For these lakes remote sensing by satellite sensors can provide very useful information at relatively low cost. To retrieve surface temperatures of volcanic lakes, ASTER TIR images were analyzed with a recently developed algorithm based on a Split-Window method: ASTER_SW. The difference in brightness temperatures between bands 13 and 14 (BT13-BT14) is used to remove the atmospheric effects. The use of two TIR channels enables a differential absorption measurement in order to remove the effects of atmospheric vapor and other absorbing constituents. Further validation of the ASTER_SW algorithm was completed by applying it to a set of radiance simulations using a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Atmosphit). Parameters used for the simulations included: surface temperatures, atmospheric models and surface altitudes. The obtained spectra were integrated on the spectral response functions of ASTER and converted with the inverse of Planck’s law to get the Simulated Brightness Temperatures (SBT). The ASTER_SW algorithm was applied to the SBT. The coherence between ASTER_SW-derived temperatures and model surface temperatures was examined to test the validity and robustness of the algorithm. ASTER_SW proved to be accurate in most circumstances, revealing no systematic bias in any peculiar atmosphere or altitude. However, for very warm lakes (T>50°C), a small dependency on surface altitude is appearing in tropical atmospheres. The low frequency of

  6. Design and performance of ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1995-12-01

    ASTER is an advanced multispectral imager with high spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions for EOS-AM1 spacecraft which will be launched with four other instruments in June 1998. The ASTER instrument covers a wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared by 14 spectral bands. To meet a wide spectral coverage, optical sensing units of ASTER are separated into three subsystems, that is the visible and near infrared subsystem, the short wave infrared subsystem and the thermal infrared subsystem, depending on spectral region. Moreover, ASTER has an in-track stereoscopic viewing capability by a near infrared band. To acquire the stereo data the VNIR subsystem has two telescopes for the nadir and backward viewings. Several new technologies are adopted as design challenges to realize the high performance. The validity of these new technologies is verified through the evaluation of the engineering model.

  7. EOS ASTER thermal infrared band vicarious calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F.; Tonooka, H.; Hook, S.; Abtahi, A.; Alley, R.; Thompson, T.; Hoover, G.; Zadourian, S.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of the 5 EOS ASTER instrument emission bands (90 m pixels at surface) is being checked during the operational life of the mission using field measurements simultaneous with the image acquisition.

  8. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  9. Stereo Image of Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. This anaglyph stereo image is of Mt Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 15,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. A 3-D view can be obtained by looking through stereo glasses, with the blue film through your left eye and red film with your right eye at the same time. North is on your right hand side. For more information, see When Rivers of Rock Flow ASTER web page Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Chikurachki Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... plume from the April 22, 2003, eruption of the Chikurachki volcano is portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle Imaging ... the volcanically active Kuril Island group, the Chikurachki volcano is an active stratovolcano on Russia's Paramushir Island (just south of ...

  11. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  12. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  13. Shape-motion relationships of centering microtubule asters.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Kimura, Akatsuki; Minc, Nicolas

    2016-03-28

    Although mechanisms that contribute to microtubule (MT) aster positioning have been extensively studied, still little is known on how asters move inside cells to faithfully target a cellular location. Here, we study sperm aster centration in sea urchin eggs, as a stereotypical large-scale aster movement with extreme constraints on centering speed and precision. By tracking three-dimensional aster centration dynamics in eggs with manipulated shapes, we show that aster geometry resulting from MT growth and interaction with cell boundaries dictates aster instantaneous directionality, yielding cell shape-dependent centering trajectories. Aster laser surgery and modeling suggest that dynein-dependent MT cytoplasmic pulling forces that scale to MT length function to convert aster geometry into directionality. In contrast, aster speed remains largely independent of aster size, shape, or absolute dynein activity, which suggests it may be predominantly determined by aster growth rate rather than MT force amplitude. These studies begin to define the geometrical principles that control aster movements. PMID:27022090

  14. Factors influencing aster leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) abundance and aster yellows phytoplasma infectivity in Wisconsin carrot fields.

    PubMed

    Frost, K E; Esker, P D; Van Haren, R; Kotolski, L; Groves, R L

    2013-06-01

    In Wisconsin, vegetable crops are threatened annually by infection of the aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), the causal agent of aster yellows (AY) disease, vectored by the aster leafhopper, Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes. Aster leafhopper abundance and infectivity are influenced by processes operating across different temporal and spatial scales. We applied a multilevel modeling approach to partition variance in multifield, multiyear, pest scouting data sets containing temporal and spatial covariates associated with aster leafhopper abundance and infectivity. Our intent was to evaluate the relative importance of temporal and spatial covariates to infer the relevant scale at which ecological processes are driving AY epidemics and identify periods of elevated risk for AYp spread. The relative amount of aster leafhopper variability among and within years (39%) exceeded estimates of variation among farm locations and fields (7%). Similarly, time covariates explained the largest amount of variation of aster leafhopper infectivity (50%). Leafhopper abundance has been decreasing since 2001 and reached its minimum in 2010. The average seasonal pattern indicated that periods of above average abundance occurred between 11 June and 1 August. Annual infectivity appears to oscillate around an average value of 2% and seasonal periods of above average infectivity occur between 19 May and 15 July. The coincidence of the expected periods of high leafhopper abundance and infectivity increases our knowledge of when the insect moves into susceptible crop fields and when it spreads the pathogen to susceptible crops, representing a seasonal interval during which management of the insect can be focused. PMID:23726057

  15. The Eruptive Behavior of Klyuchevskoy Volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S.; Ramsey, M.

    2008-12-01

    Klyuchevskoy volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the northern Pacific, is located on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia at the junction between the Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian Island Arcs. Its remote location and diversity of eruption styles make satellite-based monitoring and characterization of its eruptive activity essential. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor was launched in December 1999 on the NASA Terra satellite and has proven effective for the detection and monitoring of volcanic eruptions and their associated products. The goal of this investigation is to determine how well data from a broad spectral range at spatial resolutions under 100m/pixel can be used to characterize the 2005 and 2007 eruptions of a remote volcano during the harsh northern Pacific winter. The ASTER data presented here are supplemented by hand samples collected from the 2005 basaltic lava flows as well as high-spatial resolution thermal infrared data collected by a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera during field campaigns in August 2005 and 2007. Collectively, these data provide details regarding the composition, eruption rate, and eruptive mechanisms. Analysis of the data from all three ASTER subsystems reveals four main eruptive phases: a precursory, explosive, explosive-effusive, and cooling phase. These phases correlate to a gradual increase in maximum brightness temperatures followed by a rapid decrease. Close examination of FLIR data and digital photographs reveal the presence of a breakout point approximately 90 m below the rim of the nested summit crater, indicating a flow had breached the nested crater and traveled down the Krestovsky channel during both eruptions. Laboratory- derived TIR spectral data of the 2005 hand samples indicate good agreement with those obtained by ASTER after being reduced to the same spectral resolution. However, inherent errors of the spectra at longer wavelength indicate the

  16. Dante's volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  17. Dante's Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  18. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  19. Software For Generation Of ASTER Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander T.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Voge, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    Software functioning in EOS-DIS computing environment developed to generate data products from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Processes high-resolution image data from visible and near infrared (VNIR), short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR) radiometric readings to generate data on radiative and thermal properties of atmosphere and surface of Earth.

  20. The ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED): Mapping Earth's emissivity at 100 meter spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Abbott, Elsa; Malakar, Nabin; Islam, Tanvir; Abrams, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data, acquired by instruments on several NASA satellite platforms, are primarily used to estimate the surface temperature/emissivity of the Earth's land surface. One such instrument launched on NASA's Terra satellite in 1999 is the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has a spatial resolution of 90 m. Using ASTER data, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory recently released the most detailed emissivity map of the Earth termed the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED) that was acquired by processing millions of cloud free ASTER scenes from 2000 to 2008. The ASTER GEDv3 provides an average emissivity at ~100 m and ~1 km, while GEDv4 provides a monthly emissivity from 2000 to 2015 at ~5 km spatial resolution in the wavelength range between 8 and 12 µm. Validation with lab spectra from four desert sites resulted in an average absolute band error of ~1%, compared to current heritage MODIS products that had average absolute errors of 2.4% (Collection 4) and 4.6% (Collection 5).

  1. Spreading Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Andrea; Delaney, Paul T.; Denlinger, Roger P.

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  2. Spreading volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgia, A.; Delaney, P.T.; Denlinger, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  3. Chilean Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the border between Chile and the Catamarca province of Argentina lies a vast field of currently dormant volcanoes. Over time, these volcanoes have laid down a crust of magma roughly 2 miles (3.5 km) thick. It is tinged with a patina of various colors that can indicate both the age and mineral content of the original lava flows. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 15, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Using infrared spectroscopy and satellite data to accurately monitor remote volcanoes and map their eruptive products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to detect the onset of new activity at a remote volcano commonly relies on high temporal resolution thermal infrared (TIR) satellite-based observations. These observations from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS are being used in innovative ways to produce trends of activity, which are critical for hazard response planning and scientific modeling. Such data are excellent for detection of new thermal features, volcanic plumes, and tracking changes over the hour time scale, for example. For some remote volcanoes, the lack of ground-based monitoring typically means that these sensors provide the first and only confirmation of renewed activity. However, what is lacking is the context of the higher spatial scale, which provides the volcanologist with meter-scale information on specific temperatures and changes in the composition and texture of the eruptive products. For the past eleven years, the joint US-Japanese ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based data of volcanic eruptions around the world, including in the remote northern Pacific region. There have been more ASTER observations of Kamchatka volcanoes than any other location on the globe due mainly to an operational program put into place in 2004. Automated hot spot alarms from AVHRR data trigger ASTER acquisitions using the instrument's "rapid response" mode. Specifically for Kamchatka, this program has resulted in more than 700 additional ASTER images of the most thermally-active volcanoes (e.g., Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Karymsky, Bezymianny). The scientific results from this program at these volcanoes will be highlighted. These results were strengthened by several field seasons used to map new products, collect samples for laboratory-based spectroscopy, and acquire TIR camera data. The fusion of ground, laboratory and space-based spectroscopy provided the most accurate interpretation of the eruptions and laid the ground work for future VSWIR/TIR sensors such as HyspIRI, which are a critically

  5. The use of EO Optical data for the Italian Supersites volcanoes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Malvina

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the INGV experience in the capability to import many different EO optical data into in house developed systems and to maintain a repository where the acquired data have been stored. These data are used for generating selected products which are functional to face the different volcanic activity phases. Examples on the processing of long time series based EO data of Mt Etna activity and Campi Flegrei observation by using remote sensing techniques and at different spatial resolution data (ASTER - 90mt, AVHRR -1km, MODIS-1km, MSG SEVIRI-3km) are also showed. Both volcanoes belong to Italian Supersites initiative of the geohazard scientific community. In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), this work wants to describe the main activities concerning the generation of brightness temperature map from the satellite data acquired in real-time from INGV MEOS Multi-mission Antenna (for MODIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and geostationary satellite data) and AVHRR-TERASCAN (for AVHRR, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data). The advantage of direct download of EO data by means INGV antennas (with particular attention to AVHRR and MODIS) even though low spatial resolution offers the possibility of a systematic data processing having a daily updating of information for prompt response and hazard mitigation. At the same time it has been necessary the use of large archives to inventory and monitor dynamic and dangerous phenomena, like volcanic activity, globally.

  6. Iceland Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    ... of which are so thick that they block the penetration of light from CALIPSO's lidar to the surface. The yellow layer near the surface over France is believed to be primarily air pollution, but could also contain ash from the volcano. Highlighting its ...

  7. EOSDIS support for the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, David A.; Schwaller, Matthew; Pniel, Moshe; Geller, Gary

    1995-12-01

    The end-to-end ground data system supporting the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) consists of elements provided by both Japan ASTER Ground Data System and the highly distributed Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). These two systems must interoperate to provide complex mission operations support and process high-rate (approximately 8 Megabits/sec) data into standard level 1, level 2 and higher data products. The EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) will provide ground data capture, rate buffering, and level 0 data processing. The EOS Operations Center will provide the operational interface between the Japanese Instrument Control Center and the spacecraft and will monitor the instrument health and safety. The Land Processes Distributed active Archive Center (DAAC) at the EROS Data Center will produce higher-level products based on software provided by the ASTER Science Team and systems provided by the EOSDIS Core System. Higher-level data product quality assurance, as well as U. S. Science Team support for instrument scheduling, will be performed at a science computing facility located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. All of these elements are being developed together to assure that this international mission produces data which will serve the needs of the science community.

  8. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  9. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  10. Onboard calibration status of the ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-11-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking images since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the detector temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth images of good quality. VNIR and TIR experienced responsivity degradation while SWIR showed little change. Band 1 (0.56 μm) decreased most among three VNIR bands and 30 % in twelve years. Band 12 (9.1 μm) decreased 40 % and most among five TIR bands. There are some discussions of the causes of the responsivity degradation of VNIR and TIR. Possible causes are contamination accretion by silicone outgas, thruster plume and plasma interaction. We marked hydrazine which comes out unburned in the thruster plume during the inclination adjust maneuver (IAM). Hydrazine has the absorption spectra corresponding to the TIR responsivity degradation in the infrared region. We studied the IAM effect on the ASTER by allocating the additional onboard calibration activities just before and after the IAM while the normal onboard calibration activity is operated once in 49 days. This experiment was carried out three times in fiscal year 2011.

  11. Current Activity of the U.S. ASTER Science Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Abrams, M. J.; Hook, S. J.; Pieri, D. C.; Ramsey, M.; Rowan, L. C.; Schmugge, T.; Wessels, R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. ASTER Science Team is currently engaged in numerous ASTER related activities, many of them jointly with our Japanese colleagues. These include vicarious instrument calibration, algorithm development and validation for higher level data products, assistance to ERSDAC for scheduling activities (primarily for U.S. users), assistance to data users other than Science Team members, and science applications of ASTER data, notably in the areas of glacial monitoring, volcanic monitoring, heat balance determinations, geologic mapping, and cloud studies.

  12. Variation in Aster Yellows Phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma Asteris) Titer in its Insect Vector, Macrosteles Quadrilineatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in aster yellows phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) titer in its insect vector, Macrosteles quadrilineatus The aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp) is transmitted by the aster leafhopper (ALH), or Macrosteles quadrilineatus, in a persistent and propagative manner. To study AYp replic...

  13. Santorini Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  14. SAR4Volcanoes: an international ASI funded research project on volcano deformation through new generation SAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansosti, E.; Pepe, S.; Solaro, G.; Casu, F.; Tizzani, P.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.; Nobile, A.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Zoffoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Volcano deformation monitoring is crucial to understand how magma emplaces, propagates and erupts. Therefore, volcano deformation research projects are particularly important opportunities to improve our understanding of volcano dynamics. SAR4Volcanoes is a 2-year research project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) within the framework of a cooperation agreement with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It focuses on volcano deformation analysis through Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques by means of COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS data, through the joint use of L-band and X-band SAR data. It also aims to the identification of methods and techniques to support decision making in emergency cases. Main target volcanoes in the projects are Etna, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Stromboli (Italy) and Sakurajima and Kirishima (Japan). Secondary target volcanoes include recently or currently erupting volcanoes, as El Hierro (Spain), Nabro (Ethiopia) and Galapagos volcanoes (Ecuador). Since the project kickoff (July 2011) a large number of COSMO-SkyMed data has been acquired at these volcanoes; in some cases, the acquisitions are available almost at every satellite orbit, with an average interval down to 4 days. On these premises, the project represents an important opportunity to: (1) collect a significant amount of X-band data on active and erupting volcanoes and (2) study surface deformation to understand magma dynamics in different volcanic settings. We will present preliminary results on the ground deformation analysis of the main and secondary target volcanoes. In particular, target volcanoes without a pre-project archive are analyzed using single deformation maps, while those with archives are analysed through a time series approach, based on the SBAS technique.

  15. Volcanic hotspots of the central and southern Andes as seen from space by ASTER and MODVOLC between the years 2000-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Mares, P. J.; Mnich, M. E.; Welch, M. D.; Melkonian, A. K.; Aguilera, F.; Naranjo, J.; Sunagua, M.; Clavero, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    We examine 153 volcanoes and geothermal areas in the central, southern, and austral Andes for temperature anomalies between 2000-2011 from two different spacebourne sensors: 1) those automatically detected by the MODVOLC algorithm (Wright et al., 2004) from MODIS and 2) manually identified hotspots in nighttime images from ASTER. Based on previous work, we expected to find 8 thermal anomalies (volcanoes: Ubinas, Villarrica, Copahue, Láscar, Llaima, Chaitén, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chiliques). We document 31 volcanic areas with pixel integrated temperatures of 4 to more than 100 K above background in at least two images, and another 29 areas that have questionable hotspots with either smaller anomalies or a hotspot in only one image. Most of the thermal anomalies are related to known activity (lava and pyroclastic flows, growing lava domes, fumaroles, and lakes) while others are of unknown origin or reflect activity at volcanoes that were not thought to be active. A handful of volcanoes exhibit temporal variations in the magnitude and location of their temperature anomaly that can be related to both documented and undocumented pulses of activity. Our survey reveals that low amplitude volcanic hotspots detectable from space are more common than expected (based on lower resolution data) and that these features could be more widely used to monitor changes in the activity of remote volcanoes. We find that the shape, size, magnitude, and location on the volcano of the thermal anomaly vary significantly from volcano to volcano, and these variations should be considered when developing algorithms for hotspot identification and detection. We compare our thermal results to satellite InSAR measurements of volcanic deformation and find that there is no simple relationship between deformation and thermal anomalies - while 31 volcanoes have continuous hotspots, at least 17 volcanoes in the same area have exhibited deformation, and these lists do not completely overlap. In

  16. ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISK (ASTER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASTER (ASsessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk) was developed by the U.S. EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division - Duluth (MED-Duluth) to assist regulators in performing ecological risk assessments. ASTER is an integration of the AQUIRE (AQUatic toxicity Information REtrieval) to...

  17. Real-Time Data Received from Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, Richard; McIntosh, William; Kyle, Philip; Esser, Richard; Bartel, Beth Ann; Dunbar, Nelia; Johns, Bjorn; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Karstens, Richard; Kurnik, Chuck; McGowan, Murray; McNamara, Sara; Meertens, Chuck; Pauley, Bruce; Richmond, Matt; Ruiz, Mario

    2004-03-01

    Internal and eruptive volcano processes involve complex interactions of multi-phase fluids with the solid Earth and the atmosphere, and produce diverse geochemical, visible, thermal, elastic, and anelastic effects. Multidisciplinary experimental agendas are increasingly being employed to meet the challenge of understanding active volcanoes and their hazards [e.g., Ripepe et al., 2002; Wallace et al., 2003]. Mount Erebus is a large (3794 m) stratovolcano that forms the centerpiece of Ross Island, Antarctica, the site of the principal U.S. (McMurdo) and New Zealand (Scott) Antarctic bases. With an elevation of 3794 m and a volume of ~1670 km3, Erebus offers exceptional opportunities for extended study of volcano processes because of its persistent, low-level, strombolian activity (Volcano Explosivity Index 0-1) and exposed summit magma reservoir (manifested as a long-lived phonolitic lava lake). Key scientific questions include linking conduit processes to near-field deformations [e.g., Aster et al., 2003], explosion physics [e.g., Johnson et al., 2003], magmatic differentiation and residence [e.g., Kyle et al., 1992], and effects on Antarctic atmospheric and ice geochemistry [e.g., Zreda-Gostynska et al., 1997]. The close proximity of Erebus (35 km) to McMurdo, and its characteristic dry, windy, cold, and high-elevation Antarctic environment, make the volcano a convenient test bed for the general development of volcano surveillance and other instrumentation under extreme conditions.

  18. Seasonal patterns of aster leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) abundance and aster yellows phytoplasma infectivity in Wisconsin carrot fields.

    PubMed

    Frost, K E; Esker, P D; Van Haren, R; Kotolski, L; Groves, R L

    2013-06-01

    In Wisconsin, vegetable crops are threatened annually by the aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), which is obligately transmitted by the aster leafhopper. Using a multiyear, multilocation data set, seasonal patterns of leafhopper abundance and infectivity were modeled. A seasonal aster yellows index (AYI) was deduced from the model abundance and infectivity predictions to represent the expected seasonal risk of pathogen transmission by infectious aster leafhoppers. The primary goal of this study was to identify periods of time during the growing season when crop protection practices could be targeted to reduce the risk of AYp spread. Based on abundance and infectivity, the annual exposure of the carrot crop to infectious leafhoppers varied by 16- and 70-fold, respectively. Together, this corresponded to an estimated 1,000-fold difference in exposure to infectious leafhoppers. Within a season, exposure of the crop to infectious aster leafhoppers (Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes), varied threefold because of abundance and ninefold because of infectivity. Periods of above average aster leafhopper abundance occurred between 11 June and 2 August and above average infectivity occurred between 27 May and 13 July. A more comprehensive description of the temporal trends of aster leafhopper abundance and infectivity provides new information defining when the aster leafhopper moves into susceptible crop fields and when they transmit the pathogen to susceptible crops. PMID:23726058

  19. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    ), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10

  20. ASTER Observations of Recent Thermal Activity and Explosive Eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Abrams, M. J.; Kervyn, M.; Hook, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natro-carbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (500-600 C) compared with typical silicate lavas (600-1100 C), and they have a low viscosity, behaving more like a mud flow than a lava flow. OL has been erupting on and off since 1983, mostly resulting in small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions here are rare, however, an ASTER observation from September 4, 2007 caught the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred here since the 1960s. Thermal infrared satellite monitoring has detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL in recent months. MODIS MODVOLC data detected >30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which may have been brush fires started by lava flows or spatter; ASTER detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL as early as mid-June. We will present up-to date information about the progress of the eruption and results from the analysis of the spectral composition of new eruption products and thermal anomalies that occurred prior to the recent explosive eruption. OL is one of many volcanoes in the world, and especially Africa, that is not regularly monitored. It is only through sporadic reports from locals or tourists in the area, and satellite data that we know anything at all about this volcanic eruption. Continued satellite monitoring along with studies of past thermal activity will help determine how future eruptions may be forecasted.

  1. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous

  2. Creating improved ASTER DEMs over glacierized terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2006-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) produced from ASTER stereo imagery over glacierized terrain frequently contain data voids, which some software packages fill by interpolation. Even when interpolation is applied, the results are often not accurate enough for studies of glacier thickness changes. DEMs are created by automatic cross-correlation between the image pairs, and rely on spatial variability in the digital number (DN) values for this process. Voids occur in radiometrically homogeneous regions, such as glacier accumulation areas covered with uniform snow, due to lack of correlation. The same property that leads to lack of correlation makes possible the derivation of elevation information from photoclinometry, also known as shape-from-shading. We demonstrate a technique to produce improved DEMs from ASTER data by combining the results from conventional cross-correlation DEM-generation software with elevation information produced from shape-from-shading in the accumulation areas of glacierized terrain. The resulting DEMs incorporate more information from the imagery, and the filled voids more accurately represent the glacier surface. This will allow for more accurate determination of glacier hypsometry and thickness changes, leading to better predictions of response to climate change.

  3. AsterAnts: A Concept for Large-Scale Meteoroid Return and Processing using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Biegel, Bryan A.; Traugott, Steve

    2004-01-01

    AsterAnts is a concept calling for a fleet of solar sail powered spacecraft to retrieve large numbers of small (1/2-1 meter diameter) Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for orbital processing. AsterAnts could use the International Space Station (ISS) for NEO processing, solar sail construction, and to test NEO capture hardware. Solar sails constructed on orbit are expected to have substantially better performance than their ground built counterparts [Wright 1992]. Furthermore, solar sails may be used to hold geosynchronous communication satellites out-of-plane [Forward 1981] increasing the total number of slots by at least a factor of three. potentially generating $2 billion worth of orbital real estate over North America alone. NEOs are believed to contain large quantities of water, carbon, other life-support materials and metals. Thus. with proper processing, NEO materials could in principle be used to resupply the ISS, produce rocket propellant, manufacture tools, and build additional ISS working space. Unlike proposals requiring massive facilities, such as lunar bases, before returning any extraterrestrial larger than a typical inter-planetary mission. Furthermore, AsterAnts could be scaled up to deliver large amounts of material by building many copies of the same spacecraft, thereby achieving manufacturing economies of scale. Because AsterAnts would capture NEOs whole, NEO composition details, which are generally poorly characterized, are relatively unimportant and no complex extraction equipment is necessary. In combination with a materials processing facility at the ISS, AsterAnts might inaugurate an era of large-scale orbital construction using extraterrestrial materials.

  4. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  5. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots.

  6. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  7. Simulation of ASTER data using AVIRIS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a joint Japanese/US imaging instrument scheduled to fly on the first Earth Observing System (EOS) platform in 1998. The complement of scanners includes a visible, three channel module with forward-looking stereo capability, a six channel short wavelength infrared module, and a five channel thermal module. As part of the definition phase for the instrument design, AVIRIS data was used to simulate the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands to investigate the effects of widening two of the bands to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus loss of spectral separability due to uncertainty in the post-launch band positions.

  8. Comparison of ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER-GED) With In-Situ Measurement In Italian Vulcanic Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Amici, S.; Piscini, A.

    2015-12-01

    LP DAAC released the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED) datasets on April 2, 2014. The database was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. The database includes land surface emissivities derived from ASTER data acquired over the contiguous United States, Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia, Europe, and China. In this work we compare ground measurements of emissivity acquired by means of Micro-FTIR (Fourier Thermal Infrared spectrometer) instrument with the ASTER emissivity map extract from ASTER-GED and the emissivity obtained by using single ASTER data. Through this analysis we want to investigate differences existing between the ASTER-GED dataset (average from 2000 to 2008 seasoning independent) and fall in-situ emissivity measurement. Moreover the role of different spatial resolution characterizing ASTER and MODIS, 90mt and 1km respectively, by comparing them with in situ measurements. Possible differences can be due also to the different algorithms used for the emissivity estimation, Temperature and Emissivity Separation algorithm for ASTER TIR band( Gillespie et al, 1998) and the classification-based emissivity method (Snyder and al, 1998) for MODIS. In-situ emissivity measurements have been collected during dedicated fields campaign on Mt. Etna vulcano and Solfatara of Pozzuoli. Gillespie, A. R., Matsunaga, T., Rokugawa, S., & Hook, S. J. (1998). Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 1113-1125. Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., & Feng, Y.-Z. (1998). Classification-based emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2753-2574.

  9. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at

  10. Assembly and Positioning of Microtubule Asters in Microfabricated Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holy, Timothy E.; Dogterom, Marileen; Yurke, Bernard; Leibler, Stanislas

    1997-06-01

    Intracellular organization depends on a variety of molecular assembly processes; while some of these have been studied in simplified cell-free systems, others depend on the confined geometry of cells and cannot be reconstructed using bulk techniques. To study the latter processes in vitro, we fabricated microscopic chambers that simulate the closed environment of cells. We used these chambers to study the positioning of microtubule asters. Microtubule assembly alone, without the action of molecular motors, is sufficient to position asters. Asters with short microtubules move toward the position expected from symmetry; however, once the microtubules become long enough to buckle, symmetry is broken. Calculations and experiments show that the bending-energy landscape has multiple minima. Microtubule dynamic instability modifies the landscape over time and allows asters to explore otherwise inaccessible configurations.

  11. Automated Construction of Coverage Catalogues of Aster Satellite Image for Urban Areas of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Iwao, K.; Shibasaki, R.

    2012-07-01

    We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  12. Lithologic mapping with multispectral ASTER TIR and SWIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2004-02-01

    ASTER, launched in December, 1999, composed of three subsystems, each of which multispectrally observes the reflected or emitted radiation from the surface of the earth to space in VNIR (visible and near infrared), SWIR (shortwave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared) wavelength regions, respectively. ASTER-VNIR has three spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 15m, and the one of which in near infrared has an along track stereo observation capability to produce high quality Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ASTER-SWIR has six spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30m, which are mainly designed for discriminating altered minerals bearing hydroxyl group. ASTER-TIR has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90m, which presents us a powerful tool for identifying quartz and carbonate minerals as well as discriminating types of silicate rocks. The author have successfully developed a robust method for detecting quartzite and carbonate rocks as well as classifying type of igneous rocks with ASTER TIR data without atmospheric corrections (Level-1B data). Here in this paper, reflectance spectra of minerals in SWIR region measured in the laboratory are analyzed to define calcite index, OH-bearing silicate index, kaolinite index and alunite index for discriminating each mineral by ASTER-SWIR. The defined indices are applied to SWIR data of ASTER Level-1B radiance at the sensor data observing Cuprite area in Nevada, USA, and the discussions are made on the results by comparing the well-known geology of the area. Also, the result of calcite index is compared with the result of applying well-characterized carbonate index defined for ASTER-TIR to clarify the strong point of each index.

  13. Using Real-Time PCR to Quantify Aster Yellows Phytoplasma in its Insect Vector; Relationship of Infectivity to Transmissibility in the Aster Leafhopper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aster yellows (AY) index is used to prescribe insecticide sprays that target Macrosteles quadrilineatus, or aster leafhopper (ALH), the vector of the aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp). The AY index metric is the product of the proportion of infective ALHs and the relative ALH population size at a ...

  14. ASTER obervations of the spectral emissivity over New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Ritchie, Jerry; Chopping, Mark; Rango, Al

    2002-01-01

    On several days in 2000 & 2001 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra satellite obtained data over the Jornada Experimental Range test site along the Rio Grande river and the White Sand National Monument in New Mexico. ASTER has 14 channels from the visible (VNIR) through the thermal infrared (TIR) with 15 m resolution in the VNIR and 90 m in the TIR. The overpass time is approximately 11 AM (MST). With 5 channels between 8 and 12 micrometers these multispectral TIR data from ASTER provide the opportunity to separate the temperature and emissivity effects observed in the thermal emission from the land surface. Ground measurements during these overflights included surface temperature, vegetation type and condition and limited surface emissivity measurements. Preliminary results indicate good agreement between ASTER emissivities and ground measures. Analysis of earlier aircraft data has shown that the multispectral TIR data are very effective for estimating both the surface temperature and emissivity. These results will be compared with those obtained from the ASTER data for this site. With multispectral thermal infrared observations provided by ASTER it is possible for the first time to estimate the spectral emissivity variation for these surfaces on a global basis at high spatial resolution.

  15. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  16. Focus: alien volcanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly

    2007-03-01

    Part 1: Volcanoes on Earth - blowing their top; Part 2: Volcanoes of the inner Solar System - dead or alive: the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus; Part 3: Volcanoes of the outer Solar System - fire and ice: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Miranda, Titan, Triton, Enceladus.

  17. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  18. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Díaz-Castellón, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Sergio Raúl

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 "bald-earth" topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results. In general all three datasets, with spatial resolution of 90 m or better, were capable of resolving debris flow and lahar deposits at least 3 × 10 6 m 3 in volume or larger. Canopy- and slope-related height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs limit their utility for measuring valley-filling cross-sectional area and deriving flow magnitude for the smallest deposits using a cross-sectional area to volume scaling equation. Height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs also causes problems in resolving stream valley hydrography which controls lahar flow paths and stream valley morphology which controls lahar filling capacity. However, both of the two spaceborne DEM datasets are better than DTED-1 at resolving fine details in stream hydrography and erosional morphologies of volcaniclastics preserved in the valleys around the more humid, eastern flanks of the volcanic range. The results of LAHARZ flow inundation modeling using all three DEMs as inputs are remarkably similar and co-validate one another. For example, at Citlaltépetl all lahar simulations show that the city of Orizaba is the most vulnerable to flows similar in magnitude to, or larger than, one that occurred in 1920. Many of the other cities and towns illustrated are built higher up on terrace deposits of older debris flows, and are safe from all but

  19. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  20. Volcano seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  2. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  3. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a

  4. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  5. Galactic Super Volcano Similar to Iceland Volcano

    NASA Video Gallery

    This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic volcano being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...

  6. General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.

  7. Validation of the ASTER instrument level 1A scene geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Mullins, K.F.; MacKinnon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument geometry was undertaken by the U.S. ASTER Team, to confirm the geometric correction parameters developed and applied to Level 1A (radiometrically and geometrically raw with correction parameters appended) ASTER data. The goal was to evaluate the geometric quality of the ASTER system and the stability of the Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a 15-band system containing optical instruments with resolutions from 15- to 90-meters; all geometrically registered products are ultimately tied to the 15-meter Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) sub-system. Our evaluation process first involved establishing a large database of Ground Control Points (GCP) in the mid-western United States; an area with features of an appropriate size for spacecraft instrument resolutions. We used standard U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) of areas in the mid-west to locate accurate GCPs by systematically identifying road intersections and recording their coordinates. Elevations for these points were derived from USGS Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). Road intersections in a swath of nine contiguous ASTER scenes were then matched to the GCPs, including terrain correction. We found no significant distortion in the images; after a simple image offset to absolute position, the RMS residual of about 200 points per scene was less than one-half a VNIR pixel. Absolute locations were within 80 meters, with a slow drift of about 10 meters over the entire 530-kilometer swath. Using strictly simultaneous observations of scenes 370 kilometers apart, we determined a stereo angle correction of 0.00134 degree with an accuracy of one microradian. The mid-west GCP field and the techniques used here should be widely applicable in assessing other spacecraft instruments having resolutions from 5 to 50-meters. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  8. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser

    2005-05-01

    Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.

  9. Mud volcanoes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    The term mud volcano is applied to a variety of landforms having in common a formation by extrusion of mud from beneath the ground. Although mud is the principal solid material that issues from a mud volcano, there are many examples where clasts up to boulder size are found, sometimes thrown high into the air during an eruption. Other characteristics of mud volcanoes (on Earth) are discussed. The possible presence of mud volcanoes, which are common and widespread on Earth, on Mars is considered.

  10. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  11. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  12. Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Choi, Hyun J.

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are all onboard the Terra platform. An important aspect of the use of MODIS, and other Earth Science Enterprise sensors, has been the characterization and calibration of the sensors and validation of their data products. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in this area through the use of ground-based test sites. This paper presents the results from the reflectance-base approach using the Railroad Valley Playa test site in Nevada for ASTER, MISR, and MODIS and thus effectively a cross-calibration between all three sensors. The key to the approach is the measurement of surface reflectance over a 1-km2 area of the playa and results from this method shows agreement with MODIS to better than 5%. The paper examines biases between ASTER and the other two sensors in the VNIR due to uncertainties in the onboard calibrator for ASTER and in the SWIR due to an optical crosstalk effect.

  13. Evaluation of Aster Gdem v3 Using Icesat Laser Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    We have used a set of Ground Control Points (GCPs) derived from altimetry measurements from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to evaluate the quality of the 30 m posting ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) V3 elevation products produced by NASA/METI for Greenland and Antarctica. These data represent the highest quality globally distributed altimetry measurements that can be used for geodetic ground control, selected by applying rigorous editing criteria, useful at high latitudes, where other topographic control is scarce. Even if large outliers still remain in all ASTER GDEM V3 data for both, Greenland and Antarctica, they are significantly reduced when editing ASTER by number of scenes (N≥5) included in the elevation processing. For 667,354 GCPs in Greenland, differences show a mean of 13.74 m, a median of -6.37 m, with an RMSE of 109.65 m. For Antarctica, 6,976,703 GCPs show a mean of 0.41 m, with a median of -4.66 m, and a 54.85 m RMSE, displaying smaller means, similar medians, and less scatter than GDEM V2. Mean and median differences between ASTER and ICESat are lower than 10 m, and RMSEs lower than 10 m for Greenland, and 20 m for Antarctica when only 9 to 31 scenes are included.

  14. Early Exposure to Research: Outcomes of the ASTER Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin; Golkowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel structure for providing a high-impact, first year experience for science students. ASTER (Access to Science Through Experience in Research) is an extracurricular certification program designed to introduce our students to the research culture via seminar attendance, journal clubs, book clubs, and lab visits.…

  15. Templated nanocrystal assembly on biodynamic artificial microtubule asters.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, Erik D; Boal, Andrew K; Bachand, George D; Bunker, Bruce C

    2013-03-26

    Microtubules (MTs) and the MT-associated proteins (MAPs) are critical cooperative agents involved in complex nanoassembly processes in biological systems. These biological materials and processes serve as important inspiration in developing new strategies for the assembly of synthetic nanomaterials in emerging techologies. Here, we explore a dynamic biofabrication process, modeled after the form and function of natural aster-like MT assemblies such as centrosomes. Specifically, we exploit the cooperative assembly of MTs and MAPs to form artificial microtubule asters and demonstrate that (1) these three-dimensional biomimetic microtubule asters can be controllably, reversibly assembled and (2) they serve as unique, dynamic biotemplates for the organization of secondary nanomaterials. We describe the MAP-mediated assembly and growth of functionalized MTs onto synthetic particles, the dynamic character of the assembled asters, and the application of these structures as templates for three-dimensional nanocrystal organization across multiple length scales. This biomediated nanomaterials assembly strategy illuminates a promising new pathway toward next-generation nanocomposite development. PMID:23363365

  16. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 9.75 x 27.6 kilometers (6.0 x 17.1 miles), Location: 8.6 degrees North latitude, 98

  17. Chromitite Prospecting Using Landsat TM and Aster Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.; Pournamdari, M.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF) and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7) of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF) used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite) were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  18. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. ASTER VNIR and SWIR Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Thome, Kurtis; Iwasaki, Akira; Biggar, Stuart

    As described in the previous chapter, ASTER relies on three separate subsystems to cover the full spectral range from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), to the thermal infrared (TIR). Establishing the accuracy of data from all three subsystems requires both sensor-related calibration and atmospheric correction. The dominance of reflected solar energy in the VNIR and SWIR, and emitted terrestrial radiation in the TIR allows separate treatment of the two spectral regions. TIR calibration and correction are covered in a separate chapter. This chapter has two main goals: (1) to allow the user to understand ASTER's radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction processes that enable conversion of VNIR and SWIR digital numbers (DN) to at-sensor reflectance and spectral radiance, and (2) to provide a succinct analysis of the SWIR crosstalk problem and its solutions.

  20. Shaking up volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.

  1. Emplacement of Basaltic Flow Fields: New Insights Using MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.; Crown, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Surface units that reflect local emplacement conditions within the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu lava flow field (Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii) have been identified and are being mapped using field observations and remote sensing analyses. Investigation of a preliminary study site on and below Holei Pali utilized high-resolution color aerial photographs [Byrnes and Crown, 2000. J Geophys Res 106, 2139-2151] and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) airborne data. Four surface units were identified that are related to the state of the lava during emplacement and were found to be correlated with the pre-eruption topography but not to the major lava tube segments mapped previously. These units show variations at visible wavelengths related to color, the presence of a glassy surface crust, and unit (dm- to m-scale) morphology. Variations at thermal wavelengths are presumably related to surface variations in phenocryst abundance, vesicles/micron-scale roughness, and glass. Interpretations based on the TIMS data are significantly limited by noise in available data covering the flow field. The present study uses MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator) data to extend the spatial and spectral coverage of the Mauna Ulu flow field. Preliminary analyses of the data (corrected for atmospheric effects) indicate that: (1) additional classes of surface units (such as shelly pahoehoe) can be identified within the flow field, and (2) systematic changes in emplacement occurred from the proximal to the medial and distal portions of the flow field. Comparison with ASTER images indicates that similar classes of surface units may be discriminated in both datasets, though MASTER is preferable for this study because it provides: (1) higher spatial resolution (especially in thermal bands), and (2) constant pixel size for all wavelengths. These factors allow for discrimination of smaller flow units and more accurate correlation of visible- and thermal-wavelength spectral signatures. The higher

  2. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

  3. Of Rings and Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    observed with the NASA Galileo spacecraft since 1996 at higher resolution in the visible and infrared, especially during close encounters with the satellite (a link to Galileo maps of Io is available below). However, this NAOS image fills a gap in the surface coverage of the infrared images from Galileo. The capability of NAOS/CONICA to map Io in the infrared at the present high image resolution will allow astronomers to continue the survey of the volcanic activity and to monitor regularly the related surface processes . Related sites The following links point to a number of prominent photos of these two objects that were obtained elsewhere. Saturn Voyager images : http://vraptor.jpl.nasa.gov/voyager/vgrsat_img.html HST images : http://hubble.stsci.edu/news_.and._views/pr.cgi.2001+15 Pic du Midi images : http://www.bdl.fr/s2p/saturne.html IfA-CFHT : http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/ao/images/solarsys/new/new.html Io NASA/Galileo site : http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/moons/io.html Volcanoes on Io : http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/planet_volcano/Io/Overview.html HST image of Io : http://hubble.stsci.edu/news_.and._views/pr.cgi.1997+21 Keck I image of Io : http://www.astro.caltech.edu/mirror/keck/realpublic/inst/ao/Io/IoSnapshot.jpg Galileo and Voyager maps of Io : http://www.lowell.edu/users/ijw/maps/ (also with names of surface features) Notes [1]: The following astronomers and engineers from ESO and the partner institutes have participated in the current commissioning observations of Saturn and Io with NAOS-CONICA: Wolfgang Brandner, Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Pierre Drossart, Thierry Fusco, Eric Gendron, Markus Hartung, Norbert Hubin, François Lacombe, Anne-Marie Lagrange, Rainer Lenzen, David Mouillet, Claire Moutou, Gérard Rousset, Jason Spyromilio and Gérard Zins . [2]: New archive users may register via the ESO/ST-ECF Archive Registration Form. Technical information about the photos PR Photo 04a/02 is based on four exposures, obtained with VLT YEPUN and NAOS-CONICA on

  4. Validation of the ASTER thermal infrared surface radiance data product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palluconi, Frank D.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) is a 14 channel high spatial resolution instrument selected for flight on the EOS AM-1 platform. This instrument has a 60 km pointable cross-track swath and five thermal infrared channels between 8 and 12 micrometers with 90 m spatial resolution. Correction for the effect of atmospheric attenuation and emission will be made using a radiative transfer model and atmospheric parameters either from the EOS AM-1 platform instruments MODIS (moderate- resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MISR (multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer) or temperature and moisture profiles from global numerical assimilation models. The correction accuracy depends strongly on the accuracy of the atmospheric information used. To provide an objective assessment of the validity of the atmospheric correction in situ measurements of water surfaces under a variety of atmospheric conditions will be used to estimate the surface leaving radiance at the scale of an ASTER pixel. The procedure will use an array of continuously recording temperature buoys to establish the bulk water temperature, broadband radiometers to determine the near surface water temperature gradient and radiosonde and sunphotometer measurements and a radiative transfer model to deduce the sky irradiance. These measurements and the spectral emissivity of the water will be combined with the relative system spectral response to provide an estimate of thermal infrared surface leaving radiance for each ASTER thermal channel. An example of this approach using a multichannel thermal aircraft scanner as a stand in for ASTER is described. It is expected this approach will provide estimates of surface radiance accurate, in temperature terms, to better than 1 K.

  5. Assessment of ASTER data for forest inventory in Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Benito, Alfonso; Arbelo, Manuel; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; González-Calvo, Alejandro; Labrador Garcia, Mauricio

    To understand and evaluate the forest structural attributes, forest inventories are conducted, which are costly and lengthy in time. Since the last 10-15 years there has been examining the possibility of using remote sensing data, to save costs and cheapen the process. One of the aims of SATELMAC, a project PCT-MAC 2007-2013 co-financing with FEDER funds, is to automate the forest inventory in Canary Islands using satellite images. In this study, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were used to estimate forest structure of the endemic vegetal specie, Pinus canariensis, located on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The forest structural attributes analyzed have been volume, basal area, stem per hectare and tree height. ASTER is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System. ASTER data were used because it have relatively high spatial resolution in the three visible and near-infrared bands (15 m) and in the six spectral bands (30 m) in the shortwave-IR region. To identify the vegetation index that is most suitable to use, about specific forest structural attributes in our study area, we assess the ability of different spectral indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Modified Soil adjusted Vegetation Index, Perpendicular Vegetation Index and Reduced Simple Ratio. The information provided by the ASTER data has been supplemented by the Third National Forest Inventory (III NFI) and field data. The results are analyzed statistically in order to see the degree of correlation (R2) and the mean square error (RMSE) of the values studied.

  6. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes. Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001. This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin

  7. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes.Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001.This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times

  8. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Network Data Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; Haney, M. M.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; Prejean, S. G.; Searcy, C. K.; Stihler, S. D.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) established in 1988 as a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, monitors active volcanoes in Alaska. Thirty-three volcanoes are currently monitored by a seismograph network consisting of 193 stations, of which 40 are three-component stations. The current state of AVO’s seismic network, and data processing and availability are summarized in the annual AVO seismological bulletin, Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaska Volcanoes, published as a USGS Data Series (most recent at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/467). Despite a rich seismic data set for 12 VEI 2 or greater eruptions, and over 80,000 located earthquakes in the last 21 years, the volcanic seismicity in the Aleutian Arc remains understudied. Initially, AVO seismic data were only provided via a data supplement as part of the annual bulletin, or upon request. Over the last few years, AVO has made seismic data more available with the objective of increasing volcano seismic research on the Aleutian Arc. The complete AVO earthquake catalog data are now available through the annual AVO bulletin and have been submitted monthly to the on-line Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) composite catalog since 2008. Segmented waveform data for all catalog earthquakes are available upon request and efforts are underway to make this archive web accessible as well. Continuous data were first archived using a tape backup, but the availability of low cost digital storage media made a waveform backup of continuous data a reality. Currently the continuous AVO waveform data can be found in several forms. Since late 2002, AVO has burned all continuous waveform data to DVDs, as well as storing these data in Antelope databases at the Geophysical Institute. Beginning in 2005, data have been available through a Winston Wave Server housed at the USGS in

  10. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athale, Chaitanya A.; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions.

  11. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA.

    PubMed

    Athale, Chaitanya A; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. PMID:24476749

  12. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.

  13. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

  14. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  15. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  16. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  17. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 9.75 x 27.6 kilometers (6.0 x 17.1 miles), Location: 8.6 degrees North latitude, 98

  18. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  19. Volcano Near Pavonis Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-549, 19 November 2003

    The volcanic plains to the east, southeast, and south of the giant Tharsis volcano, Pavonis Mons, are dotted by dozens of small volcanoes. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 2.1oS, 109.1oW. The elongate depression in the lower left (southwest) quarter of the image is the collapsed vent area for this small, unnamed volcano. A slightly sinuous, leveed channel runs from the depression toward the upper right (north-northeast); this is the trace of a collapsed lava tube. The entire scene has been mantled by dust, such that none of the original volcanic rocks are exposed--except minor occurrences on the steepest slopes in the vent area. The scene is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  20. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  1. Preflight and in-flight calibration plan for ASTER

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ono, A.; Sakuma, F.; Arai, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Fujisada, H.; Slater, P.N.; Thome, K.J.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Kieffer, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Preflight and in-flight radiometric calibration plans are described for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) that is a multispectral optical imager of high spatial resolution. It is designed for the remote sensing from orbit of land surfaces and clouds, and is expected to be launched in 1998 on NASA's EOS AM-1 spacecraft. ASTER acquires images in three separate spectral regions, the visible and near-infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and the thermal infrared (TIR) with three imaging radiometer subsystems. The absolute radiometric accuracy is required to be better than 4% for VNIR and SWIR radiance measurements and 1 to 3 K, depending on the temperature regions from 200 to 370 K, for TIR temperature measurements. A reference beam is introduced at the entrance pupil of each imaging radiometer to provide the in-flight calibration Thus, the ASTER instrument includes internal onboard calibration units that comprise incandescent lamps for the VNIR and SWIR and a blackbody radiator for the TIR as reference sources. The calibration reliability of the VNIR and SWIR is enhanced by a dual system of onboard calibration units as well as by high-stability halogen lamps. A ground calibration system of spectral radiances traceable to fixed-point blackbodies is used for the preflight VNIR and SWIR calibration. Because of the possibility of nonuniform contamination effects on the partial-aperture onboard calibration, it is desirable to check their results with respect to other methods. Reflectance- and radiance-based vicarious methods have been developed for this purpose. These, and methods involving in-flight cross-calibration with other sensors are also described.

  2. Mapping burned area for fragmented landscape using satellite Aster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita, A.; Lanorte, A.

    2009-04-01

    In Italy, after each fire season (generally summer season for the southern Mediterranean landscapes and winter/spring for the Northern alpine ecosystems) the up to date of burned area mapping is mandatory according to the current national legislation. The mapping of burned areas is generally performed by regional forestry service by using field GPS survey and/or helicopter in the case of large fire extension. The use of remote sensing technologies can be an effective support for mapping fire affected areas. Such areas are characterized by the removal of vegetation, deposits of charcoal and ash, and alteration of the vegetation structure, that can be detected by satellite remote sensed data. Due to the fact that in Italy the extension of fire is generally as small as 10 ha to 50 ha the use of high resolution data is mandatory. In order to set up a low cost technologies to be effectively applied in operational context, we assessed the capability of ASTER data for same test areas in the Basilicata Region. In this paper we present results we obtained from the use of several Vegetation indices based on ASTER VNIR. Among the spectral indices proposed for burnt area mapping we used and compare the Simple Vegetation Index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Transformed Vegetation Index, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The data processing was performed using both a single date and a multidate (pre and post fire) approach. Several test cases selected from the 2007 fire season were investigated. ASTER-based results were compared with field data provided by the Basilicata regional Forestry Service

  3. USING ARID ECOSYSTEMS TO COMPARE ASTER, MASTER, AND GROUND REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of arid ecosystems at the USDA ARS Jornada Experimental Range LTER site in southern New Mexico using ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer), MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator), and ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices Spectroradiometer-ground based) reflectan...

  4. Region and field level distributions of aster yellows phytoplasma in small grains crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aster yellows (AY), a disease of small grain crops caused by aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), produces disease symptoms similar to barley yellow dwarf (BYD). From 2003 to 2005, small grain production fields in Minnesota and North Dakota were surveyed to determine the incidences of AY and BYD. In-fie...

  5. Aster yellows incidence and distribution within commercial small grains fields in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), vectored by the aster leafhopper (Macrosteles quadrillineatus), has a wide host range including wild and cultivated plants. Substantial yield losses in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) have been observed in northwestern Minnesota which could be attributed to infestat...

  6. Comparison of ASTER, MASTER, and ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares reflectance measured in the visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared wavelengths by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER), and ground based Analytical Spectral Devices Spectroradiometer (ASD) in a se...

  7. Microtubule nucleation remote from centrosomes may explain how asters span large cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Nguyen, Phuong A; Groen, Aaron C; Field, Christine M; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-12-16

    A major challenge in cell biology is to understand how nanometer-sized molecules can organize micrometer-sized cells in space and time. One solution in many animal cells is a radial array of microtubules called an aster, which is nucleated by a central organizing center and spans the entire cytoplasm. Frog (here Xenopus laevis) embryos are more than 1 mm in diameter and divide with a defined geometry every 30 min. Like smaller cells, they are organized by asters, which grow, interact, and move to precisely position the cleavage planes. It has been unclear whether asters grow to fill the enormous egg by the same mechanism used in smaller somatic cells, or whether special mechanisms are required. We addressed this question by imaging growing asters in a cell-free system derived from eggs, where asters grew to hundreds of microns in diameter. By tracking marks on the lattice, we found that microtubules could slide outward, but this was not essential for rapid aster growth. Polymer treadmilling did not occur. By measuring the number and positions of microtubule ends over time, we found that most microtubules were nucleated away from the centrosome and that interphase egg cytoplasm supported spontaneous nucleation after a time lag. We propose that aster growth is initiated by centrosomes but that asters grow by propagating a wave of microtubule nucleation stimulated by the presence of preexisting microtubules. PMID:25468969

  8. Detection and variability of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma Titer in its insect vector, Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp) is transmitted by the aster leafhopper (ALH), Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes, in a persistent and propagative manner. To study AYp replication and examine the variability of AYp titer in individual ALHs, we developed a quantitative, real-time PCR (qPCR) assay t...

  9. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  10. On Relations between Current Global Volcano Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhall, C. G.; Siebert, L.; Sparks, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Smithsonian’s Volcano Reference File (VRF), the database that underlies Volcanoes of the World and This Dynamic Planet, is the premier source for the “what, when, where, and how big?” of Holocene and historical eruptions. VOGRIPA (Volcanic Global Risk Identification and Analysis) will catalogue details of large eruptions, including specific phenomena and their impacts. CCDB (Collapse Caldera Database) also considers large eruptions with an emphasis on the resulting calderas. WOVOdat is bringing monitoring data from the world’s observatories into a centralized database in common formats, so that they can be searched and compared during volcanic crises and for research on preeruption processes. Oceanographic and space institutions worldwide have growing archives of volcano imagery and derivative products. Petrologic databases such as PETRODB and GEOROC offer compositions of many erupted and non-erupted magmas. Each of these informs and complements the others. Examples of interrelations include: ● Information in the VRF about individual volcanoes is the starting point and major source of background “volcano” data in WOVOdat, VOGRIPA, and petrologic databases. ● Images and digital topography from remote sensing archives offer high-resolution, consistent geospatial "base maps" for all of the other databases. ● VRF data about eruptions shows whether unrest of WOVOdat culminated in an eruption and, if yes, its type and magnitude. ● Data from WOVOdat fills in the “blanks” between eruptions in the VRF. ● VOGRIPA adds more detail to the VRF’s descriptions of eruptions, including quantification of runout distances, expanded estimated column heights and eruption impact data, and other parameters not included in the Smithsonian VRF. ● Petrologic databases can add detail to existing petrologic data of the VRF, WOVOdat, and VOGRIPA, e.g, detail needed to estimate viscosity of melt and its influence on magma and eruption dynamics ● Hazard

  11. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  12. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times, most destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of feet into the atmoshpehere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. 

  13. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2005-02-01

    This guide contains vital information for anyone wishing to visit, explore, and photograph active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. Following an introduction that discusses eruption styles of different types of volcanoes and how to prepare for an exploratory trip that avoids volcanic dangers, the book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world. It is filled with practical information that includes tour itineraries, maps, transportation details, and warnings of possible non-volcanic dangers. Three appendices direct the reader to a wealth of further volcano resources in a volume that will fascinate amateur enthusiasts and professional volcanologists alike. Rosaly Lopes is a planetary geology and volcanology specialist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In addition to her curatorial and research work, she has lectured extensively in England and Brazil and written numerous popular science articles. She received a Latinas in Science Award from the Comision Feminil Mexicana Nacional in 1991 and since 1992, has been a co-organizer of the United Nations/European Space Agency/The Planetary Society yearly conferences on Basic Science for the Benefit of Developing Countries.

  14. Volcanoes and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Edited By Joan; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2005-10-01

    Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards. An all-inclusive text that goes beyond the geological working of volcanoes to consider their environmental and sociological impacts Each chapter is written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject Accessible to students and researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds

  15. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

  17. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.

  18. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  19. ASTER Observations of the Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiweiss, M.; Schmugge, T.

    2005-12-01

    Since the launch of NASA's Terra satellite in December 1999 the ASTER instrument has made more that 2 dozen of observations of the Elephant Butte Reservoir located on the Rio Grande river in central New Mexico. The first observations were in June 2000 and the most recent were in May 2005. This period includes low water levels resulting from the the recent drought conditions and the earlier full high water conditions in 2000. There was about a 30 m change in water level during this time. The area of the reservoir was estimated for each of these scenes and compared the with known water levels. The ASTER data were the Level 2 products which include both the visible reflectance and the thermal infrared (surface temperature). Both spectral regions provide good contrasts between water and surrounding land. This contrast makes the area estimation straightforward. there was a large range in surface water area observed from 30,000 km*2 to more than 75,000 km*2. An approximately linear relation between area and water level was found.

  20. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Terra, the Earth Observing System's (EOS) flagship satellite platform on December 18, 1999. The polar-orbiting Terra contains five remote sensing instruments, which enable the scientific study and analyses of global terrestrial processes and manifestations of global change. One of the five instruments is the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is built in Japan by a consortium of government, industry, and research groups. It has three spectral bands in the visible near-infrared region (VNIR), six bands in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR), and five bands in the thermal infrared region (TIR), with 15-, 30-, and 90-meter ground resolutions, respectively. This combination of wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution allows ASTER to discriminate among a wide variety of surface materials. The VNIR subsystem also has a backward-viewing telescope for high-resolution (15-meter) stereoscopic observation in the along-track direction, which facilitates the generation of digital elevation models (DEM).

  1. Prediction of landslides using ASTER imagery and data mining models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyo-Young; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Inhye; Lee, Changwook; Lee, Saro

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify landslide-related factors using only remotely sensed data and to present landslide susceptibility maps using a geographic information system, data-mining models, an artificial neural network (ANN), and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS). Landslide-related factors were identified in Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery. The slope, aspect, and curvature of topographic features were calculated from a digital elevation model that was made using the ASTER imagery. Lineaments, land-cover, and normalized difference vegetative index layers were also extracted from the imagery. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed and mapped based on occurrence factors using the ANN and ANFIS. The generalized bell-shaped built-in membership function of the ANFIS was applied to landslide susceptibility mapping. Analytical results were validated using landslide test location data. In the validation results, the ANN model showed 80.42% prediction accuracy and the ANFIS model showed 86.55% prediction accuracy. These results suggest that the ANFIS model has a better performance than does the ANN in predicting landslide susceptibility.

  2. System design and performances of ASTER Level-1 data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Sumiyuki; Hachiya, Jun; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masatane

    1998-12-01

    ASTER is a multispectral imager which covers wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands, and will fly on EOS-AM1 in 1999. To meet this wide spectral coverage, ASTER has three optical sensing subsystems (multi-telescope system), VNIR, SWIR and TIR. This multi- telescope configuration requires highly refined ground processing for the generation of Level-1 data products that are radiometrically calibrated and geometrically corrected. A prototype Level-1 processing software system is developed to satisfy these requirements. System design concept adopted includes; (1) 'Automatic Processing,' (2)'ALL-IN-ONE-CONCEPT' in which the processing is carried out using information included in Level-0 data product only, (3) 'MODULE INDEPENDENCE' in which only process control module independently control other modules to change any operational conditions. (4) 'FLEXIBILITY' in which important operation parameters are set from an external component to make the processing condition change easier. The adaptability and the performance of the developed software system are evaluated using simulation data.

  3. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003.The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven volcanoes within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO located 3911 earthquakes in 2003.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Prejean, Stephanie; Sanchez, John J.; Sanches, Rebecca; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2005-01-01

    October; (5) an earthquake swarm at Akutan in July; and (6) low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year (Table 2). Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2004 were the installation of subnetworks on Mount Peulik and Korovin Volcano and the installation of broadband stations to augment the Katmai and Spurr subnetworks.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2004; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2004.

  5. Archiving Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marla

    2003-01-01

    Derrida's archive, broadly speaking, is brilliantly mad, for he digs exegetically into the most difficult textual material and combines the most unlikely texts--from Socrates to Freud, from postcards to encyclopedias, from madness(es) to the archive, from primal scenes to death. In this paper, the author would like to do a brief study of the…

  6. Measuring and Monitoring Heat Flow and Hydrothermal Changes in the Yellowstone Geothermal System using ASTER and MODIS Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within Yellowstone geothermal area (YGA) to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service. Specific goals were to 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the >10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the YGA (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots), by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux for individual thermal areas and for the entire YGA, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., thermal changes related to tectonic or hydrothermal activity, volcanic unrest, or geothermal development). Frequent, low-spatial resolution night time TIR observations from the MODIS instrument (1-km pixels) were used to quantify the background thermal flux of the whole YGA and all individual thermal areas. The MODIS Terra archive covering the previous decade (2000-2010) was analyzed and a background subtraction method was developed to automatically remove seasonal variations and extract TIR spectral radiance values. It was determined that the thermal change detection limit was equivalent to a 3-5 °C change over the entire (3x3 pixel) measured area, which is equivalent to a 9-17 °C change over a 29% fraction of the area (the sub-pixel fraction occupied by the thermal area). Alternatively, an area of static warm temperature (e.g., 93 °C) would have to increase from 100 to 36,500 m2 (11 to 216 m-diameter) to be clearly detected above scatter in the data. All of the thermal areas have been relatively stable within these limits for the last decade, although there are some thermal variations, near the limits of detection, which may reflect thermal disturbances that occur episodically in

  7. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  8. Stereo Pair with ASTER Image, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this stereoscopic view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon. The view is derived from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite image and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature covering much of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

    Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by first draping the ASTER satellite image over the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of

  9. Multiple aster formation is frequently observed in bovine oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Tagiri, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2016-02-01

    We have recently reported that multiple aster formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was one of the factors that negatively affected the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine matured oocytes, and that short-term culture of the post-warm oocytes with an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) suppressed the multiple aster formation and improved the blastocyst yield. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increased multiple aster formation following IVF was involved in impaired developmental competence of stored ovary-derived bovine oocytes. Oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries had lower developmental potential to day 8 blastocysts when compared with those from fresh ovaries (37 versus 63%). Immunostaining of α-tubulin 10 h post-IVF revealed that a higher incidence of multiple aster formation occurred in oocytes retrieved from stored ovaries than from fresh ovaries (31 versus 15%). Treatment of post-in vitro maturated (post-IVM) oocytes with ROCK inhibitor for 2 h significantly suppressed the incidence of multiple aster formation (10 versus 32% in the control group). However, the suppression effect of ROCK inhibitor on multiple aster formation in IVM/IVF oocytes did not improve blastocyst yield from stored ovary-derived oocytes (41 versus 37% in the control group). These results suggested that the higher incidence of multiple aster formation by bovine ovary storage was not responsible for the decreased developmental competence of IVF oocytes. PMID:25732862

  10. Volcanoes of the Tibesti massif (Chad, northern Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permenter, Jason L.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2007-04-01

    The Tibesti massif, one of the most prominent features of the Sahara desert, covers an area of some 100,000 km2. Though largely absent from scientific inquiry for several decades, it is one of the world’s major volcanic provinces, and a key example of continental hot spot volcanism. The intense activity of the TVP began as early as the Oligocene, though the major products that mark its surface date from Lower Miocene to Quaternary (Furon (Geology of Africa. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh (trans 1963, orig French 1960), pp 1-377, 1963)); Gourgaud and Vincent (J Volcanol Geotherm Res 129:261-290, 2004). We present here a new and consistent analysis of each of the main components of the Tibesti Volcanic Province (TVP), based on examination of multispectral imagery and digital elevation data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Our synthesis of these individual surveys shows that the TVP is made up of several shield volcanoes (up to 80 km diameter) with large-scale calderas, extensive lava plateaux and flow fields, widespread tephra deposits, and a highly varied structural relief. We compare morphometric characteristics of the major TVP structures with other hot spot volcanoes (the Hawaiian Islands, the Galápagos Islands, the Canary and Cape Verdes archipelagos, Jebel Marra (western Sudan), and Martian volcanoes), and consider the implications of differing tectonic setting (continental versus oceanic), the thickness and velocity of the lithosphere, the relative sizes of main volcanic features (e.g. summit calderas, steep slopes at summit regions), and the extent and diversity of volcanic features. These comparisons reveal morphologic similarities between volcanism in the Tibesti, the Galápagos, and Western Sudan but also some distinct features of the TVP. Additionally, we find that a relatively haphazard spatial development of the TVP has occurred, with volcanism initially appearing in the Central TVP and subsequently

  11. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  12. Thermal Infrared ASTER Observations of Faults in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.

    2005-12-01

    Reports on earthquake precursors observed in the thermal infrared (TIR) data from several satellites have caused mixed reactions. Some researchers have identified precursory anomalies, such as increased temperatures of several degrees over several days in areas extending up to hundreds of kilometers. In view of the uncertainties in the data, others have been skeptical that such changes can be reliably and uniquely associated with seismic events. This problem is a subset of the more general question how to interpret TIR observations from space for the purpose of fault characterization. Although faults are often clearly discernable in thermal images, the contributions of various factors to any temporal variability in their thermal properties are not clear. These factors include vegetation, soil moisture, surface and air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, and perhaps even wind. Extracting anomalies specifically associated with earthquakes in view of this natural variability and in the presence of observational uncertainties is a difficult task at best. Using standard higher-level TIR products (e.g., surface temperature) derived from radiance at sensor is likely questionable without additional corrections. We address these questions through the analysis of 60 km x 60 km images collected by the ASTER instrument on board of the Terra satellite. ASTER is unique in that five of its 14 channels are TIR, with a spatial resolution of 90 m (compared with at least 1-km spatial resolution of instruments used in previous reports of precursory anomalies). We focus on a specific area in southern California (32.80N - 34.50N, 115.90W - 117.20W) that includes substantial parts of the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, as well as two recent M5.2 and M4.9 earthquakes (June 12 and 16, 2005). In addition to the existing ASTER data, mostly collected in the daytime, we have made arrangements for future data collections over the next year, with emphasis on nighttime TIR data

  13. 4D volcano gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  14. Volcanoes and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence that volcanic eruptions affect climate is reviewed. Single explosive volcanic eruptions cool the surface by about 0.3 C and warm the stratosphere by several degrees. Although these changes are of small magnitude, there have been several years in which these hemispheric average temperature changes were accompanied by severely abnormal weather. An example is 1816, the "year without summer" which followed the 1815 eruption of Tambora. In addition to statistical correlations between volcanoes and climate, a good theoretical understanding exists. The magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated following volcanic explosions agrees well with the observations. Volcanoes affect climate because volcanic particles in the atmosphere upset the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and infrared energy emitted by the Earth. These interactions can be observed. The most important ejecta from volcanoes is not volcanic ash but sulfur dioxide which converts into sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere. For an eruption with its explosive magnitude, Mount St. Helens injected surprisingly little sulfur into the stratosphere. The amount of sulfuric acid formed is much smaller than that observed following significant eruptions and is too small to create major climatic shifts. However, the Mount St. Helens eruption has provided an opportunity to measure many properties of volcanic debris not previously measured and has therefore been of significant value in improving our knowledge of the relations between volcanic activity and climate.

  15. Volcanoes generate devastating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lockridge, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

  16. Supporting users through integrated retrieval, processing, and distribution systems at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.; Willems, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The LP DAAC is the primary archive for the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data; it is the only facility in the United States that archives, processes, and distributes data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission/Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft; and it is responsible for the archive and distribution of “land products” generated from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites.

  17. What more have we learned from thermal infrared remote sensing of active volcanoes other than they are hot? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing has been used for decades to detect changes in the heat output of active and reawakening volcanoes. The data from these thermally anomalous pixels are commonly used either as a monitoring tool or to calculate parameters such as effusion rate and eruptive style. First and second generation TIR data have been limited in the number of spectral channels and/or the spatial resolution. Two spectral channels with only one km spatial resolution has been the norm and therefore the number of science applications is limited to very large or very hot events. The one TIR channel of the Landsat ETM+ instrument improved the spatial resolution to 60 m, but it was not until the launch of ASTER in late 1999 that orbital TIR spectral resolution increased to five channels at 90 m per pixel. For the first time, the ability existed to capture multispectral emitted radiance from volcanic surfaces, which has allowed the extraction of emissivity as well as temperature. Over the past decade ASTER TIR emissivity data have been examined for a variety of volcanic processes including lava flow emplacement at Kilauea and Kluichevskoi, silicic lava dome composition at Sheveluch, Bezymianny and Mt. St. Helens, low temperature fumaroles emissions at Cerro Negro, and textural changes on the pyroclastic flow deposits at Merapi, Sheveluch and Bezymianny. Thermal-temporal changes at the 90 m scale are still an important monitoring tool for active volcanoes using ASTER TIR data. However, the ability to extract physical parameters such as micron-scale roughness and bulk mineralogy has added tremendously to the science derived from the TIR region. This new information has also presented complications such as the effects of sub-pixel thermal heterogeneities and amorphous glass on the emissivity spectra. If better understood, these complications can provide new insights into the physical state of the volcanic surfaces. Therefore, new data processing algorithms

  18. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes. This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.

  19. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes.This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.

  20. Ship extraction and categorization from ASTER VNIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Miliaresis, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a methodology for ship extraction and categorization from relatively low resolution multispectral ASTER imagery, corresponding to the sea region south east of Athens in Greece. At a first level, in the radiometrically corrected image, quad tree decomposition and bounding rectangular extraction automatically outline location of objects - possible ships, by statistically evaluating spectral responses throughout the segmented image. Subsequently, the object borders within the rectangular regions are extracted, while connected component labelling combined by size and shape filtering allows ship characterization. The ships' spectral signature is determined in green, red and infrared bands while cluster analysis allows the identification of ship categories on the basis of their size and reflectance. Additional pixel- based measures reveal estimated ship orientation, direction, movement, stability and turning. The results are complemented with additional geographic information and inference tools are formed towards the determination of probable ship type and its destination.

  1. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  2. Phenolic compounds with IL-6 inhibitory activity from Aster yomena.

    PubMed

    Kim, A Ryun; Jin, Qinglong; Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2014-07-01

    A new biflavonoid, named asteryomenin (1), as well as six known phenolic compounds, esculetin (2), 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-3-hydroxy methyl benzoate (3), caffeic acid (4), isoquercitrin (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6), and apigenin (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Aster yomena. The structures of compounds (1-7) were identified based on 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. For these isolates, the inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell was examined. Among these isolates, compounds 4 and 7 appeared to have potent inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell, while compounds 1-3 and 5-6 showed moderate activity. PMID:24014305

  3. Collective behavior of chemotactic colloids: clusters, asters and oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suropriya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of systems that emulate properties of living matter, such as motility, gradient-sensing, signaling and replication. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of dynamics of an individual patterned catalytic colloid, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signaling formation of clusters and asters. The kinetics of catalysis introduces a natural control parameter for the range of the interaction mediated by the diffusing chemical species. For various regimes in parameter space in the long-ranged limit our system displays precise analogs to gravitational collapse, plasma oscillations and electrostatic screening. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior.

  4. Monitoring and modeling ice-rock avalanches from ice-capped volcanoes: A case study of frequent large avalanches on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggel, C.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Wessels, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Iliamna is an andesitic stratovolcano of the Aleutian arc with regular gas and steam emissions and mantled by several large glaciers. Iliamna Volcano exhibits an unusual combination of frequent and large ice-rock avalanches in the order of 1 ?? 106??m3 to 3 ?? 107??m3 with recent return periods of 2-4??years. We have reconstructed an avalanche event record for the past 45??years that indicates Iliamna avalanches occur at higher frequency at a given magnitude than other mass failures in volcanic and alpine environments. Iliamna Volcano is thus an ideal site to study such mass failures and its relation to volcanic activity. In this study, we present different methods that fit into a concept of (1) long-term monitoring, (2) early warning, and (3) event documentation and analysis of ice-rock avalanches on ice-capped active volcanoes. Long-term monitoring methods include seismic signal analysis, and space-and airborne observations. Landsat and ASTER satellite data was used to study the extent of hydrothermally altered rocks and surface thermal anomalies at the summit region of Iliamna. Subpixel heat source calculation for the summit regions where avalanches initiate yielded temperatures of 307 to 613??K assuming heat source areas of 1000 to 25??m2, respectively, indicating strong convective heat flux processes. Such heat flow causes ice melting conditions and is thus likely to reduce the strength at the base of the glacier. We furthermore demonstrate typical seismic records of Iliamna avalanches with rarely observed precursory signals up to two hours prior to failure, and show how such signals could be used for a multi-stage avalanche warning system in the future. For event analysis and documentation, space- and airborne observations and seismic records in combination with SRTM and ASTER derived terrain data allowed us to reconstruct avalanche dynamics and to identify remarkably similar failure and propagation mechanisms of Iliamna avalanches for the past 45??years

  5. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi Volcano, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt Volcano. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2008.

  6. Data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, David

    1991-01-01

    The viewgraphs of a discussion on data archiving presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The mass storage system at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is described. Topics covered in the presentation include product goals, data library systems (DLS), client system commands, networks, archival devices, DLS features, client application systems, multiple mass storage devices, and system growth.

  7. Thermal Monitoring of Nisyros Volcano (Greece) by Digital Processing of Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, A.; Vassilopoulou, S.; Sakkas, V.; Lagios, E.; Dietrich, V.; Hurni, L.; Stavrakakis, G.

    2003-04-01

    Nisyros is an active strato-volcano at the eastern end of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc. The volcano experienced a recent episode of unrest during 1995--1998 with the nucleation of numerous earthquakes and considerable increase of temperatures of the hydrothermal system. In the year 2000, we started monitoring the volcano from space using thermal satellite data of high-resolution sensors within the framework of the European Union IST project GEOWARN. Three Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes (60-m spatial resolution) and two ASTER Level 1B scenes (90-m spatial resolution) showing the broader Nisyros area were processed by use of Geomatica(v8.2.1, ERDAS Imagine(8.5 and ATCOR(v2.0.1 software. The ETM+ scenes were obtained during the night imaging mode of the sensor on 20-10-2000, 19-5-2002 and 26-10-2002, respectively. Ground data (1-D point observations) were also collected during the satellite overpass. Data processing, including orthorectification and atmospheric correction show clearly the existence of a thermal anomaly inside the Nisyros caldera with surface temperatures 10--15^oC warmer than the surroundings. The ASTER scenes were delivered in HDF format and were acquired on the 26-4-2002 (Daytime) and 13-6-2002 (night-time), respectively. We processed band 13 (10.25-10.95 (m) using a scene-specific standard atmosphere from the ATCOR atmospheric libraries, because there were no ground data at the time of the overpass. The results show a good comparison with the ETM+ data. The crater region was clearly located and it was mapped warmer than the surroundings within the range of surface temperatures measured over previous campaigns (27-35 (C). Our 2002 results were validated (2-D thermal maps) by the use of portable IR digital thermal camera.

  8. Rock type mapping with indices defined for multispectral thermal infrared ASTER data: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2003-03-01

    ASTER sensor aboard NASA's Terra satellite has the capability of measuring multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) emission from the earth's surface to space. The author proposed indices by the combination of ASTER-TIR bands for detecting quartz and carbonate minerals, and another index to estimate the abundance of bulk SiO2 content in the surface silicate rocks, applied them to the low level ASTER radiance at the sensor data without atmospheric corrections, and showed a potential ability of the indices in a rock type mapping. This paper tries to apply the proposed method into the practical case studies using ASTER-TIR data. The study sites include ophiolitic belt zones in Oman and along Yarlun Zangbo River in Tibet. The applied results are compared with the geology of the study areas. It indicates that the new remote sensing approach proposed here would improve the quality and the cost of the geological mapping in arid and semi-arid regions.

  9. Kinesin-1 Prevents Capture of the Oocyte Meiotic Spindle by the Sperm Aster

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Karen L.P.; Fabritius, Amy S.; Ellefson, Marina L.; Flynn, Jonathan R.; Milan, Jennifer A.; McNally, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Centrioles are lost during oogenesis and inherited from the sperm at fertilization. In the zygote, the centrioles recruit pericentriolar proteins from the egg to form a mature centrosome that nucleates a sperm aster. The sperm aster then captures the female pronucleus to join the maternal and paternal genomes. Because fertilization occurs before completion of female meiosis, some mechanism must prevent capture of the meiotic spindle by the sperm aster. Here we show that in wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, maternal pericentriolar proteins are not recruited to the sperm centrioles until after completion of meiosis. Depletion of kinesin-1 heavy chain or its binding partner resulted in premature centrosome maturation during meiosis and growth of a sperm aster that could capture the oocyte meiotic spindle. Kinesin prevents recruitment of pericentriolar proteins by coating the sperm DNA and centrioles and thus prevents triploidy by a non-motor mechanism. PMID:22465668

  10. ASTER's First Views of Red Sea, Ethiopia - Thermal-Infrared (TIR) Image (monochrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    ASTER succeeded in acquiring this image at night, which is something Visible/Near Infrared VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) sensors cannot do. The scene covers the Red Sea coastline to an inland area of Ethiopia. White pixels represent areas with higher temperature material on the surface, while dark pixels indicate lower temperatures. This image shows ASTER's ability as a highly sensitive, temperature-discerning instrument and the first spaceborne TIR multi-band sensor in history.

    The size of image: 60 km x 60 km approx., ground resolution 90 m x 90 m approximately.

    The ASTER instrument was built in Japan for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint United States/Japan Science Team is responsible for instrument design, calibration, and data validation. ASTER is flying on the Terra satellite, which is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

  11. Comparison of preliminary results from Airborne Aster Simulator (AAS) with TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannari, Yoshiaki; Mills, Franklin; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ezaka, Teruya; Narita, Tatsuhiko; Chang, Sheng-Huei

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), being developed for a NASA EOS-A satellite, will have 3 VNIR, 6 SWIR, and 5 TIR (8-12 micron) bands. An Airborne ASTER Simulator (AAS) was developed for Japan Resources Observation System Organization (JAROS) by the Geophysical Environmental Research Group (GER) Corp. to research surface temperature and emission features in the MWIR/TIR, to simulate ASTER's TIR bands, and to study further possibility of MWIR/TIR bands. ASTER Simulator has 1 VNIR, 3 MWIR (3-5 microns), and 20 (currently 24) TIR bands. Data was collected over 3 sites - Cuprite, Nevada; Long Valley/Mono Lake, California; and Death Valley, California - with simultaneous ground truth measurements. Preliminary data collected by AAS for Cuprite, Nevada is presented and AAS data is compared with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data.

  12. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability

  13. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  14. ASTER nighttime cloud mask database using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki

    2008-10-01

    Cloud assessment for ASTER nighttime scenes is not accurate because the ASTER Cloud Coverage Assessment Algorithm (ACCAA) thresholds with only one thermal infrared (TIR) band for nighttime scenes. First in the present paper, it is shown that the original ACCAA cloud masks differ considerably from the masks interpolated from MODIS Cloud Mask Products (MOD35), and this discrepancy is caused from errors in the ACCAA masks by visual check for 543 scenes. In addition, uncertain pixels included in MOD35 masks, which are classified to neither cloud nor clear, are visually checked for 76 scenes. Then, the ASTER nighttime cloud mask database using MOD35 products is introduced. It provides the interpolated MOD35 cloud masks for almost all ASTER nighttime scenes (143,242 scenes as of July 2008) through Internet. The database also shows that clear scenes with cloud coverage of 20% or less are about 34% of the total nighttime scenes. In the final part of the paper, an algorithm for reclassifying an interpolated MOD35 mask using ASTER measurements is proposed and applied to 42 test scenes. The algorithm will work well for some scenes, but less well for snow/ice surfaces, and thin, cirrus, and high clouds, due to the band limitation of ASTER/TIR. If a spatial uniformity test is added, the algorithm performance may be improved.

  15. Characterization of ASTER GDEM Elevation Data over Vegetated Area Compared with Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Wenjian; Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Current researches based on areal or spaceborne stereo images with very high resolutions (less than 1 meter) have demonstrated that it is possible to derive vegetation height from stereo images. The second version of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) is a state-of-the-art global elevation data-set developed by stereo images. However, the resolution of ASTER stereo images (15 meters) is much coarser than areal stereo images, and the ASTER GDEM is compiled products from stereo images acquired over 10 years. The forest disturbances as well as forest growth are inevitable in 10 years time span. In this study, the features of ASTER GDEM over vegetated areas under both flat and mountainous conditions were investigated by comparisons with lidar data. The factors possibly affecting the extraction of vegetation canopy height considered include (1) co-registration of DEMs; (2) spatial resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs); (3) spatial vegetation structure; and (4) terrain slope. The results show that accurate co-registration between ASTER GDEM and the National Elevation Dataset (NED) is necessary over mountainous areas. The correlation between ASTER GDEM minus NED and vegetation canopy height is improved from 0.328 to 0.43 by degrading resolutions from 1 arc-second to 5 arc-seconds and further improved to 0.6 if only homogenous vegetated areas were considered.

  16. Mapping from ASTER stereo image data: DEM validation and accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Akira; Welch, Roy; Lang, Harold

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Terra spacecraft provides along-track digital stereo image data at 15-m resolution. As part of ASTER digital elevation model (DEM) accuracy evaluation efforts by the US/Japan ASTER Science Team, stereo image data for four study sites around the world have been employed to validate prelaunch estimates of heighting accuracy. Automated stereocorrelation procedures were implemented using the Desktop Mapping System (DMS) software on a personal computer to derive DEMs with 30- to 150-m postings. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error (RMSE) in elevation between ±7 and ±15 m can be achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. An evaluation of an ASTER DEM data product produced at the US Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) yielded an RMSE of ±8.6 m. Overall, the ability to extract elevations from ASTER stereopairs using stereocorrelation techniques meets expectations.

  17. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  18. Volcanoes, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The island of Java (8.0S, 112.0E), perhaps better than any other, illustrates the volcanic origin of Pacific Island groups. Seen in this single view are at least a dozen once active volcano craters. Alignment of the craters even defines the linear fault line of Java as well as the other some 1500 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Deep blue water of the Indian Ocean to the south contrasts to the sediment laden waters of the Java Sea to the north.

  19. Volcanoes of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Charles

    1996-09-01

    Nothing can be more breathtaking than the spectacle of a volcano erupting. Space-age lunar and planetary missions offer us an unprecedented perspective on volcanism. Starting with the Earth, Volcanoes of the Solar System takes the reader on a guided tour of the terrestrial planets and moons and their volcanic features. We see lunar lava fields through the eyes of the Apollo astronauts, and take an imaginary hike up the Martian slopes of Olympus Mons--the tallest volcano in the solar system. Complemented by over 150 photographs, this comprehensive and lucid account of volcanoes describes the most recent data on the unique and varied volcanic features of Venus and updates our knowledge on the prodigiously active volcanoes of Io. A member of the Association of European Volcanologists, Charles Frankel has directed documentary films on geology, astronomy and space exploration and has authored a number of articles on the earth sciences.

  20. ASTER and Ground Observations of Vegetation Primary Succession and Habitat Development near Retreating Glaciers in Alaska and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Furfaro, R.

    2011-12-01

    Like active volcanoes, glaciers are among the most dynamic components of the Earth's solid surface. All of the main surface processes active in these areas have an ability to suddenly remake or "resurface" the landscape, effectively wiping the land clean of vegetation and habitats, and creating new land surface and aqueous niches for life to colonize and develop anew. This biological and geomorphological resurfacing may remove the soil or replace it with inorganic debris layers. The topographical, hydrological, and particle size-frequency characteristics of resurfaced deglaciated landscapes typically create a high density of distinctive, juxtaposed niches where differing plant communities may become established over time. The result is commonly a high floral and faunal diversity and fecundity of life habitats. The new diverse landscape continues to evolve rapidly as ice-cored moraines thaw, lakes drain or fill in with sediment, as fluvial dissection erodes moraine ridges, as deltaic sedimentation shifts, and other processes (coupled with primary succession) take place in rapid sequence. In addition, climate dynamics which may have caused the glaciers to retreat may continue. We will briefly explore two distinctive glacial environments-(1) the maritime Copper River corridor through the Chugach Mountains (Alaska), Allen Glacier, and the river's delta; and (2) Nepal's alpine Khumbu valley and Imja Glacier. We will provide an example showing how ASTER multispectral and stereo-derived elevation data, with some basic field-based constraints and observations, can be used to make automatic maps of certain habitats, including that of the Tibetan snowcock. We will examine geomorphic and climatic domains where plant communities are becoming established in the decades after glacier retreat and how these link to the snowcock habitat and range. Snowcock species have previously been considered to have evolved in close association with glacial and tectonic history of South and

  1. Mapping Phyllic and Argillic-Altered Rocks in Southeastern Afghanistan using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: ASTER data and logical operators were successfully used to map phyllic and argillic-altered rocks in the southeastern part of Afghanistan. Hyperion data were used to correct ASTER band 5 and ASTER data were georegistered to orthorectified Landsat TM data. Logical operator algorithms produced argillic and phyllic byte ASTER images that were converted to vector data and overlain on ASTER and Landsat TM images. Alteration and fault patterns indicated that two areas, the Argandab igneous complex, and the Katawaz basin may contain potential polymetallic vein and porphyry copper deposits. ASTER alteration mapping in the Chagai Hills indicates less extensive phyllic and argillic-altered rocks than mapped in the Argandab igneous complex and the Katawaz basin and patterns of alteration are inconclusive to predict potential deposit types.

  2. Seismic and deformation precursory to the small explosions of Marapi Volcano, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Patria, C.; Gunawan, H.; Taisne, B.; Nurfiani, D.; Avila, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Marapi Volcano is one of the active volcanoes of Indonesia located near the city of Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Its activity is characterized by small vulcanian explosions with occasional VEI 2 producing tephra and pyroclastic flows. Due to its activity, it is being monitored by Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). Four seismic stations consists of 2 broadband and 2 short period instruments have been established since 2009. In collaboration with CVGHM, Earth Observatory of Singapore added 5 seismic stations around the volcano in 2014, initially with short period instruments but later upgraded to broadbands. We added one tilt station at the summit of Marapi. These seismic and tilt stations are telemetered by 5.8GHz radio to Marapi Observatory Post where data are archived and displayed for Marapi observers for their daily volcanic activity monitoring work. We also archive the data in the EOS and CVGHM main offices. Here we are presenting examples of seismic and deformation data from Marapi prior, during, and after the vulcanian explosion. Our study attempt to understand the state of the volcano based on monitoring data and in order to enable us to better estimate the hazards associated with the future eruptions of this or similar volcano.

  3. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Anaglyph, SRTM / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This stereoscopic (anaglyph) visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of the volcano, the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano to the lower right of center, Lake Kivu is at the bottom, and the city of Goma is located along the northeast shore (bottom center). Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears to the upper left of Nyiragongo.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. The cliff at the top center of the image is the western edge of the rift. Volcanic activity is common in the rift, and older but geologically recent lava flows (dark in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading an elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and blending it with a single band of a Landsat scene. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before

  4. Elysium Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 4, 1998--the first anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing--Mars Global Surveyor's latest images were radioed to Earth with little fanfare. The images received on July 4, 1998, however, were very exciting because they included a rare crossing of the summit caldera of a major martian volcano. Elysium Mons is located at 25oN, 213oW, in the martian eastern hemisphere. Elysium Mons is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the 'zero' elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.

    Elysium Mons was discovered by Mariner 9 in 1972. It differs in a number of ways from the familiar Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes in the Tharsis region. In particular, there are no obvious lava flows visible on the volcano's flanks. The lack of lava flows was apparent from the Mariner 9 images, but the new MOC high resolution image--obtained at 5.24 meters (17.2 feet) per pixel--illustrates that this is true even when viewed at higher spatial resolution.

    Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera--these most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact. Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to identify from previous Mars spacecraft images. This and other MOC data are being examined closely to better understand the nature and origin of volcanic features on Mars.

    The three MOC images, 40301 (red wide angle), 40302 (blue wide angle

  5. Generation of data acquisition requests for the ASTER satellite instrument for monitoring a globally distributed target: glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raup, B.H.; Kieffer, H.H.; Hare, T.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) instrument is scheduled to be launched on the EOS Terra platform in 1999. The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space project has planned to acquire ASTER images of most of the world's land ice annually during the six-year ASTER mission. This article describes the process of creating the data acquisition requests needed to cover approximately 170,000 glacier targets.

  6. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

  7. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  8. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, U. )

    1991-04-01

    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  9. Clusters, asters, and collective oscillations in chemotactic colloids.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suropriya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-06-01

    The creation of synthetic systems that emulate the defining properties of living matter, such as motility, gradient-sensing, signaling, and replication, is a grand challenge of biomimetics. Such imitations of life crucially contain active components that transform chemical energy into directed motion. These artificial realizations of motility point in the direction of a new paradigm in engineering, through the design of emergent behavior by manipulating properties at the scale of the individual components. Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of such systems. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of gradient-sensing of an individual swimmer, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior, and use it to construct a framework for studying their collective behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signaling formation of clusters and asters. The kinetics of catalysis introduces a natural control parameter for the range of the interaction mediated by the diffusing chemical species. For various regimes in parameter space in the long-ranged limit our system displays precise analogs to gravitational collapse, plasma oscillations, and electrostatic screening. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior. PMID:25019785

  10. Clusters, asters, and collective oscillations in chemotactic colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suropriya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-06-01

    The creation of synthetic systems that emulate the defining properties of living matter, such as motility, gradient-sensing, signaling, and replication, is a grand challenge of biomimetics. Such imitations of life crucially contain active components that transform chemical energy into directed motion. These artificial realizations of motility point in the direction of a new paradigm in engineering, through the design of emergent behavior by manipulating properties at the scale of the individual components. Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of such systems. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of gradient-sensing of an individual swimmer, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior, and use it to construct a framework for studying their collective behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signaling formation of clusters and asters. The kinetics of catalysis introduces a natural control parameter for the range of the interaction mediated by the diffusing chemical species. For various regimes in parameter space in the long-ranged limit our system displays precise analogs to gravitational collapse, plasma oscillations, and electrostatic screening. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior.