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Sample records for aster volcano archive

  1. Eruptions on A Virtual Globe: The Aster Volcano Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Abrams, M. J.; Tan, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    The systematic study of the world's most frequent volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for orbital remote sensing techniques, informing a range of investigations from basic volcanology to societal risk assessments. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER--a joint project of Japan and the United States), with its high spatial resolution (15, 30, 90m/pixel), multispectral character (0.52- 0.86μm; 1.6-2.4μm; 8.1-11.6μm), and stereophotogrammetric capability is in many ways an ideal imaging instrument for this task. Since launch in December 1999, an ASTER volcano target list of over 1500 volcanoes has yielded a (still growing) inventory of over 140,000 volcano views on over 70,000 individual ASTER day and night images. A significant emerging challenge for ASTER is how to effectively access a burgeoning data archive in a way that allows the survey, extraction, and distribution of important information in a timely way. This issue is particularly acute in general for ASTER, which has produced a multi-spectral, high spatial resolution, feature-specific targeted global data base of over 1 million image data granules worldwide. To promptly and efficiently access and manage voluminous volcano data within a large ASTER image library, and to house other ancillary correlative volcanological data from MISR, MODIS, EO-1 data sets, SRTM, and related in situ data, we have created a specialty domain called the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov). We will discuss and illustrate the myriad challenges and scientific opportunities that this unprecedentedly large, but accessible, global volcanological remote sensing data set represents in terms of data mining, data analysis, and data distribution to the scientific community, to disaster responders, the general public, and to educators, and will conduct a live AVA demonstration. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of

  2. The JPL ASTER Volcano Archive: the development and capabilities of a 15 year global high resolution archive of volcano data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linick, J. P.; Pieri, D. C.; Sanchez, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The physical and temporal systematics of the world's volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for the exercise of orbital remote sensing techniques, informing studies ranging from basic volcanology to societal risk. Comprised of over 160,000 frames and spanning 15 years of the Terra platform mission, the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) is the world's largest (100+Tb) high spatial resolution (15-30-90m/pixel), multi-spectral (visible-SWIR-TIR), downloadable (kml enabled) dedicated archive of volcano imagery. We will discuss the development of the AVA, and describe its growing capability to provide new easy public access to ASTER global volcano remote sensing data. AVA system architecture is designed to facilitate parameter-based data mining, and for the implementation of archive-wide data analysis algorithms. Such search and analysis capabilities exploit AVA's unprecedented time-series data compilations for over 1,550 volcanoes worldwide (Smithsonian Holocene catalog). Results include thermal anomaly detection and mapping, as well as detection of SO2 plumes from explosive eruptions and passive SO2 emissions confined to the troposphere. We are also implementing retrospective ASTER image retrievals based on volcanic activity reports from Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). A major planned expansion of the AVA is currently underway, with the ingest of the full 1972-present LANDSAT, and NASA EO-1, volcano imagery for comparison and integration with ASTER data. Work described here is carried out under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. ASTER Images Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image of Mt Usu volcano is dominated by Lake Toya, an ancient volcanic caldera. On the south shore is the active Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 11,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. 'Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption,' said Yoshio Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University. This was the seventh major eruption of Mount Usu in the past 300 years. Fifty people died when the volcano erupted in 1822, its worst known eruption.

    In the image, most of the land is covered by snow. Vegetation, appearing red in the false color composite, can be seen in the agricultural fields, and forests in the mountains. Mt. Usu is crossed by three dark streaks. These are the paths of ash deposits that rained out from eruption plumes two days earlier. The prevailing wind was from the northwest, carrying the ash away from the main city of Date. Ash deposited can be traced on the image as far away as 10 kilometers (16

  4. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken during 2012–2013 in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Since completion of this study, a new lahar modeling program (LAHAR_pz) has been released, which may produce slightly different modeling results from the LAHARZ model used in this study. The maps and data from this study should not be used in place of existing volcano hazard maps published by local authorities. For volcanoes without hazard maps and (or) published lahar-related hazard studies, this work will provide a starting point from which more accurate hazard maps can be produced. This is the first dataset to provide digital maps of altered volcanoes and adjacent watersheds that can be used for assessing volcanic hazards, hydrothermal alteration, and other volcanic processes in future studies.

  5. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Perspective View with Lava SRTM / ASTER / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This computer-generated visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of both the volcano and the city of Goma, looking slightly east of north. Additionally, image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano on the right, Lake Kivu is in the foreground, and the city of Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shoreline. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the left background. Topographic expression has been exaggerated vertically by a factor of 1.5 for this visualization.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired

  6. Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM

  7. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  8. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  9. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  10. Archiving, processing, and disseminating ASTER products at the USGS EROS Data Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.; Tolk, B.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center archives, processes, and disseminates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. The ASTER instrument is one of five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite launched December 18, 1999. ASTER collects broad spectral coverage with high spatial resolution at near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths with ground resolutions of 15, 30, and 90 meters, respectively. The ASTER data are used in many ways to understand local and regional earth-surface processes. Applications include land-surface climatology, volcanology, hazards monitoring, geology, agronomy, land cover change, and hydrology. The ASTER data are available for purchase from the ASTER Ground Data System in Japan and from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center in the United States, which receives level 1A and level 1B data from Japan on a routine basis. These products are archived and made available to the public within 48 hours of receipt. The level 1A and level 1B data are used to generate higher level products that include routine and on-demand decorrelation stretch, brightness temperature at the sensor, emissivity, surface reflectance, surface kinetic temperature, surface radiance, polar surface and cloud classification, and digital elevation models. This paper describes the processes and procedures used to archive, process, and disseminate standard and on-demand higher level ASTER products at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.

  11. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  12. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, J.C.; Rowan, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 ??m and 2.31-2.33 ??m, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 ??m caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 ??m due to muscovite and illite. Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 ??m (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a pre existing geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 ??m, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain musco vite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator. A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  13. ASTER-SRTM Perspective of Mount Oyama Volcano, Miyake-Jima Island, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mount Oyama is a 820-meter-high (2,700 feet) volcano on the island of Miyake-Jima, Japan. In late June 2000, a series of earthquakes alerted scientists to possible volcanic activity. On June 27, authorities evacuated 2,600 people, and on July 8 the volcano began erupting and erupted five times over that week. The dark gray blanket covering green vegetation in the image is the ash deposited by prevailing northeasterly winds between July 8 and 17. This island is about 180 kilometers (110 miles) south of Tokyo and is part of the Izu chain of volcanic islands that runs south from the main Japanese island of Honshu. Miyake-Jima is home to 3,800 people. The previous major eruptions of Mount Oyama occurred in 1983 and 1962, when lava flows destroyed hundreds of houses. An earlier eruption in 1940 killed 11 people.

    This image is a perspective view created by combining image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard NASA's Terra satellite with an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Vertical relief is exaggerated, and the image includes cosmetic adjustments to clouds and image color to enhance clarity of terrain features.

    The ASTER instrument is a cooperative project between NASA, JPL, and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the

  14. ASTER Observations of 2000-2007 Thermal Features at Pavlof Volcano and Mt. Hague (Emmons Lake Volcanic Center), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Schneider, D.; Ramsey, M.; Mangan, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) is a 15 km by 30 km area of nested calderas, stratovolcanoes, lava domes, hyaloclastite rings, and cinder cones aligned along the arc axis. Pavlof Volcano is the most active volcano along the ELVC, with more than 40 historic eruptions since 1790. The most recent eruption of Pavlof Volcano began in August 2007 after almost 11 years of quiescence. Mount Hague is a prominent intracaldera vent with no known historical eruptions that lies approximately 7 kilometers to the southwest of Pavlof. The southern crater of Mount Hague commonly fluctuates between a crater-filling lake to a dry crater floor with vigorously steaming fumaroles. Mount Hague has another fumarole field on the southeast flank at nearly the same elevation as the crater floor. To better document the behavior of persistent thermal features at these remote volcanoes, we have compiled temperature and dimension data using a seven-year long time series of satellite data. Over 25 daytime and 40 nighttime clear thermal infrared (TIR) images (90 m resolution) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have recorded variations in the thermal activity at both volcanic vents since July 2000. All cloud-free ASTER TIR observations document persistent low- temperature features at both Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague during this period. The size and temperature of each thermal feature varies throughout the study period. The data show that the 2518 m summit of Pavlof Volcano is occasionally snow-free in early summer whereas neighboring peaks at lower elevations are still snow-clad. FLIR data acquired near the summit of Pavlof in 2004 show that the majority of warm ground was at 20°C to 40°C. These warm areas commonly persist snow-free into the winter. Temperature variations observed at Mt Hague crater usually correlate to the size of the ephemeral crater lake. As the lake grows, the pixel-integrated ASTER TIR temperature increases. Measurements

  15. East-Asia land surface emissivity maps generated from Terra/ASTER data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Urai, Minoru

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-spatial-resolution multispectral imager on the Terra satellite launched in December 1999. The ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) subsystem has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90 m in the TIR spectral region, which are used for generation of the standard products of surface temperature and surface spectral emissivity. High-resolution surface emissivity at five spectral bands is unique, and is particularly useful for geological mapping. However, the emissivity product is not always easy to use, because (1) its image size is about 60 km square which is not large enough for regional-scale studies, (2) its imaged area is not fixed to the world reference system (WRS) due to a flexible pointing system, and (3) standard atmospheric correction often fails under humid conditions. Thus, in order to improve the usability of the ASTER emissivity product, we are generating land surface emissivity maps in a regional scale by applying improved retrieval algorithms and stack/mosaic processing to an ASTER orthogonal projection dataset which have been produced from the ASTER data archives by the Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. In the present paper, we introduce East-Asia land surface emissivity maps as the first result of this project. A comparison study with MODIS monthly emissivity products (MOD11C3) indicates that the generated maps give more reasonable emissivity spectra with higher spatial resolution than the MODIS emissivity products, though the maps have missing pixels in high latitude areas and humid areas.

  16. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  17. Building a Massive Volcano Archive and the Development of a Tool for the Science Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has traditionally housed one of the world's largest databases of volcanic satellite imagery, the ASTER Volcano Archive (10Tb), making these data accessible online for public and scientific use. However, a series of changes in how satellite imagery is housed by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data Information System has meant that JPL has been unable to systematically maintain its database for the last several years. We have provided a fast, transparent, machine-to-machine client that has updated JPL's database and will keep it current in near real-time. The development of this client has also given us the capability to retrieve any data provided by NASA's Earth Observing System Clearinghouse (ECHO) that covers a volcanic event reported by U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). We will also provide a publicly available tool that interfaces with ECHO that can provide functionality not available in any of ECHO's Earth science discovery tools.

  18. ASTER Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  19. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  20. Temporal monitoring of radiative heat flux from the craters of Tendürek volcano (East Anatolia, Turkey) using ASTER satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2014-05-01

    Tendürek volcano is situated in the Eastern Anatolia near Turkish-Iranian border. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia and it is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive basalt flows. Tendürek is characterized by alkaline volcanism. Holocene and historical activity has been reported. Hydrothermal activity have been observed on the twin summit craters. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. In order to quantify and to determine a base value for the current thermal state of the volcano, we used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Four ASTER daytime and nighttime images have been used to calculate radiative heat flux from the craters. Heat flux calculations have been made using three nighttime images and a daytime image acquired in 2002, 2004, 2008 and 2012. Images have been atmospherically corrected, temperature and emissivity have been separated and Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated from 5 thermal bands. LST images have been topographically corrected. Heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. Maximum temperature anomalies observed were 9.0 °C and 15.9 °C for the western and eastern craters respectively. Heat flux is estimated between 14.4 and 25.2 W/m² at the western crater and between 16.5 and 49.4 W/m² at the eastern crater. These values are well correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes such as Yellowstone, Stromboli and Nisyros, whereas they are lower than that of observed at Vulcano.

  1. ASTER Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  2. ASTER Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  3. ASTER Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of the Andes along the Chile-Bolivia border, the visible and infrared data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color differences of the different materials. The scene is dominated by the Pampa Luxsar lava complex, occupying the upper right two-thirds of the scene. Lava flows are distributed around remnants of large dissected cones, the largest of which is Cerro Luxsar. On the middle left edge of the image are the Olca and Parumastrato volcanoes, which appear in blue due to a lack of vegetation (colored red in this composite). This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (37 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It was acquired on April 7, 2000.

    The image is located at 21 degrees south latitude, 68.3 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial

  4. ASTER Mexicali

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  5. ASTER Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  6. Estimating Thermal Energy Emission and Eruption Rates at Guatemalan Volcanoes Using Thermal Data From a FLIR Camera, ASTER and MODIS Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Kapelanczyk, L.; Colvin, A. S.; Matias, O.; Rose, W. I.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of thermal images taken with a Forward-Looking Infrared camera has allowed us to establish a baseline data set for three open vent volcanoes in Guatemala that vary in composition from dacite (Santiaguito) to basalt (Fuego and Pacaya). This allows for the evaluation of eruption rates using remote sensing and provides satellite thermal remote sensing validations. The field data were collected during two field trips in 2008. The Santiaguito data have been atmospherically corrected and analyzed to allow estimates of the emitted thermal energy and also the equivalent eruption rate (Rose, et al 2008). Using similar techniques, data from Pacaya volcano were analyzed to obtain estimated emission of thermal energy along with observations of vent morphology. The long term goal is to employ a variety of thermal remote sensing tools, including data comparison from ASTER and MODIS sources, in order to closely monitor eruption rates at open vent volcanoes, such as Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya. Ultimately, eruption rate estimates at these volcanoes may lead to improved hazard forecasts.

  7. ASTER Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples

  8. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) imager onboard the NASA Terra Spacecraft is a joint project of the Japanese Ministry for Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and NASA. ASTER has acquired over one million multi-spectral 60km by 60 km images of the earth over the last six years. It consists of three sub-instruments: (a) a four channel VNIR (0.52-0.86um) imager with a spatial resolution of 15m/pixel, including three nadir-viewing bands (1N, 2N, 3N) and one repeated rear-viewing band (3B) for stereo-photogrammetric terrain reconstruction (8-12m vertical resolution); (b) a SWIR (1.6-2.43um) imager with six bands at 30m/pixel; and (c) a TIR (8.125-11.65um) instrument with five bands at 90m/pixel. Returned data are processed in Japan at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) and at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS Center for Earth Resource Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Within the ASTER Project, the JPL Volcano Data Acquisition and Analyses System (VDAAS) houses over 60,000 ASTER volcano images of 1542 volcanoes worldwide and will be accessible for downloads by the general public and on-line image analyses by researchers in early 2007. VDAAS multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) de-correlation stretch products are optimized for volcanic ash detection and have a spatial resolution of 90m/pixel. Digital elevation models (DEM) stereo-photogrammetrically derived from ASTER Band 3B/3N data are also available within VDAAS at 15 and 30m/pixel horizontal resolution. Thus, ASTER visible, IR, and DEM data at 15-100m/pixel resolution within VDAAS can be combined to provide useful boundary conditions on local volcanic eruption plume location, composition, and altitude, as well as on topography of underlying terrain. During and after eruptions, low- altitude winds and ash transport can be affected by topography, and other orographic thermal and water vapor

  9. Detection of Low Temperature Volcanogenic Thermal Anomalies with ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Baxter, S.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting volcanic eruptions is a thorny problem, as volcanoes typically exhibit idiosyncratic waxing and/or waning pre-eruption emission, geodetic, and seismic behavior. It is no surprise that increasing our accuracy and precision in eruption prediction depends on assessing the time-progressions of all relevant precursor geophysical, geochemical, and geological phenomena, and on more frequently observing volcanoes when they become restless. The ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra Earth Observing System satellite in low earth orbit provides important capabilities in the area of detection of volcanogenic anomalies such as thermal precursors and increased passive gas emissions. Its unique high spatial resolution multi-spectral thermal IR imaging data (90m/pixel; 5 bands in the 8-12um region), bore-sighted with visible and near-IR imaging data, and combined with off-nadir pointing and stereo-photogrammetric capabilities make ASTER a potentially important volcanic precursor detection tool. We are utilizing the JPL ASTER Volcano Archive (http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) to systematically examine 80,000+ ASTER volcano images to analyze (a) thermal emission baseline behavior for over 1500 volcanoes worldwide, (b) the form and magnitude of time-dependent thermal emission variability for these volcanoes, and (c) the spatio-temporal limits of detection of pre-eruption temporal changes in thermal emission in the context of eruption precursor behavior. We are creating and analyzing a catalog of the magnitude, frequency, and distribution of volcano thermal signatures worldwide as observed from ASTER since 2000 at 90m/pixel. Of particular interest as eruption precursors are small low contrast thermal anomalies of low apparent absolute temperature (e.g., melt-water lakes, fumaroles, geysers, grossly sub-pixel hotspots), for which the signal-to-noise ratio may be marginal (e.g., scene confusion due to clouds, water and water vapor, fumarolic emissions, variegated ground emissivity, and

  10. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  11. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  12. Volcanoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, L. N. S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)

  13. Volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.

  14. Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilling, Robert I.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…

  15. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  16. ASTER Suez Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  17. IR Asterisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam

    2010-09-01

    Observing asterisms for photometric calibration provides a "happy medium" between observing single stars which areobservable from the ground but lack statistics, and star clusters which have excellent statistics but are too crowded to observe from the ground.Asterisms in the IR for calibration have been less available than in the optical, e.g., Landolt's standard fields.While ad-hoc asterisms for calibration could be formed from 2MASS calibration, the photometric precision of 2MASSis relatively low, 0.02-0.05, for the fainter stars, m=9-13, that can still be observed without saturation in WFC3-IR.However, IR monitoring of variable phenomena {e.g., AGN SNe, stellar variables} from the ground has produced calibration of stars in asterisms with m=9-13 with a relative uncertainty of 0.001 to 0.01 mag due to the high frequency of monitoring. We have selected 4 such asterisms to observe. Because the stars are bright we need to use subarrays of 64x64 or 128x128 to get read out short enough to avoid saturation. The observations are obtained in pairs of 3 close stars, i.e., 2x3=6 stars per orbit in F125W and F160W as well as a F555W full frame to verify astrometry. In all we expect to measure 24 stars with m=9 to 14. The goal is to provide 2 calibrations, an independent zeropoint and its uncertainty as well as a measure of count rate non linearity. For the latter, an expected CRNL over 2 dex {5 mag} is expected tobe 0.02 mag.

  18. NASA and USGS ASTER Expedited Satellite Data Services for Disaster Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Significant international disasters related to storms, floods, volcanoes, wildfires and numerous other themes reoccur annually, often inflicting widespread human suffering and fatalities with substantial economic consequences. During and immediately after such events it can be difficult to access the affected areas and become aware of the overall impacts, but insight on the spatial extent and effects can be gleaned from above through satellite images. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft has offered such views for over a decade. On short notice, ASTER continues to deliver analysts multispectral imagery at 15 m spatial resolution in near real-time to assist participating responders, emergency managers, and government officials in planning for such situations and in developing appropriate responses after they occur. The joint U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team has developed policies and procedures to ensure such ongoing support is accessible when needed. Processing and distribution of data products occurs at the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center in South Dakota. In addition to current imagery, the long-term ASTER mission has generated an extensive collection of nearly 2.5 million global 3,600 km2 scenes since the launch of Terra in late 1999. These are archived and distributed by LP DAAC and affiliates at Japan Space Systems in Tokyo. Advanced processing is performed to create higher level products of use to researchers. These include a global digital elevation model. Such pre-event imagery provides a comparative basis for use in detecting changes associated with disasters and to monitor land use trends to portray areas of increased risk. ASTER imagery acquired via the expedited collection and distribution process illustrates the utility and relevancy of such data in crisis situations.

  19. ASTER Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow are all visible in this image of Washington, D.C. With its 15-meter spatial resolution, ASTER can see individual buildings. Taken on June 1, 2000, this image covers an area 14 kilometers (8.5 miles) wide and 13.7 kilometers (8.2 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of visible and near infrared bands displays vegetation in red and water in dark grays. The Potomac River flows from the middle left to the bottom center. The large red area west of the river is Arlington National Cemetery.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands

  20. CALIPSO Borehole Instrumentation Project at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI: Data Acquisition, Telemetry, Integration, and Archival Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Malin, P. E.; Shalev, E.; Elsworth, D.; Hidayat, D.; Voight, B.; Young, S. R.; Dunkley, P. N.; Herd, R.; Norton, G.

    2003-12-01

    The CALIPSO Project (Caribbean Andesite Lava Island-volcano Precision Seismo-geodetic Observatory) has greatly enhanced the monitoring and scientific infrastructure at the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat with the recent installation of an integrated array of borehole and surface geophysical instrumentation at four sites. Each site was designed to be sufficiently hardened to withstand extreme meteorological events (e.g. hurricanes) and only require minimum routine maintenance over an expected observatory lifespan of >30 y. The sensor package at each site includes: a single-component, very broad band, Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, a three-component seismometer ( ˜Hz to 1 kHz), a Pinnacle Technologies series 5000 tiltmeter, and a surface Ashtech u-Z CGPS station with choke ring antenna, SCIGN mount and radome. This instrument package is similar to that envisioned by the Plate Boundary Observatory for deployment on EarthScope target volcanoes in western North America and thus the CALIPSO Project may be considered a prototype PBO installation with real field testing on a very active and dangerous volcano. Borehole sites were installed in series and data acquisition began immediately after the sensors were grouted into position at 200 m depth, with the first completed at Trants (5.8 km from dome) in 12-02, then Air Studios (5.2 km), Geralds (9.4 km), and Olveston (7.0 km) in 3-03. Analog data from the strainmeter (50 Hz sync) and seismometer (200 Hz) were initially digitized and locally archived using RefTek 72A-07 data acquisition systems (DAS) on loan from the PASSCAL instrument pool. Data were downloaded manually to a laptop approximately every month from initial installation until August 2003, when new systems were installed. Approximately 0.2 Tb of raw data in SEGY format have already been acquired and are currently archived at UARK for analysis by the CALIPSO science team. The July 12th dome collapse and vulcanian explosion events were recorded at 3 of the 4

  1. Nyiragonga Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Nyiragonga volcano eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the volcano's summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the

  2. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  3. The ASTER Global Topographic Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Bailey, B.; Tsu, H.; Hato, M.

    2009-12-01

    The availability of an up-to-date, high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) has been a priority of the Earth observation community for a long time. Until now, the best publicly available global data set has been the 100 m SRTM topography, covering 60 degrees north to 57 degrees south latitude On June 29 Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) released the ASTER Global (GDEM) created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. ASTER is an imaging instrument built by METI and operating on the NASA Terra platform. ASTER has a backward- looking stereo band, producing stereo pairs in the near-infrared wavelength region; from these stereo pairs, DEMs with 30 m postings (1 arc-second) can be produced. The joint US/Japan ASTER Project completed a program to produce a global DEM (GDEM). The ASTER GDEM was created by stereo-correlating the entire 1,200,000-scene ASTER archive; stacking and averaging the individual DEMs; cloud screening; and filling voids or holes using SRTM 100 m or other data where available. An extensive validation program was completed prior to release of the GDEM. Validation of the GDEM involved comparisons against higher resolution DEMs worldwide by many organizations. Results indicate that globally, the GDEM meets the 20 m vertical accuracy requirement at the 95% confidence level. Accompanying each tile is another data plane indicating the number of individual DEMs that went into the stack, or identifying the data source used to fill the void. At the November 2007 GEO Ministerial Summit, NASA and METI were invited by GEO to contribute this global DEM to GEOSS. Both countries accepted the invitation. Consequently, the ASTER GDEM is offered at no charge to users worldwide. It is packaged in 1 degree-by-1 degree tiles, and covers the Earth’s land surfaces between 83 degree N and 83 degree S latitudes with

  4. ASTER Scheduling Prioritization Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    ASTER schedules are generated by an automated scheduling system. This scheduler will generate psuedo-optimal schedules based on a priority scheme. This priority scheme is controlled by the Science Team.

  5. ASTER: Imaging with antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, R.

    1988-01-01

    Antiprotons are of great promise in biomedical research and in practical biomedical and industrial applications. It is likely that antiprotons will be of far greater utility in the next century than x-rays have been in this century. Antiprotonic STEReography (ASTER), a 3-D photography-like imaging technique, is basic to most of the foreseen applications. This dissertation explores realistic models of ASTER analytically, numerically, and with computer simulations. It carries the understanding of ASTER further than previous work, and its models are adaptable to more powerful computers. In particular, ASTER is portrayed as a robust alternative to the ambiguities inherent in the imaging techniques used in x-ray computer tomography, CT. The scattering of the antiprotons lateral to their initial direction is the limiting factor in ASTERs ability to resolve fine anatomical details. This lateral scattering is calculated with a mathematical term ignored in previous studies, which overestimate the scattering of heavy charged particles in homogeneous media. Optimization techniques are explored and found to provide twice the resolution for a given radiation dose, and to reduce the needed detector size. Proper choice of orientation of the antiproton beam is shown to improve the resolution/dose ratio by an order of magnitude. Comparison of simulated ASTER scans with actual CT scans shows that ASTER imparts about one to two orders of magnitude less dose than that imparted by CT at comparable resolutions. The scanned targets include a random pattern. The target and the image are shown to be more correlated as the number of antiprotons used is increased. Finally, the future of ASTER is considered: further computer simulations are suggested, and implications for medicine and industry are discussed.

  6. AsTeRICS.

    PubMed

    Drajsajtl, Tomáš; Struk, Petr; Bednárová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    AsTeRICS - "The Assistive Technology Rapid Integration & Construction Set" is a construction set for assistive technologies which can be adapted to the motor abilities of end-users. AsTeRICS allows access to different devices such as PCs, cell phones and smart home devices, with all of them integrated in a platform adapted as much as possible to each user. People with motor disabilities in the upper limbs, with no cognitive impairment, no perceptual limitations (neither visual nor auditory) and with basic skills in using technologies such as PCs, cell phones, electronic agendas, etc. have available a flexible and adaptable technology which enables them to access the Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMI) on the standard desktop and beyond. AsTeRICS provides graphical model design tools, a middleware and hardware support for the creation of tailored AT-solutions involving bioelectric signal acquisition, Brain-/Neural Computer Interfaces, Computer-Vision techniques and standardized actuator and device controls and allows combining several off-the-shelf AT-devices in every desired combination. Novel, end-user ready solutions can be created and adapted via a graphical editor without additional programming efforts. The AsTeRICS open-source framework provides resources for utilization and extension of the system to developers and researches. AsTeRICS was developed by the AsTeRICS project and was partially funded by EC. PMID:23739379

  7. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  8. ASTER Images the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the Island of Hawaii were acquired on March 19, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Data are shown from the short wavelength and thermal infrared spectral regions, illustrating how different and complementary information is contained in different parts of the spectrum.

    Left image: This false-color image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 120 kilometers (75 miles) long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region. While, much of the island was covered in clouds, the dominant central Mauna Loa volcano, rising to an altitude of 4115 meters (13,500 feet), is cloud-free. Lava flows can be seen radiating from the central crater in green and black tones. As they reach lower elevations, the flows become covered with vegetation, and their image color changes to yellow and orange. Mauna Kea volcano to the north of Mauna Loa has a thin cloud-cover, producing a bluish tone on the image. The ocean in the lower right appears brown due to the color processing.

    Right image: This image is a false-color composite of three thermal infrared bands. The brightness of the colors is proportional to the temperature, and the hues display differences in rock composition. Clouds are black, because they are the coldest objects in the scene. The ocean and thick vegetation appear dark green because they are colder than bare rock surfaces, and have no thermal spectral features. Lava flows are shades of magenta, green, pink and yellow, reflecting chemical changes due to weathering and relative age differences.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  9. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  10. The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) -for societal benefit -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, M.; Tsu, H.; Tachikawa, T.; Abrams, M.; Bailey, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the agreement of contribution to GEOSS and a public release was started on June 29th. ASTER GDEM can be downloaded to users from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) free of charge. The ASTER instrument was built by METI and launched onboard NASA’s Terra spacecraft in December 1999. It has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its near infrared spectral band (NIR) and its nadir-viewing and backward-viewing telescopes to acquire stereo image data with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The ASTER GDEM was produced by applying newly-developed automated algorithm to more than 1.2 million NIR data Produced DEMs of all scene data was stacked after cloud masking and finally partitioned into 1° x 1°unit (called ‘tile’) data for convenience of distribution and handling by users. Before start of public distribution, ERSDAC and USGS/NASA together with many volunteers did validation and characterization by using a preliminary product of the ASTER GDEM. As a result of validation, METI and NASA evaluated that Version 1 of the ASTER GDEM has enough quality to be used as “experimental” or “research grade” data and consequently decided to release it. The ASTER GDEM covering almost all land area of from 83N to 83S on the earth represents as an important contribution to the global earth observation community. We will show our effort of development of ASTER GDEM and its accuracy and character.

  11. Concept of ASTER calibration requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The document of ASTER Calibration Requirement specifies the following items related to spectral and radiometric characteristics of the ASTER instrument: (1) characteristics whose knowledge is specified, (2) requirement for knowledge of the characteristics, (3) methodology for characteristics evaluation, and (4) supplementary information and data related with characteristics evaluation. This document is applicable to the document of the ASTER Instrument Specification on Observational Performances, and will be a part of the ASTER Calibration Plan. ASTER Calibration Requirement is scheduled to establish the concept and framework by March 1992 when the 5th Calibration and Data Validation Panel Meeting is held, and to determine details including requirement values and evaluation methodologies by October 1992 around which the Calibration Peer Review may be held. The ASTER Calibration Plan is planned to finish by the same time.

  12. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is

  13. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  14. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  15. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  16. ASTER DEM performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  17. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.; Hook, Simon J.; Nichols, David A.; Schier, Marguerite L.; Tsu, Hiroji

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a multispectral imaging radiometer scheduled to fly in Earth orbit in 1998 on NASA's Earth Observation System platform. The instrument will have 14 spectral bands from the visible to thermal infrared wavelength regions with high spectral and spatial resolution and with along-track stereoscopic capability. ASTER imagery will be used to study such phenomena as Earth surface properties, elements of the surface heat balance, cloud cover characteristics, glacier and sea ice extent, patterns of vegetation and land use, volcanoes, coral reefs and coastal processes, geology and topography, and hydrology. ASTER will have three separate radiometer subsystems, each with a swath width of 60 km. Any point on the globe will be accessible at least once every 16 days for the short wavelength infrared and thermal infrared subsystems, and once every five days for the visible and near infrared subsystem. Instrument and spacecraft resources are allocated to support an 8 percent average duty cycle, corresponding to over 700 60 by 60-km scenes per day. ASTER data will be acquired and processed according to specific user requirements over its five-year mission.

  18. Intercomparison Calibration Study of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Thome, K. J.; McCorkel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for the Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform - the Earth Observing System flagship. ASTER has a swath width of 60km with 8 bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15m (bands 1-3) and 90m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250m (bands 1-2), 500m (bands 3-7), and 1km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the 'zoom' lens and MODIS is the 'keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley Playa is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for the intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on averages of ground measurements of the test site.

  19. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  20. Remote sensing of volcanic plumes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, Lorna Alison

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) has been used to quantify SO2 emissions from passively degassing volcanoes. This dissertation explores ASTER's capability to detect SO 2 with satellite validation, enhancement techniques and extensive processing of images at a variety of volcanoes. ASTER is compared to the Mini UV Spectrometer (MUSe), a ground based instrument, to determine if reasonable SO2 fluxes can be quantified from a plume emitted from Lascar, Chile. The two sensors were in good agreement with ASTER proving to be a reliable detector of SO2. ASTER illustrated the advantages of imaging a plume in 2D, with better temporal resolution than the MUSe. SO2 plumes in ASTER imagery are not always discernible in the raw TIR data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Decorrelation Stretch (DCS) enhancement techniques were compared to determine how well they highlight a variety of volcanic plumes. DCS produced a consistent output and the composition of the plumes was easy to identify from explosive eruptions. As the plumes became smaller and lower in altitude they became harder to distinguish using DCS. PCA proved to be better at identifying smaller low altitude plumes. ASTER was used to investigate SO2 emissions at Lascar, Chile. Activity at Lascar has been characterized by cyclic behavior and persistent degassing (Matthews et al. 1997). Previous studies at Lascar have primarily focused on changes in thermal infrared anomalies, neglecting gas emissions. Using the SO2 data along with changes in thermal anomalies and visual observations it is evident that Lascar is at the end an eruptive cycle that began in 1993. Declining gas emissions and crater temperatures suggest that the conduit is sealing. ASTER and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used to determine the annual contribution of SO2 to the troposphere from the Central and South American volcanic arcs between 2000 and 2011. Fluxes of 3.4 Tg/a for Central America and 3

  1. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A

  2. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  3. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. An assessment of ASTER surface reflectance products generated by GEO Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kamei, Akihide; Moriyama, Masao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The GEO Grid is an e-infrastructure, which is capable in archiving large amount of satellite data and conducting higher level processing using the advanced grid technologies.1 The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Level 0 data are stored in a cluster system on GEO Grid, and ASTER ortho-rectified radiance and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) products are able to be generated on this system globally since 2000. This research shows validation of new ASTER surface reflectance products generated by the GEO Grid system, which can apply the radiometric and atmospheric correction to ASTER ortho-rectified radiance data of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR).

  5. Size scaling of microtubule asters in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, James; Field, Christine; Krutkramelis, Kaspars; Fakhri, Nikta; Oakey, John; Gatlin, Jay; Mitchison, Timothy

    Microtubule asters are radial arrays of microtubules (MTs) nucleated around organizing centers (MTOCs). Across a wide range of cell types and sizes, aster positioning influences cellular organization. To investigate aster size and positioning, we reconstituted dynamic asters in Xenopus cytoplasmic extract, confined in fluorous oil microfluidic emulsions. In large droplets, we observed centering of MTOCs. In small droplets, we observed a breakdown in natural positioning, with MTOCs at the droplet edge and buckled or bundled MTs along the interface. In different systems, asters are positioned by different forces, such as pushing due to MT polymerization, or pulling due to bulk or cortical dynein. To estimate different contributions to aster positioning, we biochemically perturbed dynactin function, or MT or actin polymerization. We used carbon nanotubes to measure molecular motions and forces in asters. These experimental results inform quantitative biophysical models of aster size and positioning in confinement. JFP was supported by a Fannie and John Hertz Graduate Fellowship.

  6. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM

  7. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  8. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  9. Recent Release of the ASTER Global DEM Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Hall, A.; Meyer, D.; Sohre, T.; Doescher, C.

    2009-12-01

    On June 29th, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) release was announced to the public and to a very eager audience. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). ASTER is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan's Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). On June 21, NASA Headquarters along with colleagues in Japan (METI) signed a plan for distribution of this product. The global digital elevation model of Earth is available online to users everywhere at no cost from NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Sioux Falls, SD. The DAAC is a joint project of NASA and the USGS and is a key component of NASA's EOSDIS. The new ASTER GDEM was created from nearly 1.3 million individual stereo-pair images acquired by the Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Aster) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. The ASTER elevation model was jointly developed by NASA and METI under contract to Sensor Information Laboratory Corp., Tsukuba, Japan. On June 29, the NASA press release was picked up quickly by numerous news organizations and online sites. Response to the product was incredible! The news of the release of the product was carried on websites across the globe, this fueled a tremendous response from users. Here are a few interesting metrics about the release: - over 41,000 unique visitors to website in first week following release - top countries in order were: US (approx. 20%), Germany, U.K., Brazil, Austria, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Japan - approximately 29,000 visitors came to the news page in the first week and about 11,000 of these users downloaded the actual press release - by the end of August, over 2 Million ASTER GDEM files had been downloaded from the Land

  10. Prospecting from Space Using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    15 meter resolution Visible and Near Infrared image (1.2 MB) 30 meter resolution Shortwave Infrared image (1 MB) 90 meter Thermal Infrared image (628 KB) These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER is the highest resolution instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The images cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the information gained by looking at the Earth's surface in different wavelengths of light. The top image displays visible and near infrared bands 3 (.81um), 2 (.56um), and 1 (.66um) in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow, and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. The middle image displays short wavelength infrared bands 4 (1.65um), 6 (2.205um), and 8 (2.33um) as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have unique absorption features, resulting in distinct colors in the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich (kaolinite is a clay mineral). The bottom image displays thermal infrared bands 13 (10.6um), 12 (9.1um) and 10 (8.3um) as RGB. In these wavelengths, variations in quartz content are more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple (mafic rocks have high proportions of elements like magnesium and iron). ASTER's ability to identify different types of rock and soil from space using thermal infrared wavelengths of light is one of its unique capabilities. Image courtesy NASA, GSFC, MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Measuring volcanic degassing of SO 2 in the lower troposphere with ASTER band ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Robin; Salerno, Giuseppe Giovanni; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clarisse, Lieven; Kazahaya, Kohei; Burton, Michael; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Clerbaux, Cathy; Bernard, Alain

    2010-07-01

    We present a new method for measuring SO 2 with the data from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance radiometer) orbital sensor. The method consists of adjusting the SO 2 column amount until the ratios of radiance simulated on several ASTER bands match the observations. We present a sensitivity analysis for this method, and two case studies. The sensitivity analysis shows that the selected band ratios depend much less on atmospheric humidity, sulfate aerosols, surface altitude and emissivity than the raw radiances. Measurements with < 25% relative precision are achieved, but only when the thermal contrast between the plume and the underlying surface is higher than 10 K. For the case studies we focused on Miyakejima and Etna, two volcanoes where SO 2 is measured regularly by COSPEC or scanning DOAS. The SO 2 fluxes computed from a series of ten images of Miyakejima over the period 2000-2002 is in agreement with the long term trend of measurement for this volcano. On Etna, we compared SO 2 column amounts measured by ASTER with those acquired simultaneously by ground-based automated scanning DOAS. The column amounts compare quite well, providing a more rigorous validation of the method. The SO 2 maps retrieved with ASTER can provide quantitative insights into the 2D structure of non-eruptive volcanic plumes, their dispersion and their progressive depletion in SO 2.

  12. Radiometric cross-calibration of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Karen; Thome, Kurt; McCorkel, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform. ASTER has a swath width of 60 km with 8 spectral bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15-m (bands 1-3) and 90-m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300 km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), and 1 km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the `zoom' lens and MODIS is the `keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and the current work relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for an intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on seasonal averages of EO-1 Hyperion spectral range. Results indicate that the calibrated radiance products from the two sensors agree to within the

  13. The ASTER Data System: An Overview of the Data Products in Japan and in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Bailey, Bryan; Duda, Kenneth; Kannari, Yoshiaki; Miura, Akira; Ramachandran, Bhaskar

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data system is a cooperative system, which is operated jointly by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) through its Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC), and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) primarily through its Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). ASTER is a moderate-resolution land remote sensing system onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft. ASTER-acquired data are received at the White Sands, New Mexico, ground receiving station, and then transmitted via land network to the EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) within the Goddard DAAC, located at the GSFC. EDOS pre-processes raw ASTER data to Level-0 (L0) data, and sends them via the high-speed Asia-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN) to the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) in Japan. ASTER GDS processes the L0 data to level-1 (L1) datasets; they distribute these data to users, and also use them to generate higher-level products for their user community. ASTER GDS sends a copy of all L1A data they produce to NASA's LP DAAC, located at the U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. All L1 data received from Japan are ingested, archived, and available for users at LP DAAC. The LP DAAC also generates and distributes higher-level products from L1 data based on requests from users. To meet time-critical needs related to sensor health and performance, natural disasters, national emergencies, and certain field campaigns, the ASTER Expedited Data System (EDS) was developed, and is operated jointly by U.S. and Japanese partners.

  14. Geometric validation plan for ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1998-12-01

    The ASTER system is a multispectral imager which covers a spectral range from visible to thermal infrared light by combining three subsystems composed of four telescopes. To ensure the high-quality data products concerning to the geolocation and band-to-band matching performance, the geometric registration is needed. This paper describes the geometric validation procedure for a multi-telescope imager with a cross-track pointing function. The strategy for the maintenance of database files and the preparation a GCP library is also shown.

  15. ASTER THERMAL INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OVER NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than a dozen clear sky ASTER scenes over the Jornada, New Mexico LTER site have been acquired since the launch of NASA's Terra satellite in December, 1999. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has 5 channels in the 8 to 12 micrometer wave band with ...

  16. ASTER, a multinational Earth observing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Graham W.; Geller, Gary N.; Larson, Steven A.; Morrison, Andrew D.; Nichols, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a facility instrument selected for launch in 1998 on the first in a series of spacecraft for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The ASTER instrument is being sponsored and built in Japan. It is a three telescope, high spatial resolution imaging instrument with 15 spectral bands covering the visible through to the thermal infrared. It will play a significant role within EOS providing geological, biological, land hydrological information necessary for intense study of the Earth. The operational capabilities for ASTER, including the necessary interfaces and operational collaborations between the US and Japanese participants, are under development. EOS operations are the responsibility of the EOS Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Although the primary EOS control center is at GSFC, the ASTER control facility will be in Japan. Other aspects of ASTER are discussed.

  17. Comparison of ASTER TOA Radiance with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Hiroto; Iwasaki, Akira

    Synergistic fusion of multi-resolution remote sensing images is important to data users that require observation frequency, spatial resolution and observation wavelength. However, it requires compatibility of these data products. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiances of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and it is found that the sensitivity of MODIS is slightly higher and that the ASTER radiance is higher at the lower reflectance regions. ASTER suffers from stray light phenomena because of the nature of a pushbroom sensor, which stands out for SWIR. In contrast, MODIS is free from ghost phenomena in reflective bands, although existence of stray light is known in thermal bands. In this work, correction of stray light in ASTER is carried out using MODIS images with a wider swath, which makes the correction of full scene of ASTER images.

  18. Nicaraguan Volcanoes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  19. Measurements of volcanic SO2 with ASTER. Comparison with automated scanning DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, R. A.; Salerno, G. G.; Bernard, A. M.; Burton, M.; Coheur, P.; Caltabiano, T.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by volcanoes has an important impact on the environment and climate and is also a critical parameter for volcano monitoring. A number of satellites operating in the ultra violet and in the Thermal infrared can measure SO2. However a lot of work has still to be done towards a rigorous validation of SO2 measurements from space. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection radiometer) acquires images in the thermal infrared (TIR) with a resolution of 90m/pixel, which enables to quantify the SO2 fluxes emitted in small-scale tropospheric plumes. ASTER images are processed with radiative transfer simulations and a band ratio algorithm to produce maps of SO2 column amounts. The band ratios (B10+B12)/B11 and B14/B11 are used for their insensitivity to variations in ground altitude and atmospheric humidity, two variables that often complicate SO2 retrievals in the TIR. Their sensitivity to surface emissivity is also reduced. So far, the ground validation of satellite SO2 measurements has been complex due to logistics difficulties and the lack of strictly simultaneous measurements. Recently the development of permanent networks of scanning DOAS on several active volcanoes has provide a wealth of ground based SO2 measurements that can be exploited for validating satellite-based measurements. We will present the results of comparisons between SO2 Column Amount (CA) and fluxes measured by ASTER and by the FLAME network of Mt. Etna. The two independent measurements sets are in good agreement in magnitude. Fluxes range from 2000 to 5000 T/days and column amounts from 0 to 4 g/m2. CAs measured by ASTER present a 0.5g/m2 random dispersion and no systematic bias compared to DOAS measurements. However the CAs measured by DOAS are subject to increase at low-scanning angles. These results constitute a rigorous ground validation of ASTER SO2, and provides valuable insights into accuracy and precision on both methodologies. Figure 1: Comparison

  20. Asterism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A readily recognizable group or arrangement of (usually bright) stars, which are not necessarily members of a single constellation. Well-known examples are the Plough (part of the constellation Ursa Major), and the False Cross, the Summer Triangle and the Square of Pegasus, all of which comprise stars from more than one constellation. The term is also occasionally used to denote a close group of ...

  1. Evapotranspiration estimates using ASTER thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Kustas, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of multi-band thermal infrared imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite has made feasible the estimation of evapotranspiration at 90 meter resolution. One critical variable in evapotranspiration models is surface temperature. With ASTER the temperature can be reliably determined over a wide range of vegetative conditions. The requirements for accurate temperature measurement include minimization of atmospheric effects, correction for surface emissivity variations and sufficient resolution for the type of vegetative cover. When ASTER imagery are combined with meteorological observations, these requirements are usually met and result in surface temperatures accurate within 1-2 C. ASTER-based evapotranspiration estimates were made during September 2000 over a sub-humid regions at the USDA/ARS Grazinglands research laboratory near El Reno in central Oklahoma. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated by applying instantaneous ASTER surface temperatures, as well as ASTER-based vegetation indices from visible-near infrared bands, to a two-source energy flux model and combining the result with separately acquired hourly solar radiation data. The estimates of surface fluxes show reasonable agreement (within 50-100 W/m2) with ground-based Bowen Ratio Energy Balance measurements and illustrate how ASTER measurements can be applied to heterogeneous terrain. There are some significant discrepancies, however, and these may in part be due to difficulty quantifying fractional cover of senescent vegetation.

  2. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R.G.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Schneider, D.J.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 ??C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 ??C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  3. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Davies, Ashley G.; Schneider, David J.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 °C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 °C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  4. Correlation Between Landforms And Ground Deformation At Nisyros Volcano (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camiz, S.; Papageorgiou, E.; Poscollieri, M.; Parcharidis, Is.

    2013-12-01

    Relief represents a major element in the characterization of a landscape that can be affected even by slight modifications on its shape, often due to ground deformation. These terrain characteristics are both linked to the topography of a given area, through a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Topographical attributes, such as slope, aspect, elevation gradients, and others, can be provided by DEM analysis and used further as input to classification methods for defining terrain units. In this study, we explore the relationship between ground deformation and landforms in Nisyros volcano, as ground deformation seems to follow existing geomorphological patterns. Possible correlations between morphological information, collected by classifying landforms on the basis of the ~30 m spatial resolution ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model, and deformation observations resulting from Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) are performed, taking also into consideration the geostructural setting of the study area. Nisyros volcano, located at the eastern part of the active Hellenic Volcanic Arc, was investigated for the time period 2002-2010, during a dormant phase where the topography is mostly described by the geological/tectonic structure. In terms of DInSAR technique, the entire archive of ENVISAT images was used, in both ascending and descending mode, to derive the deformation rates. For the geomorphic consideration Tandem Analysis was implemented through a mixed classification procedure following a principal component analysis applied to local elevation gradients, extracted considering each pixel of the DEM and its nearest neighbours. The projection of the DInSAR results on the obtained factor spaces allows evaluating the homogeneity of the deformation in the pixels belonging to the same classes.

  5. Theoretical validation of ASTER_SW algorithm used for the monitoring of hot volcanic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.; Campion, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic lakes act as calorimeters trapping most of the heat released by the magmatic-hydrothermal system. Their temperatures are reflecting the balance between heat input from hydrothermal fluids and heat output by radiation and evaporation of the lake surface to the atmosphere. The lake surface temperature is one of the key parameters used to detect any changes occurring in the activity of the volcano. Many volcanic lakes are located in remote areas with difficult accessibility; these lakes are rarely visited or monitored. For these lakes remote sensing by satellite sensors can provide very useful information at relatively low cost. To retrieve surface temperatures of volcanic lakes, ASTER TIR images were analyzed with a recently developed algorithm based on a Split-Window method: ASTER_SW. The difference in brightness temperatures between bands 13 and 14 (BT13-BT14) is used to remove the atmospheric effects. The use of two TIR channels enables a differential absorption measurement in order to remove the effects of atmospheric vapor and other absorbing constituents. Further validation of the ASTER_SW algorithm was completed by applying it to a set of radiance simulations using a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Atmosphit). Parameters used for the simulations included: surface temperatures, atmospheric models and surface altitudes. The obtained spectra were integrated on the spectral response functions of ASTER and converted with the inverse of Planck’s law to get the Simulated Brightness Temperatures (SBT). The ASTER_SW algorithm was applied to the SBT. The coherence between ASTER_SW-derived temperatures and model surface temperatures was examined to test the validity and robustness of the algorithm. ASTER_SW proved to be accurate in most circumstances, revealing no systematic bias in any peculiar atmosphere or altitude. However, for very warm lakes (T>50°C), a small dependency on surface altitude is appearing in tropical atmospheres. The low frequency of

  6. Design and performance of ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisada, Hiroyuki

    1995-12-01

    ASTER is an advanced multispectral imager with high spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions for EOS-AM1 spacecraft which will be launched with four other instruments in June 1998. The ASTER instrument covers a wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared by 14 spectral bands. To meet a wide spectral coverage, optical sensing units of ASTER are separated into three subsystems, that is the visible and near infrared subsystem, the short wave infrared subsystem and the thermal infrared subsystem, depending on spectral region. Moreover, ASTER has an in-track stereoscopic viewing capability by a near infrared band. To acquire the stereo data the VNIR subsystem has two telescopes for the nadir and backward viewings. Several new technologies are adopted as design challenges to realize the high performance. The validity of these new technologies is verified through the evaluation of the engineering model.

  7. EOS ASTER thermal infrared band vicarious calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F.; Tonooka, H.; Hook, S.; Abtahi, A.; Alley, R.; Thompson, T.; Hoover, G.; Zadourian, S.

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of the 5 EOS ASTER instrument emission bands (90 m pixels at surface) is being checked during the operational life of the mission using field measurements simultaneous with the image acquisition.

  8. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  9. Stereo Image of Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. This anaglyph stereo image is of Mt Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 15,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. A 3-D view can be obtained by looking through stereo glasses, with the blue film through your left eye and red film with your right eye at the same time. North is on your right hand side. For more information, see When Rivers of Rock Flow ASTER web page Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Chikurachki Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... plume from the April 22, 2003, eruption of the Chikurachki volcano is portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle Imaging ... the volcanically active Kuril Island group, the Chikurachki volcano is an active stratovolcano on Russia's Paramushir Island (just south of ...

  11. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  12. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  13. Shape-motion relationships of centering microtubule asters.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Kimura, Akatsuki; Minc, Nicolas

    2016-03-28

    Although mechanisms that contribute to microtubule (MT) aster positioning have been extensively studied, still little is known on how asters move inside cells to faithfully target a cellular location. Here, we study sperm aster centration in sea urchin eggs, as a stereotypical large-scale aster movement with extreme constraints on centering speed and precision. By tracking three-dimensional aster centration dynamics in eggs with manipulated shapes, we show that aster geometry resulting from MT growth and interaction with cell boundaries dictates aster instantaneous directionality, yielding cell shape-dependent centering trajectories. Aster laser surgery and modeling suggest that dynein-dependent MT cytoplasmic pulling forces that scale to MT length function to convert aster geometry into directionality. In contrast, aster speed remains largely independent of aster size, shape, or absolute dynein activity, which suggests it may be predominantly determined by aster growth rate rather than MT force amplitude. These studies begin to define the geometrical principles that control aster movements. PMID:27022090

  14. Factors influencing aster leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) abundance and aster yellows phytoplasma infectivity in Wisconsin carrot fields.

    PubMed

    Frost, K E; Esker, P D; Van Haren, R; Kotolski, L; Groves, R L

    2013-06-01

    In Wisconsin, vegetable crops are threatened annually by infection of the aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), the causal agent of aster yellows (AY) disease, vectored by the aster leafhopper, Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes. Aster leafhopper abundance and infectivity are influenced by processes operating across different temporal and spatial scales. We applied a multilevel modeling approach to partition variance in multifield, multiyear, pest scouting data sets containing temporal and spatial covariates associated with aster leafhopper abundance and infectivity. Our intent was to evaluate the relative importance of temporal and spatial covariates to infer the relevant scale at which ecological processes are driving AY epidemics and identify periods of elevated risk for AYp spread. The relative amount of aster leafhopper variability among and within years (39%) exceeded estimates of variation among farm locations and fields (7%). Similarly, time covariates explained the largest amount of variation of aster leafhopper infectivity (50%). Leafhopper abundance has been decreasing since 2001 and reached its minimum in 2010. The average seasonal pattern indicated that periods of above average abundance occurred between 11 June and 1 August. Annual infectivity appears to oscillate around an average value of 2% and seasonal periods of above average infectivity occur between 19 May and 15 July. The coincidence of the expected periods of high leafhopper abundance and infectivity increases our knowledge of when the insect moves into susceptible crop fields and when it spreads the pathogen to susceptible crops, representing a seasonal interval during which management of the insect can be focused. PMID:23726057

  15. The Eruptive Behavior of Klyuchevskoy Volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S.; Ramsey, M.

    2008-12-01

    Klyuchevskoy volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the northern Pacific, is located on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia at the junction between the Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian Island Arcs. Its remote location and diversity of eruption styles make satellite-based monitoring and characterization of its eruptive activity essential. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor was launched in December 1999 on the NASA Terra satellite and has proven effective for the detection and monitoring of volcanic eruptions and their associated products. The goal of this investigation is to determine how well data from a broad spectral range at spatial resolutions under 100m/pixel can be used to characterize the 2005 and 2007 eruptions of a remote volcano during the harsh northern Pacific winter. The ASTER data presented here are supplemented by hand samples collected from the 2005 basaltic lava flows as well as high-spatial resolution thermal infrared data collected by a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera during field campaigns in August 2005 and 2007. Collectively, these data provide details regarding the composition, eruption rate, and eruptive mechanisms. Analysis of the data from all three ASTER subsystems reveals four main eruptive phases: a precursory, explosive, explosive-effusive, and cooling phase. These phases correlate to a gradual increase in maximum brightness temperatures followed by a rapid decrease. Close examination of FLIR data and digital photographs reveal the presence of a breakout point approximately 90 m below the rim of the nested summit crater, indicating a flow had breached the nested crater and traveled down the Krestovsky channel during both eruptions. Laboratory- derived TIR spectral data of the 2005 hand samples indicate good agreement with those obtained by ASTER after being reduced to the same spectral resolution. However, inherent errors of the spectra at longer wavelength indicate the

  16. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  17. Dante's volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  18. Dante's Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  19. Software For Generation Of ASTER Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander T.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Voge, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    Software functioning in EOS-DIS computing environment developed to generate data products from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Processes high-resolution image data from visible and near infrared (VNIR), short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR) radiometric readings to generate data on radiative and thermal properties of atmosphere and surface of Earth.

  20. The ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED): Mapping Earth's emissivity at 100 meter spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Abbott, Elsa; Malakar, Nabin; Islam, Tanvir; Abrams, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data, acquired by instruments on several NASA satellite platforms, are primarily used to estimate the surface temperature/emissivity of the Earth's land surface. One such instrument launched on NASA's Terra satellite in 1999 is the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has a spatial resolution of 90 m. Using ASTER data, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory recently released the most detailed emissivity map of the Earth termed the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED) that was acquired by processing millions of cloud free ASTER scenes from 2000 to 2008. The ASTER GEDv3 provides an average emissivity at ~100 m and ~1 km, while GEDv4 provides a monthly emissivity from 2000 to 2015 at ~5 km spatial resolution in the wavelength range between 8 and 12 µm. Validation with lab spectra from four desert sites resulted in an average absolute band error of ~1%, compared to current heritage MODIS products that had average absolute errors of 2.4% (Collection 4) and 4.6% (Collection 5).

  1. Spreading Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Andrea; Delaney, Paul T.; Denlinger, Roger P.

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  2. Spreading volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgia, A.; Delaney, P.T.; Denlinger, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  3. Chilean Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the border between Chile and the Catamarca province of Argentina lies a vast field of currently dormant volcanoes. Over time, these volcanoes have laid down a crust of magma roughly 2 miles (3.5 km) thick. It is tinged with a patina of various colors that can indicate both the age and mineral content of the original lava flows. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 15, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. The use of EO Optical data for the Italian Supersites volcanoes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Malvina

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the INGV experience in the capability to import many different EO optical data into in house developed systems and to maintain a repository where the acquired data have been stored. These data are used for generating selected products which are functional to face the different volcanic activity phases. Examples on the processing of long time series based EO data of Mt Etna activity and Campi Flegrei observation by using remote sensing techniques and at different spatial resolution data (ASTER - 90mt, AVHRR -1km, MODIS-1km, MSG SEVIRI-3km) are also showed. Both volcanoes belong to Italian Supersites initiative of the geohazard scientific community. In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), this work wants to describe the main activities concerning the generation of brightness temperature map from the satellite data acquired in real-time from INGV MEOS Multi-mission Antenna (for MODIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and geostationary satellite data) and AVHRR-TERASCAN (for AVHRR, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data). The advantage of direct download of EO data by means INGV antennas (with particular attention to AVHRR and MODIS) even though low spatial resolution offers the possibility of a systematic data processing having a daily updating of information for prompt response and hazard mitigation. At the same time it has been necessary the use of large archives to inventory and monitor dynamic and dangerous phenomena, like volcanic activity, globally.

  5. Using infrared spectroscopy and satellite data to accurately monitor remote volcanoes and map their eruptive products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to detect the onset of new activity at a remote volcano commonly relies on high temporal resolution thermal infrared (TIR) satellite-based observations. These observations from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS are being used in innovative ways to produce trends of activity, which are critical for hazard response planning and scientific modeling. Such data are excellent for detection of new thermal features, volcanic plumes, and tracking changes over the hour time scale, for example. For some remote volcanoes, the lack of ground-based monitoring typically means that these sensors provide the first and only confirmation of renewed activity. However, what is lacking is the context of the higher spatial scale, which provides the volcanologist with meter-scale information on specific temperatures and changes in the composition and texture of the eruptive products. For the past eleven years, the joint US-Japanese ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based data of volcanic eruptions around the world, including in the remote northern Pacific region. There have been more ASTER observations of Kamchatka volcanoes than any other location on the globe due mainly to an operational program put into place in 2004. Automated hot spot alarms from AVHRR data trigger ASTER acquisitions using the instrument's "rapid response" mode. Specifically for Kamchatka, this program has resulted in more than 700 additional ASTER images of the most thermally-active volcanoes (e.g., Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Karymsky, Bezymianny). The scientific results from this program at these volcanoes will be highlighted. These results were strengthened by several field seasons used to map new products, collect samples for laboratory-based spectroscopy, and acquire TIR camera data. The fusion of ground, laboratory and space-based spectroscopy provided the most accurate interpretation of the eruptions and laid the ground work for future VSWIR/TIR sensors such as HyspIRI, which are a critically

  6. EOSDIS support for the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, David A.; Schwaller, Matthew; Pniel, Moshe; Geller, Gary

    1995-12-01

    The end-to-end ground data system supporting the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) consists of elements provided by both Japan ASTER Ground Data System and the highly distributed Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). These two systems must interoperate to provide complex mission operations support and process high-rate (approximately 8 Megabits/sec) data into standard level 1, level 2 and higher data products. The EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) will provide ground data capture, rate buffering, and level 0 data processing. The EOS Operations Center will provide the operational interface between the Japanese Instrument Control Center and the spacecraft and will monitor the instrument health and safety. The Land Processes Distributed active Archive Center (DAAC) at the EROS Data Center will produce higher-level products based on software provided by the ASTER Science Team and systems provided by the EOSDIS Core System. Higher-level data product quality assurance, as well as U. S. Science Team support for instrument scheduling, will be performed at a science computing facility located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. All of these elements are being developed together to assure that this international mission produces data which will serve the needs of the science community.

  7. Iceland Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    ... of which are so thick that they block the penetration of light from CALIPSO's lidar to the surface. The yellow layer near the surface over France is believed to be primarily air pollution, but could also contain ash from the volcano. Highlighting its ...

  8. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  9. Onboard calibration status of the ASTER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Inada, Hitomi; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2012-11-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking images since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the detector temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth images of good quality. VNIR and TIR experienced responsivity degradation while SWIR showed little change. Band 1 (0.56 μm) decreased most among three VNIR bands and 30 % in twelve years. Band 12 (9.1 μm) decreased 40 % and most among five TIR bands. There are some discussions of the causes of the responsivity degradation of VNIR and TIR. Possible causes are contamination accretion by silicone outgas, thruster plume and plasma interaction. We marked hydrazine which comes out unburned in the thruster plume during the inclination adjust maneuver (IAM). Hydrazine has the absorption spectra corresponding to the TIR responsivity degradation in the infrared region. We studied the IAM effect on the ASTER by allocating the additional onboard calibration activities just before and after the IAM while the normal onboard calibration activity is operated once in 49 days. This experiment was carried out three times in fiscal year 2011.

  10. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  11. Current Activity of the U.S. ASTER Science Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Abrams, M. J.; Hook, S. J.; Pieri, D. C.; Ramsey, M.; Rowan, L. C.; Schmugge, T.; Wessels, R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. ASTER Science Team is currently engaged in numerous ASTER related activities, many of them jointly with our Japanese colleagues. These include vicarious instrument calibration, algorithm development and validation for higher level data products, assistance to ERSDAC for scheduling activities (primarily for U.S. users), assistance to data users other than Science Team members, and science applications of ASTER data, notably in the areas of glacial monitoring, volcanic monitoring, heat balance determinations, geologic mapping, and cloud studies.

  12. Variation in Aster Yellows Phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma Asteris) Titer in its Insect Vector, Macrosteles Quadrilineatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in aster yellows phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) titer in its insect vector, Macrosteles quadrilineatus The aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp) is transmitted by the aster leafhopper (ALH), or Macrosteles quadrilineatus, in a persistent and propagative manner. To study AYp replic...

  13. Santorini Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  14. SAR4Volcanoes: an international ASI funded research project on volcano deformation through new generation SAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansosti, E.; Pepe, S.; Solaro, G.; Casu, F.; Tizzani, P.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.; Nobile, A.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Zoffoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Volcano deformation monitoring is crucial to understand how magma emplaces, propagates and erupts. Therefore, volcano deformation research projects are particularly important opportunities to improve our understanding of volcano dynamics. SAR4Volcanoes is a 2-year research project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) within the framework of a cooperation agreement with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It focuses on volcano deformation analysis through Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques by means of COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS data, through the joint use of L-band and X-band SAR data. It also aims to the identification of methods and techniques to support decision making in emergency cases. Main target volcanoes in the projects are Etna, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Stromboli (Italy) and Sakurajima and Kirishima (Japan). Secondary target volcanoes include recently or currently erupting volcanoes, as El Hierro (Spain), Nabro (Ethiopia) and Galapagos volcanoes (Ecuador). Since the project kickoff (July 2011) a large number of COSMO-SkyMed data has been acquired at these volcanoes; in some cases, the acquisitions are available almost at every satellite orbit, with an average interval down to 4 days. On these premises, the project represents an important opportunity to: (1) collect a significant amount of X-band data on active and erupting volcanoes and (2) study surface deformation to understand magma dynamics in different volcanic settings. We will present preliminary results on the ground deformation analysis of the main and secondary target volcanoes. In particular, target volcanoes without a pre-project archive are analyzed using single deformation maps, while those with archives are analysed through a time series approach, based on the SBAS technique.

  15. Volcanic hotspots of the central and southern Andes as seen from space by ASTER and MODVOLC between the years 2000-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Mares, P. J.; Mnich, M. E.; Welch, M. D.; Melkonian, A. K.; Aguilera, F.; Naranjo, J.; Sunagua, M.; Clavero, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    We examine 153 volcanoes and geothermal areas in the central, southern, and austral Andes for temperature anomalies between 2000-2011 from two different spacebourne sensors: 1) those automatically detected by the MODVOLC algorithm (Wright et al., 2004) from MODIS and 2) manually identified hotspots in nighttime images from ASTER. Based on previous work, we expected to find 8 thermal anomalies (volcanoes: Ubinas, Villarrica, Copahue, Láscar, Llaima, Chaitén, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chiliques). We document 31 volcanic areas with pixel integrated temperatures of 4 to more than 100 K above background in at least two images, and another 29 areas that have questionable hotspots with either smaller anomalies or a hotspot in only one image. Most of the thermal anomalies are related to known activity (lava and pyroclastic flows, growing lava domes, fumaroles, and lakes) while others are of unknown origin or reflect activity at volcanoes that were not thought to be active. A handful of volcanoes exhibit temporal variations in the magnitude and location of their temperature anomaly that can be related to both documented and undocumented pulses of activity. Our survey reveals that low amplitude volcanic hotspots detectable from space are more common than expected (based on lower resolution data) and that these features could be more widely used to monitor changes in the activity of remote volcanoes. We find that the shape, size, magnitude, and location on the volcano of the thermal anomaly vary significantly from volcano to volcano, and these variations should be considered when developing algorithms for hotspot identification and detection. We compare our thermal results to satellite InSAR measurements of volcanic deformation and find that there is no simple relationship between deformation and thermal anomalies - while 31 volcanoes have continuous hotspots, at least 17 volcanoes in the same area have exhibited deformation, and these lists do not completely overlap. In

  16. ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISK (ASTER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASTER (ASsessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk) was developed by the U.S. EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division - Duluth (MED-Duluth) to assist regulators in performing ecological risk assessments. ASTER is an integration of the AQUIRE (AQUatic toxicity Information REtrieval) to...

  17. Real-Time Data Received from Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, Richard; McIntosh, William; Kyle, Philip; Esser, Richard; Bartel, Beth Ann; Dunbar, Nelia; Johns, Bjorn; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Karstens, Richard; Kurnik, Chuck; McGowan, Murray; McNamara, Sara; Meertens, Chuck; Pauley, Bruce; Richmond, Matt; Ruiz, Mario

    2004-03-01

    Internal and eruptive volcano processes involve complex interactions of multi-phase fluids with the solid Earth and the atmosphere, and produce diverse geochemical, visible, thermal, elastic, and anelastic effects. Multidisciplinary experimental agendas are increasingly being employed to meet the challenge of understanding active volcanoes and their hazards [e.g., Ripepe et al., 2002; Wallace et al., 2003]. Mount Erebus is a large (3794 m) stratovolcano that forms the centerpiece of Ross Island, Antarctica, the site of the principal U.S. (McMurdo) and New Zealand (Scott) Antarctic bases. With an elevation of 3794 m and a volume of ~1670 km3, Erebus offers exceptional opportunities for extended study of volcano processes because of its persistent, low-level, strombolian activity (Volcano Explosivity Index 0-1) and exposed summit magma reservoir (manifested as a long-lived phonolitic lava lake). Key scientific questions include linking conduit processes to near-field deformations [e.g., Aster et al., 2003], explosion physics [e.g., Johnson et al., 2003], magmatic differentiation and residence [e.g., Kyle et al., 1992], and effects on Antarctic atmospheric and ice geochemistry [e.g., Zreda-Gostynska et al., 1997]. The close proximity of Erebus (35 km) to McMurdo, and its characteristic dry, windy, cold, and high-elevation Antarctic environment, make the volcano a convenient test bed for the general development of volcano surveillance and other instrumentation under extreme conditions.

  18. Seasonal patterns of aster leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) abundance and aster yellows phytoplasma infectivity in Wisconsin carrot fields.

    PubMed

    Frost, K E; Esker, P D; Van Haren, R; Kotolski, L; Groves, R L

    2013-06-01

    In Wisconsin, vegetable crops are threatened annually by the aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), which is obligately transmitted by the aster leafhopper. Using a multiyear, multilocation data set, seasonal patterns of leafhopper abundance and infectivity were modeled. A seasonal aster yellows index (AYI) was deduced from the model abundance and infectivity predictions to represent the expected seasonal risk of pathogen transmission by infectious aster leafhoppers. The primary goal of this study was to identify periods of time during the growing season when crop protection practices could be targeted to reduce the risk of AYp spread. Based on abundance and infectivity, the annual exposure of the carrot crop to infectious leafhoppers varied by 16- and 70-fold, respectively. Together, this corresponded to an estimated 1,000-fold difference in exposure to infectious leafhoppers. Within a season, exposure of the crop to infectious aster leafhoppers (Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes), varied threefold because of abundance and ninefold because of infectivity. Periods of above average aster leafhopper abundance occurred between 11 June and 2 August and above average infectivity occurred between 27 May and 13 July. A more comprehensive description of the temporal trends of aster leafhopper abundance and infectivity provides new information defining when the aster leafhopper moves into susceptible crop fields and when they transmit the pathogen to susceptible crops. PMID:23726058

  19. ASTER Observations of Recent Thermal Activity and Explosive Eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Abrams, M. J.; Kervyn, M.; Hook, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natro-carbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (500-600 C) compared with typical silicate lavas (600-1100 C), and they have a low viscosity, behaving more like a mud flow than a lava flow. OL has been erupting on and off since 1983, mostly resulting in small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions here are rare, however, an ASTER observation from September 4, 2007 caught the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred here since the 1960s. Thermal infrared satellite monitoring has detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL in recent months. MODIS MODVOLC data detected >30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which may have been brush fires started by lava flows or spatter; ASTER detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL as early as mid-June. We will present up-to date information about the progress of the eruption and results from the analysis of the spectral composition of new eruption products and thermal anomalies that occurred prior to the recent explosive eruption. OL is one of many volcanoes in the world, and especially Africa, that is not regularly monitored. It is only through sporadic reports from locals or tourists in the area, and satellite data that we know anything at all about this volcanic eruption. Continued satellite monitoring along with studies of past thermal activity will help determine how future eruptions may be forecasted.

  20. Creating improved ASTER DEMs over glacierized terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2006-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) produced from ASTER stereo imagery over glacierized terrain frequently contain data voids, which some software packages fill by interpolation. Even when interpolation is applied, the results are often not accurate enough for studies of glacier thickness changes. DEMs are created by automatic cross-correlation between the image pairs, and rely on spatial variability in the digital number (DN) values for this process. Voids occur in radiometrically homogeneous regions, such as glacier accumulation areas covered with uniform snow, due to lack of correlation. The same property that leads to lack of correlation makes possible the derivation of elevation information from photoclinometry, also known as shape-from-shading. We demonstrate a technique to produce improved DEMs from ASTER data by combining the results from conventional cross-correlation DEM-generation software with elevation information produced from shape-from-shading in the accumulation areas of glacierized terrain. The resulting DEMs incorporate more information from the imagery, and the filled voids more accurately represent the glacier surface. This will allow for more accurate determination of glacier hypsometry and thickness changes, leading to better predictions of response to climate change.

  1. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    ), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10

  2. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous

  3. AsterAnts: A Concept for Large-Scale Meteoroid Return and Processing using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Biegel, Bryan A.; Traugott, Steve

    2004-01-01

    AsterAnts is a concept calling for a fleet of solar sail powered spacecraft to retrieve large numbers of small (1/2-1 meter diameter) Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for orbital processing. AsterAnts could use the International Space Station (ISS) for NEO processing, solar sail construction, and to test NEO capture hardware. Solar sails constructed on orbit are expected to have substantially better performance than their ground built counterparts [Wright 1992]. Furthermore, solar sails may be used to hold geosynchronous communication satellites out-of-plane [Forward 1981] increasing the total number of slots by at least a factor of three. potentially generating $2 billion worth of orbital real estate over North America alone. NEOs are believed to contain large quantities of water, carbon, other life-support materials and metals. Thus. with proper processing, NEO materials could in principle be used to resupply the ISS, produce rocket propellant, manufacture tools, and build additional ISS working space. Unlike proposals requiring massive facilities, such as lunar bases, before returning any extraterrestrial larger than a typical inter-planetary mission. Furthermore, AsterAnts could be scaled up to deliver large amounts of material by building many copies of the same spacecraft, thereby achieving manufacturing economies of scale. Because AsterAnts would capture NEOs whole, NEO composition details, which are generally poorly characterized, are relatively unimportant and no complex extraction equipment is necessary. In combination with a materials processing facility at the ISS, AsterAnts might inaugurate an era of large-scale orbital construction using extraterrestrial materials.

  4. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  5. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots.

  6. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  7. Simulation of ASTER data using AVIRIS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a joint Japanese/US imaging instrument scheduled to fly on the first Earth Observing System (EOS) platform in 1998. The complement of scanners includes a visible, three channel module with forward-looking stereo capability, a six channel short wavelength infrared module, and a five channel thermal module. As part of the definition phase for the instrument design, AVIRIS data was used to simulate the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands to investigate the effects of widening two of the bands to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus loss of spectral separability due to uncertainty in the post-launch band positions.

  8. Comparison of ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER-GED) With In-Situ Measurement In Italian Vulcanic Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Amici, S.; Piscini, A.

    2015-12-01

    LP DAAC released the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED) datasets on April 2, 2014. The database was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. The database includes land surface emissivities derived from ASTER data acquired over the contiguous United States, Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia, Europe, and China. In this work we compare ground measurements of emissivity acquired by means of Micro-FTIR (Fourier Thermal Infrared spectrometer) instrument with the ASTER emissivity map extract from ASTER-GED and the emissivity obtained by using single ASTER data. Through this analysis we want to investigate differences existing between the ASTER-GED dataset (average from 2000 to 2008 seasoning independent) and fall in-situ emissivity measurement. Moreover the role of different spatial resolution characterizing ASTER and MODIS, 90mt and 1km respectively, by comparing them with in situ measurements. Possible differences can be due also to the different algorithms used for the emissivity estimation, Temperature and Emissivity Separation algorithm for ASTER TIR band( Gillespie et al, 1998) and the classification-based emissivity method (Snyder and al, 1998) for MODIS. In-situ emissivity measurements have been collected during dedicated fields campaign on Mt. Etna vulcano and Solfatara of Pozzuoli. Gillespie, A. R., Matsunaga, T., Rokugawa, S., & Hook, S. J. (1998). Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 1113-1125. Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., & Feng, Y.-Z. (1998). Classification-based emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2753-2574.

  9. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at

  10. Automated Construction of Coverage Catalogues of Aster Satellite Image for Urban Areas of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Iwao, K.; Shibasaki, R.

    2012-07-01

    We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  11. Assembly and Positioning of Microtubule Asters in Microfabricated Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holy, Timothy E.; Dogterom, Marileen; Yurke, Bernard; Leibler, Stanislas

    1997-06-01

    Intracellular organization depends on a variety of molecular assembly processes; while some of these have been studied in simplified cell-free systems, others depend on the confined geometry of cells and cannot be reconstructed using bulk techniques. To study the latter processes in vitro, we fabricated microscopic chambers that simulate the closed environment of cells. We used these chambers to study the positioning of microtubule asters. Microtubule assembly alone, without the action of molecular motors, is sufficient to position asters. Asters with short microtubules move toward the position expected from symmetry; however, once the microtubules become long enough to buckle, symmetry is broken. Calculations and experiments show that the bending-energy landscape has multiple minima. Microtubule dynamic instability modifies the landscape over time and allows asters to explore otherwise inaccessible configurations.

  12. Lithologic mapping with multispectral ASTER TIR and SWIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2004-02-01

    ASTER, launched in December, 1999, composed of three subsystems, each of which multispectrally observes the reflected or emitted radiation from the surface of the earth to space in VNIR (visible and near infrared), SWIR (shortwave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared) wavelength regions, respectively. ASTER-VNIR has three spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 15m, and the one of which in near infrared has an along track stereo observation capability to produce high quality Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ASTER-SWIR has six spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30m, which are mainly designed for discriminating altered minerals bearing hydroxyl group. ASTER-TIR has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90m, which presents us a powerful tool for identifying quartz and carbonate minerals as well as discriminating types of silicate rocks. The author have successfully developed a robust method for detecting quartzite and carbonate rocks as well as classifying type of igneous rocks with ASTER TIR data without atmospheric corrections (Level-1B data). Here in this paper, reflectance spectra of minerals in SWIR region measured in the laboratory are analyzed to define calcite index, OH-bearing silicate index, kaolinite index and alunite index for discriminating each mineral by ASTER-SWIR. The defined indices are applied to SWIR data of ASTER Level-1B radiance at the sensor data observing Cuprite area in Nevada, USA, and the discussions are made on the results by comparing the well-known geology of the area. Also, the result of calcite index is compared with the result of applying well-characterized carbonate index defined for ASTER-TIR to clarify the strong point of each index.

  13. Using Real-Time PCR to Quantify Aster Yellows Phytoplasma in its Insect Vector; Relationship of Infectivity to Transmissibility in the Aster Leafhopper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aster yellows (AY) index is used to prescribe insecticide sprays that target Macrosteles quadrilineatus, or aster leafhopper (ALH), the vector of the aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp). The AY index metric is the product of the proportion of infective ALHs and the relative ALH population size at a ...

  14. ASTER obervations of the spectral emissivity over New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Ritchie, Jerry; Chopping, Mark; Rango, Al

    2002-01-01

    On several days in 2000 & 2001 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra satellite obtained data over the Jornada Experimental Range test site along the Rio Grande river and the White Sand National Monument in New Mexico. ASTER has 14 channels from the visible (VNIR) through the thermal infrared (TIR) with 15 m resolution in the VNIR and 90 m in the TIR. The overpass time is approximately 11 AM (MST). With 5 channels between 8 and 12 micrometers these multispectral TIR data from ASTER provide the opportunity to separate the temperature and emissivity effects observed in the thermal emission from the land surface. Ground measurements during these overflights included surface temperature, vegetation type and condition and limited surface emissivity measurements. Preliminary results indicate good agreement between ASTER emissivities and ground measures. Analysis of earlier aircraft data has shown that the multispectral TIR data are very effective for estimating both the surface temperature and emissivity. These results will be compared with those obtained from the ASTER data for this site. With multispectral thermal infrared observations provided by ASTER it is possible for the first time to estimate the spectral emissivity variation for these surfaces on a global basis at high spatial resolution.

  15. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  16. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  17. Focus: alien volcanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly

    2007-03-01

    Part 1: Volcanoes on Earth - blowing their top; Part 2: Volcanoes of the inner Solar System - dead or alive: the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus; Part 3: Volcanoes of the outer Solar System - fire and ice: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Miranda, Titan, Triton, Enceladus.

  18. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Díaz-Castellón, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Sergio Raúl

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 "bald-earth" topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results. In general all three datasets, with spatial resolution of 90 m or better, were capable of resolving debris flow and lahar deposits at least 3 × 10 6 m 3 in volume or larger. Canopy- and slope-related height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs limit their utility for measuring valley-filling cross-sectional area and deriving flow magnitude for the smallest deposits using a cross-sectional area to volume scaling equation. Height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs also causes problems in resolving stream valley hydrography which controls lahar flow paths and stream valley morphology which controls lahar filling capacity. However, both of the two spaceborne DEM datasets are better than DTED-1 at resolving fine details in stream hydrography and erosional morphologies of volcaniclastics preserved in the valleys around the more humid, eastern flanks of the volcanic range. The results of LAHARZ flow inundation modeling using all three DEMs as inputs are remarkably similar and co-validate one another. For example, at Citlaltépetl all lahar simulations show that the city of Orizaba is the most vulnerable to flows similar in magnitude to, or larger than, one that occurred in 1920. Many of the other cities and towns illustrated are built higher up on terrace deposits of older debris flows, and are safe from all but

  19. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  20. Volcano seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  2. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  3. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a

  4. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  5. Galactic Super Volcano Similar to Iceland Volcano

    NASA Video Gallery

    This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic volcano being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...

  6. General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.

  7. Validation of the ASTER instrument level 1A scene geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Mullins, K.F.; MacKinnon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument geometry was undertaken by the U.S. ASTER Team, to confirm the geometric correction parameters developed and applied to Level 1A (radiometrically and geometrically raw with correction parameters appended) ASTER data. The goal was to evaluate the geometric quality of the ASTER system and the stability of the Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a 15-band system containing optical instruments with resolutions from 15- to 90-meters; all geometrically registered products are ultimately tied to the 15-meter Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) sub-system. Our evaluation process first involved establishing a large database of Ground Control Points (GCP) in the mid-western United States; an area with features of an appropriate size for spacecraft instrument resolutions. We used standard U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) of areas in the mid-west to locate accurate GCPs by systematically identifying road intersections and recording their coordinates. Elevations for these points were derived from USGS Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). Road intersections in a swath of nine contiguous ASTER scenes were then matched to the GCPs, including terrain correction. We found no significant distortion in the images; after a simple image offset to absolute position, the RMS residual of about 200 points per scene was less than one-half a VNIR pixel. Absolute locations were within 80 meters, with a slow drift of about 10 meters over the entire 530-kilometer swath. Using strictly simultaneous observations of scenes 370 kilometers apart, we determined a stereo angle correction of 0.00134 degree with an accuracy of one microradian. The mid-west GCP field and the techniques used here should be widely applicable in assessing other spacecraft instruments having resolutions from 5 to 50-meters. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  8. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser

    2005-05-01

    Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.

  9. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  10. Mud volcanoes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    The term mud volcano is applied to a variety of landforms having in common a formation by extrusion of mud from beneath the ground. Although mud is the principal solid material that issues from a mud volcano, there are many examples where clasts up to boulder size are found, sometimes thrown high into the air during an eruption. Other characteristics of mud volcanoes (on Earth) are discussed. The possible presence of mud volcanoes, which are common and widespread on Earth, on Mars is considered.

  11. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  12. Early Exposure to Research: Outcomes of the ASTER Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin; Golkowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel structure for providing a high-impact, first year experience for science students. ASTER (Access to Science Through Experience in Research) is an extracurricular certification program designed to introduce our students to the research culture via seminar attendance, journal clubs, book clubs, and lab visits.…

  13. Templated nanocrystal assembly on biodynamic artificial microtubule asters.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, Erik D; Boal, Andrew K; Bachand, George D; Bunker, Bruce C

    2013-03-26

    Microtubules (MTs) and the MT-associated proteins (MAPs) are critical cooperative agents involved in complex nanoassembly processes in biological systems. These biological materials and processes serve as important inspiration in developing new strategies for the assembly of synthetic nanomaterials in emerging techologies. Here, we explore a dynamic biofabrication process, modeled after the form and function of natural aster-like MT assemblies such as centrosomes. Specifically, we exploit the cooperative assembly of MTs and MAPs to form artificial microtubule asters and demonstrate that (1) these three-dimensional biomimetic microtubule asters can be controllably, reversibly assembled and (2) they serve as unique, dynamic biotemplates for the organization of secondary nanomaterials. We describe the MAP-mediated assembly and growth of functionalized MTs onto synthetic particles, the dynamic character of the assembled asters, and the application of these structures as templates for three-dimensional nanocrystal organization across multiple length scales. This biomediated nanomaterials assembly strategy illuminates a promising new pathway toward next-generation nanocomposite development. PMID:23363365

  14. Evaluation of Aster Gdem v3 Using Icesat Laser Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    We have used a set of Ground Control Points (GCPs) derived from altimetry measurements from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to evaluate the quality of the 30 m posting ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) V3 elevation products produced by NASA/METI for Greenland and Antarctica. These data represent the highest quality globally distributed altimetry measurements that can be used for geodetic ground control, selected by applying rigorous editing criteria, useful at high latitudes, where other topographic control is scarce. Even if large outliers still remain in all ASTER GDEM V3 data for both, Greenland and Antarctica, they are significantly reduced when editing ASTER by number of scenes (N≥5) included in the elevation processing. For 667,354 GCPs in Greenland, differences show a mean of 13.74 m, a median of -6.37 m, with an RMSE of 109.65 m. For Antarctica, 6,976,703 GCPs show a mean of 0.41 m, with a median of -4.66 m, and a 54.85 m RMSE, displaying smaller means, similar medians, and less scatter than GDEM V2. Mean and median differences between ASTER and ICESat are lower than 10 m, and RMSEs lower than 10 m for Greenland, and 20 m for Antarctica when only 9 to 31 scenes are included.

  15. Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Choi, Hyun J.

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are all onboard the Terra platform. An important aspect of the use of MODIS, and other Earth Science Enterprise sensors, has been the characterization and calibration of the sensors and validation of their data products. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in this area through the use of ground-based test sites. This paper presents the results from the reflectance-base approach using the Railroad Valley Playa test site in Nevada for ASTER, MISR, and MODIS and thus effectively a cross-calibration between all three sensors. The key to the approach is the measurement of surface reflectance over a 1-km2 area of the playa and results from this method shows agreement with MODIS to better than 5%. The paper examines biases between ASTER and the other two sensors in the VNIR due to uncertainties in the onboard calibrator for ASTER and in the SWIR due to an optical crosstalk effect.

  16. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 9.75 x 27.6 kilometers (6.0 x 17.1 miles), Location: 8.6 degrees North latitude, 98

  17. Chromitite Prospecting Using Landsat TM and Aster Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.; Pournamdari, M.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF) and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7) of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF) used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite) were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  18. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. ASTER VNIR and SWIR Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Thome, Kurtis; Iwasaki, Akira; Biggar, Stuart

    As described in the previous chapter, ASTER relies on three separate subsystems to cover the full spectral range from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), to the thermal infrared (TIR). Establishing the accuracy of data from all three subsystems requires both sensor-related calibration and atmospheric correction. The dominance of reflected solar energy in the VNIR and SWIR, and emitted terrestrial radiation in the TIR allows separate treatment of the two spectral regions. TIR calibration and correction are covered in a separate chapter. This chapter has two main goals: (1) to allow the user to understand ASTER's radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction processes that enable conversion of VNIR and SWIR digital numbers (DN) to at-sensor reflectance and spectral radiance, and (2) to provide a succinct analysis of the SWIR crosstalk problem and its solutions.

  20. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

  1. Emplacement of Basaltic Flow Fields: New Insights Using MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.; Crown, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Surface units that reflect local emplacement conditions within the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu lava flow field (Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii) have been identified and are being mapped using field observations and remote sensing analyses. Investigation of a preliminary study site on and below Holei Pali utilized high-resolution color aerial photographs [Byrnes and Crown, 2000. J Geophys Res 106, 2139-2151] and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) airborne data. Four surface units were identified that are related to the state of the lava during emplacement and were found to be correlated with the pre-eruption topography but not to the major lava tube segments mapped previously. These units show variations at visible wavelengths related to color, the presence of a glassy surface crust, and unit (dm- to m-scale) morphology. Variations at thermal wavelengths are presumably related to surface variations in phenocryst abundance, vesicles/micron-scale roughness, and glass. Interpretations based on the TIMS data are significantly limited by noise in available data covering the flow field. The present study uses MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator) data to extend the spatial and spectral coverage of the Mauna Ulu flow field. Preliminary analyses of the data (corrected for atmospheric effects) indicate that: (1) additional classes of surface units (such as shelly pahoehoe) can be identified within the flow field, and (2) systematic changes in emplacement occurred from the proximal to the medial and distal portions of the flow field. Comparison with ASTER images indicates that similar classes of surface units may be discriminated in both datasets, though MASTER is preferable for this study because it provides: (1) higher spatial resolution (especially in thermal bands), and (2) constant pixel size for all wavelengths. These factors allow for discrimination of smaller flow units and more accurate correlation of visible- and thermal-wavelength spectral signatures. The higher

  2. Shaking up volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.

  3. Of Rings and Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    observed with the NASA Galileo spacecraft since 1996 at higher resolution in the visible and infrared, especially during close encounters with the satellite (a link to Galileo maps of Io is available below). However, this NAOS image fills a gap in the surface coverage of the infrared images from Galileo. The capability of NAOS/CONICA to map Io in the infrared at the present high image resolution will allow astronomers to continue the survey of the volcanic activity and to monitor regularly the related surface processes . Related sites The following links point to a number of prominent photos of these two objects that were obtained elsewhere. Saturn Voyager images : http://vraptor.jpl.nasa.gov/voyager/vgrsat_img.html HST images : http://hubble.stsci.edu/news_.and._views/pr.cgi.2001+15 Pic du Midi images : http://www.bdl.fr/s2p/saturne.html IfA-CFHT : http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/ao/images/solarsys/new/new.html Io NASA/Galileo site : http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/moons/io.html Volcanoes on Io : http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/planet_volcano/Io/Overview.html HST image of Io : http://hubble.stsci.edu/news_.and._views/pr.cgi.1997+21 Keck I image of Io : http://www.astro.caltech.edu/mirror/keck/realpublic/inst/ao/Io/IoSnapshot.jpg Galileo and Voyager maps of Io : http://www.lowell.edu/users/ijw/maps/ (also with names of surface features) Notes [1]: The following astronomers and engineers from ESO and the partner institutes have participated in the current commissioning observations of Saturn and Io with NAOS-CONICA: Wolfgang Brandner, Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Pierre Drossart, Thierry Fusco, Eric Gendron, Markus Hartung, Norbert Hubin, François Lacombe, Anne-Marie Lagrange, Rainer Lenzen, David Mouillet, Claire Moutou, Gérard Rousset, Jason Spyromilio and Gérard Zins . [2]: New archive users may register via the ESO/ST-ECF Archive Registration Form. Technical information about the photos PR Photo 04a/02 is based on four exposures, obtained with VLT YEPUN and NAOS-CONICA on

  4. Assessment of ASTER data for forest inventory in Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Benito, Alfonso; Arbelo, Manuel; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; González-Calvo, Alejandro; Labrador Garcia, Mauricio

    To understand and evaluate the forest structural attributes, forest inventories are conducted, which are costly and lengthy in time. Since the last 10-15 years there has been examining the possibility of using remote sensing data, to save costs and cheapen the process. One of the aims of SATELMAC, a project PCT-MAC 2007-2013 co-financing with FEDER funds, is to automate the forest inventory in Canary Islands using satellite images. In this study, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were used to estimate forest structure of the endemic vegetal specie, Pinus canariensis, located on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The forest structural attributes analyzed have been volume, basal area, stem per hectare and tree height. ASTER is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System. ASTER data were used because it have relatively high spatial resolution in the three visible and near-infrared bands (15 m) and in the six spectral bands (30 m) in the shortwave-IR region. To identify the vegetation index that is most suitable to use, about specific forest structural attributes in our study area, we assess the ability of different spectral indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Modified Soil adjusted Vegetation Index, Perpendicular Vegetation Index and Reduced Simple Ratio. The information provided by the ASTER data has been supplemented by the Third National Forest Inventory (III NFI) and field data. The results are analyzed statistically in order to see the degree of correlation (R2) and the mean square error (RMSE) of the values studied.

  5. Validation of the ASTER thermal infrared surface radiance data product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palluconi, Frank D.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) is a 14 channel high spatial resolution instrument selected for flight on the EOS AM-1 platform. This instrument has a 60 km pointable cross-track swath and five thermal infrared channels between 8 and 12 micrometers with 90 m spatial resolution. Correction for the effect of atmospheric attenuation and emission will be made using a radiative transfer model and atmospheric parameters either from the EOS AM-1 platform instruments MODIS (moderate- resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MISR (multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer) or temperature and moisture profiles from global numerical assimilation models. The correction accuracy depends strongly on the accuracy of the atmospheric information used. To provide an objective assessment of the validity of the atmospheric correction in situ measurements of water surfaces under a variety of atmospheric conditions will be used to estimate the surface leaving radiance at the scale of an ASTER pixel. The procedure will use an array of continuously recording temperature buoys to establish the bulk water temperature, broadband radiometers to determine the near surface water temperature gradient and radiosonde and sunphotometer measurements and a radiative transfer model to deduce the sky irradiance. These measurements and the spectral emissivity of the water will be combined with the relative system spectral response to provide an estimate of thermal infrared surface leaving radiance for each ASTER thermal channel. An example of this approach using a multichannel thermal aircraft scanner as a stand in for ASTER is described. It is expected this approach will provide estimates of surface radiance accurate, in temperature terms, to better than 1 K.

  6. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes. Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001. This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin

  7. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on volcano related seismicity on Alaskan volcanoes in Appendix G.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three volcanoes in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). AVO located 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these volcanoes.Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin Volcano starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin Volcano in 2001.This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times

  8. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Network Data Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; Haney, M. M.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; Prejean, S. G.; Searcy, C. K.; Stihler, S. D.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) established in 1988 as a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, monitors active volcanoes in Alaska. Thirty-three volcanoes are currently monitored by a seismograph network consisting of 193 stations, of which 40 are three-component stations. The current state of AVO’s seismic network, and data processing and availability are summarized in the annual AVO seismological bulletin, Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaska Volcanoes, published as a USGS Data Series (most recent at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/467). Despite a rich seismic data set for 12 VEI 2 or greater eruptions, and over 80,000 located earthquakes in the last 21 years, the volcanic seismicity in the Aleutian Arc remains understudied. Initially, AVO seismic data were only provided via a data supplement as part of the annual bulletin, or upon request. Over the last few years, AVO has made seismic data more available with the objective of increasing volcano seismic research on the Aleutian Arc. The complete AVO earthquake catalog data are now available through the annual AVO bulletin and have been submitted monthly to the on-line Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) composite catalog since 2008. Segmented waveform data for all catalog earthquakes are available upon request and efforts are underway to make this archive web accessible as well. Continuous data were first archived using a tape backup, but the availability of low cost digital storage media made a waveform backup of continuous data a reality. Currently the continuous AVO waveform data can be found in several forms. Since late 2002, AVO has burned all continuous waveform data to DVDs, as well as storing these data in Antelope databases at the Geophysical Institute. Beginning in 2005, data have been available through a Winston Wave Server housed at the USGS in

  10. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athale, Chaitanya A.; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions.

  11. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA.

    PubMed

    Athale, Chaitanya A; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. PMID:24476749

  12. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

  13. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.

  14. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  15. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  16. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  17. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 9.75 x 27.6 kilometers (6.0 x 17.1 miles), Location: 8.6 degrees North latitude, 98

  18. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  19. Volcano Near Pavonis Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-549, 19 November 2003

    The volcanic plains to the east, southeast, and south of the giant Tharsis volcano, Pavonis Mons, are dotted by dozens of small volcanoes. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 2.1oS, 109.1oW. The elongate depression in the lower left (southwest) quarter of the image is the collapsed vent area for this small, unnamed volcano. A slightly sinuous, leveed channel runs from the depression toward the upper right (north-northeast); this is the trace of a collapsed lava tube. The entire scene has been mantled by dust, such that none of the original volcanic rocks are exposed--except minor occurrences on the steepest slopes in the vent area. The scene is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  20. Preflight and in-flight calibration plan for ASTER

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ono, A.; Sakuma, F.; Arai, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Fujisada, H.; Slater, P.N.; Thome, K.J.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Kieffer, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Preflight and in-flight radiometric calibration plans are described for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) that is a multispectral optical imager of high spatial resolution. It is designed for the remote sensing from orbit of land surfaces and clouds, and is expected to be launched in 1998 on NASA's EOS AM-1 spacecraft. ASTER acquires images in three separate spectral regions, the visible and near-infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and the thermal infrared (TIR) with three imaging radiometer subsystems. The absolute radiometric accuracy is required to be better than 4% for VNIR and SWIR radiance measurements and 1 to 3 K, depending on the temperature regions from 200 to 370 K, for TIR temperature measurements. A reference beam is introduced at the entrance pupil of each imaging radiometer to provide the in-flight calibration Thus, the ASTER instrument includes internal onboard calibration units that comprise incandescent lamps for the VNIR and SWIR and a blackbody radiator for the TIR as reference sources. The calibration reliability of the VNIR and SWIR is enhanced by a dual system of onboard calibration units as well as by high-stability halogen lamps. A ground calibration system of spectral radiances traceable to fixed-point blackbodies is used for the preflight VNIR and SWIR calibration. Because of the possibility of nonuniform contamination effects on the partial-aperture onboard calibration, it is desirable to check their results with respect to other methods. Reflectance- and radiance-based vicarious methods have been developed for this purpose. These, and methods involving in-flight cross-calibration with other sensors are also described.

  1. Mapping burned area for fragmented landscape using satellite Aster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita, A.; Lanorte, A.

    2009-04-01

    In Italy, after each fire season (generally summer season for the southern Mediterranean landscapes and winter/spring for the Northern alpine ecosystems) the up to date of burned area mapping is mandatory according to the current national legislation. The mapping of burned areas is generally performed by regional forestry service by using field GPS survey and/or helicopter in the case of large fire extension. The use of remote sensing technologies can be an effective support for mapping fire affected areas. Such areas are characterized by the removal of vegetation, deposits of charcoal and ash, and alteration of the vegetation structure, that can be detected by satellite remote sensed data. Due to the fact that in Italy the extension of fire is generally as small as 10 ha to 50 ha the use of high resolution data is mandatory. In order to set up a low cost technologies to be effectively applied in operational context, we assessed the capability of ASTER data for same test areas in the Basilicata Region. In this paper we present results we obtained from the use of several Vegetation indices based on ASTER VNIR. Among the spectral indices proposed for burnt area mapping we used and compare the Simple Vegetation Index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Transformed Vegetation Index, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The data processing was performed using both a single date and a multidate (pre and post fire) approach. Several test cases selected from the 2007 fire season were investigated. ASTER-based results were compared with field data provided by the Basilicata regional Forestry Service

  2. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  3. USING ARID ECOSYSTEMS TO COMPARE ASTER, MASTER, AND GROUND REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of arid ecosystems at the USDA ARS Jornada Experimental Range LTER site in southern New Mexico using ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer), MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator), and ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices Spectroradiometer-ground based) reflectan...

  4. Region and field level distributions of aster yellows phytoplasma in small grains crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aster yellows (AY), a disease of small grain crops caused by aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), produces disease symptoms similar to barley yellow dwarf (BYD). From 2003 to 2005, small grain production fields in Minnesota and North Dakota were surveyed to determine the incidences of AY and BYD. In-fie...

  5. Comparison of ASTER, MASTER, and ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares reflectance measured in the visible, near infrared, and short wave infrared wavelengths by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER), and ground based Analytical Spectral Devices Spectroradiometer (ASD) in a se...

  6. Microtubule nucleation remote from centrosomes may explain how asters span large cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Nguyen, Phuong A; Groen, Aaron C; Field, Christine M; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-12-16

    A major challenge in cell biology is to understand how nanometer-sized molecules can organize micrometer-sized cells in space and time. One solution in many animal cells is a radial array of microtubules called an aster, which is nucleated by a central organizing center and spans the entire cytoplasm. Frog (here Xenopus laevis) embryos are more than 1 mm in diameter and divide with a defined geometry every 30 min. Like smaller cells, they are organized by asters, which grow, interact, and move to precisely position the cleavage planes. It has been unclear whether asters grow to fill the enormous egg by the same mechanism used in smaller somatic cells, or whether special mechanisms are required. We addressed this question by imaging growing asters in a cell-free system derived from eggs, where asters grew to hundreds of microns in diameter. By tracking marks on the lattice, we found that microtubules could slide outward, but this was not essential for rapid aster growth. Polymer treadmilling did not occur. By measuring the number and positions of microtubule ends over time, we found that most microtubules were nucleated away from the centrosome and that interphase egg cytoplasm supported spontaneous nucleation after a time lag. We propose that aster growth is initiated by centrosomes but that asters grow by propagating a wave of microtubule nucleation stimulated by the presence of preexisting microtubules. PMID:25468969

  7. Detection and variability of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma Titer in its insect vector, Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp) is transmitted by the aster leafhopper (ALH), Macrosteles quadrilineatus Forbes, in a persistent and propagative manner. To study AYp replication and examine the variability of AYp titer in individual ALHs, we developed a quantitative, real-time PCR (qPCR) assay t...

  8. Aster yellows incidence and distribution within commercial small grains fields in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), vectored by the aster leafhopper (Macrosteles quadrillineatus), has a wide host range including wild and cultivated plants. Substantial yield losses in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) have been observed in northwestern Minnesota which could be attributed to infestat...

  9. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  10. On Relations between Current Global Volcano Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhall, C. G.; Siebert, L.; Sparks, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Smithsonian’s Volcano Reference File (VRF), the database that underlies Volcanoes of the World and This Dynamic Planet, is the premier source for the “what, when, where, and how big?” of Holocene and historical eruptions. VOGRIPA (Volcanic Global Risk Identification and Analysis) will catalogue details of large eruptions, including specific phenomena and their impacts. CCDB (Collapse Caldera Database) also considers large eruptions with an emphasis on the resulting calderas. WOVOdat is bringing monitoring data from the world’s observatories into a centralized database in common formats, so that they can be searched and compared during volcanic crises and for research on preeruption processes. Oceanographic and space institutions worldwide have growing archives of volcano imagery and derivative products. Petrologic databases such as PETRODB and GEOROC offer compositions of many erupted and non-erupted magmas. Each of these informs and complements the others. Examples of interrelations include: ● Information in the VRF about individual volcanoes is the starting point and major source of background “volcano” data in WOVOdat, VOGRIPA, and petrologic databases. ● Images and digital topography from remote sensing archives offer high-resolution, consistent geospatial "base maps" for all of the other databases. ● VRF data about eruptions shows whether unrest of WOVOdat culminated in an eruption and, if yes, its type and magnitude. ● Data from WOVOdat fills in the “blanks” between eruptions in the VRF. ● VOGRIPA adds more detail to the VRF’s descriptions of eruptions, including quantification of runout distances, expanded estimated column heights and eruption impact data, and other parameters not included in the Smithsonian VRF. ● Petrologic databases can add detail to existing petrologic data of the VRF, WOVOdat, and VOGRIPA, e.g, detail needed to estimate viscosity of melt and its influence on magma and eruption dynamics ● Hazard

  11. Volcanoes and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Edited By Joan; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2005-10-01

    Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards. An all-inclusive text that goes beyond the geological working of volcanoes to consider their environmental and sociological impacts Each chapter is written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject Accessible to students and researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds

  12. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  13. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times, most destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of feet into the atmoshpehere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. 

  14. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2005-02-01

    This guide contains vital information for anyone wishing to visit, explore, and photograph active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. Following an introduction that discusses eruption styles of different types of volcanoes and how to prepare for an exploratory trip that avoids volcanic dangers, the book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world. It is filled with practical information that includes tour itineraries, maps, transportation details, and warnings of possible non-volcanic dangers. Three appendices direct the reader to a wealth of further volcano resources in a volume that will fascinate amateur enthusiasts and professional volcanologists alike. Rosaly Lopes is a planetary geology and volcanology specialist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In addition to her curatorial and research work, she has lectured extensively in England and Brazil and written numerous popular science articles. She received a Latinas in Science Award from the Comision Feminil Mexicana Nacional in 1991 and since 1992, has been a co-organizer of the United Nations/European Space Agency/The Planetary Society yearly conferences on Basic Science for the Benefit of Developing Countries.

  15. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

  17. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.

  18. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  19. ASTER Observations of the Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiweiss, M.; Schmugge, T.

    2005-12-01

    Since the launch of NASA's Terra satellite in December 1999 the ASTER instrument has made more that 2 dozen of observations of the Elephant Butte Reservoir located on the Rio Grande river in central New Mexico. The first observations were in June 2000 and the most recent were in May 2005. This period includes low water levels resulting from the the recent drought conditions and the earlier full high water conditions in 2000. There was about a 30 m change in water level during this time. The area of the reservoir was estimated for each of these scenes and compared the with known water levels. The ASTER data were the Level 2 products which include both the visible reflectance and the thermal infrared (surface temperature). Both spectral regions provide good contrasts between water and surrounding land. This contrast makes the area estimation straightforward. there was a large range in surface water area observed from 30,000 km*2 to more than 75,000 km*2. An approximately linear relation between area and water level was found.

  20. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Terra, the Earth Observing System's (EOS) flagship satellite platform on December 18, 1999. The polar-orbiting Terra contains five remote sensing instruments, which enable the scientific study and analyses of global terrestrial processes and manifestations of global change. One of the five instruments is the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is built in Japan by a consortium of government, industry, and research groups. It has three spectral bands in the visible near-infrared region (VNIR), six bands in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR), and five bands in the thermal infrared region (TIR), with 15-, 30-, and 90-meter ground resolutions, respectively. This combination of wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution allows ASTER to discriminate among a wide variety of surface materials. The VNIR subsystem also has a backward-viewing telescope for high-resolution (15-meter) stereoscopic observation in the along-track direction, which facilitates the generation of digital elevation models (DEM).

  1. Prediction of landslides using ASTER imagery and data mining models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyo-Young; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Inhye; Lee, Changwook; Lee, Saro

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify landslide-related factors using only remotely sensed data and to present landslide susceptibility maps using a geographic information system, data-mining models, an artificial neural network (ANN), and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS). Landslide-related factors were identified in Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery. The slope, aspect, and curvature of topographic features were calculated from a digital elevation model that was made using the ASTER imagery. Lineaments, land-cover, and normalized difference vegetative index layers were also extracted from the imagery. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed and mapped based on occurrence factors using the ANN and ANFIS. The generalized bell-shaped built-in membership function of the ANFIS was applied to landslide susceptibility mapping. Analytical results were validated using landslide test location data. In the validation results, the ANN model showed 80.42% prediction accuracy and the ANFIS model showed 86.55% prediction accuracy. These results suggest that the ANFIS model has a better performance than does the ANN in predicting landslide susceptibility.

  2. System design and performances of ASTER Level-1 data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Sumiyuki; Hachiya, Jun; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masatane

    1998-12-01

    ASTER is a multispectral imager which covers wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands, and will fly on EOS-AM1 in 1999. To meet this wide spectral coverage, ASTER has three optical sensing subsystems (multi-telescope system), VNIR, SWIR and TIR. This multi- telescope configuration requires highly refined ground processing for the generation of Level-1 data products that are radiometrically calibrated and geometrically corrected. A prototype Level-1 processing software system is developed to satisfy these requirements. System design concept adopted includes; (1) 'Automatic Processing,' (2)'ALL-IN-ONE-CONCEPT' in which the processing is carried out using information included in Level-0 data product only, (3) 'MODULE INDEPENDENCE' in which only process control module independently control other modules to change any operational conditions. (4) 'FLEXIBILITY' in which important operation parameters are set from an external component to make the processing condition change easier. The adaptability and the performance of the developed software system are evaluated using simulation data.

  3. Archiving Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marla

    2003-01-01

    Derrida's archive, broadly speaking, is brilliantly mad, for he digs exegetically into the most difficult textual material and combines the most unlikely texts--from Socrates to Freud, from postcards to encyclopedias, from madness(es) to the archive, from primal scenes to death. In this paper, the author would like to do a brief study of the…

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003.The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven volcanoes within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO located 3911 earthquakes in 2003.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a

  5. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Prejean, Stephanie; Sanchez, John J.; Sanches, Rebecca; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2005-01-01

    October; (5) an earthquake swarm at Akutan in July; and (6) low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year (Table 2). Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2004 were the installation of subnetworks on Mount Peulik and Korovin Volcano and the installation of broadband stations to augment the Katmai and Spurr subnetworks.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2004; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2004.

  6. Measuring and Monitoring Heat Flow and Hydrothermal Changes in the Yellowstone Geothermal System using ASTER and MODIS Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within Yellowstone geothermal area (YGA) to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service. Specific goals were to 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the >10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the YGA (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots), by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux for individual thermal areas and for the entire YGA, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., thermal changes related to tectonic or hydrothermal activity, volcanic unrest, or geothermal development). Frequent, low-spatial resolution night time TIR observations from the MODIS instrument (1-km pixels) were used to quantify the background thermal flux of the whole YGA and all individual thermal areas. The MODIS Terra archive covering the previous decade (2000-2010) was analyzed and a background subtraction method was developed to automatically remove seasonal variations and extract TIR spectral radiance values. It was determined that the thermal change detection limit was equivalent to a 3-5 °C change over the entire (3x3 pixel) measured area, which is equivalent to a 9-17 °C change over a 29% fraction of the area (the sub-pixel fraction occupied by the thermal area). Alternatively, an area of static warm temperature (e.g., 93 °C) would have to increase from 100 to 36,500 m2 (11 to 216 m-diameter) to be clearly detected above scatter in the data. All of the thermal areas have been relatively stable within these limits for the last decade, although there are some thermal variations, near the limits of detection, which may reflect thermal disturbances that occur episodically in

  7. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  8. Stereo Pair with ASTER Image, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this stereoscopic view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon. The view is derived from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite image and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature covering much of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

    Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by first draping the ASTER satellite image over the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of

  9. Multiple aster formation is frequently observed in bovine oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Tagiri, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2016-02-01

    We have recently reported that multiple aster formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was one of the factors that negatively affected the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine matured oocytes, and that short-term culture of the post-warm oocytes with an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) suppressed the multiple aster formation and improved the blastocyst yield. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increased multiple aster formation following IVF was involved in impaired developmental competence of stored ovary-derived bovine oocytes. Oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries had lower developmental potential to day 8 blastocysts when compared with those from fresh ovaries (37 versus 63%). Immunostaining of α-tubulin 10 h post-IVF revealed that a higher incidence of multiple aster formation occurred in oocytes retrieved from stored ovaries than from fresh ovaries (31 versus 15%). Treatment of post-in vitro maturated (post-IVM) oocytes with ROCK inhibitor for 2 h significantly suppressed the incidence of multiple aster formation (10 versus 32% in the control group). However, the suppression effect of ROCK inhibitor on multiple aster formation in IVM/IVF oocytes did not improve blastocyst yield from stored ovary-derived oocytes (41 versus 37% in the control group). These results suggested that the higher incidence of multiple aster formation by bovine ovary storage was not responsible for the decreased developmental competence of IVF oocytes. PMID:25732862

  10. Volcanoes of the Tibesti massif (Chad, northern Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permenter, Jason L.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2007-04-01

    The Tibesti massif, one of the most prominent features of the Sahara desert, covers an area of some 100,000 km2. Though largely absent from scientific inquiry for several decades, it is one of the world’s major volcanic provinces, and a key example of continental hot spot volcanism. The intense activity of the TVP began as early as the Oligocene, though the major products that mark its surface date from Lower Miocene to Quaternary (Furon (Geology of Africa. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh (trans 1963, orig French 1960), pp 1-377, 1963)); Gourgaud and Vincent (J Volcanol Geotherm Res 129:261-290, 2004). We present here a new and consistent analysis of each of the main components of the Tibesti Volcanic Province (TVP), based on examination of multispectral imagery and digital elevation data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Our synthesis of these individual surveys shows that the TVP is made up of several shield volcanoes (up to 80 km diameter) with large-scale calderas, extensive lava plateaux and flow fields, widespread tephra deposits, and a highly varied structural relief. We compare morphometric characteristics of the major TVP structures with other hot spot volcanoes (the Hawaiian Islands, the Galápagos Islands, the Canary and Cape Verdes archipelagos, Jebel Marra (western Sudan), and Martian volcanoes), and consider the implications of differing tectonic setting (continental versus oceanic), the thickness and velocity of the lithosphere, the relative sizes of main volcanic features (e.g. summit calderas, steep slopes at summit regions), and the extent and diversity of volcanic features. These comparisons reveal morphologic similarities between volcanism in the Tibesti, the Galápagos, and Western Sudan but also some distinct features of the TVP. Additionally, we find that a relatively haphazard spatial development of the TVP has occurred, with volcanism initially appearing in the Central TVP and subsequently

  11. Thermal Infrared ASTER Observations of Faults in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.

    2005-12-01

    Reports on earthquake precursors observed in the thermal infrared (TIR) data from several satellites have caused mixed reactions. Some researchers have identified precursory anomalies, such as increased temperatures of several degrees over several days in areas extending up to hundreds of kilometers. In view of the uncertainties in the data, others have been skeptical that such changes can be reliably and uniquely associated with seismic events. This problem is a subset of the more general question how to interpret TIR observations from space for the purpose of fault characterization. Although faults are often clearly discernable in thermal images, the contributions of various factors to any temporal variability in their thermal properties are not clear. These factors include vegetation, soil moisture, surface and air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, and perhaps even wind. Extracting anomalies specifically associated with earthquakes in view of this natural variability and in the presence of observational uncertainties is a difficult task at best. Using standard higher-level TIR products (e.g., surface temperature) derived from radiance at sensor is likely questionable without additional corrections. We address these questions through the analysis of 60 km x 60 km images collected by the ASTER instrument on board of the Terra satellite. ASTER is unique in that five of its 14 channels are TIR, with a spatial resolution of 90 m (compared with at least 1-km spatial resolution of instruments used in previous reports of precursory anomalies). We focus on a specific area in southern California (32.80N - 34.50N, 115.90W - 117.20W) that includes substantial parts of the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, as well as two recent M5.2 and M4.9 earthquakes (June 12 and 16, 2005). In addition to the existing ASTER data, mostly collected in the daytime, we have made arrangements for future data collections over the next year, with emphasis on nighttime TIR data

  12. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  13. Supporting users through integrated retrieval, processing, and distribution systems at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.; Willems, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The LP DAAC is the primary archive for the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data; it is the only facility in the United States that archives, processes, and distributes data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission/Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft; and it is responsible for the archive and distribution of “land products” generated from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites.

  14. 4D volcano gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  15. Volcanoes and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence that volcanic eruptions affect climate is reviewed. Single explosive volcanic eruptions cool the surface by about 0.3 C and warm the stratosphere by several degrees. Although these changes are of small magnitude, there have been several years in which these hemispheric average temperature changes were accompanied by severely abnormal weather. An example is 1816, the "year without summer" which followed the 1815 eruption of Tambora. In addition to statistical correlations between volcanoes and climate, a good theoretical understanding exists. The magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated following volcanic explosions agrees well with the observations. Volcanoes affect climate because volcanic particles in the atmosphere upset the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and infrared energy emitted by the Earth. These interactions can be observed. The most important ejecta from volcanoes is not volcanic ash but sulfur dioxide which converts into sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere. For an eruption with its explosive magnitude, Mount St. Helens injected surprisingly little sulfur into the stratosphere. The amount of sulfuric acid formed is much smaller than that observed following significant eruptions and is too small to create major climatic shifts. However, the Mount St. Helens eruption has provided an opportunity to measure many properties of volcanic debris not previously measured and has therefore been of significant value in improving our knowledge of the relations between volcanic activity and climate.

  16. Volcanoes generate devastating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lockridge, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

  17. What more have we learned from thermal infrared remote sensing of active volcanoes other than they are hot? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing has been used for decades to detect changes in the heat output of active and reawakening volcanoes. The data from these thermally anomalous pixels are commonly used either as a monitoring tool or to calculate parameters such as effusion rate and eruptive style. First and second generation TIR data have been limited in the number of spectral channels and/or the spatial resolution. Two spectral channels with only one km spatial resolution has been the norm and therefore the number of science applications is limited to very large or very hot events. The one TIR channel of the Landsat ETM+ instrument improved the spatial resolution to 60 m, but it was not until the launch of ASTER in late 1999 that orbital TIR spectral resolution increased to five channels at 90 m per pixel. For the first time, the ability existed to capture multispectral emitted radiance from volcanic surfaces, which has allowed the extraction of emissivity as well as temperature. Over the past decade ASTER TIR emissivity data have been examined for a variety of volcanic processes including lava flow emplacement at Kilauea and Kluichevskoi, silicic lava dome composition at Sheveluch, Bezymianny and Mt. St. Helens, low temperature fumaroles emissions at Cerro Negro, and textural changes on the pyroclastic flow deposits at Merapi, Sheveluch and Bezymianny. Thermal-temporal changes at the 90 m scale are still an important monitoring tool for active volcanoes using ASTER TIR data. However, the ability to extract physical parameters such as micron-scale roughness and bulk mineralogy has added tremendously to the science derived from the TIR region. This new information has also presented complications such as the effects of sub-pixel thermal heterogeneities and amorphous glass on the emissivity spectra. If better understood, these complications can provide new insights into the physical state of the volcanic surfaces. Therefore, new data processing algorithms

  18. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes. This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.

  19. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes.This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.

  20. Phenolic compounds with IL-6 inhibitory activity from Aster yomena.

    PubMed

    Kim, A Ryun; Jin, Qinglong; Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2014-07-01

    A new biflavonoid, named asteryomenin (1), as well as six known phenolic compounds, esculetin (2), 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-3-hydroxy methyl benzoate (3), caffeic acid (4), isoquercitrin (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6), and apigenin (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Aster yomena. The structures of compounds (1-7) were identified based on 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. For these isolates, the inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell was examined. Among these isolates, compounds 4 and 7 appeared to have potent inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell, while compounds 1-3 and 5-6 showed moderate activity. PMID:24014305

  1. Collective behavior of chemotactic colloids: clusters, asters and oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suropriya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of systems that emulate properties of living matter, such as motility, gradient-sensing, signaling and replication. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of dynamics of an individual patterned catalytic colloid, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signaling formation of clusters and asters. The kinetics of catalysis introduces a natural control parameter for the range of the interaction mediated by the diffusing chemical species. For various regimes in parameter space in the long-ranged limit our system displays precise analogs to gravitational collapse, plasma oscillations and electrostatic screening. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior.

  2. Ship extraction and categorization from ASTER VNIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Miliaresis, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a methodology for ship extraction and categorization from relatively low resolution multispectral ASTER imagery, corresponding to the sea region south east of Athens in Greece. At a first level, in the radiometrically corrected image, quad tree decomposition and bounding rectangular extraction automatically outline location of objects - possible ships, by statistically evaluating spectral responses throughout the segmented image. Subsequently, the object borders within the rectangular regions are extracted, while connected component labelling combined by size and shape filtering allows ship characterization. The ships' spectral signature is determined in green, red and infrared bands while cluster analysis allows the identification of ship categories on the basis of their size and reflectance. Additional pixel- based measures reveal estimated ship orientation, direction, movement, stability and turning. The results are complemented with additional geographic information and inference tools are formed towards the determination of probable ship type and its destination.

  3. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  4. Monitoring and modeling ice-rock avalanches from ice-capped volcanoes: A case study of frequent large avalanches on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggel, C.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Wessels, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Iliamna is an andesitic stratovolcano of the Aleutian arc with regular gas and steam emissions and mantled by several large glaciers. Iliamna Volcano exhibits an unusual combination of frequent and large ice-rock avalanches in the order of 1 ?? 106??m3 to 3 ?? 107??m3 with recent return periods of 2-4??years. We have reconstructed an avalanche event record for the past 45??years that indicates Iliamna avalanches occur at higher frequency at a given magnitude than other mass failures in volcanic and alpine environments. Iliamna Volcano is thus an ideal site to study such mass failures and its relation to volcanic activity. In this study, we present different methods that fit into a concept of (1) long-term monitoring, (2) early warning, and (3) event documentation and analysis of ice-rock avalanches on ice-capped active volcanoes. Long-term monitoring methods include seismic signal analysis, and space-and airborne observations. Landsat and ASTER satellite data was used to study the extent of hydrothermally altered rocks and surface thermal anomalies at the summit region of Iliamna. Subpixel heat source calculation for the summit regions where avalanches initiate yielded temperatures of 307 to 613??K assuming heat source areas of 1000 to 25??m2, respectively, indicating strong convective heat flux processes. Such heat flow causes ice melting conditions and is thus likely to reduce the strength at the base of the glacier. We furthermore demonstrate typical seismic records of Iliamna avalanches with rarely observed precursory signals up to two hours prior to failure, and show how such signals could be used for a multi-stage avalanche warning system in the future. For event analysis and documentation, space- and airborne observations and seismic records in combination with SRTM and ASTER derived terrain data allowed us to reconstruct avalanche dynamics and to identify remarkably similar failure and propagation mechanisms of Iliamna avalanches for the past 45??years

  5. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi Volcano, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt Volcano. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2008.

  6. Data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, David

    1991-01-01

    The viewgraphs of a discussion on data archiving presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The mass storage system at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is described. Topics covered in the presentation include product goals, data library systems (DLS), client system commands, networks, archival devices, DLS features, client application systems, multiple mass storage devices, and system growth.

  7. Thermal Monitoring of Nisyros Volcano (Greece) by Digital Processing of Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, A.; Vassilopoulou, S.; Sakkas, V.; Lagios, E.; Dietrich, V.; Hurni, L.; Stavrakakis, G.

    2003-04-01

    Nisyros is an active strato-volcano at the eastern end of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc. The volcano experienced a recent episode of unrest during 1995--1998 with the nucleation of numerous earthquakes and considerable increase of temperatures of the hydrothermal system. In the year 2000, we started monitoring the volcano from space using thermal satellite data of high-resolution sensors within the framework of the European Union IST project GEOWARN. Three Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes (60-m spatial resolution) and two ASTER Level 1B scenes (90-m spatial resolution) showing the broader Nisyros area were processed by use of Geomatica(v8.2.1, ERDAS Imagine(8.5 and ATCOR(v2.0.1 software. The ETM+ scenes were obtained during the night imaging mode of the sensor on 20-10-2000, 19-5-2002 and 26-10-2002, respectively. Ground data (1-D point observations) were also collected during the satellite overpass. Data processing, including orthorectification and atmospheric correction show clearly the existence of a thermal anomaly inside the Nisyros caldera with surface temperatures 10--15^oC warmer than the surroundings. The ASTER scenes were delivered in HDF format and were acquired on the 26-4-2002 (Daytime) and 13-6-2002 (night-time), respectively. We processed band 13 (10.25-10.95 (m) using a scene-specific standard atmosphere from the ATCOR atmospheric libraries, because there were no ground data at the time of the overpass. The results show a good comparison with the ETM+ data. The crater region was clearly located and it was mapped warmer than the surroundings within the range of surface temperatures measured over previous campaigns (27-35 (C). Our 2002 results were validated (2-D thermal maps) by the use of portable IR digital thermal camera.

  8. Kinesin-1 Prevents Capture of the Oocyte Meiotic Spindle by the Sperm Aster

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Karen L.P.; Fabritius, Amy S.; Ellefson, Marina L.; Flynn, Jonathan R.; Milan, Jennifer A.; McNally, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Centrioles are lost during oogenesis and inherited from the sperm at fertilization. In the zygote, the centrioles recruit pericentriolar proteins from the egg to form a mature centrosome that nucleates a sperm aster. The sperm aster then captures the female pronucleus to join the maternal and paternal genomes. Because fertilization occurs before completion of female meiosis, some mechanism must prevent capture of the meiotic spindle by the sperm aster. Here we show that in wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, maternal pericentriolar proteins are not recruited to the sperm centrioles until after completion of meiosis. Depletion of kinesin-1 heavy chain or its binding partner resulted in premature centrosome maturation during meiosis and growth of a sperm aster that could capture the oocyte meiotic spindle. Kinesin prevents recruitment of pericentriolar proteins by coating the sperm DNA and centrioles and thus prevents triploidy by a non-motor mechanism. PMID:22465668

  9. ASTER's First Views of Red Sea, Ethiopia - Thermal-Infrared (TIR) Image (monochrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    ASTER succeeded in acquiring this image at night, which is something Visible/Near Infrared VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) sensors cannot do. The scene covers the Red Sea coastline to an inland area of Ethiopia. White pixels represent areas with higher temperature material on the surface, while dark pixels indicate lower temperatures. This image shows ASTER's ability as a highly sensitive, temperature-discerning instrument and the first spaceborne TIR multi-band sensor in history.

    The size of image: 60 km x 60 km approx., ground resolution 90 m x 90 m approximately.

    The ASTER instrument was built in Japan for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint United States/Japan Science Team is responsible for instrument design, calibration, and data validation. ASTER is flying on the Terra satellite, which is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

  10. Comparison of preliminary results from Airborne Aster Simulator (AAS) with TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannari, Yoshiaki; Mills, Franklin; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ezaka, Teruya; Narita, Tatsuhiko; Chang, Sheng-Huei

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), being developed for a NASA EOS-A satellite, will have 3 VNIR, 6 SWIR, and 5 TIR (8-12 micron) bands. An Airborne ASTER Simulator (AAS) was developed for Japan Resources Observation System Organization (JAROS) by the Geophysical Environmental Research Group (GER) Corp. to research surface temperature and emission features in the MWIR/TIR, to simulate ASTER's TIR bands, and to study further possibility of MWIR/TIR bands. ASTER Simulator has 1 VNIR, 3 MWIR (3-5 microns), and 20 (currently 24) TIR bands. Data was collected over 3 sites - Cuprite, Nevada; Long Valley/Mono Lake, California; and Death Valley, California - with simultaneous ground truth measurements. Preliminary data collected by AAS for Cuprite, Nevada is presented and AAS data is compared with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data.

  11. Rock type mapping with indices defined for multispectral thermal infrared ASTER data: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2003-03-01

    ASTER sensor aboard NASA's Terra satellite has the capability of measuring multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) emission from the earth's surface to space. The author proposed indices by the combination of ASTER-TIR bands for detecting quartz and carbonate minerals, and another index to estimate the abundance of bulk SiO2 content in the surface silicate rocks, applied them to the low level ASTER radiance at the sensor data without atmospheric corrections, and showed a potential ability of the indices in a rock type mapping. This paper tries to apply the proposed method into the practical case studies using ASTER-TIR data. The study sites include ophiolitic belt zones in Oman and along Yarlun Zangbo River in Tibet. The applied results are compared with the geology of the study areas. It indicates that the new remote sensing approach proposed here would improve the quality and the cost of the geological mapping in arid and semi-arid regions.

  12. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability

  13. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  14. ASTER nighttime cloud mask database using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki

    2008-10-01

    Cloud assessment for ASTER nighttime scenes is not accurate because the ASTER Cloud Coverage Assessment Algorithm (ACCAA) thresholds with only one thermal infrared (TIR) band for nighttime scenes. First in the present paper, it is shown that the original ACCAA cloud masks differ considerably from the masks interpolated from MODIS Cloud Mask Products (MOD35), and this discrepancy is caused from errors in the ACCAA masks by visual check for 543 scenes. In addition, uncertain pixels included in MOD35 masks, which are classified to neither cloud nor clear, are visually checked for 76 scenes. Then, the ASTER nighttime cloud mask database using MOD35 products is introduced. It provides the interpolated MOD35 cloud masks for almost all ASTER nighttime scenes (143,242 scenes as of July 2008) through Internet. The database also shows that clear scenes with cloud coverage of 20% or less are about 34% of the total nighttime scenes. In the final part of the paper, an algorithm for reclassifying an interpolated MOD35 mask using ASTER measurements is proposed and applied to 42 test scenes. The algorithm will work well for some scenes, but less well for snow/ice surfaces, and thin, cirrus, and high clouds, due to the band limitation of ASTER/TIR. If a spatial uniformity test is added, the algorithm performance may be improved.

  15. Mapping from ASTER stereo image data: DEM validation and accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Akira; Welch, Roy; Lang, Harold

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Terra spacecraft provides along-track digital stereo image data at 15-m resolution. As part of ASTER digital elevation model (DEM) accuracy evaluation efforts by the US/Japan ASTER Science Team, stereo image data for four study sites around the world have been employed to validate prelaunch estimates of heighting accuracy. Automated stereocorrelation procedures were implemented using the Desktop Mapping System (DMS) software on a personal computer to derive DEMs with 30- to 150-m postings. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error (RMSE) in elevation between ±7 and ±15 m can be achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. An evaluation of an ASTER DEM data product produced at the US Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) yielded an RMSE of ±8.6 m. Overall, the ability to extract elevations from ASTER stereopairs using stereocorrelation techniques meets expectations.

  16. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  17. Characterization of ASTER GDEM Elevation Data over Vegetated Area Compared with Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Wenjian; Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Current researches based on areal or spaceborne stereo images with very high resolutions (less than 1 meter) have demonstrated that it is possible to derive vegetation height from stereo images. The second version of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) is a state-of-the-art global elevation data-set developed by stereo images. However, the resolution of ASTER stereo images (15 meters) is much coarser than areal stereo images, and the ASTER GDEM is compiled products from stereo images acquired over 10 years. The forest disturbances as well as forest growth are inevitable in 10 years time span. In this study, the features of ASTER GDEM over vegetated areas under both flat and mountainous conditions were investigated by comparisons with lidar data. The factors possibly affecting the extraction of vegetation canopy height considered include (1) co-registration of DEMs; (2) spatial resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs); (3) spatial vegetation structure; and (4) terrain slope. The results show that accurate co-registration between ASTER GDEM and the National Elevation Dataset (NED) is necessary over mountainous areas. The correlation between ASTER GDEM minus NED and vegetation canopy height is improved from 0.328 to 0.43 by degrading resolutions from 1 arc-second to 5 arc-seconds and further improved to 0.6 if only homogenous vegetated areas were considered.

  18. Volcanoes, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The island of Java (8.0S, 112.0E), perhaps better than any other, illustrates the volcanic origin of Pacific Island groups. Seen in this single view are at least a dozen once active volcano craters. Alignment of the craters even defines the linear fault line of Java as well as the other some 1500 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Deep blue water of the Indian Ocean to the south contrasts to the sediment laden waters of the Java Sea to the north.

  19. Volcanoes of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Charles

    1996-09-01

    Nothing can be more breathtaking than the spectacle of a volcano erupting. Space-age lunar and planetary missions offer us an unprecedented perspective on volcanism. Starting with the Earth, Volcanoes of the Solar System takes the reader on a guided tour of the terrestrial planets and moons and their volcanic features. We see lunar lava fields through the eyes of the Apollo astronauts, and take an imaginary hike up the Martian slopes of Olympus Mons--the tallest volcano in the solar system. Complemented by over 150 photographs, this comprehensive and lucid account of volcanoes describes the most recent data on the unique and varied volcanic features of Venus and updates our knowledge on the prodigiously active volcanoes of Io. A member of the Association of European Volcanologists, Charles Frankel has directed documentary films on geology, astronomy and space exploration and has authored a number of articles on the earth sciences.

  20. ASTER and Ground Observations of Vegetation Primary Succession and Habitat Development near Retreating Glaciers in Alaska and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Furfaro, R.

    2011-12-01

    Like active volcanoes, glaciers are among the most dynamic components of the Earth's solid surface. All of the main surface processes active in these areas have an ability to suddenly remake or "resurface" the landscape, effectively wiping the land clean of vegetation and habitats, and creating new land surface and aqueous niches for life to colonize and develop anew. This biological and geomorphological resurfacing may remove the soil or replace it with inorganic debris layers. The topographical, hydrological, and particle size-frequency characteristics of resurfaced deglaciated landscapes typically create a high density of distinctive, juxtaposed niches where differing plant communities may become established over time. The result is commonly a high floral and faunal diversity and fecundity of life habitats. The new diverse landscape continues to evolve rapidly as ice-cored moraines thaw, lakes drain or fill in with sediment, as fluvial dissection erodes moraine ridges, as deltaic sedimentation shifts, and other processes (coupled with primary succession) take place in rapid sequence. In addition, climate dynamics which may have caused the glaciers to retreat may continue. We will briefly explore two distinctive glacial environments-(1) the maritime Copper River corridor through the Chugach Mountains (Alaska), Allen Glacier, and the river's delta; and (2) Nepal's alpine Khumbu valley and Imja Glacier. We will provide an example showing how ASTER multispectral and stereo-derived elevation data, with some basic field-based constraints and observations, can be used to make automatic maps of certain habitats, including that of the Tibetan snowcock. We will examine geomorphic and climatic domains where plant communities are becoming established in the decades after glacier retreat and how these link to the snowcock habitat and range. Snowcock species have previously been considered to have evolved in close association with glacial and tectonic history of South and

  1. Mapping Phyllic and Argillic-Altered Rocks in Southeastern Afghanistan using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: ASTER data and logical operators were successfully used to map phyllic and argillic-altered rocks in the southeastern part of Afghanistan. Hyperion data were used to correct ASTER band 5 and ASTER data were georegistered to orthorectified Landsat TM data. Logical operator algorithms produced argillic and phyllic byte ASTER images that were converted to vector data and overlain on ASTER and Landsat TM images. Alteration and fault patterns indicated that two areas, the Argandab igneous complex, and the Katawaz basin may contain potential polymetallic vein and porphyry copper deposits. ASTER alteration mapping in the Chagai Hills indicates less extensive phyllic and argillic-altered rocks than mapped in the Argandab igneous complex and the Katawaz basin and patterns of alteration are inconclusive to predict potential deposit types.

  2. Seismic and deformation precursory to the small explosions of Marapi Volcano, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Patria, C.; Gunawan, H.; Taisne, B.; Nurfiani, D.; Avila, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Marapi Volcano is one of the active volcanoes of Indonesia located near the city of Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Its activity is characterized by small vulcanian explosions with occasional VEI 2 producing tephra and pyroclastic flows. Due to its activity, it is being monitored by Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). Four seismic stations consists of 2 broadband and 2 short period instruments have been established since 2009. In collaboration with CVGHM, Earth Observatory of Singapore added 5 seismic stations around the volcano in 2014, initially with short period instruments but later upgraded to broadbands. We added one tilt station at the summit of Marapi. These seismic and tilt stations are telemetered by 5.8GHz radio to Marapi Observatory Post where data are archived and displayed for Marapi observers for their daily volcanic activity monitoring work. We also archive the data in the EOS and CVGHM main offices. Here we are presenting examples of seismic and deformation data from Marapi prior, during, and after the vulcanian explosion. Our study attempt to understand the state of the volcano based on monitoring data and in order to enable us to better estimate the hazards associated with the future eruptions of this or similar volcano.

  3. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Anaglyph, SRTM / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This stereoscopic (anaglyph) visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of the volcano, the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano to the lower right of center, Lake Kivu is at the bottom, and the city of Goma is located along the northeast shore (bottom center). Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears to the upper left of Nyiragongo.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. The cliff at the top center of the image is the western edge of the rift. Volcanic activity is common in the rift, and older but geologically recent lava flows (dark in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading an elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and blending it with a single band of a Landsat scene. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before

  4. Elysium Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 4, 1998--the first anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing--Mars Global Surveyor's latest images were radioed to Earth with little fanfare. The images received on July 4, 1998, however, were very exciting because they included a rare crossing of the summit caldera of a major martian volcano. Elysium Mons is located at 25oN, 213oW, in the martian eastern hemisphere. Elysium Mons is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the 'zero' elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.

    Elysium Mons was discovered by Mariner 9 in 1972. It differs in a number of ways from the familiar Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes in the Tharsis region. In particular, there are no obvious lava flows visible on the volcano's flanks. The lack of lava flows was apparent from the Mariner 9 images, but the new MOC high resolution image--obtained at 5.24 meters (17.2 feet) per pixel--illustrates that this is true even when viewed at higher spatial resolution.

    Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera--these most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact. Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to identify from previous Mars spacecraft images. This and other MOC data are being examined closely to better understand the nature and origin of volcanic features on Mars.

    The three MOC images, 40301 (red wide angle), 40302 (blue wide angle

  5. Generation of data acquisition requests for the ASTER satellite instrument for monitoring a globally distributed target: glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raup, B.H.; Kieffer, H.H.; Hare, T.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) instrument is scheduled to be launched on the EOS Terra platform in 1999. The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space project has planned to acquire ASTER images of most of the world's land ice annually during the six-year ASTER mission. This article describes the process of creating the data acquisition requests needed to cover approximately 170,000 glacier targets.

  6. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  7. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

  8. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, U. )

    1991-04-01

    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  9. EOS Contract Report: The ASTER and MODIS Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P.; Thome, K. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Three major tasks occupied the group's efforts during this six months. The first was measuring the bidirectional reflectance properties of four reflectance samples provided by NIST. S. Biggar and P. Spyak made these measurements in both the VNIR and SWIR. The second major task was the group's move to a new facility in March. This required that our calibration laboratory and blacklab be disassembled and reassembled in addition to moving offices and other equipment. The third task was the joint vicarious calibration that took place the latter half of June. This campaign included two weeks of laboratory measurements by the RSG and nine days in the field. Other work during the past six months consisted of Science Team support activities including the attendance at meetings related to MODIS and ASTER. In addition, K. Scott continued work on the cross-calibration software package by developing a graphical interface to 6S, an uncertainty analysis code, and an image registration module. M. Sicard used a trip to Cimel in France to change the Cimel TIR radiometer's field of view and then characterized this new field of view. Z. Rouf and Z. Murshalin processed radiance-based data from last summer's Lunar Lake campaign.

  10. Atmospheric correction for the ASTER visible data on Terra satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, T.; Masuda, K.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm over the heterogeneous surface on the emergent radiation from the top of the atmosphere is proposed. This is an atmospheric correction code for the ASTER visible channels on Terra satellite, which have a spatial resolution of 15m. Therefore, interactions of atmospheric radiation with radiation reflected by the heterogeneous surface should be accounted for in this atmospheric correction. The surface is simulated by a checkerboard type terrain composed of land or ocean pixels. To investigate the contribution of adjacent pixels, two additional parameters based on the diffuse transmission(α) and reflection(β) function of the atmosphere are introduced. These parameters are independent of the surface reflection properties and thus may be used for any surface. The present method was developed with reference to existing numerical results based on one-dimensional radiative transfer code. Furthermore, as vicarious calibration, skylight polarization measurements were taken by a spectro-polarimeter over the Nevada desert. The measurements indicate little absorption by aerosols in the atmosphere at wavelengths from 550nm to 700nm. Furthermore the aerosols could not be spherical particles in a poly-dispersion.

  11. In vitro plant regeneration of Aster scaber via somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boo, Kyung Hwan; Cao, Dang Viet; Pamplona, Reniel S; Lee, Doseung; Riu, Key-Zung; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We established an in vitro plant regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis of Aster scaber, an important source of various biologically active phytochemicals. We examined the callus induction and embryogenic capacities of three explants, including leaves, petioles, and roots, on 25 different media containing different combinations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The optimum concentrations of NAA and BA for the production of embryogenic calli were 5.0 μM and 0.05 μM, respectively. Media containing higher concentrations of auxin and cytokinin (such as 25 μM NAA and 25 μM BA) were suitable for shoot regeneration, especially for leaf-derived calli, which are the most readily available calli and are highly competent. For root induction from regenerated shoots, supplemental auxin and/or cytokinin did not improve rooting, but instead caused unwanted callus induction or retarded growth of regenerated plants. Therefore, plant growth regulator-free medium was preferable for root induction. Normal plants were successfully obtained from calli under the optimized conditions described above. This is the first report of the complete process of in vitro plant regeneration of A. scaber via somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25640866

  12. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Luís da Silva, André; Paglione, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control.

  13. Clusters, asters, and collective oscillations in chemotactic colloids.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suropriya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-06-01

    The creation of synthetic systems that emulate the defining properties of living matter, such as motility, gradient-sensing, signaling, and replication, is a grand challenge of biomimetics. Such imitations of life crucially contain active components that transform chemical energy into directed motion. These artificial realizations of motility point in the direction of a new paradigm in engineering, through the design of emergent behavior by manipulating properties at the scale of the individual components. Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of such systems. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of gradient-sensing of an individual swimmer, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior, and use it to construct a framework for studying their collective behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signaling formation of clusters and asters. The kinetics of catalysis introduces a natural control parameter for the range of the interaction mediated by the diffusing chemical species. For various regimes in parameter space in the long-ranged limit our system displays precise analogs to gravitational collapse, plasma oscillations, and electrostatic screening. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior. PMID:25019785

  14. Clusters, asters, and collective oscillations in chemotactic colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suropriya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-06-01

    The creation of synthetic systems that emulate the defining properties of living matter, such as motility, gradient-sensing, signaling, and replication, is a grand challenge of biomimetics. Such imitations of life crucially contain active components that transform chemical energy into directed motion. These artificial realizations of motility point in the direction of a new paradigm in engineering, through the design of emergent behavior by manipulating properties at the scale of the individual components. Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of such systems. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of gradient-sensing of an individual swimmer, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior, and use it to construct a framework for studying their collective behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signaling formation of clusters and asters. The kinetics of catalysis introduces a natural control parameter for the range of the interaction mediated by the diffusing chemical species. For various regimes in parameter space in the long-ranged limit our system displays precise analogs to gravitational collapse, plasma oscillations, and electrostatic screening. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior.

  15. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    , if a major storm surge happens to arrive at a high astronomical tide, sea walls may be overtopped and flooding may ensue. In the domain of geological hazards, periods of volcanic unrest may generate precursory signals suggestive of imminent volcanic danger, but without leading to an actual eruption. Near-miss unrest periods provide vital evidence for assessing the dynamics of volcanoes close to eruption. Where the volcano catalogue has been diligently revised to include the maximum amount of information on the phenomenology of unrest periods, dynamic modelling and hazard assessment may be significantly refined. This is illustrated with some topical volcano hazard examples, including Montserrat and Santorini.

  16. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  17. Active submarine volcano sampled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.

    1983-01-01

    On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh lava were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, in the western Pacific Ocean, from the water depths of 1,200 and 2,700 feet. the shallower dredge site was within 0.5 mile of the active submarine vent shown at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano that has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978; but, in each case, it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982. 

  18. Volcanoes, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Christopher J.

    It takes confidence to title a smallish book merely “Volcanoes” because of the impliction that the myriad facets of volcanism—chemistry, physics, geology, meteorology, hazard mitigation, and more—have been identified and addressed to some nontrivial level of detail. Robert and Barbara Decker have visited these different facets seamlessly in Volcanoes, Third Edition. The seamlessness comes from a broad overarching, interdisciplinary, professional understanding of volcanism combined with an exceptionally smooth translation of scientific jargon into plain language.The result is a book which will be informative to a very broad audience, from reasonably educated nongeologists (my mother loves it) to geology undergraduates through professional volcanologists. I bet that even the most senior professional volcanologists will learn at least a few things from this book and will find at least a few provocative discussions of subjects they know.

  19. HSDP: The Lost Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blichert-Toft, J.; Albarede, F.

    2008-12-01

    We measured high-precision Hf, Nd, and Pb isotope compositions for 40 samples from the final leg of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) core using solution chemistry and MC-ICP-MS. This final leg extends the drill core from 3097.7 mbsl down to a depth of 3505.7 mbsl. The new isotope data are indistinguishable from those higher up in the Mauna Kea part of the core and vary from, respectively, +11.6 to +12.3, +6.4 to +7.0, and 18.2948 to 18.6819 for ɛHf, ɛNd, and 206Pb/204Pb. The Pb isotope data define three linear trends with a common intersection. Principal component analysis recognizes no more than three geochemical end-members (99.8% of the variance) among these trends. When all the Pb isotope data acquired so far ([1-3] and this work) are pooled, two contrasting groups stand out, mostly with respect to 208Pb/206Pb. (1) A first coherent, prevalent group is identified, which represents the Kea main eruptive sequence. This group combines the Kea-mid8 and the Kea-lo8 subgroups of [3]: although these subgroups define two separate trends in Pb-Pb isotope space, they smoothly follow each other in time. (2) A second group of 15 flows at depths below 2000 mbsl is characterized by distinctly higher source Th/U and, for the samples above the new core samples, also high 3He/4He. These samples belong to the K/L group of [2] and to the Kea-hi8 group of [3] and are about 0.4 (Hf) and 0.5 (Nd) ɛ units below the main sequence Kea values. The toggle between these two groups of flows is so sharp and repetitive and the gap between the values so conspicuous that the alternation must reflect eruptions from distinct volcanic centers, Mauna Kea and an unknown volcano (K/L) that bears some isotopic resemblance to Kilauea for Nd and Hf and to Loihi for He [2, 4]. This 'lost' volcano stopped erupting about 550 ka ago, i.e., 200 ka before the oldest ages known for Kilauea [5], and is presently buried under 2-3000 m of Mauna Kea flows. We left out the data on the lost volcano

  20. Living with volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980 cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981) in southwestern Washington ushered in a decade marked by more worldwide volcanic disasters and crises than any other in recorded history. Volcanoes killed more people (over 28,500) in the 1980's than during the 78 years following 1902 eruption of Mount Pelee (Martinique). Not surprisingly, volcanic phenomena and attendant hazards received attention from government authorities, the news media, and the general public. As part of this enhanced global awareness of volcanic hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (Bailey and others, 1983) in response to the eruptions or volcanic unrest during the 1980's at Mount St. Helens and Redoubt are still erupting intermittently, and the caldera unrest at Long Valley also continues, albeit less energetically than during the early 1980's.

  1. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2010-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2009, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 8,829 earthquakes, of which 7,438 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. Monitoring highlights in 2009 include the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, as well as unrest at Okmok Caldera, Shishaldin Volcano, and Mount Veniaminof. Additionally severe seismograph subnetwork outages resulted in four volcanoes (Aniakchak, Fourpeaked, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being removed from the formal list of monitored volcanoes in late 2009. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2009; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2009; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2009, and a dataless SEED volume for the AVO seismograph network.

  2. Flank tectonics of Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Paul J.; Squyres, Steven W.; Carr, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the numerous terraces on the flanks of the Olympus Mons volcano on Mars, seen on space images to be arranged in a roughly concentric pattern, is investigated. The images of the volcano show that the base of each terrace is marked by a modest but abrupt change in slope, suggesting that these terraces could be thrust faults caused by a compressional failure of the cone. The mechanism of faulting and the possible effect of the interior structure of Olympus Mons was investigated using a numerical model for elastic stresses within a Martian volcano, constructed for that purpose. Results of the analysis supports the view that the terraces on Olympus Mons, as well as on other three Martian volcanoes, including Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons, and Pavonis Mons are indeed thrust faults.

  3. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  4. ASTER VNIR 15 years growth to the standard imaging radiometer in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Masaru; Inada, Hitomi; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) is the remote sensing equipment which has 3 spectral bands and one along-track stereoscopic band radiometer. ASTER VNIR's planned long life design (more than 5 years) is successfully achieved. ASTER VNIR has been imaging the World-wide Earth surface multiband images and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). VNIR data create detailed world-wide maps and change-detection of the earth surface as utilization transitions and topographical changes. ASTER VNIR's geometric resolution is 15 meters; it is the highest spatial resolution instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Then, ASTER VNIR was planned for the geometrical basis map makers in Terra instruments. After 15-years VNIR growth to the standard map-maker for space remote-sensing. This paper presents VNIR's feature items during 15-year operation as change-detection images , DEM and calibration result. VNIR observed the World-wide Earth images for biological, climatological, geological, and hydrological study, those successful work shows a way on space remote sensing instruments. Still more, VNIR 15 years observation data trend and onboard calibration trend data show several guide or support to follow-on instruments.

  5. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanbo; Noumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in the retrieved LSTs. However, terrain-induced effects are generally neglected in most satellite retrievals, which may generate discrepancy between ASTER and MODIS LSTs. In this paper, we reported the terrain effects on the LST discrepancy with a case examination over a relief area at the Loess Plateau of China. Results showed that the terrain-induced effects were not major, but nevertheless important for the total LST discrepancy. A large local slope did not necessarily lead to a large LST discrepancy. The angle of emitted radiance was more important than the angle of local slope in generating the LST discrepancy. Specifically, the conventional terrain correction may be unsuitable for densely vegetated areas. The distribution of ASTER-to-MODIS emissivity suggested that the terrain correction was included in the generalized split window (GSW) based approach used to rectify MODIS LSTs. Further study should include the classification-induced uncertainty in emissivity for reliable use of satellite-retrieved LSTs over relief areas. PMID:22399955

  6. [California State Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jay W.

    The first paper on the California State Archives treats the administrative status, legal basis of the archives program, and organization of the archives program. The problem areas in this States' archival program are discussed at length. The second paper gives a crude sketch of the legal and administrative history of the California State Archives,…

  7. Morphometric evolution of composite volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical relations between geometry, slope, and age for 26 circum-Pacific composite volcanoes (stratovolcanoes) are presented. Topics considered include morphometry, eruption characteristics, growth rates, repose periods, flow lengths, and petrological/chemical trends. Composite and cinder cones are compared, and it is suggested that, if cinder cones do evolve into composite volcanoes, a fundamental change in cone morphometry, eruption style, and petrology occurs at a basal diameter of 2 km.

  8. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  9. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  10. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents calculated earthquake hypocenters and seismic phase arrival data, and details changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2005.The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at thirty-two volcanoes within Alaska in 2005 (Figure 1). The network was augmented by two new subnetworks to monitor the Semisopochnoi Island volcanoes and Little Sitkin Volcano. Seismicity at these volcanoes was still being studied at the end of 2005 and has not yet been added to the list of permanently monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. Following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at the Mount Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Korovin Volcano, formal monitoring of these volcanoes began in 2005. AVO located 9,012 earthquakes in 2005.Monitoring highlights in 2005 include: (1) seismicity at Mount Spurr remaining above background, starting in February 2004, through the end of the year and into 2006; (2) an increase in seismicity at Augustine Volcano starting in May 2005, and continuing through the end of the year into 2006; (3) volcanic tremor and seismicity related to low-level strombolian activity at Mount Veniaminof in January to March and September; and (4) a seismic swarm at Tanaga Volcano in October and November.This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field in 2005; (2) a

  11. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  12. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  13. ASTER's First Views of San Francisco River, Brazil - Visible/near Infrared (VNIR) Image (monochrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco River channel, and its surrounding flood zone, in Brazil was acquired by band 3N of ASTER's Visible/Near Infrared sensor. The surrounding area along the river channel in light gray to white could be covered by dense tropical rain forests. The water surface of the San Francisco River shows rather gray color as compared to small lakes and tributaries, which could indicate that the river water is contaminated by suspended material.

    The size of image: 20 km x 20 km approx., ground resolution 15 m x 15 m approximately

    The ASTER instrument was built in Japan for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint United States/Japan Science Team is responsible for instrument design, calibration, and data validation. ASTER is flying on the Terra satellite, which is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

  14. Development and characterization of SSR markers for Aster savatieri (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Sakaguchi, Shota; Ito, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Aster savatieri (Asteraceae) and the serpentine variety A. savatieri var. pygmaeus to re-evaluate their taxonomic status. Methods and Results: Using RNA-Seq data, 22 expressed sequence tag (EST)–SSR markers were developed. Polymorphisms were assessed in A. savatieri and in A. savatieri var. pygmaeus. The average number of alleles ranged from four to 15, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.417 to 0.870. Transferability was examined in six representative species of Japanese Aster and in Solidago virgaurea subsp. asiatica var. asiatica, a member of the tribe Astereae (Asteraceae); most of the loci were transferable to these examined species. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for genetic studies of variation in A. savatieri and other Aster species that occur in Japan. PMID:27347451

  15. IDENTITIES AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PHYTOPLASMAS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ASTER YELLOWS EPIDEMIC IN VARIABLE VEGETABLE CROPS IN TEXAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2000, an outbreak of aster yellows in carrots occurred in southwestern Texas. An epidemiological survey indicated that several vegetable crops including cabbage, onion, parsley and dill, and some weeds were also infected by aster yellows phytoplasmas. Ecological aspects of phytoplasmas involved ...

  16. High-resolution 3-D P-wave tomographic imaging of the shallow magmatic system of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Aster, R. C.; Barclay, A. H.; Chaput, J. A.; Kyle, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Erebus volcano (Ross Island), the most active volcano in Antarctica, is characterized by a persistent phonolitic lava lake at its summit and a wide range of seismic signals associated with its underlying long-lived magmatic system. The magmatic structure in a 3 by 3 km area around the summit has been imaged using high-quality data from a seismic tomographic experiment carried out during the 2008-2009 austral field season (Zandomeneghi et al., 2010). An array of 78 short period, 14 broadband, and 4 permanent Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory seismic stations and a program of 12 shots were used to model the velocity structure in the uppermost kilometer over the volcano conduit. P-wave travel times were inverted for the 3-D velocity structure using the shortest-time ray tracing (50-m grid spacing) and LSQR inversion (100-m node spacing) of a tomography code (Toomey et al., 1994) that allows for the inclusion of topography. Regularization is controlled by damping and smoothing weights and smoothing lengths, and addresses complications that are inherent in a strongly heterogeneous medium featuring rough topography and a dense parameterization and distribution of receivers/sources. The tomography reveals a composite distribution of very high and low P-wave velocity anomalies (i.e., exceeding 20% in some regions), indicating a complex sub-lava-lake magmatic geometry immediately beneath the summit region and in surrounding areas, as well as the presence of significant high velocity shallow regions. The strongest and broadest low velocity zone is located W-NW of the crater rim, indicating the presence of an off-axis shallow magma body. This feature spatially corresponds to the inferred centroid source of VLP signals associated with Strombolian eruptions and lava lake refill (Aster et al., 2008). Other resolved structures correlate with the Side Crater and with lineaments of ice cave thermal anomalies extending NE and SW of the rim. High velocities in the summit area possibly

  17. Discrimination of iron ore deposits of granulite terrain of Southern Peninsular India using ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Balamurugan, G.; Shankar, K.

    2011-04-01

    This work describes a new image processing technique for discriminating iron ores (magnetite quartzite deposits) and associated lithology in high-grade granulite region of Salem, Southern Peninsular India using visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared reflectance data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Image spectra show that the magnetite quartzite and associated lithology of garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite, hornblende biotite gneiss, amphibolite, dunite, and pegmatite have absorption features around spectral bands 1, 3, 5, and 7. ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in RGB are constructed by summing the bands representing the shoulders of absorption features as a numerator, and the band located nearest the absorption feature as a denominator to map iron ores and band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB for associated lithology. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination identifies the iron ores much better than previously published ASTER band ratios analysis. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce redundant information in highly correlated bands. PCA (3, 2, and 1 for iron ores and 5, 4, 2 for granulite rock) in RGB enabled the discrimination between the iron ores and garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite rock. Thus, this image processing technique is very much suitable for discriminating the different types of rocks of granulite region. As outcome of the present work, the geology map of Salem region is provided based on the interpretation of ASTER image results and field verification work. It is recommended that the proposed methods have great potential for mapping of iron ores and associated lithology of granulite region with similar rock units of granulite regions of Southern Peninsular India. This work also demonstrates the ability of ASTER's to provide information on iron ores, which is valuable

  18. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space: Documenting the Demise of Earth's Glaciers Using ASTER.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Kargel, J. S.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2001-05-01

    GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is a global consortium whose purpose is to determine the extent of the world's glaciers and the rate at which they are changing. GLIMS has requested more than 2000 ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) images over the Earth's glaciers and ice sheets where the instrument gain is set to compliment the requested latitude and time of year. We've recently received hundreds of cloud-free, stereo images with 15-meter spatial resolution in visible-near infrared (VNIR) that can resolve ogives, crevasses, and small bodies of water on the surface of glaciers. The first ASTER GLIMS images specially acquired to enhance details of snow and ice of glaciers have also been received and given preliminary analysis. The variable gain has provided a wider dynamic range over snow and ice compared to Landsat data. The relatively high spatial resolution of ASTER VNIR produces a glacier classification that effectively separates water and snow from glacier ice and medial moraines. We are currently assessing the effects of including the 30-meter short wave infrared (SWIR) and 90-meter thermal infrared (TIR) in our analysis. We will highlight our study that uses ASTER images to detect and monitor supraglacial lakes on glaciers in the Mount Everest region (Tibet and Nepal). We have found that ASTER offers powerful capabilities to monitor supraglacial lakes in terms of (1) surface area, growth, and disappearance (spatial resolution = 15 m), (2) net translation on the glacier with respect to immobile points, (3) inorganic turbidity (15-m resolution), and (4) temperature (90-m resolution). Still lacking is a suite of field observations tied in time and space to ASTER observations to help validate/verify and fine-tune the algorithms used for terrain classification and other analysis. Thus, we consider our new results as a demonstration of capability rather than as definitive new results.

  19. ASTER preflight and inflight calibration and the validation of level 2 products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thome, K.; Aral, K.; Hook, S.; Kieffer, H.; Lang, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Ono, A.; Palluconi, F. D.; Sakuma, H.; Slater, P.; Takashima, T.; Tonooka, H.; Tsuchida, S.; Welch, R.M.; Zalewski, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the preflight and inflight calibration approaches used for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The system is a multispectral, high-spatial resolution sensor on the Earth Observing System's (EOS)-AMl platform. Preflight calibration of ASTER uses well-characterized sources to provide calibration and preflight round-robin exercises to understand biases between the calibration sources of ASTER and other EOS sensors. These round-robins rely on well-characterized, ultra-stable radiometers. An experiment held in Yokohama, Japan, showed that the output from the source used for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) subsystem of ASTER may be underestimated by 1.5%, but this is still within the 4% specification for the absolute, radiometric calibration of these bands. Inflight calibration will rely on vicarious techniques and onboard blackbodies and lamps. Vicarious techniques include ground-reference methods using desert and water sites. A recent joint field campaign gives confidence that these methods currently provide absolute calibration to better than 5%, and indications are that uncertainties less than the required 4% should be achievable at launch. The EOS-AMI platform will also provide a spacecraft maneuver that will allow ASTER to see the moon, allowing further characterization of the sensor. A method for combining the results of these independent calibration results is presented. The paper also describes the plans for validating the Level 2 data products from ASTER. These plans rely heavily upon field campaigns using methods similar to those used for the ground-reference, vicarious calibration methods. ?? 1998 IEEE.

  20. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.

  1. The North American ASTER Land Surface Emissivity Database (NAALSED) V2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    One of the key Earth Science Data Records identified by NASA is Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E). LST&E data are important parameters in global climate change studies that involve climate modeling, ice dynamic analyses, surface-atmosphere interactions and land use, land cover change. Accurate knowledge of the Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) in the Thermal Infrared (TIR: 8-12 um) part of the electromagnetic spectrum is essential to derive accurate Land Surface Temperatures (LSTs) from spaceborne TIR measurements. TIR data are supplied by instruments on several satellite platforms including the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), which was launched on NASA's Terra satellite in 1999. ASTER has five bands in the TIR and a spatial resolution of 90 m. A mean seasonal, gridded, LST&E database has been produced at 100 m spatial resolution using all the ASTER scenes acquired for the months of Jan-Mar (winter) and Jul-Sep (summer) over North America. Version 2.0 of the North American ASTER Land Surface Database (NAALSED) (http://emissivity.jpl.nasa.gov) has now been released and includes two key refinements designed to improve the accuracy of LSE's over water bodies and account for the effects of fractional vegetation cover. The water adjustment replaces ASTER LSE values over inland water bodies with a measured library emissivity spectrum of distilled water, and then re-calculates the surface temperatures using a split-window algorithm. The accuracy of ASTER LSE over vegetated surfaces is improved by applying a fractional vegetation cover adjustment (TES_Pv) to the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) calibration curve. The NAALSED LSE product was validated over bare surfaces with laboratory measurements of sand samples collected at nine pseudo-invariant sand dune sites located in the western/southwestern USA. The nine sand dune sites cover a broad range of LSE's in the TIR. Results show that the absolute mean LSE

  2. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanbo; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ke, Changqing

    2007-01-01

    Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance of satellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST) on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides a 1-km resolution LST product with almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provides a LST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle, simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER and MODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-related studies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostly disregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studies reliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correction approaches: the Wan et al.'s approach, the refined Wan et al.'s approach, and the generalized split window (GSW) algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.'s approach corrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifies the Wan et al.'s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data. The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.'s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  3. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  4. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  5. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  6. Transitions in eruption style at Merapi Volcano (Java, Indonesia); insights from satellite thermal infrared images and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B. B.; Clarke, A. B.; Vanderkluysen, L.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Merapi is a 2968 m high volcano located in the Central Java Province of Indonesia and one of the country's most active volcanoes. Episodes of andesitic dome growth are periodically interrupted by explosive eruptions, which have caused at least 429 fatalities in the last 20 years alone. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments to measure heat flux at Merapi Volcano over the time period from 2006-2010. We also estimate effusion rates at the vent from the heat flux values using the method of Harris and Ripepe (2007, Geophys. Res. Let. 34). Our data set includes over 500 MODIS images and over 40 ASTER scenes that allow us to observe trends in heat flux at the vent over time. We produce a 5-year record of heat flux at Merapi that includes a typical Merapi-style, dome-building effusive eruption in 2006 and the explosive VEI 3-4 eruption of 2010. We are able to confirm the accuracy of heat flux measurements and effusion rate estimates from TIR data by comparison with a limited number of ground observations from the 2006 and 2010 eruptions. Our observations capture transitions in activity at Merapi from inactive to active and from effusive to explosive as well as the time scales over which these transitions occur. We use a numerical approach to model magma ascent in the volcanic conduit in order to understand factors that may have led to significant changes in eruption rate and style over this period. We constrain relevant model input and output parameters using previous petrologic, seismic, and geodetic studies of the Merapi system, and vary several critical parameters over reasonable ranges as documented in the literature. Results suggest that chamber pressure and some combination of total volatile content and rate of open-system degassing are the primary parameters controlling the observed transitions in eruption rate and style.

  7. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  8. Lifespans of Cascade Arc volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.

  9. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Satellite derived DEMs with a 30 m resolution. Clearly, further and intense studies need to be undertaken to better understand the personality of this volcano, that is a hazard to at least 15% of the countries entire population.

  10. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Ash Plume Particle Properties     ... satellite flew over Iceland's erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 19, 2010, its Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  11. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 23, Number 6, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Gordon, David W., (Edited By)

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  13. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The

  14. Volcanoes and global catastrophes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, Tom

    1988-01-01

    The search for a single explanation for global mass extinctions has let to polarization and the controversies that are often fueled by widespread media attention. The historic record shows a roughly linear log-log relation between the frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions and the volume of their products. Eruptions such as Mt. St. Helens 1980 produce on the order of 1 cu km of tephra, destroying life over areas in the 10 to 100 sq km range, and take place, on the average, once or twice a decade. Eruptions producing 10 cu km take place several times a century and, like Krakatau 1883, destroy life over 100 to 1000 sq km areas while producing clear global atmospheric effects. Eruptions producting 10,000 cu km are known from the Quaternary record, and extrapolation from the historic record suggests that they occur perhaps once in 20,000 years, but none has occurred in historic time and little is known of their biologic effects. Even larger eruptions must also exist in the geologic record, but documentation of their volume becomes increasingly difficult as their age increases. The conclusion is inescapable that prehistoric eruptions have produced catastrophes on a global scale: only the magnitude of the associated mortality is in question. Differentiation of large magma chambers is on a time scale of thousands to millions of years, and explosive volcanoes are clearly concentrated in narrow belts near converging plate margins. Volcanism cannot be dismissed as a producer of global catastrophes. Its role in major extinctions is likely to be at least contributory and may well be large. More attention should be paid to global effects of the many huge eruptions in the geologic record that dwarf those known in historic time.

  15. Global Volcano Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  16. Relative chronology of Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landheim, R.; Barlow, N. G.

    1991-01-01

    Impact cratering is one of the major geological processes that has affected the Martian surface throughout the planet's history. The frequency of craters within particular size ranges provides information about the formation ages and obliterative episodes of Martian geologic units. The Barlow chronology was extended by measuring small craters on the volcanoes and a number of standard terrain units. Inclusions of smaller craters in units previously analyzed by Barlow allowed for a more direct comparison between the size-frequency distribution data for volcanoes and established chronology. During this study, 11,486 craters were mapped and identified in the 1.5 to 8 km diameter range in selected regions of Mars. The results are summarized in this three page report and give a more precise estimate of the relative chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Also, the results of this study lend further support to the increasing evidence that volcanism has been a dominant geologic force throughout Martian history.

  17. Remote sensing of volcanos and volcanic terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.

  18. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  19. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  20. Monitoring ET over Texas High Plains using two source model and high resolution aster data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agriculture, evapotranspiration (ET) is a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation. In this study, we applied the Two-Source Model (TSM) to estimate daily ET from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data for the highly advective Texas High...

  1. ASTER/TIR vicarious calibration activities in US and Japan validation sites for 14 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Hook, Simon J.; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kato, Soushi; Abbott, Elsa; Tan, Howard

    2014-09-01

    The ASTER instrument onboard the NASA's Terra satellite launched in December 1999 has three subsystems divided by the spectral regions. ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) subsystem has five TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 90 m. Since March 2000 after the initial checkout period, many vicarious calibration (VC) experiments have been conducted for ASTER/TIR in lakes such as Lake Tahoe (NV/CA), Salton Sea (CA), and Lake Kasumigaura (Japan), and in dry lakes such as Railroad Valley (NV), Alkali Lake (NV), and Coyote Lake (CA). In the present paper, 307 VC matchup data obtained by three organizations were analyzed. Overall results show that a typical difference between the at-sensor radiance acquired by onboard calibration (OBC) and that predicted by VC is about 0.5 to 1 K in the water sites and about 1 to 2 K in the land sites. The results of the responsivity analysis indicate that VC is well tracking the responsivity changes measured by OBC, though the recent discrepancy at band 10 should be investigated with more VC results. The results of the offset analysis indicate that the short term calibration (STC) which is performed at a blackbody temperature of 270 K before every Earth observation has worked normally. It is therefore concluded that the ASTER/TIR instrument has been keeping the designed accuracy (1 K for the temperature range of 270 to 340 K) since the launch.

  2. Evaluation of Aster Images for Characterization and Mapping of Amethyst Mining Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoski, P. R.; Rolim, S. B. A.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), subsystems VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) images, for discrimination and mapping of amethyst mining residues (basalt) in the Ametista do Sul Region, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This region provides the most part of amethyst mining of the World. The basalt is extracted during the mining process and deposited outside the mine. As a result, mounts of residues (basalt) rise up. These mounts are many times smaller than ASTER pixel size (VNIR - 15 meters and SWIR - 30 meters). Thus, the pixel composition becomes a mixing of various materials, hampering its identification and mapping. Trying to solve this problem, multispectral algorithm Maximum Likelihood (MaxVer) and the hyperspectral technique SAM (Spectral Angle Mapper) were used in this work. Images from ASTER subsystems VNIR and SWIR were used to perform the classifications. SAM technique produced better results than MaxVer algorithm. The main error found by the techniques was the mixing between "shadow" and "mining residues/basalt" classes. With the SAM technique the confusion decreased because it employed the basalt spectral curve as a reference, while the multispectral techniques employed pixels groups that could have spectral mixture with other targets. The results showed that in tropical terrains as the study area, ASTER data can be efficacious for the characterization of mining residues.

  3. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  4. Validation of large-footprint reflectance-based calibration using coincident MODIS and ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, J.; Thome, K.; Czapla-Myers, J.

    2006-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been using reflectance-based vicarious calibration of earth-observing satellites since the 1980s. Among the sensors characterized by the group are the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are both on NASA's Terra platform. The spatial resolution of MODIS requires that the group use a large-sized site such as Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada as a test site. In addition, the large footprint size of MODIS forced a modification to the ground-sampling scheme for the surface reflectance retrieval. This work examines the impact of the new sampling scheme through coincident ASTER and MODIS imagery making use of the higher resolution spatial resolution of ASTER. ASTER and MODIS imagery were obtained for dates on which both sensors imaged the Railroad Valley test site and ground-based data were collected at the site. The results of the comparison between the sensors shows differences in the radiometric calibration that exceed the accuracy requirements of the sensors, but that the sampling strategy for large-footprint sensors produces reflectance-based results at the same 3% level of accuracy as that for small-footprint sensors.

  5. ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PHYTOPLASMAS INVOLVED IN AN ASTER YELLOWS EPIDEMIC IN VARIOUS CROPS IN TEXAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2000, an aster yellows (AY) epdiemic occurred in carrots in the Winter Garden region of southwestern Texas. A survey revealed that several vegetable crops including cabbage, onion, parsley and dill, and some weeds were also infected by AY phytoplasmas. Nested PCR and EFLP analysis...

  6. Archives in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the origins and development of archives in Pakistan. The focus is on the National Archives of Pakistan, but also includes a discussion of the archival collections at the provincial and district levels. This study further examines the state of training facilities available to Pakistani archivists. Archival development has been…

  7. Reference Services in Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Lucille; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This 16-article issue focuses on history, policy, services, users, organization, evaluation, and automation of the archival reference process. Collections at academic research libraries, a technical university, Board of Education, business archives, a bank, labor and urban archives, a manuscript repository, religious archives, and regional history…

  8. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  9. Introduction to Augustine Volcano and Overview of the 2006 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    in March there was a marked increase in extrusion, resulting in two short, steep lava flows dominantly composed of low-silica andesite. Effusion slowly waned through March and deformation ceased. Previous eruptions have had months-long repose followed be renewed effusion, but this has not yet happened during this eruption. Our ability to describe this eruption is based on a richness of data. The volcano was well instrumented with AVO seismometers and Earthscope/PBO continuous GPS instruments. Additional instruments were added as unrest increased, and substitutes for stations destroyed during initial explosions were deployed. As many as two-dozen AVHRR satellite passes were analyzed each day, providing thermal monitoring and ash-plume tracking. Overflights collected both visual and quantitative IR imagery on a regular basis. Georeferenced imagery acquired by satellite (ASTER) and repeated conventional aerial photography permitted detailed, accurate, mapping of many deposits as an aid to (but not substitute for) field mapping. Web cameras (both visual and near-IR) and conventional time-lapse cameras aided understanding of ongoing processes. Data sets less common to volcano monitoring (infrasound, lightning detection) extended our understanding.

  10. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  11. ASTER spectral sensitivity of carbonate rocks - Study in Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2014-02-01

    Remote sensing satellite data plays a vital role and capable in detecting minerals and discriminating rock types for explorations of mineral resources and geological studies. Study of spectral absorption characters of remotely sensed data are under consideration by the exploration and mining companies, and demonstrating the spectral absorption characters of carbonates on the cost-effective multispectral image (rather than the hyperspectral, Lidar image) for easy understanding of all geologists and exploration communities of carbonates is very much important. The present work is an integrated study and an outcome of recently published works on the economic important carbonate rocks, includes limestone, marl, listwaenites and carbonatites occurred in parts of the Sultanate of Oman. It demonstrates the spectral sensitivity of such rocks for simple interpretation over satellite data and describes and distinguishes them based on the absorptions of carbonate minerals in the spectral bands of advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) for mapping and exploration studies. The study results that the ASTER spectral band 8 discriminates the carbonate rocks due to the presence of predominantly occurred carbonate minerals; the ASTER band 5 distinguishes the limestones and marls (more hydroxyl clay minerals) from listwaenite (hydrothermally altered rock) due to the presence of altered minerals and the ASTER band 4 detects carbonatites (ultramafic intrusive alkaline rocks) which contain relatively more silicates. The study on the intensity of the total absorptions against the reflections of these rocks shows that the limestones and marls have low intensity in absorptions (and high reflection values) due to the presence of carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) occurred in different proportions. The listwaenites and carbonatites have high intensity of absorptions (low reflection values) due to the occurrence of Mn-oxide in listwaenites and carbonates

  12. Monitoring Changing Eruption Styles of Kilauea Volcano Over the Summer of 2007 With Spaceborne Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M.; Wessels, R.

    2007-12-01

    On June 19, 2007 episode 56 (the Father's Day intrusion) of the ongoing eruption at Kilauea Volcano culminated with a small eruption of lava from a 250 m long fissure approximately 6 km west of Pu'u 'O'o. The event was preceded by an earthquake swarm and attributed to the intrusion of magma. This intrusion was also associated with cessation of activity at Pu'u 'O'o and deflation of its summit region. On July 21, 2007 new lava then erupted along a set of fissures that extended eastward from Pu'u 'O'o toward the old Kupaianaha vent. By early September, this eruption continued to supply a lava channel approximately 1 km long, which has fed two 'a'a flow lobes advancing to the northeast and southeast. We describe the application of spaceborne imaging data from the visible to the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths for monitoring activity throughout this period. Satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data with low spatial resolution (i.e., kms/pixel) have been used for years to monitor changes in surface thermal features such as volcanic flows. However, the use of higher spatial resolution data allows for the extraction of physical parameters at meter to sub-meter scales. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provides TIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR), and visible-near infrared (VNIR) data ideal for this type of analysis, hazard assessment, and smaller-scale monitoring of active lava flows. From June-August of 2007, ASTER was scheduled 23 times and collected 11 independent scenes of the new flow activity at Kilauea. Of these, 7 were clear to partly-cloudy and show excellent coverage of the activity following the Father's Day intrusion. TIR and SWIR data, converted to atmospherically corrected emitted surface radiance, have been used to extract flow extent, areal coverage, flow advance rate, and maximum brightness temperature. These data correlate well with descriptions of the flow activity documented by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory field crews

  13. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    intrusion can be excavated and photographed from several angles to compute its 3D shape with the same photogrammetry method. Then, the surface deformation pattern can be directly compared with the shape of underlying intrusion. This quantitative dataset is essential to quantitatively test and validate classical volcano geodetic models.

  14. Io Volcano Observer (IVO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, N.; Johnson, T.; Christensen, P.; Wurz, P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Shinohara, C.; Girard, T.

    2009-04-01

    In early FY2008, NASA solicited study concepts for Discovery/Scout-class missions that would be enabled by use of 2 Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs). We proposed an Io Volcano Observer (IVO) study concept, because the ASRGs enable pointing flexibility and a high data rate from a low-cost mission in Jupiter orbit. Io presents a rich array of inter-connected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena and is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action. Io is the best place to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. The coupled orbital-tidal evolution of Io and Europa is key to understanding the histories of both worlds. IVO utilizes an elliptical orbit inclined > 45° to Jupiter's orbital plane with repeated fast flybys of Io. Io will have nearly constant illumination at each flyby, which facilitates monitoring of changes over time. The view of Io on approach and departure will be nearly polar, enabling unique measurement and monitoring of polar heat flow (key to tidal heating models), equatorial plumes, and magnetospheric interactions. We expect to collect and return 20 Gbits per flyby via 34-m DSN stations, >1000 times the Io data return of Galileo. The minimal payload we considered included (1) a narrow-angle camera, (2) a thermal mapper, (3) an ion and neutral mass spectrometer, and (4) a pair of fluxgate magnetometers. The camera will acquire global km-scale monitoring and sampling down to 10 m/pixel or better. One key objective is to acquire nearly simultaneous (<0.1 s) multispectral measurements to determine the peak lava temperatures, which in turn constrains the temperature and rheology of Io's mantle and whether or not the heat flow is in equilibrium with tidal heating. The thermal mapper will be similar to THEMIS on Mars Odyssey, but with bandpasses designed to monitor volcanic activity, measure heat

  15. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jin; Hu, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Cai-Fei; Tian, Xiao-Juan; Peng, Hui; Gao, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw.) Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a. PMID:26308863

  16. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  17. [Cross comparison of ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral measurements for NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices].

    PubMed

    Xu, Han-qiu; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2011-07-01

    The present paper investigates the quantitative relationship between the NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of Landsat and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs. The study examines how well ASTER sensor vegetation observations replicate ETM+ vegetation observations, and more importantly, the difference in the vegetation observations between the two sensors. The DN values of the three image pairs were first converted to at-sensor reflectance to reduce radiometric differences between two sensors, images. The NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of the two sensors were then calculated using the converted reflectance. The quantitative relationship was revealed through regression analysis on the scatter plots of the vegetation index values of the two sensors. The models for the conversion between the two sensors, vegetation indices were also obtained from the regression. The results show that the difference does exist between the two sensors, vegetation indices though they have a very strong positive linear relationship. The study found that the red and near infrared measurements differ between the two sensors, with ASTER generally producing higher reflectance in the red band and lower reflectance in the near infrared band than the ETM+ sensor. This results in the ASTER sensor producing lower spectral vegetation index measurements, for the same target, than ETM+. The relative spectral response function differences in the red and near infrared bands between the two sensors are believed to be the main factor contributing to their differences in vegetation index measurements, because the red and near infrared relative spectral response features of the ASTER sensor overlap the vegetation "red edge" spectral region. The obtained conversion models have high accuracy with a RMSE less than 0.04 for both sensors' inter-conversion between corresponding vegetation indices. PMID:21942048

  18. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory. PMID:25674434

  19. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a New Critically Endangered Species from China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Juan; Peng, Hui; Gao, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw.) Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a. PMID:26308863

  20. Remote-controlled pan, tilt, zoom cameras at Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Castella, Frederic; Cervelli, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Lists of important volcano-monitoring disciplines usually include seismology, geodesy, and gas geochemistry. Visual monitoring - the essence of volcanology - is usually not mentioned. Yet, observations of the outward appearance of a volcano provide data that is equally as important as that provided by the other disciplines. The eye was almost certainly the first volcano monitoring-tool used by early man. Early volcanology was mostly descriptive and was based on careful visual observations of volcanoes. There is still no substitute for the eye of an experienced volcanologist. Today, scientific instruments replace or augment our senses as monitoring tools because instruments are faster and more sensitive, work tirelessly day and night, keep better records, operate in hazardous environments, do not generate lawsuits when damaged or destroyed, and in most cases are cheaper. Furthermore, instruments are capable of detecting phenomena that are outside the reach of our senses. The human eye is now augmented by the camera. Sequences of timed images provide a record of visual phenomena that occur on and above the surface of volcanoes. Photographic monitoring is a fundamental monitoring tool; image sequences can often provide the basis for interpreting other data streams. Monitoring data are most useful when they are generated and are available for analysis in real-time or near real-time. This report describes the current (as of 2006) system for real-time photograph acquisition and transmission from remote sites on Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes to the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). It also describes how the photographs are archived and analyzed. In addition to providing system documentation for HVO, we hope that the report will prove useful as a practical guide to the construction of a high-bandwidth network for the telemetry of real-time data from remote locations.

  1. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  2. What Happened to Our Volcano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand and…

  3. On the geometric form of volcanoes - Comment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The model of Lacey et al. (1981) accounting for the geometric regularity and approximate cone shape of volcanoes is discussed. It is pointed out that, contrary to the model, volcano eruptions do not occur randomly in elevation and azimuth, but are commonly restricted to summit vents and a few well defined flank zones, so that the form of a volcano is determined by its vent locations and styles of eruption. Other false predictions of the model include the constancy of lava volumes at all vent elevations, the increase in volcano radius as the square root of time, a critical height for volcano growth, the influence of planetary gravity on volcano height and the negligible influence of ash falls and flows and erosional deposition. It is noted that the model of Shteynberg and Solov'yev, in which cone shape is related to stresses due to increasing cone height, may provide a better understanding of volcano morphology.

  4. Using An Extensive Catalogue of Repeatable Strombolian Eruptions to Monitor Small Medium Changes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P.

    2005-12-01

    A recent study by Gret et al. (2005) reconfirmed earlier work demonstrating remarkable, though variable, repeatability of short-period seismic signals produced by characteristic Strombolian eruptions of Mount Erebus. The eruptions originate as impulsive explosions of large simple gas bubbles from the surface of a long-lived, actively convecting phonolitic lava lake that rapidly refills afterwards. This self-reconstructing eruptive system lends itself to highly repeatable seismic sources. Gret et al. further noted that these repeatable seismograms (extending many 10s of seconds into the coda) and associated seismic energy scattered within the low-velocity waveguide of the volcano conduit might facilitate the novel tracking of small temporal changes in seismic velocity and/or impedance contrast within the near summit magma body and more general conduit system. We expand on this suggestive work using comprehensive correlation-based similar seismogram analysis of an extensive database of over 3000 candidate Strombolian eruptions occurring between Jan 1992 and July 2005, and recorded at up to 9 different seismic stations situated around the volcano. To obviate potential complications caused by nonlinear response (e.g., clipping) at short-period instruments, we incorporate data from broadband, high-dynamic range sensors and digital telemetry installed since 2001, and take advantage of a new period of prolific eruptions, especially since early 2005, Gret, A., Snieder, R., Aster, R., Kyle, P., Monitoring rapid temporal change in a volcano with coda wave interferometry, Geop. Res. Lett., 32, L06304, doi:10.1029/2004GL021143, 2005.

  5. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.

  6. Precursory Activity of the 2005 Eruption of Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, A.; Patrick, M.; Rose, W. I.; Escobar, D.; Montalvo, F.; Gutierrez, E.; Olmos, R.

    2007-12-01

    After a period of unrest, Santa Ana (Illamatepec) volcano in El Salvador erupted suddenly on October 1st, 2005 at 1420 UTC (0820 local time), ejecting its acidic crater lake and generating a gas-and-ash plume ~10 km above the volcano. The short-lived eruption (~1 hr duration) deposited ballistics and ash up to 5m thick at the crater rim and depositing ash up to 40 km to the west. Underlying phreatomagmatic deposits exposed in the crater suggest that larger eruptions of this type are characteristic of recent historic activity. In this study, precursory activity to the 2005 eruption is investigated by analyzing physical and chemical parameters of the crater lake. Data has been compiled on water chemistry, temperature, and color of the lake from direct sampling and ground observations from 2004-2007. Lake water data suggests three phases of activity: (1) constant, well constrained activity from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2004 showing SO4 ~10,000 ppm, Cl ~6000 ppm, and SO4/Cl ~1.6; (2) potential precursory activity from Jan. 2005 to Oct. 2005 expressed as a ramping up of SO4 to 11,625 ppm in May with a sudden decrease to 8250 ppm one month later, increased variability in Cl, and color change from dark coffee color to green in mid-September; and (3) post- eruption activity to present showing increasing Cl to a maximum of 22340 ppm, low SO4/Cl=0.38-0.8, an increase in temperature to 65.6 degrees C, and color change to yellowish-green). Analysis of high resolution satellite imagery from the ASTER sensor (15-90m/pixel) from 2000 to 2007 provides further information on lake size, temperature, and color. ASTER images show that the lake re-established itself further to the west after the eruption, drowning the adjacent high temperature fumarole field (max. 875 degrees C) which potentially contributed to the observed post-eruption changes in the lake. The combination of synoptic satellite-based remote sensing data with ground measurements will enhance the capabilities to recognize and

  7. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  8. Evaluation of Aster Gdem VER2 Using GPS Measurements and Srtm VER4.1 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Shi, C.; Li, Z.; Muller, J.-P.; Drummond, J.; Li, X.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Liu, J.

    2012-07-01

    The freely available ASTER GDEM ver2 was released by NASA and METI on October 17, 2011. As one of the most complete high resolution digital topographic data sets of the world to date, the ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-second and will be a useful product for many applications, such as relief analysis, hydrological studies and radar interferometry. The stated improvements in the second version of ASTER GDEM benefit from finer horizontal resolution, offset adjustment and water body detection in addition to new observed ASTER scenes. This study investigates the absolute vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM ver2 at five study sites in China using ground control points (GCPs) from high accuracy GPS benchmarks, and also using a DEM-to-DEM comparison with the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI) SRTM DEM (Version 4.1). And then, the results are separated into GlobCover land cover classes to derive the spatial pattern of error. It is demonstrated that the RMSE (19m) and mean (-13m) values of ASTER GDEM ver2 against GPS-GCPs in the five study areas is lower than its first version ASTER GDEM ver1 (26m and -21m) as a result of the adjustment of the elevation offsets in the new version. It should be noted that the five study areas in this study are representative in terms of terrain types and land covers in China, and even for most of mid-latitude zones. It is believed that the ASTER GDEM offers a major alternative in accessibility to high quality elevation data.

  9. Estimation of Tree Size Diversity Using Object Oriented Texture Analysis and Aster Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Ibrahim; Norton, David A.; Ozkan, Ulas Yunus; Mert, Ahmet; Senturk, Ozdemir

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of object-based texture parameters extracted from 15m spatial resolution ASTER imagery for estimating tree size diversity in a Mediterranean forested landscape in Turkey. Tree size diversity based on tree basal area was determined using the Shannon index and Gini Coefficient at the sampling plot level. Image texture parameters were calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for various image segmentation levels. Analyses of relationships between tree size diversity and texture parameters found that relationships between the Gini Coefficient and the GLCM values were the most statistically significant, with the highest correlation (r=0.69) being with GLCM Homogeneity values. In contrast, Shannon Index values were weakly correlated with image derived texture parameters. The results suggest that 15m resolution Aster imagery has considerable potential in estimating tree size diversity based on the Gini Coefficient for heterogeneous Mediterranean forests.

  10. Development and application of the alteration mineral information extraction system based on ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Rihong; Yuan, Tao

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, multi-spectral data have been widely used to prospect the source rock or source region of porphyry copper deposits. In this paper, we present a system to extract the information of alteration mineral from multi-spectral data. The system is developed with the Visual C# 2010 and IDL8.0 platform, and is able to process the ASTER multi-spectral data which is a new multiband file after layer stacking. Based on the principal component analysis, the ASTER data is processed automatically in this system. The result shows two components, the classified information of argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage and propylitization mineral assemblage. Compared with the traditional processes, the system not only lowers the threshold of the application of remote sensing technology, but also improves the work efficiency significantly.

  11. Normalizing Landsat and ASTER Data Using MODIS Data Products for Forest Change Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring forest cover and its changes are a major application for optical remote sensing. In this paper, we present an approach to integrate Landsat, ASTER and MODIS data for forest change detection. Moderate resolution (10-100m) images (e.g. Landsat and ASTER) acquired from different seasons and times are normalized to one "standard" date using MODIS data products as reference. The normalized data are then used to compute forest disturbance index for forest change detection. Comparing to the results from original data, forest disturbance index from the normalized images is more consistent spatially and temporally. This work demonstrates an effective approach for mapping forest change over a large area from multiple moderate resolution sensors on various acquisition dates.

  12. Quinic acids from Aster caucasicus and from transgenic callus expressing a beta-amyrin synthase.

    PubMed

    Pecchia, Paola; Cammareri, Maria; Malafronte, Nicola; Consiglio, M Federica; Gualtieri, Maria Josefina; Conicella, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as the absence of triterpene saponins. To combine in one species the production of different phytochemicals, including triterpenes, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. caucasicus was set up to introduce A. sedifolius beta-amyrin synthase (AsOXA1)-encoding gene under the control of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S. The quali-quantitative analysis of transgenic calli with ectopic expression of AsOXA1 showed, in one sample, a negligible amount of triterpene saponins combined with higher amount of quinic acid derivatives as compared with the wild type callus. PMID:22224284

  13. Alaska Volcano Observatory's KML Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcic, L.; Webley, P. W.; Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are now giving the scientific community a new medium to present data, which is compatible across multiple disciplines. They also provide scientists the ability to display their data in real-time, a critical factor in hazard assessment. The Alaska Volcano Observatory remote sensing group has developed Keyhole Markup Language (KML) tools that are used to display satellite data for volcano monitoring and forecast ash cloud movement. The KML tools allow an analyst to view the satellite data in a user-friendly web based environment, without a reliance on non-transportable, proprietary software packages. Here, we show how the tools are used operationally for thermal monitoring of volcanic activity, volcanic ash cloud detection and dispersion modeling, using the Puff model. animate.images.alaska.edu/

  14. Baseline Hydrothermal Monitoring Data from Cascade Range Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crankshaw, I. M.; Ingebritsen, S.; Randolph-Flagg, N. G.; Newman, A. C.; Evans, W.; Spicer, K. R.; Ledingham, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009 the U.S. Geological Survey has systematically monitored hydrothermal behavior at selected Cascade Range volcanoes in order to define baseline hydrothermal and geochemical conditions. Gas and water data have been collected at 25 monitoring sites on 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade Range. These sites include summit-fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence in the form of high 3He/4He ratios and (or) large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat. The monitoring data are intended to (1) be suitable for comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data and (2) provide baseline data that will be useful during future episodes of volcanic unrest. Site records consist mainly of hourly temperature and (or) hydrothermal solute flux data spanning multiple years. Many of the hydrothermal time series data show considerable variability during quiescent periods, including diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability. Having established baseline conditions, we are reducing our monitoring frequency, and data are being archived and analyzed with a view to providing useful and succinct summaries of baseline behavior during quiescent periods. The hydrothermal response to recent (November 2014 to present) unrest at Lassen Volcanic Center demonstrates the utility of long-term background data, which has made it straightforward to isolate symptoms of unrest.

  15. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  16. New studies of Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Zisk, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the morphology, topography, and evolution of volcanic constructs on Mars, researchers have been studying the volcanoes Olympus Mons, Tyrrhena Patera, and Apollinaris Patera. These studies relied upon the analysis of digital Viking orbiter images to measure the depth and slopes of the summit area of Olympus Mons, upon new Earth-based radar measurements for the analysis of the slopes of Tyrrhena Patera, and upon the color characteristics of the flanks of Apollinaris Patera for information regarding surface properties.

  17. Glaciation of Haleakala volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Mark, R. ); Porter, S.C. . Quaternary Research Center)

    1993-04-01

    Early debates regarding the large (5 [times] 10 km) summit crater'' of Haleakala volcano (3,055 m altitude) on the island of Maui attributed its origin to renting, rifting, caldera collapse, or erosion. It now is commonly assumed to have resulted from headward expansion of giant canyons by stream erosion (Stearns, 1942). Slope maps and shaded relief images based on new USGS digital elevation data point to the apparent overfit of the canyons that drain the summit depression. Studies of drowned coral reefs and terraces on the offshore east rift of Haleakala indicate that this part of the volcano has undergone submergence of about 2 km, as well as tilting, since 850 ka ago. Such subsidence indicates that the summit altitude at the end of the shield-building phase reached ca. 5,000 m, well above both the present and full-glacial snowlines. A comparison with the radiometrically dated glacial record of Mauna Kea and its reconstructed snowline history suggests that Haleakala experienced 10 or more glaciations, the most extensive during marine isotope stages 20, 18, and 16. By isotope stage 10, the summit had subsided below the full-glacial snowline. Diamictons on the south slope of the volcano, previously described as mudflows, contain lava clasts with superchilled margins, identical to margins of subglacially erupted lavas on Mauna Kea. Glacier ice that mantled the upper slopes of the volcano continuously for several hundred thousand years and intermittently thereafter, is inferred to have carved Haleakala crater and the upper reaches of large canyons radiating from it.

  18. Comparison of the vegetation index computed from modis, AVHRR and ASTER data over Hokkaido, Japan BUHEAOSIEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kaneko, M.

    An attempt is made to compare the vegetation index computed from the data of different spatial and spectral resolution, i.e. the data of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). As the vegetation index the most widely used NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) is selected. Since the index is computed from the ratio of the data of two bands the effects of atmosphere, temporal degradation of sensor sensitivity, viewing geometry, etc are eliminated to a certain extent. The spectral ranges and spatial resolution of each NDVI are as follows. MODIS-NDVI:0.62-0.70, 0.841-0.876μm 250m ; AVHRR-NDVI: 0.58-0.68, 0.82-0.87μm; 1.1km. ASTER- NDVI:0.63 -0.69, 0.76 -0.86 μm, 15m. The computation is made for the data of Hokkaido, Japan. In addition to NDVI, EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) and LAI (Leaf Area Index) are also computed for the data of MODIS. The result indicates that both MODIS-NDVI and AVHRR-NDVI show a good result, with MODIS-NDVI a little better result. Between NDVI and EVI computed from the data of MODIS, EVI shows a little better result for the study of phenological change of vegetation. MODIS-LAI is useful in distinguishing the vegetation in a wetland. Since the spatial resolution of ASTER is more than one order of magnitude higher than that of MODIS and AVHRR it is rather difficult to obtain a reasonable evaluation since it depends on the purpose of application. In the area with a complicated vegetation and topographical distribution it is found that ASTER-NDVI is very useful.

  19. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  20. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  1. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  2. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  3. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  4. Google Earth's derived digital elevation model: A comparative assessment with Aster and SRTM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, N.; Majid, M. R.; Din, A. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis showing additional evidence that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Google Earth is commendable and has a good correlation with ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data. The accuracy of DEM elevation points from Google Earth was compared against that of DEMs from ASTER and SRTM for flat, hilly and mountainous sections of a pre-selected rural watershed. For each section, a total of 5,000 DEM elevation points were extracted as samples from each type of DEM data. The DEM data from Google Earth and SRTM for flat and hilly sections are strongly correlated with the R2 of 0.791 and 0.891 respectively. Even stronger correlation is shown for the mountainous section where the R2 values between Google Earth's DEM and ASTER's and between Google Earth's DEM and SRTM's DEMs are respectively 0.917 and 0.865. Further accuracy testing was carried out by utilising the DEM dataset to delineate Muar River's watershed boundary using ArcSWAT2009, a hydrological modelling software. The result shows that the percentage differences of the watershed size delineated from Google Earth's DEM compared to those derived from Department of Irrigation and Drainage's data (using 20m-contour topographic map), ASTER and SRTM data are 9.6%, 10.6%, and 7.6% respectively. It is therefore justified to conclude that the DEM derived from Google Earth is relatively as acceptable as DEMs from other sources.

  5. Flank tectonics of Martian volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.J. ); Squyres, S.W. ); Carr, M.H. )

    1990-08-30

    On the flanks of Olympus Mons is a series of terraces, concentrically distributed around the caldera. Their morphology and location suggest that they could be thrust faults caused by compressional failure of the cone. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of faulting and the possible influences of the interior structure of Olympus Mons, the authors have constructed a numerical model for elastic stresses within a Martian volcano. In the absence of internal pressurization, the middle slopes of the cone are subjected to compressional stress, appropriate to the formation of thrust faults. These stresses for Olympus Mons are {approximately}250 MPa. If a vacant magma chamber is contained within the cone, the region of maximum compressional stress is extended toward the base of the cone. If the magma chamber is pressurized, extensional stresses occur at the summit and on the upper slopes of the cone. For a filled but unpressurized magma chamber, the observed positions of the faults agree well with the calculated region of high compressional stress. Three other volcanoes on Mars, Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons, and Pavonis Mons, possess similar terraces. Extending the analysis to other Martian volcanoes, they find that only these three and Olympus Mons have flank stresses that exceed the compressional failure strength of basalt, lending support to the view that the terraces on all four are thrust faults.

  6. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  7. Record completeness for individual volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent attention paid to completeness in global and regional (e.g. Japan) eruption data bases. This has taken the form of estimating dates at which the record is complete, either at a global or regional level, at a given VEI or magnitude. This has obvious utility when estimating hazard from very large eruptions, which may have effects 1000s of km from source. However, at a more local level, the question of interest is not so much the global, or the regional, completeness level, but the completeness of the record for an individual volcano. For example, forecast hazard is critically dependent on the size of the eruption, but it is impossible even to statistically describe the size distribution without knowing the completeness of the record. Current methods for eruption catalogue completeness using extreme value statistics rely on large samples for their validity, so a new approach is required for individual volcanoes, which may have only a handful of known eruptions. We will consider one possible such approach based using a Bayesian sequential algorithm assuming that the underlying process is Poissonian and that completeness at a lower VEI implies completeness at all higher VEIs. Results for individual volcanoes are compared with regional figures and, time-permitting, implications for a statistical model of VEI discussed.

  8. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  9. Mapping and Measuring Thermal Areas in Yellowstone using ASTER and Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data, combined with field observations and pre-existing maps have been used to map Yellowstone's thermal areas. Thermal anomaly maps and estimates of the radiant geothermal heat flux are important for establishing the baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and/or volcanic activity, and also for monitoring changes in the geothermal system to support decisions regarding infrastructure development, preservation and protection of Yellowstone's resources, and ensuring visitor safety. One of the critical measurement parameters in the use of spaceborne TIR for studying subtle (sub-pixel, sub-boiling) thermal features is the acquisition of TIR data at night. Acquisition of night time data reduces the influence of solar radiance and increases the temperature difference between thermal targets and the cooler background, thus improving estimates of the geothermal component of heat flux. ASTER night time TIR data (90-m pixels) are acquired too infrequently and irregularly for regular monitoring purposes. However, the new Landsat 8 platform with the Thermal Infrared Sensor (100-m pixels) has been tasked to regularly collect night time TIR imagery (every 16 days). These data show promise for continued satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone, and could also be useful in monitoring subtle thermal activity at other volcanic/geothermal systems around the world. This presentation will highlight results of a comparative analysis of Landsat 8 TIRS and ASTER TIR data for measuring and mapping Yellowstone's thermal areas.

  10. 2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, VOLCANO OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, VOLCANO OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF MEDIAN. NOTE VOLCANIC STONE CURBING (EDGING) TYPICAL OF MOST PARKING AREAS; TRIANGLING AT END NOT TYPICAL. MAUNA LOA VOLCANO IN BACK. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  11. Researching Television News Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins

    To demonstrate the uses and efficiency of major television news archives, a study was conducted to describe major archival programs and to compare the Vanderbilt University Television News Archives and the CBS News Index. Network coverage of an annual news event, the 1983 State of the Union address, is traced through entries in both. The findings…

  12. My Dream Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience as he traveled from island to island with a single objective--to reach the archives. He found out that not all archives are the same. In recent months, his daydreaming in various facilities has yielded a recurrent question on what would constitute the Ideal Archive. What follows, in no particular…

  13. Of Rings and Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Fine Images of Saturn and Io with VLT NAOS-CONICA Summary With its new NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory has recently obtained impressive views of the giant planet Saturn and Io, the volcanic moon of Jupiter. They show the two objects with great clarity, unprecedented for a ground-based telescope. The photos were made during the ongoing commissioning of this major VLT instrument, while it is being optimized and prepared for regular observations that will start later this year. PR Photo 04a/02 : VLT NAOS-CONICA photo of the giant planet Saturn (composite H+K band image). PR Photo 04b/02 : The Jovian moon Io (Br-gamma image). PR Photo 04c/02 : The Jovian moon Io (composite Br-gamma + L' image). Commissioning of NAOS-CONICA progresses "First light" for the new NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory was achieved in November 2001, cf. ESO PR 25/01. A second phase of the "commissioning" of the new facility began on January 22, 2002, now involving specialized observing modes and with the aim of trimming it to maximum performance before it is made available to the astronomers later this year. During this demanding and delicate work, more test images have been made of various astronomical objects [1]. Some of these show selected solar system bodies, for which the excellent image sharpness achievable with this new instrument is of special significance. In fact, the VLT photos of the giant planet Saturn and Io, the innermost of Jupiter's four large moons, are among the sharpest ever obtained from the ground . They even compare well with some photos obtained from space, as can be seen via the related weblinks indicated below. The raw NAOS-CONICA data from which these images shown in this Photo Release were produced are now available via the public VLT Science Archive Facility [2]. The NAOS adaptive optics corrector was built, under an ESO contract, by the

  14. Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

  15. Newberry Volcano (Oregon, USA) Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Newberry Volcano (NV) located E. of the Cascades arc axis is often interpreted as (1) a High Lava Plains (NW Basin & Range -- B&R) volcano hosting rhyolites generated by a traveling plume, (2) a shield volcano built of basalt, or (3) an enigma unrelated to the adjacent High Cascades. Recent work shows that these interpretations are incorrect. Petrologic, geochemical, isotopic, drill hole, & seismic data indicate that the NV magma system results from arc-related processes at the NW corner of the B&R, where this major extensional province impinges on the Cascades arc. NV rhyolites are geochemically distinct and lower in SiO2 than those to the east where a general NW-younging trend of rhyolite ages has suggested a traveling hotspot -- a consequence instead of propagation of B&R extension. NV lies ~90 km above the downgoing slab based on seismic evidence (McCrory et al. 2012), ~15 km deeper than under the Three Sisters (TS) volcanic complex 60 km to the NW on the arc axis. NV & TS exhibit a range of compositions and both have generated rhyodacite with unusually high Na2O contents (~7 wt. %; Mandler et al. 2014), exhibiting similar petrogenetic processes. Silicic lavas and tuffs of the caldera-centric NV make up a significant component (~20% of drill core) of its 600 km3, although basaltic andesite is the dominant composition. Basalts of calcalkaline affinity erupted on the edifice as recently as early Holocene time. These basalts contain petrologic evidence for high pre-eruptive H2O contents, have strong arc-like trace element signatures, and are isotopically Cascadian and distinct from basalts to the east in the B&R that have much higher 3/4He (Graham et al. 2009). NV is one variety of Cascades arc volcano among which are a range of stratovolcanoes including Mt. Baker (15 km3) and Mt. Shasta (500 km3), a Holocene caldera (Crater Lake), and the many basaltic andesite shield volcanoes that make up most of the Oregon High Cascades.

  16. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  17. Preparing for Routine Satellite Global Volcano Deformation Observations: The Volcano Deformation Database Task Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Jay, J.; Andrews, B. J.; Cooper, J.; Henderson, S. T.; Delgado, F.; Biggs, J.; Ebmeier, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has greatly expanded the number volcanoes that can be monitored for ground deformation - the number of known deforming volcanoes has increased almost five-fold since 1997 (to more than 213 volcanoes in 2014). However, from 1992-2014, there are still gaps in global volcano surveillance and only a fraction of the 1400 subaerial Holocene volcanoes have frequent observations in this time period. Starting in 2014, near global observations of volcano deformation should begin with the Sentinel satellites from the European Space Agency, ALOS-2 from the Japanese Space Agency, and eventually NISAR from the Indian Space Agency and NASA. With more frequent observations, more volcano deformation episodes are sure to be observed, but evaluating the significance of the observed deformation is not always straightforward -- how can we determine if deformation will lead to eruption? To answer this question, an international task force has been formed to create an inventory of volcano deformation events as part of the Global Volcano Model (http://globalvolcanomodel.org/gvm-task-forces/volcano-deformation-database/). We present the first results from our global study focusing on volcanoes that have few or no previous studies. In some cases, there is a lack of SAR data (for example, volcanoes of the South Sandwich Islands). For others, observations either show an absence of deformation or possible deformation that requires more data to be verified. An example of a deforming volcano that has few past studies is Pagan, an island in the Marianas Arc comprised of 2 stratovolcanoes within calderas. Our new InSAR measurements from both the ALOS and Envisat satellites show deformation near the 1981 May VEI 4 lava flow eruption on North Pagan at 2-3 cm/year between 2004-2010. Another example of a newly observed volcano is Karthala volcano in the Comoros. InSAR observations between 2004-2010 span four eruptions, only one of which is

  18. Understanding the Differences Between AIRS, MODIS and ASTER Land Surface Emissivity Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S.; Hulley, G.

    2008-12-01

    One of the key Earth Science Data Records identified by NASA is Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E). LST&E data are key parameters in global climate change studies that involve climate modeling, ice dynamic analyses, surface-atmosphere interactions and land use, land cover change. The errors in retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from hyperspectral infrared radiances, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite, are strongly dependent on using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities, particularly over arid and semi-arid regions where the variation in emissivity is large, both spatially and spectrally. LST&E standard products are available from spaceborne sensors such as AIRS, MODIS and ASTER at varying spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. Although these emissivity products represent the same measure, there are frequently discrepancies between the products associated with different scientific approaches used that need to be better understood. For example, ASTER provides LST&E data with the highest spatial resolution (90 m), compared with AIRS (50 km) and MODIS (1 and 5 km). AIRS has the highest spectral sampling and both AIRS and MODIS acquire data at much higher temporal frequencies (every 2-3 days) compared with ASTER (16 days). In this paper we present validation and intercomparisons of AIRS, MODIS and ASTER gridded emissivity products over North America. MODIS and ASTER data will be upsampled to the AIRS spatial resolution, and then compared to laboratory measured emissivities of in-situ rock/sand samples collected at ten validation sites in the Western USA during 2008. The directional hemispherical reflectance of the in-situ samples are measured in the laboratory using a Nicolet Fourier Transform Interferometer (FTIR), converted to emissivity using Kirchoff's law, and convolving to the appropriate sensor's spectral response functions. We present here some of the first

  19. ASTER-Derived 30-Meter-Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument aboard the Terra satellite, launched on December 19, 1999, as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The ASTER sensor consists of three subsystems: the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and the thermal infrared (TIR), each with a different spatial resolution (VNIR, 15 meters; SWIR, 30 meters, TIR 90 meters). The VNIR system has the capability to generate along-track stereo images that can be used to create digital elevation models (DEMs) at 30-meter resolution. Currently, the only available DEM dataset for Afghanistan is the 90-meter-resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. This dataset is appropriate for macroscale DEM analysis and mapping. However, ASTER provides a low cost opportunity to generate higher resolution data. For this publication, study areas were identified around populated areas and areas where higher resolution elevation data were desired to assist in natural resource assessments. The higher resolution fidelity of these DEMs can also be used for other terrain analysis including landform classification and geologic structure analysis. For this publication, ASTER scenes were processed and mosaicked to generate 36 DEMs which were created and extracted using PCI Geomatics' OrthoEngine 3D Stereo software. The ASTER images were geographically registered to Landsat data with at least 15 accurate and well distributed ground control points with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less that one pixel (15 meters). An elevation value was then assigned to each ground control point by extracting the elevation from the 90-meter SRTM data. The 36 derived DEMs demonstrate that the software correlated on nearly flat surfaces and smooth slopes accurately. Larger errors occur in cloudy and snow-covered areas, lakes, areas with steep slopes, and

  20. Modeling Groundwater Depth in the Mississippi Delta Using Weather and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boken, V. K.; Easson, G. L.

    2005-05-01

    Groundwater resources are often used for irrigating agricultural lands, urban and rural water supplies, and recreational and industrial purposes. In order to plan and regulate the groundwater usage in a sustainable manner, it is necessary to estimate depth to groundwater at a higher resolution in a region. In general, these depths are available only for a limited number of well locations. In this paper, we develop a model for predicting depth to ground water in the Mississippi Delta using variables derived from weather and satellite data. The Mississippi Delta is one of the six geomorphic regions in Mississippi; the other regions are the Coastal Plains, Valley Silty Uplands, Blackland Prairie, Gulf Coast Marsh, and Eastern Gulf Coast Flatwoods. This Delta encompasses approximately 35,000 sq. miles of agricultural lands in 19 of 82 counties of Mississippi. The soils in the Delta are rich in organic matter and are predominantly used for crops, such as cotton, soybean, rice, and corn. The data requirement to develop the model included groundwater depth, precipitation, elevation, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for the study area. We collected ground water depth for various well locations from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, elevation and ASTER data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and precipitation data for various weather stations from the National Climate Data Center. Using ASTER data (in visible and infrared bands) a vegetation index was developed and used as a variable in the model. Using a geographic information system, geospatial interpolation techniques (inverse distance weighted, local polynomial, global polynomial, radial basis function, and kriging) were applied, and a continuous surface showing groundwater depth was created using the ordinary kriging which produced minimum error. The following data were tabulated for the weather station locations: interpolated

  1. Some observations regarding the thermal flux from Earth's erupting volcanoes for the period 2000 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R.; Blackett, M.; Hill-Butler, C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will describe 15 years of MODIS observations of the thermal flux from Earth's sub-aerially erupting volcanoes. The MODVOLC algorithm has been providing data regarding volcanic eruptions on Earth to the volcanological community since the launch of Terra MODIS, via the internet, in near-real-time (http:modis.higp.hawaii.edu). During this time, eruptions at 102 volcanoes have been observed, including activity associated with mafic lava flows, lava lakes, vent-based explosive activity and felsic lava domes. This presentation will present an overview of how MODIS has documented every eruption to occur on Earth since 2000, and will describe some of the more interesting result that have been obtained from the analysis of this archive. The total amount of energy radiated into the atmosphere can be divided into two parts: a baseline level of emission which has increased gradually over this 15 period, superimposed on which are large "spikes" attributable to large, lava-flow-forming eruptions. The most intense eruption during this period of time was the 2004 eruption of Nyamuragira, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, whilst the largest magnitude event was the 2012-2013 eruption of Tolbachik, Russia. Spatio-temporal patterns in thermal output will be addressed. Time-series analysis of heat flux from these 102 volcanoes has revealed while some volcanoes exhibit statistically significant periodicity in the magnitude of their heat output, many do not.

  2. Double Glacier Volcano, a 'new' Quaternary volcano in the eastern Aleutian volcanic arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.L.; Lanphere, M.A.; Miller, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Double Glacier Volcano (DGV) is a small dome complex of porphyritic hornblende andesite and dacite that is part of the Cook Inlet segment of Quaternary volcanoes of the eastern Aleutian arc. Its discovery reduces the previously described large volcano gap in Cook Inlet segment to a distance similar to that between other volcanoes in the area. DGV lavas are medium-K, calcalkaline andesites and dacites with concentrations of major and minor elements similar to the other Quaternary volcanoes of the Cook Inlet segment. Available K-Ar ages indicate that DGV was active 600-900 ka. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Smithsonian Volcano Data on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venzke, E.; Siebert, L.; Luhr, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Interactive global satellite imagery datasets such as hosted by Google Earth provide a dynamic platform for educational outreach in the Earth Sciences. Users with widely varied backgrounds can easily view geologic features on a global-to-local scale, giving access to educational background on individual geologic features or events such as volcanoes and earthquakes. The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) volcano data became available as a Google Earth layer on 11 June 2006. Locations for about 1550 volcanoes with known or possible Holocene activity are shown as red triangles with associated volcano names that appear when zooming in to a regional-scale view. Clicking on a triangle opens an informational balloon that displays a photo, geographic data, and a brief paragraph summarizing the volcano's geologic history. The balloon contains links to a larger version of the photo with credits and a caption and to more detailed information on the volcano, including eruption chronologies, from the GVP website. Links to USGS and international volcano observatories or other websites focusing on regional volcanoes are also provided, giving the user ready access to a broad spectrum of volcano data. Updates to the GVP volcano layer will be provided to Google Earth. A downloadable file with the volcanoes organized regionally is also available directly from the GVP website (www.volcano.si.edu) and provides the most current volcano data set. Limitations of the implied accuracy of spacially plotted data at high zoom levels are also apparent using platforms such as Google Earth. Real and apparent mismatches between plotted locations and the summits of some volcanoes seen in Google Earth satellite imagery occur for reasons including data precision (deg/min vs. deg/min/sec) and the GVP convention of plotting the center-point of large volcanic fields, which often do not correspond to specific volcanic vents. A more fundamental problem originates from the fact that

  4. Introduction: Consider the Archive.

    PubMed

    Yale, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, historians of archives have paid increasingly careful attention to the development of state, colonial, religious, and corporate archives in the early modern period, arguing that power (of various kinds) was mediated and extended through material writing practices in and around archives. The history of early modern science, likewise, has tracked the production of scientific knowledge through the inscription and circulation of written records within and between laboratories, libraries, homes, and public spaces, such as coffeehouses and bookshops. This Focus section interrogates these two bodies of scholarship against each other. The contributors ask how archival digitization is transforming historical practice; how awareness of archival histories can help us to reconceptualize our work as historians of science; how an archive's layered purposes, built up over centuries of record keeping, can shape the historical narratives we write; and how scientific knowledge emerging from archives gained authority and authenticity. PMID:27197412

  5. Joint use of ENVISAT MERIS and TERRA ASTER satellite data for monitoring landcover dynamics in the Niger Inland Delta (Westafrika)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, R.; Karrasch, P.; Csaplovics, E.

    A growing number of land surface products derived from data of very different satellites have been developped during the recent past years enabeling user communities to analyse a great variety of environmental questions Though this wide range of products seem to fit to nearly every application many complex tasks can t be answered in a satisfactory manner by using data from only one sensor This paper aims to present an algorithm for a combined use of spectral high resoluted optical and NIR data from MERIS sensor with spatial high resoluted data from ASTER sensor The latter measures also in the SWIR part of EMS The authors examined to what extend ASTER spectral bands could be simulated by information of MERIS bands and vice versa Considerations were based on the different bandpositions and -widths of ASTER and MERIS bands An ASTER band will be simulated therefore with the help of those MERIS bands that fall into the spectral range covered by its bandwith One has to take into account that an individual MERIS band contributes to the simulated ASTER value according to the spectral sensitivity of the original ASTER band at the position of that MERIS band This leads to the introduction of weighting factors for each MERIS band that where calculated in an adjustment process We also introduced an additional parameter for each simulated band that describes the discontiguous coverage of an ASTER band by the MERIS bands It also includes any system-specific differences in data registration by the two sensors The parameters were calculated in a first step over

  6. Inter-Comparison of ASTER and MODIS Surface Reflectance and Vegetation Index Products for Synergistic Applications to Natural Resource Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Kayo; Yamamoto, Hirokazu

    2008-01-01

    Synergistic applications of multi-resolution satellite data have been of a great interest among user communities for the development of an improved and more effective operational monitoring system of natural resources, including vegetation and soil. In this study, we conducted an inter-comparison of two remote sensing products, namely, visible/near-infrared surface reflectances and spectral vegetation indices (VIs), from the high resolution Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) (15 m) and lower resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (250 m – 500 m) sensors onboard the Terra platform. Our analysis was aimed at understanding the degree of radiometric compatibility between the two sensors' products due to sensor spectral bandpasses and product generation algorithms. Multiple pairs of ASTER and MODIS standard surface reflectance products were obtained at randomly-selected, globally-distributed locations, from which two types of VIs were computed: the normalized difference vegetation index and the enhanced vegetation indices with and without a blue band. Our results showed that these surface reflectance products and the derived VIs compared well between the two sensors at a global scale, but subject to systematic differences, of which magnitudes varied among scene pairs. An independent assessment of the accuracy of ASTER and MODIS standard products, in which “in-house” surface reflectances were obtained using in situ Aeronet atmospheric data for comparison, suggested that the performance of the ASTER atmospheric correction algorithm may be variable, reducing overall quality of its standard reflectance product. Atmospheric aerosols, which were not corrected for in the ASTER algorithm, were found not to impact the quality of the derived reflectances. Further investigation is needed to identify the sources of inconsistent atmospheric correction results associated with the ASTER algorithm, including additional quality

  7. Observing active deformation of volcanoes in North America: Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and associated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Enders, M.; Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Baker, S.; Lisowski, M.; Smith, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, records deformation of the geologically diverse North America western plate boundary, with subnetworks of instruments concentrated at selected active and potentially active volcanoes. These sensors record deformation and earthquakes and allow monitoring agencies and researchers to analyze changes in ground motion and seismicity. The intraplate volcanoes at Yellowstone and Long Valley are characterized by uplift/subsidence cycles, high seismicity, and hydrothermal activity but there have been no historic eruptions at either volcano. PBO maintains dense GPS networks of 20-25 stations at each of these volcanoes, with an additional 5 boreholes at Yellowstone containing tensor strainmeters, short-period seismometers, and borehole tiltmeters. Subduction zone volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc have had multiple historic eruptions, and PBO maintains equipment at Augustine (8 GPS), Akutan (8 GPS, 4 tiltmeters), and Unimak Island (14 GPS, 8 tiltmeters). The Unimak stations are at the active Westdahl and Shishaldin edifices and the nearby, inactive Isanotski volcano. In the Cascade Arc, PBO maintains networks at Mount St. Helens (15 GPS, 4 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, 8 borehole tiltmeters), Shasta (7 GPS, 1 borehole strainmeter and seismometer), and Lassen Peak (8 GPS). Data from many of these stations in the Pacific Northwest and California are also provided as realtime streams of raw and processed data. Real-time GPS data, along with high-rate GPS data, will be an important new resource for detecting and studying future rapid volcanic deformation events and earthquakes. UNAVCO works closely with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, archiving data from USGS GPS stations in Alaska, Cascadia, and Long Valley. The PBO and USGS networks combined provide more comprehensive coverage than PBO alone, particularly of the Cascade Arc, where the USGS maintains a multiple instruments near each volcano. Ground

  8. Autonomous thermal camera system for monitoring the active lava lake at Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N.; Oppenheimer, C.; Kyle, P.

    2014-02-01

    In December 2012, the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory installed a thermal infrared camera system to monitor the volcano's active lava lake. The new system is designed to be autonomous, and capable of capturing images of the lava lake continuously throughout the year. This represents a significant improvement over previous systems which required the frequent attention of observatory researchers and could therefore only be operated during a few weeks of the annual field campaigns. The extreme environmental conditions at the summit of Erebus pose significant challenges for continuous monitoring equipment, and a custom-made system was the only viable solution. Here we describe the hardware and software of the new system in detail and report on a publicly available online repository where data will be archived. Aspects of the technical solutions we had to find in order to overcome the challenges of automating this equipment may be relevant in other environmental science domains where remote instrument operation is involved.

  9. Autonomous thermal camera system for monitoring the active lava lake at Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N.; Oppenheimer, C.; Kyle, P.

    2013-10-01

    In December 2012, the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory installed a thermal infrared camera system to monitor the volcano's active lava lake. The new system is designed to be autonomous, and capable of capturing images of the lava lake continuously throughout the year. This represents a significant improvement over previous systems which required the frequent attention of observatory researchers and could therefore only be operated during a few weeks of the annual field campaigns. The extreme environmental conditions at the summit of Erebus pose significant challenges for continuous monitoring equipment, and a custom made system was the only viable solution. Here we describe the hardware and software of the new system in detail and report on a publicly-available online repository where data will be archived. Aspects of the technical solutions we had to find in order to overcome the challenges of automating this equipment may be relevant in other environmental science domains where remote instrument operation is involved.

  10. The multiparameter station at Galeras Volcano (Colombia): concept and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Dieter; Hellweg, Margaret; Calvache, Marta; Gomez, Diego; Ortega, Adriana; Torres, Roberto; Böker, Franz; Buttkus, Burkhard; Faber, Eckhard; Greinwald, Siegfried

    2003-07-01

    Volcanoes are complex systems, in which the interaction of many different physical and chemical factors and processes contribute to changes in activity. In the past 40 years, our ability to observe and quantify short-term changes in a volcano's activity has improved due to the installation of seismometers and tiltmeters and the continuous records they provide. However, due to instrumental limitations, the observations have mainly been used phenomenologically, to draw inferences about possible changes on the basis of previous experience. Since 1995, the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) and the Instituto de Investigación e Información Geocientı´fica, Minero-Ambiental y Nuclear (INGEOMINAS) have been working to develop and deploy a multiparameter (MP) station on Galeras Volcano, Colombia. This station is designed to concurrently measure various geophysical and geochemical parameters. It includes three broadband seismometers at the crater rim, as well as a more remotely located, broadband seismic reference. At other locations in the crater or on the rim, electromagnetic probes, an infrasound sensor and a weather station are operating. The data from these sensors are digitized at each site with 24-bit digitizers and transmitted by spread-spectrum radio, via repeater when necessary, to the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico (OVP) in the city of Pasto. There they are received and displayed on a networked personal computer and recorded continuously. The data flow into the routine analysis procedures of the OVP and the continuous data are archived on CD. In addition to the other sensors, a system of specially developed sensors continuously monitors the chemistry and physics of the gases at fumaroles on the active cone. The data from this system are also transmitted in realtime to OVP and recorded. The continuous recordings of the MP station are supplemented by regular thermographic measurements of the surface temperature in the crater

  11. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  12. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... 46-degree forward-viewing cameras of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and its erupting ash plume. In addition to the main plume, there are ... is necessary to separate out wind and height (see  Volcano Plume Heights ). To view the image in 3-D, use red/blue glasses with ...

  13. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Ash from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland Stretches over the North Atlantic   ... that occurred in late March 2010, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland began erupting again on April 14, 2010. The resulting ash ...

  14. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... height map   Ash from Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano, viewed here in imagery from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... natural-color, nadir (vertical) view of the scene, with the volcano itself located outside the upper left corner of the image. The ash ...

  15. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... to capture a series of images of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and its erupting ash plume. Figure 1 is a view from MISR's nadir ... The companion image, Figure 2, is a stereo anaglyph (see  Volcano Plume Heights Anaglyph ) generated from the nadir and 46-degree ...

  16. Orographic Flow over an Active Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulidis, Alexandros-Panagiotis; Renfrew, Ian; Matthews, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Orographic flows over and around an isolated volcano are studied through a series of numerical model experiments. The volcano top has a heated surface, so can be thought of as "active" but not erupting. A series of simulations with different atmospheric conditions and using both idealised and realistic configurations of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model have been carried out. The study is based on the Soufriere Hills volcano, located on the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean. This is a dome-building volcano, leading to a sharp increase in the surface skin temperature at the top of the volcano - up to tens of degrees higher than ambient values. The majority of the simulations use an idealised topography, in order for the results to have general applicability to similar-sized volcanoes located in the tropics. The model is initialised with idealised atmospheric soundings, representative of qualitatively different atmospheric conditions from the rainy season in the tropics. The simulations reveal significant changes to the orographic flow response, depending upon the size of the temperature anomaly and the atmospheric conditions. The flow regime and characteristic features such as gravity waves, orographic clouds and orographic rainfall patterns can all be qualitatively changed by the surface heating anomaly. Orographic rainfall over the volcano can be significantly enhanced with increased temperature anomaly. The implications for the eruptive behaviour of the volcano and resulting secondary volcanic hazards will also be discussed.

  17. Volcano Flank Terraces on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.

    2008-12-01

    Flank terraces are bulge-like structures that occur on the slopes of at least nine large shield volcanoes on Mars, and three on Earth. Terraces have a convex-upward, convex-outward morphology, with an imbricate "fish scale" stacking pattern in plan. They occur at all elevations, are scale-invariant structures, and have similar proportions to thrust faults on Earth. Suggested mechanisms of formation include elastic self-loading, lithospheric flexure, magma chamber tumescence, flank relaxation, and shallow gravitational slumping. Terrace geometries predicted by most of these mechanisms do not agree with our observations, however. Only lithospheric flexure can fully account for terrace geometry on Mars and Earth, and so is the most likely candidate mechanism for flank terrace formation. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted scaled analogue modelling experiments, and investigated the structures formed during flexure. Cones of a sand-gypsum mix were placed upon a deep layer of silicone gel, to simulate volcanic loads upon viscoelastic Martian crust. Key parameters were varied across our experimental program. In all cases convex topographic structures developed on the cones' flanks, arranged in an imbricate, overlapping plan-view pattern. These structures closely resemble flank terraces observed on Mars, and our results provide for a basic kinematic model of terrace formation. Analogue volcanoes experienced a decrease in upper surface area whilst volume was conserved; the contractional surface strain was accommodated by outward verging, circumferentially striking thrusts. The morphology of experimental structures suggests an orientation of the principal stress axes of σ1 = radial, σ2 = concentric, and σ3 = vertical. Elsewhere (J. B. Murray et al., this volume) we detail the relationship between flank terraces and other structures such as pit craters and gräben, using Ascraeus Mons as a case study. We suggest that terraces may influence the distribution and location

  18. Analytical volcano deformation source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.

  19. Isotopic composition of gases from mud volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Valysaev, B.M.; Erokhin, V.E.; Grinchenko, Y.I.; Prokhorov, V.S.; Titkov, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    A study has been made of the isotopic composition of the carbon in methane and carbon dioxide, as well as hydrogen in the methane, in the gases of mud volcanoes, for all main mud volcano areas in the USSR. The isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in methane shows that the gases resemble those of oil and gas deposits, while carbon dioxide of these volcanoes has a heavier isotopic composition with a greater presence of ''ultraheavy'' carbon dioxide. By the chemical and isotopic composition of gases, Azerbaidzhan and South Sakhalin types of mud volcano gases have been identified, as well as Bulganak subtypes and Akhtala and Kobystan varieties. Correlations are seen between the isotopic composition of gases and the geological build of mud volcano areas.

  20. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  1. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Pre-eruption Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This computer generated visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of both the volcano and the city of Goma, looking slightly east of north.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano on the right, Lake Kivu is in the foreground, and the city of Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shoreline. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2000 meters (6560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the left background. Topographic expression has been exaggerated vertically by a factor of 1.5 for this visualization.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, and a false sky was added.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing

  2. Unmanned Airborne System Deployment at Turrialba Volcano for Real Time Eruptive Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Corrales, E.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Kolyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of instrument packages enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes, even when the active conditions of the volcano do not allow volcanologists and emergency response personnel to get too close to the erupting crater. This has been demonstrated this year by flying a sUAS through the heavy ash driven erupting volcanic cloud of Turrialba Volcano, while conducting real time in situ measurement of gases over the crater summit. The event also achieved the collection of newly released ash samples from the erupting volcano. The interception of the Turrialba ash cloud occurred during the CARTA 2015 field campaign carried out as part of an ongoing program for remote sensing satellite calibration and validation purposes, using active volcanic plumes. These deployments are timed to support overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite on a bimonthly basis using airborne platforms such as tethered balloons, free-flying fixed wing small UAVs at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within about a 5km radius of the summit crater. The onboard instrument includes the MiniGas payload which consists of an array of single electrochemical and infrared gas detectors (SO2, H2S CO2), temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS sensors, all connected to an Arduino-based board, with data collected at 1Hz. Data are both stored onboard and sent by telemetry to the ground operator within a 3 km range. The UAV can also carry visible and infrared cameras as well as other payloads, such as a UAV-MS payload that is currently under development for mass spectrometer-based in situ measurements. The presentation describes the ongoing UAV- based in situ remote sensing validation program at Turrialba Volcano, the results of a fly-through the eruptive cloud, as well as future plans to continue these efforts. Work presented here was

  3. Extraction of Forest Stands Parameters from Aster Data in Open Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Riyahi Bakhtyarib, H. R.

    2012-07-01

    Tree crown size (CS) and stem number per hectare (SN) has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  4. Analysis of ASTER data for mapping bauxite rich pockets within high altitude lateritic bauxite, Jharkhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Arindam; Singh, Vivek Kr.; Parveen, Reshma; Kumar, K. Vinod; Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2013-04-01

    Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples.

  5. Estimation of aboveground biomass in Mediterranean forests by statistical modelling of ASTER fraction images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, O.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Quintano, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation from optical satellite data is usually based on regression models of original or synthetic bands. To overcome the poor relation between AGB and spectral bands due to mixed-pixels when a medium spatial resolution sensor is considered, we propose to base the AGB estimation on fraction images from Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our study area is a managed Mediterranean pine woodland (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in central Spain. A total of 1033 circular field plots were used to estimate AGB from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) optical data. We applied Pearson correlation statistics and stepwise multiple regression to identify suitable predictors from the set of variables of original bands, fraction imagery, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Tasselled Cap components. Four linear models and one nonlinear model were tested. A linear combination of ASTER band 2 (red, 0.630-0.690 μm), band 8 (short wave infrared 5, 2.295-2.365 μm) and green vegetation fraction (from LSMA) was the best AGB predictor (Radj2=0.632, the root-mean-squared error of estimated AGB was 13.3 Mg ha-1 (or 37.7%), resulting from cross-validation), rather than other combinations of the above cited independent variables. Results indicated that using ASTER fraction images in regression models improves the AGB estimation in Mediterranean pine forests. The spatial distribution of the estimated AGB, based on a multiple linear regression model, may be used as baseline information for forest managers in future studies, such as quantifying the regional carbon budget, fuel accumulation or monitoring of management practices.

  6. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  7. The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 μm, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 μm. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 μm). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

  8. Terrestrial Radar Interferometry and Structure-from-Motion Data from Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia for Improved Hazard Assessment and Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Gallant, E.; López, C. M.; Malservisi, R.; Ordoñez, M.; Richardson, J. A.; Voss, N. K.; Xie, S.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing geodesy has huge potential for volcano monitoring and improved modelling of volcanic hazards. Terrestrial Radar Interferometers (TRI) can rapidly and accurately create DEMs and repeat occupation of sites allows measurement of deformation. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry can be used to construct DEMs and SfM surveys can be carried out with relatively accessible equipment. TRI and SfM techniques are highly complimentary: The upper slopes of a volcano may be cloud covered, but can be imaged by TRI, whereas lower canyons may be in radar shadow, but can be imaged with SfM. Both methods are also complimentary to satellite observations (e.g. SRTM, ASTER), offering some advantages in terms of coverage and resolution. We present the acquisition of two new geodetic datasets at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (NRV). NRV is a large glacierised volcano that erupted in 1985, generating a glacier-derived lahar that killed over 23,000 people in the city of Armero and 2,000 people in the town of Chinchina. NRV is the most active volcano in Colombia and since 2012 has generated small eruptions (with no casualties) and constant gas and ash emissions. In early 2015, we collected data from several sites close to the crater of NRV and around the Azufrado drainage (the site of previous debris avalanches and lahars). The TRI was operated from three sites, while drone- and ground-based cameras ventured into the canyons to fill in radar shadow gaps. These data have three primary uses: 1) generation of high-precision DEMs for lahar modelling and visualisation of previous events, 2) imaging of summit glacier motion, and 3) establishing a baseline for long-term deformation studies. We discuss ground-based remote sensing geodetic data from high-tech (TRI) to low-tech (SfM) methods and show the importance of combining these complimentary datasets to improve DEMs for hazard modelling and volcano monitoring.

  9. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  10. Dynamique de la formation d'asters de microtubules par des complexes de moteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nédélec, François; Surrey, Thomas

    2001-08-01

    The polymerisation of filaments and their moving by motor proteins contribute to the organisation of the cytoskeleton of higher cells. What a mixture of such elements is capable of doing, is not yet understood. Using computer simulations, we study here in a simple system the kinetics of aster formation by motors and growing microtubules. We find that the system can be in three different regimes depending on the value of the microtubule polymerisation rate. We discuss that three types of motor links are present in the network and show how they contribute to each final pattern.

  11. Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plafcan, Dan

    Most chapters in this volume focus on the scientific and technical aspects of the design, performance, operations, and applications of the MODIS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments. In contrast, this final chapter focuses on politics - specifically, the politics of technical decision making and scientific judgment. When scientific objectives, engineering design decisions, and familiar forms of scientific and technical authority are uncertain or otherwise unsettled, how do they become certain and settled? What facilitates collective judgment and the exercise of power in efforts to advance and achieve common scientific goals, especially in the international arena?

  12. Reconstructing Holocene Glacier Changes in West Greenland From Multispectral ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, K.; Csatho, B.; van der Veen, C. J.; Ahn, Y.

    2006-12-01

    To understand the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and to identify mechanisms controlling that balance and Greenland's contribution to future changes in global sea level, it is crucial to construct longer temporal records, reaching back to the Little Ice Age (LIA) or beyond. The primary objectives of this project are to develop procedures for mapping glacial trimlines, marking maximum glacier extent during the LIA, and terminal moraines indicating earlier advanced terminus positions, in central west Greenland using multispectral ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images. The motivation for using satellite imagery for mapping glacial-geological features is the greater spatial coverage that can be achieved, as opposed to the traditional method of field mapping in restricted areas. ASTER imagery provides spectral bands spanning from the visible to the thermal infrared bands, including two stereo bands, enabling us to map the spectral properties of the Earth's surface as well as to obtain surface topography. This poster presents examples of mapping the 3D shapes of glacial geomorphological features using supervised classification, visual interpretation and advanced pattern recognition methods, and results of the volume change computation and interpretation, focusing on the Jakobshavn drainage basin. For trimline mapping, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated from the stereo bands of the same data set, followed by orthorectification using Ground Control Points (GCPs) and checkpoints extracted from stereo aerial photographs and digital maps. Surface reflectance was estimated from the raw DN values by applying the Empirical Line Correction model for atmospheric effects. Maximum likelihood classification, in supervised mode, was applied to distinguish different land cover types. Classification of the ASTER image with nine non-thermal bands provides a good discrimination between the exposed fresh rock surfaces, moraines of

  13. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  14. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  15. The GTC Public Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alacid, J. Manuel; Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) archive is operational since November 2011. The archive, maintained by the Data Archive Unit at CAB in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory project, provides access to both raw and science ready data and has been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) to guarantee a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this presentation I will describe the main capabilities the GTC archive offers to the community, in terms of functionalities and data collections, to carry out an efficient scientific exploitation of GTC data.

  16. A global database of composite volcano morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Pablo; Euillades, Pablo A.; Euillades, Leonardo D.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We present a global database on the subaerial morphometry of composite volcanoes. Data was extracted from the 90-m resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM). The 759 volcanoes included in the database are the composite (i.e., polygenetic) volcanoes listed in the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program (GVP) database that are covered by the SRTM DEM, have a constructional topography and a basal width larger than 2 km. The extent of each volcano edifice was defined using the NETVOLC algorithm, which computes outlines by minimizing a cost function based on breaks in slope around the edifices. Morphometric parameters were then calculated using the MORVOLC algorithm. The parameters characterize and quantify volcano size (basal width, summit width, height, and volume), profile shape (height/basal width and summit width/basal width ratios), plan shape (ellipticity and irregularity indexes), and slopes. In addition, 104 well-defined and relatively large summit craters/calderas were manually delineated and specific parameters were computed. Most parameters show large variation without clear separations, indicating a continuum of volcano morphologies. Large overlap between the main GVP morphologic types highlights the need for a more rigorous quantitative classification of volcano morphology. The database will be maintained and updated through a website under construction.

  17. A scale for ranking volcanoes by risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandone, Roberto; Bartolini, Stefania; Martí, Joan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple volcanic risk coefficient (VRC) useful for comparing the degree of risk arising from different volcanoes, which may be used by civil protection agencies and volcano observatories to rapidly allocate limited resources even without a detailed knowledge of each volcano. Volcanic risk coefficient is given by the sum of the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of the maximum expected eruption from the volcano, the logarithm of the eruption rate, and the logarithm of the population that may be affected by the maximum expected eruption. We show how to apply the method to rank the risk using as examples the volcanoes of Italy and in the Canary Islands. Moreover, we demonstrate that the maximum theoretical volcanic risk coefficient is 17 and pertains to the large caldera-forming volcanoes like Toba or Yellowstone that may affect the life of the entire planet. We develop also a simple plugin for a dedicated Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) software to graphically display the VRC of different volcanoes in a region.

  18. Implementation of a very large atmospheric correction lookup table for ASTER using a relational database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Alex T.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Thome, Kurtis J.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) is designed to provide a high resolution map of the Earth in both visible, near-infrared, and thermal spectral regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The ASTER science team has developed several standard data product algorithms, but the most complex and computing-intensive of these is the estimation of surface radiance and reflectance values, which is done by modeling and correcting for the effects of the atmosphere. The algorithm for atmospheric correction in the visible bands sensed by ASTER calls fur the use of a very large atmospheric correction look up table (ACLUT). The ACLUT contains coefficients which describe atmospheric effects on ASTER data under various conditions. The parameters used to characterize the atmosphere and its effects on radiation in the ASTER bands include aerosol and molecular optical depth, aerosol size distribution, single scattering albedo, and solar, nadir view, and azimuth angles. The ACLUT coefficients are produced by thousands of runs of a radiative transfer code (RTC) program produced by Phil Slater and Kurt Thome of U. of A. The final version of ACLUT is expected to be in the neighborhood of 10 gigabytes. The RDBMS Sybase is used to manage the process of generating the ACLUT as well as to host the table and service queries on it. Queries on the table are made using ASTER band number and seven floating-point values as keys. The floating-point keys do not necessarily exactly match key values in the database, so the query involves a hierarchical closest-fit search. All aspects of table implementation are described.

  19. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Smoot, N. C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-02-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin.

  20. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  1. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even tsunamis. Volcanic gas and ash can damage the lungs of small infants, older adults, and people with severe respiratory illnesses. Volcanic ash can affect ...

  2. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety High-Pressure Water Injection Injury Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare Pros Power Outages When the Power Goes Out Worker Safety ...

  3. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a vent in the Earth's crust. Hot rock, steam, poisonous gases, and ash reach the Earth's ... can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even ...

  4. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazardous Materials Incidents Home Fires Household Chemical Emergencies Hurricanes Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants ... Hazardous Materials Incidents Home Fires Household Chemical Emergencies Hurricanes Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants ...

  5. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods PSAs Hurricanes Before a Hurricane Make a Plan Get Supplies Get Your Family, ... Ready Evacuate or Stay at Home After a Hurricane Make Sure Your Food and Water Are Safe ...

  6. ~20 years of SO2 measurements at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) using COSPEC: volcanological interpretation of the data and use for validation of instrumental developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Granados, H.; Cardenas Gonzalez, L.

    2013-12-01

    On February 1st 1994, the first COSPEC measurements were carried out at Popocatépetl volcano. Since the first measurements, the volcano showed very high emission rates. Along the last ~20 years, measurements have been carried out using several modes (ground-static, ground-mobile, airborne-fixed wing, airborne-rotatory wing); trajectories (diagonal to, across, and along the plume); and during different activity episodes (passive degassing and effusive and explosive periods); as well as together with other instrumental developments and resources (DOAS, UV-cameras, MODIS, ASTER, OMI). Popocatépetl volcano has emitted nearly 40Mt of SO2 in ~20years and has shown very large variations in the average emissions depending on the state of activity, having a maximum emission rate of ~170 Kt in December 2000. This work shows a summary of results of the measurements obtained during this period emphasizing the volcanological meaning of the existing database so far. In addition, the use of these data for validation of other data sets is discussed.

  7. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  8. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  9. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  10. Monitoring of volcanic emissions for risk assessment at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Hugo; Campion, Robin; Fickel, Matthias; Cortés Ramos, Jorge; Alvarez Nieves, José Manuel; Taquet, Noemi; Grutter, Michel; Osiris García Gómez, Israel; Darío Sierra Mondragón, Rubén; Meza Hernández, Israel

    2015-04-01

    In January 2014, the Mexican Agency FOPREDEN (Natural Disaster Prevention Fund) accepted to fund a project to renew, upgrade and complement the gas monitoring facilities. The UNAM-CENAPRED (National Center for Disaster Prevention) gas monitoring system currently consists of: • A COSPEC instrument and two mini-DOAS used for mobile traverse measurements • An SO2 camera used for punctual campaign • A network of three permanent scanning mini-DOAS (NOVAC type 1 instrument) and one permanent mini-DOAS (NOVAC type II, currently under repair). The activity planed in the framework of the new project, of which several of them are already successfully implemented, include: • Completely refurbished permanent scanning mini-DOAS network consisting of four stations and the punctual deployment of three RADES (Rapid Deployment System) for assessing plume geometry and chemistry or for responding to emergency situations. • Prolongation of the mobile traverse measurements in order to continuously update the 20 years-long SO2 flux database obtained with the COSPEC, now coupled with a mobile DOAS for redundancy. • The development and installation of a permanent SO2 camera, for monitoring in real time the short timescale variations of the SO2 emissions. • The installation of two permanent FTIR spectrometers, one measuring the plume thermal emissions and the other measuring with the solar occultation geometry, for frequent measurements of molecular ratio between SO2, HCl, HF and SiF4 • The exploitation in near-real time of the satellite imagery (OMI, MODIS and ASTER) available for the volcano. A special attention will be paid to increase the reliability and graphical representation of these data stream in order to facilitate their use for decision-making by the civil protection authority in charge of the volcano.

  11. The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Scholl, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano and adjacent areas has been studied since the turn of this century. However, most studies to date have focused on the relatively shallow, low-salinity parts of the ground-water system, and the deeper hydrothermal system remains poorly understood. The rift zones of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano bound the regional ground-water flow system that includes Kilauea, and the area bounded by the rift zones of Kilauea and the ocean may comprise a partly isolated subsystem. Rates of ground-water recharge vary greatly over the area, and discharge is difficult to measure, because streams are ephemeral and most ground-water discharges diffusely at or below sea level. Hydrothermal systems exist at depth in Kilauea's east and southwest rift zone, as evidenced by thermal springs at the coast and wells in the lower east-rift zone. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones (probably [le]10[sup [minus]15] m[sup 2]) is much lower than that of unaltered basalt flows closer to the surface ([ge]10[sup [minus]10] m[sup 2]). Substantial variations in permeability and the presence of magmatic heat sources influence that structure of the fresh water-salt water interface, so the Ghyben-Herzberg model will often fail to predict its position. Numerical modeling studies have considered only subsets of the hydrothermal system, because no existing computer code solves the coupled fluid-flow, heat- and solute-transport problem over the temperature and salinity range encountered at Kilauea. 73 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Earthquake sources near Uturuncu Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyson, L.; West, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.

  13. Internet-accessible, near-real-time volcano monitoring data for geoscience education: the Volcanoes Exploration Project—Pu`u `O`o

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, M. P.; Teasdale, R.; Kraft, K.

    2010-12-01

    Internet-accessible real- and near-real-time Earth science datasets are an important resource for geoscience education, but relatively few comprehensive datasets are available, and background information to aid interpretation is often lacking. In response to this need, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu‘u ‘O‘o (VEPP). The VEPP Web site provides access, in near-real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the Pu‘u ‘O‘o eruptive vent on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. On the VEPP Web site, a time series query tool provides a means of interacting with continuous geophysical data. In addition, results from episodic kinematic GPS campaigns and lava flow field maps are posted as data are collected, and archived Webcam images from Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater are available as a tool for examining visual changes in volcanic activity over time. A variety of background information on volcano surveillance and the history of the 1983-present Pu‘u ‘O‘o-Kupaianaha eruption puts the available monitoring data in context. The primary goal of the VEPP Web site is to take advantage of high visibility monitoring data that are seldom suitably well-organized to constitute an established educational resource. In doing so, the VEPP project provides a geoscience education resource that demonstrates the dynamic nature of volcanoes and promotes excitement about the process of scientific discovery through hands-on learning. To support use of the VEPP Web site, a week-long workshop was held at Kilauea Volcano in July 2010, which included 25 participants from the United States and Canada. The participants represented a diverse cross-section of higher learning, from community colleges to research universities, and included faculty who teach both large introductory non-major classes

  14. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Zhang, B.; Lu, L.; Lin, Q.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration.

  15. Temperature/emissivity separation of MTI data using the Terra/ASTER TES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushkin, Amit; Balick, Lee K.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2002-08-01

    Surface temperatures and emissivities can be estimated using multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data, from various instruments. In this paper the temperature-emissivity separation algorithm (TES) is modified to recover surface temperatures and emissivities using Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) data from two mid infrared (MIR) and three TIR bands. As TES was originally designed for use with the five TIR bands from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) instrument, broadening its application to MIR wavelengths requires careful evaluation of possible atmospheric and reflected daytime solar illumination effects. Numerical simulations show that TES results for MTI data, assuming error-free atmospheric corrections, are statistically similar to TES results for ASTER data, with surface temperature recovery within +/- 1.5K and emissivity recovery within +/- 0.02. However, strong atmospheric absorption (as high as 61%), and expected daytime reflected solar illumination (as high as 50% of measured radiance) in the MIR bands suggest that TES results for MTI data are more sensitive to errors in atmospheric compensation. Furthermore, the relatively steep slope of Planck's radiation curve for typical terrestrial temperatures in the MIR wavelengths, suggests that inverting temperatures from measured MIR radiance using Planck's law will be more sensitive to error. Numerical simulations and preliminary image analysis suggest that the three TIR MTI bands are not sufficient to obtain the desired TES results. However, omitting one of the MIR bands and using a four-band configuration decreases sensitivity to atmospheric effects, while still maintaining acceptable theoretical TES performance.

  16. Detection of karst depression by aster image in the Bambui Group, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Renato Fontes; de Carvalho Júnior, Osmar Abílio; de Souza Martins, Eder; Ferreira de Carvalho, Ana Paula; Trancoso Gomes, Roberto Arnaldo

    2005-10-01

    Karst is a characteristic geological feature of areas comprised of limestone. Due to the solubility of these rocks in water, exhibit an extreme heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivities. The characterizing features of karst aquifers are the open conduits, which provide low resistance pathways for ground water flow. Overall cave orientation is largely controlled by hydraulic gradient, joint patterns and other tectonic features, such as faulting and folding. The karst depressions may form on the surface by subsurface actions (dissolution and collapse). Thus, the depressions often show regularity of pattern or alignments, frequently in association with structurally guided cave systems below. The present work aims at to detect depressions zone, as dolines and uvalas in the limestone of the Bambui Group (Central Brazil) using ASTER and ASTERDEM images. A photogeological study, carried out on aster image allowed us to elaborate geomorphological map of dolines. Some guidance to detect dolines can be associated with fracture permeability dominated by nearly vertical joints and joint swarm is provided by fracture trace mapping from remote sensing. Commonly, dolines can be identified on the image and DEM as topographic depressions, which very often contain water or moist vegetation. The methodology allowed determining a doline distribution pattern what is important to environmental planning.

  17. Preparation of ASTER in-house 10Be/9Be standard solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braucher, R.; Guillou, V.; Bourlès, D. L.; Arnold, M.; Aumaître, G.; Keddadouche, K.; Nottoli, E.

    2015-10-01

    Since its commissioning in 2006, the commercially available certificated National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material NIST SRM 4325 is used at the French national facility ASTER (CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence) to normalize 10Be measurements. This standard solution being no longer disposable, we thus decided to produce in-house standards. As a first attempt, a STD-12 standard (10Be/9Be = (4.939 ± 0.053) × 10-12) has been prepared from 2.5 kg of marine sediments with an adapted chemical protocol. Then, a 10Be enriched solution of known concentration being available, a STD-11 standard (10Be/9Be = (1.191 ± 0.013) × 10-11) that will be used at ASTER in the near future to calibrate 10Be measurements and its dilution to the 10-14 level (STD-14 (10Be/9Be = (5.468 ± 0.064) × 10-14)) have been prepared from it.

  18. ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessels, R.L.; Kargel, J.S.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate an application of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images to detect and monitor supraglacial lakes on glaciers in the Mount Everest region in Tibet (Xizang) and Nepal. ASTER offers powerful capabilities to monitor supraglacial lakes in terms of (1) surface area, growth and disappearance (spatial resolution = 15 m), (2) turbidity (15 m resolution), and (3) temperature (90 m resolution). Preliminary results show an overall similarity of supraglacial lakes on three glaciers. Lakes have widely varying turbidity as indicated by color in visible/near-infrared bands 1-3, the largest lakes being bright blue (highly turbid), cold (near 0??C) and hydrautically connected with other lakes and supraglacial streams, while small lakes are mostly dark blue (relatively clear water), warmer (>4??C), and appear hydrautically isolated. High levels of turbidity in supraglacial lakes indicate high rates of meltwater input from streams or erosion of ice cliffs, and thus are an indirect measure relating to the activity and hydraulic integration of the lake with respect to other lakes and streams in the glacier.

  19. Quantifying multi-temporal urban development characteristics in Las Vegas from Landsat and ASTER data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; McMahon, C.

    2008-01-01

    Urban development has expanded rapidly in Las Vegas, Nevada of the United States, over the last fifty years. A major environmental change associated with this urbanization trend is the transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly anthropogenic impervious surface. This research utilizes remote sensing data from both the Landsat and Terra-Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments in conjunction with digital orthophotography to estimate urban extent and its temporal changes by determining sub-pixel impervious surfaces. Percent impervious surface area has shown encouraging agreement with urban land extent and development density. Results indicate that total urban land-use increases approximately 110 percent from 1984 to 2002. Most of the increases are associated with medium-to high-density urban development. Places having significant increases in impervious surfaces are in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Las Vegas. Most high-density urban development, however, appears in central Las Vegas. Impervious surface conditions for 2002 measured from Landsat and ASTER satellite data are compared in terms of their accuracy. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  20. Extracting lithologic information from ASTER multispectral thermal infrared data in the eastern Kunlun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Kong, Chunfang; Shuai, Yanmin; Cao, Chunxiang; Yan, Shouxun

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, mechanisms of mineral radiation transfer, atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve, method of minerals identification based on emissivity spectral features are studied. Mineral radiation transfer can model the mechanisms of spectral formation and variation, and is one of study methods of spectral mechanism. Along with the variation of mineral granularity, the shape and absorption depth of mineral emissivity spectral will all variate. However, the law of emissivity variation with emission angle of different minerals is identical. Along with the increasement of emission angle, emissivity decrease. The more emissivity is small, the more variation range and speed are large. The reflectance mixture of mineral is non-linear, and can be lineated using mineral radiative transfer model. After the mixture spectral is lineated, the precision of linear unmixing of spectral and mineral content extraction will be improved greatly. The atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve of thermal remote sensing data will affect extraction lithologic information greatly. In this paper, using the MODTRAN model to atmospheric correction, and using split-window algorithm for retrieving surface temperature from ASTER thermal infrared data. With the minerals emissivity spectral features and the index (QI, CI and SI), retrieving Si02 content of rock quantitatively using ASTER thermal infrared data. The method can be used to extract lithologic information.

  1. Verification of the ASTER/TIR atmospheric correction algorithm based on water surface emissivity retrieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Palluconi, Frank D.

    2002-02-01

    The standard atmospheric correction algorithm for five thermal infrared (TIR) bands of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is currently based on radiative transfer computations with global assimilation data on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In the present paper, we verify this algorithm using 100 ASTER scenes globally acquired during the early mission period. In this verification, the max-min difference (MMD) of the water surface emissivity retrieved from each scene is used as an atmospheric correction error index, since the water surface emissivity is well known; if the MMD retrieved is large, an atmospheric correction error also will be possibly large. As the results, the error of the MMD retrieved by the standard atmospheric correction algorithm and a typical temperature/emissivity separation algorithm is shown to be remarkably related with precipitable water vapor, latitude, elevation, and surface temperature. It is also mentioned that the expected error on the MMD retrieved is 0.05 for the precipitable water vapor of 3 cm.

  2. Relations between albedos and emissivities from MODIS and ASTER data over North African Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Dickinson, R. E.; Ogawa, K.; Tian, Y.; Jin, M.; Schmugge, T.; Tsvetsinskaya, E.

    2003-10-01

    This paper analyzes relations among MODIS surface albedos, ASTER broadband (3-14 μm) emissivities, and a soil taxonomy map over the arid areas of Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia in North Africa at 30 second (about 1 km) and 2 minute (about 4 km) spatial resolutions. The MODIS albedo data are from 7 spectral bands and 3 broadbands during dust-free seasons and the emissivity data are derived from a linear combination of the waveband emissivities of the ASTER five thermal infrared channels. Both albedo and emissivity data in the study region show similar considerable spatial variability, larger than assumed by most climate models, and such variability is related to the surface types (sands, rock, and soil orders). Emissivity over bare soils exhibits statistically significant correlations with albedos at both broadbands and most of spectral bands and decreases linearly with albedos. Albedo and emissivity are more strongly correlated with each other than either is to the surface types, apparently because of their higher resolution either spatially or in surface mineralogy. This paper provides guidance for the possible inclusion of such correlation to specify albedo and emissivity in climate models.

  3. Cancer imaging archive available

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Cancer Imaging Program has inaugurated The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), a web-accessible and unique clinical imaging archive linked to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) tissue repository. It contains a large proportion of original, pre-surgical MRIs from cases that have been genomically characterized in TCGA.

  4. [Church Archives; Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Terry; And Others

    Papers presented at the Institute which were concerned with keeping of church archives are entitled: "St. Mary's Episcopal Church, Eugene, Oregon;""Central Lutheran Church, Eugene, Oregon: A History;""Mormon Church Archives: An Overview;""Sacramental Records of St. Mary's Catholic Church, Eugene, Oregon;""Chronology of St. Mary's Catholic Church,…

  5. Wide Angle View of Arsia Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Arsia Mons (above) is one of the largest volcanoes known. This shield volcano is part of an aligned trio known as the Tharsis Montes--the others are Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons. Arsia Mons is rivaled only by Olympus Mons in terms of its volume. The summit of Arsia Mons is more than 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) higher than the surrounding plains. The crater--or caldera--at the volcano summit is approximately 110 km (68 mi) across. This view of Arsia Mons was taken by the red and blue wide angle cameras of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system. Bright water ice clouds (the whitish/bluish wisps) hang above the volcano--a common sight every martian afternoon in this region. Arsia Mons is located at 120o west longitude and 9o south latitude. Illumination is from the left.

  6. Halogen Oxide Measurements at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, C.; Vogel, L.; Sihler, H.; Rivera, C.; Strauch, W.; Galle, B.; Platt, U.

    2007-12-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and halogen oxide emissions were measured at Masaya Volcano in Nicaragua in April 2007 using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Next to passive DOAS measurements using scattered sunlight, an active long-path DOAS system was operated for several days with the light beam crossing the crater of the volcano. These measurements for the first time give an insight into the night-time halogen chemistry occurring at volcanoes. While the passive DOAS instruments measured sulphur dioxide (SO2) and bromine monoxide (BrO) in various viewing geometries and distances from the crater during daytime, the active instrument additionally allowed a quantification of chlorine monoxide (ClO) and chlorine dioxide (OClO), as well as being able to measure round-the-clock. The results of the field measurements will be presented and their implications for halogen chemistry at volcanoes will be discussed.

  7. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  8. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  9. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  10. Economic geology: Ore metals beneath volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Metals often accumulate in the crust beneath volcanoes. Laboratory experiments and observations reveal important roles for magmatic vapours and brines in transporting and concentrating the metals into deposits worth targeting for extraction.

  11. Lahar hazards at Mombacho Volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.

    2001-01-01

    Mombacho volcano, at 1,350 meters, is situated on the shores of Lake Nicaragua and about 12 kilometers south of Granada, a city of about 90,000 inhabitants. Many more people live a few kilometers southeast of Granada in 'las Isletas de Granada and the nearby 'Peninsula de Aseses. These areas are formed of deposits of a large debris avalanche (a fast moving avalanche of rock and debris) from Mombacho. Several smaller towns with population, in the range of 5,000 to 12,000 inhabitants are to the northwest and the southwest of Mombacho volcano. Though the volcano has apparently not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce landslides and debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris -- also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. -- Vallance, et.al., 2001

  12. Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina A.; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  13. Major Martian Volcanoes from MOLA - Olympus Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two views of Olympus Mons, shown as topography draped over a Viking image mosaic. MOLA's regional topography has shown that this volcano sits off to the west of the main Tharsis rise rather than on its western flank. The topography also clearly shows the relationship between the volcano's scarp and massive aureole deposit that was produced by flank collapse. The vertical exaggeration is 10:1.

  14. Volcano Inflation prior to Gas Explosions at Semeru Volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Iguchi, M.; Kawaguchi, R.; Surono, S.; Hendrasto, M.; Rosadi, U.

    2010-12-01

    Semeru volcano in east Java, Indonesia, is well known to exhibit small vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Such eruptive activity stopped on April 2009, but volcanic earthquakes started to occur in August and a lava dome was found in the summit crater on November. Since then, lava sometimes flows downward on the slope and small explosions emitting steams from active crater frequently occur every a few to a few tens of minutes. Since the explosions repeatedly occur with short intervals and the active crater is located close to the summit with an altitude of 3676m, the explosions are considered to originate from the gas (steams) from magma itself in the conduit and not to be caused by interactions of magma with the underground water. We installed a tiltmeter at the summit on March 2010 to study the volcanic eruption mechanisms. The tiltmeter (Pinnacle hybrid type, accuracy of measurement is 1 nrad ) was set at a depth of about 1 m around the summit about 500 m north from the active crater. The data stored every 1 s in the internal memory was uploaded every 6 hours by a small data logger with GPS time correction function. More than one thousand gas explosion events were observed for about 2 weeks. We analyze the tilt records as well as seismic signals recorded at stations of CVGHM, Indonesia. The tilt records clearly show uplift of the summit about 20 to 30 seconds before each explosion. Uplifts before large explosions reach to about 20 - 30 n rad, which is almost equivalent to the volume increase of about 100 m^3 beneath the crater. To examine the eruption magnitude dependence on the uplift, we classify the eruptions into five groups based on the amplitudes of seismograms associated with explosions. We stack the tilt records for these groups to reduce noises in the signals and to get general characteristics of the volcano inflations. The results show that the amplitudes of uplifts are almost proportional to the amplitudes of explosion earthquakes while the

  15. High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing of the 2013-2014 Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Griswold, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provided timely observations of the volcanic unrest and several months-long eruption at Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia. Visible to thermal optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems provided frequent observations of Sinabung. High resolution image data with spatial resolutions from 0.5 to 1.5m offered detailed measurements of early summit deformation and subsequent lava dome and lava flow extrusion. The high resolution data were captured by commercial satellites such as WorldView-1 and -2 visible to near-infrared (VNIR) sensors and by CosmoSkyMed, Radarsat-2, and TerraSar-X SAR systems. Less frequent 90 to 100m spatial resolution night time thermal infrared (TIR) observations were provided by ASTER and Landsat-8. The combination of data from multiple sensors allowed us to construct a more complete timeline of volcanic activity than was available via only ground-based observations. This satellite observation timeline documents estimates of lava volume and effusion rates and major explosive and lava collapse events. Frequent, repeat volume estimates suggest at least three high effusion rate pulses of up to 20 m3/s occurred during the first three months of lava effusion with an average effusion rate of 6m3/s from January 2014 to August 2014. Many of these rates and events show some correlation to variations in the Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) documented by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geologic Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM).

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  17. Anomaly Detection and Comparative Analysis of Hydrothermal Alteration Materials Trough Hyperspectral Multisensor Data in the Turrialba Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas, J. G.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Bonatti, J.; Martínez, R.; Marchamalo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is the comparative study of the presence of hydrothermal alteration materials in the Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in relation with computed spectral anomalies from multitemporal and multisensor data adquired in spectral ranges of the visible (VIS), short wave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR). We used for this purposes hyperspectral and multispectral images from the HyMAP and MASTER airborne sensors, and ASTER and Hyperion scenes in a period between 2002 and 2010. Field radiometry was applied in order to remove the atmospheric contribution in an empirical line method. HyMAP and MASTER images were georeferenced directly thanks to positioning and orientation data that were measured at the same time in the acquisition campaign from an inertial system based on GPS/IMU. These two important steps were allowed the identification of spectral diagnostic bands of hydrothermal alteration minerals and the accuracy spatial correlation. Enviromental impact of the volcano activity has been studied through different vegetation indexes and soil patterns. Have been mapped hydrothermal materials in the crater of the volcano, in fact currently active, and their surrounding carrying out a principal components analysis differentiated for a high and low absorption bands to characterize accumulations of kaolinite, illite, alunite and kaolinite+smectite, delimitating zones with the presence of these minerals. Spectral anomalies have been calculated on a comparative study of methods pixel and subpixel focused in thermal bands fused with high-resolution images. Results are presented as an approach based on expert whose main interest lies in the automated identification of patterns of hydrothermal altered materials without prior knowledge or poor information on the area.

  18. Simulation of the Laki volcanoe based upon analogs of winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkanski, Yves; Menut, Laurent; Jourdain, Sylvie; Garnier, Emmanuel; Eschstruth, Celia; Vrac, Matthieu; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    Simulation of the Laki volcanoe based upon analogs of winds We used daily surface pressure measurements from 1783 over Europe to reconstruct a year of 3D wind fields based upon the closest analog found in the 6-hourly fields from the ECMWF ERAI re-analysis from 1979 to 2013. These fields are then used to nudge the LMDZORINCA global model with a full chemical scheme and a horizontal resolution of 1.29°x0.94° with 39 vertical layers to simulate the emissions of SO2 from the volcano emitting over several months from June to August 1783. Fields of SO2 and H2SO4 were analyzed over the whole year of 1783. We inject 81 Tg (S) over the period. In France, the Royal society of medicine (Société royale de médecine) had developed for the first time a network of persons that observed both climatic variables and morbidity. The network is composed of 150 contributors over France, and has a more scattered coverage for Italy, Austria, Germany the United States and Madagascar. The measurements reported three times a day include: temperature, air pressure, air humidity wind direction and a description of the sky. Within the CHEDAR (Climate and Health Data Rescue and Modelling) project an archive of daily observations of fogs over French meteorological stations was created and registers of deaths in main cities were compiled. These data indicate that increased mortality occurred from June to September 1783 immediately following the Laki eruption when compared to the average mortality over the period from 1774 to 1789. We quantified this increase over 23 cities in France. We provide a comparison of SO2 surface concentrations and draw the following conclusions: - The days when the first manifestations of the volcano are reported over Western and Northern Europe are extremely well captured by the construction of analogs of winds for 1783. - The sharp increase and the days of heavy fogs are correlated with decreases in visibility due to the advection of sulfur from the volcanic cloud

  19. Evolution of large shield volcanoes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Dufek, Josef; McGovern, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the geologic history, topographic expression, and gravity signature of 29 large Venusian shield volcanoes with similar morphologies in Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery. While they appear similar in imagery, 16 have a domical topographic expression and 13 have a central depression. Typical dimensions for the central depression are 150 km wide and 500 m deep. The central depressions are probably not calderas resulting from collapse of a shallow magma chamber but instead are the result of a corona-like sagging of a previously domical volcano. The depressions all have some later volcanic filling. All but one of the central depression volcanoes have been post-dated by geologic features unrelated to the volcano, while most of the domical volcanoes are at the top of the stratigraphic column. Analysis of the gravity signatures in the spatial and spectral domains shows a strong correlation between the absence of post-dating features and the presence of dynamic support by an underlying plume. We infer that the formation of the central depressions occurred as a result of cessation of dynamic support. However, there are some domical volcanoes whose geologic histories and gravity signatures also indicate that they are extinct, so sagging of the central region apparently does not always occur when dynamic support is removed. We suggest that the thickness of the elastic lithosphere may be a factor in determining whether a central depression forms when dynamic support is removed, but the gravity data are of insufficient resolution to test this hypothesis with admittance methods.

  20. The 2011 Cerro Hudson volcano eruption (Southern Andes, Chile): Pre-eruptive inflation and hot spots observed with InSAR and thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Cerro Hudson is one of most active volcanoes of the Southern Andes with at least 12 documented Holocene eruptions including two large caldera forming eruptions (VEI>6) at 6700 and 3600 years BP and one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century in 1991 -- VEI of 5 and ~2.7 km3 of dense rock equivalent erupted material. The volcano had smaller eruptions in 1971 (VEI 3) and 2011 (VEI of 1-2), but despite its persistent activity, there is little monitoring because of its remote location. In this work we focus on remote sensing observations to better characterize the activity of Cerro Hudson between the 1991 and 2011 eruptions and during the 2011 eruption. Our primary technique is satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Although InSAR studies at Cerro Hudson are challenging given the poor data coverage as well as the presence of ice, snow and vegetation, the data show that the volcano inflated between 2004 and 2010 with a maximum range change rate between 2 and 3 cm/yr, about half of the deformation rate observed during a previously detected deformation episode from 1993-1999. Inversion for an inflating point source suggests magma accumulation beneath the SW part of the caldera at an average depth of 10 km -- deeper than the depths estimated for the magma chamber of the 1991 eruption (3 km) and a deformation event between 1993 and 1999 (5-6 km), and in a slightly different location with smaller volume changes. The center of deformation is located a few km away from the eruption location near the caldera ring fault, but the predicted static Coloumb stress changes due to the inferred inflation source would enhance motion on the caldera ring fault, suggesting that the deformation and eruptive vents may be linked. We also analize nighttime satellite thermal images from MODIS and ASTER for pixel-integrated temperatures above the background temperatures in the ice filled caldera. While MODIS did not show any unambiguous evidence for the eruption

  1. Project ASTER: A Model Staff Development Program and Its Impact on Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Emilio; Duran, Lena Ballone

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a model of professional development for early childhood science teachers based on their experiences over the past two years with Project ASTER: Active Science Teaching Encourages Reform. In this project, they have identified seven elements that constitute a quality professional development program. These…

  2. Comparison of two temperature differencing methods to estimate daily evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean vineyard watershed from ASTER data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily evapo-transpiration (ET) was mapped at the regional extent over a Mediterranean vineyard watershed, by using ASTER imagery along with two temperature differencing methods: the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) and the Water Deficit Index (WDI). Validation of remotely sensed esti...

  3. Temperature-emissivity separation with ASTER and LANDSAT 7 imagery validation on the fringe of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieske, Ambro S.; Wubett, Michael T.; Timmermans, Wim J.; Parodi, Gabriel N.; Wolski, Piotr; Arneth, Almut

    2004-02-01

    Land surface temperatures are important in global change studies, in estimating radiation budget, heat balance studies and as control for climate models. A new algorithm for estimating land surface temperature and emissivity spectra for multi spectral thermal infrared ranging from 8 to 12mm images has been developed recently (Schmugge et al., 2002) for use with data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the TERRA platform. Similar methods are also used with the MODIS instrument. In this study, the method developed by Ogawa et al. (2002) was adopted to estimate the broadband emissivity from the narrow band emissivities of the five TIR channels of ASTER instrument in an area on the southern fringe of the Okavango Delta (Botswana). MODTRAN 4 was used to determine the necessary atmospheric corrections while software was developed to facilitate MODTRAN pre- and post-processing. The results were compared with field data, with a LANDSAT 7 image of the same day, and finally also with reported ASTER surface temperature and emissivities for the same image (high level ASTER product). Results indicate that the surface temperature depends rather sensitively on atmospheric transmissivity. No relation was found between broad-band emissivity and NDVI, contrary, for example, to earlier findings in Botswana by Owe and Van de Griend (1993). Using the TES method it becomes possible to obtain more reliable solutions to the energy balance and evapotranspiration problem, especially in semi-arid areas.

  4. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  5. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  6. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  7. National Geophysical Data Center Tsunami Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Brocko, R.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology long-term tsunami data archive provides data and derived products essential for tsunami hazard assessment, forecast and warning, inundation modeling, preparedness, mitigation, education, and research. As a result of NOAA's efforts to strengthen its tsunami activities, the long-term tsunami data archive has grown from less than 5 gigabyte in 2004 to more than 2 terabytes in 2008. The types of data archived for tsunami research and operation activities have also expanded in fulfillment of the P.L. 109-424. The archive now consists of: global historical tsunami, significant earthquake and significant volcanic eruptions database; global tsunami deposits and proxies database; reference database; damage photos; coastal water-level data (i.e. digital tide gauge data and marigrams on microfiche); bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data as collected by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. The tsunami data archive comes from a wide variety of data providers and sources. These include the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, NOAA National Data Buoy Center, NOAA National Ocean Service, IOC/NOAA International Tsunami Information Center, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, tsunami catalogs, reconnaissance reports, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web pages, and email. NGDC has been active in the management of some of these data for more than 50 years while other data management efforts are more recent. These data are openly available, either directly on-line or by contacting NGDC. All of the NGDC tsunami and related databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes

  8. The NASA Exoplanet Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Solange; Akeson, R. L.; Ciardi, D.; Kane, S. R.; Plavchan, P.; von Braun, K.; NASA Exoplanet Archive Team

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Archive is an online service that compiles and correlates astronomical information on extra solar planets and their host stars. The data in the archive include exoplanet parameters (such as orbits, masses, and radii), associated data (such as published radial velocity curves, photometric light curves, images, and spectra), and stellar parameters (such as magnitudes, positions, and temperatures). All the archived data are linked to the original literature reference.The archive provides tools to work with these data, including interactive tables (with plotting capabilities), interactive light curve viewer, periodogram service, transit and ephemeris calculator, and application program interface.The NASA Exoplanet Archive is the U.S. portal to the public CoRoT mission data for both the Exoplanet and Asteroseismology data sets. The NASA Exoplanet Archive also serves data related to Kepler Objects of Interest (Planet Candidates and the Kepler False Positives, KOI) in an integrated and interactive table containing stellar and transit parameters. In support of the Kepler Extended Mission, the NASA Exoplanet Archive will host transit modeling parameters, centroid results, several statistical values, and summary and detailed reports for all transit-like events identified by the Kepler Pipeline. To access this information visit us at: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu

  9. An Admittance Survey of Large Volcanoes on Venus: Implications for Volcano Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, A. W.; Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of the thickness of the venusian crust and elastic lithosphere are important in determining the rheological and thermal properties of Venus. These estimates offer insights into what conditions are needed for certain features, such as large volcanoes and coronae, to form. Lithospheric properties for much of the large volcano population on Venus are not well known. Previous studies of elastic thickness (Te) have concentrated on individual or small groups of edifices, or have used volcano models and fixed values of Te to match with observations of volcano morphologies. In addition, previous studies use different methods to estimate lithospheric parameters meaning it is difficult to compare their results. Following recent global studies of the admittance signatures exhibited by the venusian corona population, we performed a similar survey into large volcanoes in an effort to determine the range of lithospheric parameters shown by these features. This survey of the entire large volcano population used the same method throughout so that all estimates could be directly compared. By analysing a large number of edifices and comparing our results to observations of their morphology and models of volcano formation, we can help determine the controlling parameters that govern volcano growth on Venus.

  10. Interagency collaboration on an active volcano: a case study at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Orlando, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Because Kilauea and Mauna Loa are included within the National Park, there is a natural intersection of missions for the National Park Service (NPS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). HAVO staff and the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists have worked closely together to monitor and forecast multiple eruptions from each of these volcanoes since HAVO’s founding in 1916.

  11. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  12. Nyiragongo Volcano before the Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano situated on the Eastern African Rift; it is part of Africa's Virunga Volcanic Chain. In a massive eruption that occurred on January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo sent a vast plume of smoke and ash skyward, and three swifly-moving rivers of lava streaming down its western and eastern flanks. Previous lava flows from Nyiragongo have been observed moving at speeds of up to 40 miles per hour (60 kph). The lava flows from the January 17 eruption destroyed more than 14 villages in the surrounding countryside, forcing tens of thousands to flee into the neighboring country of Rwanda. Within one day the lava ran to the city of Goma, situated on the northern shore of Lake Kivu about 12 miles (19 km) south of Nyiragongo. The lava cut a 200 foot (60 meter) wide swath right through Goma, setting off many fires, as it ran into Lake Kivu. Goma, the most heavily populated city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, is home to about 400,000 people. Most of these citizens were forced to flee, while many have begun to return to their homes only to find their homes destroyed. This true-color scene was captured by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, on December 11, 2001, just over a month before the most recent eruption. Nyiragongo's large crater is clearly visible in the image. As recently as June 1994, there was a large lava lake in the volcano's crater which had since solidified. The larger Nyamuragira Volcano is located roughly 13 miles (21 km) to the north of Nyiragongo. Nyamuragira last erupted in February and March 2001. That eruption was also marked by columns of erupted ash and long fluid lava flows, some of which are apparent in the image as dark greyish swaths radiating away from Nyamuragira. Both peaks are also notorious for releasing large amounts of sulfur dioxide, which presents another health hazard to people and animals living in close proximity. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data supplied

  13. Lithologic Mapping System for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Y.; Fu, B.

    2006-12-01

    The authors have defined the mineralogic indices (i.e., Quartz Index (QI), Carbonate Index (CI) and Mafic Index (MI)) for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data, and have demonstrated the usefulness of the indices on the lithologic mapping problem. After the successful deployment of the indices in the case studies, a project is initiated in 2005 to develop a system for searching the well-conditioning candidate scenes in the enormous amount of ASTER data acquired so far and generating mosaic of the false color images and lithologic mapping results effectively. The mapping system is composed of a database subsystem for storing the necessary information for the data search and priority order determination for the scenes observing the specified coverage area, and a data processing subsystem for calculating the mineralogic indices and generating the result map images of the target area. We conducted a field investigation around Jungar basin in Xinjiang province, China during August, 2006 for evaluating the prototype system developed at the moment. The result map images generated with the system are merged into commercial GIS software (ArcMap) in a note PC, and the system evaluation is made by comparing them with the published geological maps with the location information given by GPS on the GIS software in the field. As a result, we confirmed that the lithologic information generated with the system basically agrees well with the published geological information. Rubrically, unmapped mafic rock units are suggested with the system, and it is recognized at the field. It is concluded that the system development is well going, but also the items for the improvement of the system are clarified. The system would be a powerful tool for publishing a high quality satellite based geologic map in the arid to semiarid regions all over the world, as well as for realizing an effective field geological survey. This presentation will introduce ASTER-TIR, the concept of

  14. Mass Balance of Glaciers In Southern Chile, Based On Dems From Aster and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Casassa, G.; Bown, F.; Fernandez, A.

    The glaciers located in the Chilean southern Andes region (41-51S) have been re- treating and shrinking during most of the last century, in response to a climate warm- ing trend recognised in many climatic stations of the country. During recent years, several calving and small mountain glaciers have been analysed, in an attempt to cor- relate the short historical glacier variation (no longer than 150 years) with long term dendrochronological series (from 300 to 1000 years). The aim of this analysis is to un- derstand climate change during the last millennia, as well as the mechanisms of glacier response to such climatic changes. In this context, mass balance studies are one of the most important approaches to determine the specific relationship of glaciers to annual and decadal climatic changes. In Chile, only one glacier (glaciar Echaurren, 33S) has been systematically measured since 1975, generating the longest mass balance series of the country. To account for the mass balance of glaciers in the southern region of Chile, a geodetic method is presented, based upon the comparison of digital elevation models (DEM) obtained from aerial photographs and ASTER imagery from different dates. This method have been applied to glaciar Chico located at 49S in the Southern Patagonia Icefield, where we have generated DEMs from aerial photographs of 1975 and 1995, as well as one DEM from an ASTER image of October 2001. The DEMs are geo-referenced to a network of GPS points, measured in several field campaigns carried out during recent years at rock outcrops and in the accumulation area of the glacier. The last campaign was done during September and October 2001, allowing a high accuracy ground control validation for DEM derived from the contemporary ASTER image. The mass balance analysis is complemented with frontal variations derived from Landsat TM imagery, as well as field data and aerial photographs. One preliminary result of this study shows a consistent ice thinning, at

  15. The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model version 2.0 - Early Validation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Tachikawa, T.; Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.; Hato, M.; Gesch, D. B.; Crippen, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft is capable of collecting in-track stereo using nadir- and aft looking near infrared cameras. Since 2001, these stereo pairs have been used to produce single-scene (60 x 60 km) digital elevation models having vertical (root-mean-squared-error) accuracies generally between 10 m and 25 m. On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This "version 1.0" ASTER GDEM (GDEM v1.0) was compiled from over 1.2 million scene-based DEMs covering land surface between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. This GDEM is a 1 arc-second elevation grid divided and distributed as 1°-by-1° tiles. ** A joint US-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM v1.0, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO). In summary, the GDEM v1.0 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence interval. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor coverage, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM from individual scene-based DEMs. An independent horizontal resolution study estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM v1.0 to be on the order of 120 meters. ** NASA & METI will release a second version of the ASTER GDEM (v2.0) in mid-October, 2011. The GDEM v2.0 has the same gridding and tile structure as v1.0, but benefits from the inclusion of 300,000 additional scenes to improve coverage, a smaller correlation kernel (5x5 versus 9x9 for v1.0) yielding higher spatial resolution, and improved water masking. This abstract presents early validation results available at the time of submission. Early results indicate: (1) the overall accuracy (both horizontal and

  16. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The role of humans as an integral part of the environment and ecosystem processes has only recently been accepted into mainstream ecological thought. The realization that virtually all ecosystems on Earth have experienced some degree of human alteration or impact has highlighted the need to incorporate humans (and their environmental effects) into ecosystem models. A logical starting point for investigation of human ecosystem dynamics is examination of the land cover characteristics of large urban centers. Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of local geological, hydrological, ecological, and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of urban land cover/land use change is part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite, and comprises the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program at Arizona State University. The UEM program seeks to acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared data twice per year for 100 global urban centers (with an emphasis on semi-arid cities) over the nominal six-year life of the Terra mission. Data have been acquired for the majority of the target urban centers and are used to compare landscape fragmentation patterns on the basis of land cover classifications. Land cover classifications of urban centers are obtained using visible through mid-infrared reflectance and emittance spectra together with calculated vegetation index and spatial variance texture information (all derived from raw ASTER data). This information is combined within a classification matrix, using an expert system framework, to obtain final pixel classifications. Landscape fragmentation is calculated using a pixel per unit area metric for comparison between 55 urban centers with varying geographic and climatic settings including North America, South America, Europe, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. Temporal variations in land cover

  17. ASTER image based assessment of glacier mass balance of Nanga Parbat massif, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Leonard, Gregory; Haritashya, Umesh

    2014-05-01

    Starting with the analytical approach given in detail by Nuth and Kääb (2011; henceforth NK2011), we have further developed an approach toward analysis of repeat stereo ASTER-derived DEMs to extract specific and net annual mass balance of glaciers of Nanga Parbat, Pakistan. We used the approach of NK2011 to coregister DEMs obtained from ASTER stereo images acquired in September 2004 and October 2010, and the glacier outlines produced by Haritashya et al. (2014 in prep) as a mask to isolate glacier from stable (nonglacier) areas. We then devised a protocol to remove DEM data deemed to be the pits, cones, and bulges that are common artifacts with ASTER DEM data. We developed an approach similar to that given by NK2011 to make corrections for cross- and along-track errors of elevation differences and to zero out the mean elevation difference bias for stable (non-glacier points). The largest sources of correctable error were cross-track and along-track slope-dependent artifacts, which we corrected using an approach modified from that of NK2011. Several small systematic errors, such as that related to elevation, became even smaller when cross- and along-track errors were corrected. We then proceeded to analyze the statistics for the cumulative ice area and for individual glaciers. Also using the DEM-change spread function for stable areas, we deconvolved the random error from the actual change signal present in the glacier areas. Ten glaciers of Nanga Parbat thinned by an average of 6 m, i.e., 1 m/year over the 6-year period. Ice in the highest elevations remained fairly stable or even thickened by a few meters, whereas that in lower elevations thinned. Bazhin Glacier apparently was undergoing a surge-like phenomenon of rapid mass transfer from higher elevations (where thinning occurred) to lower elevations (where it thickened), though the terminus advanced by only ~182 m (Haritashya et al. 2014). Hence, our results indicate fluctuations of glaciers in Nanga Parbat

  18. An Evaluation of Radarsat-1 and ASTER Data for Mapping Veredas (Palm Swamps)

    PubMed Central

    Maillard, Philippe; Alencar-Silva, Thiago; Clausi, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Veredas (palm swamps) are wetland complexes associated with the Brazilian savanna (cerrado) that often represent the only available source of water for the ecosystem during the dry months. Their extent and condition are mainly unknown and their cartography is an essential issue for their protection. This research article evaluates some of the fine resolution satellite data both in the radar (Radarsat-1) and optical domain (ASTER) for the delineation and characterization of veredas. Two separate approaches are evaluated. First, given the known potential of Radarsat-1 images for wetland inventories, the automatic delineation of veredas is tested using only Radarsat-1 data and a Markov random fields region-based segmentation. In this case, to increase performance, processing is limited to a buffer zone around the river network. Then, characterization of their type is attempted using traditional classification methods of ASTER optical data combined with Radarsat-1 data. The automatic classification of Radarsat data yielded results with an overall accuracy between 62 and 69%, that proved reliable enough for delineating wide and very humid veredas. Scenes from the wet season and with a smaller angle of incidence systematically yielded better results. For the classification of the main vegetation types, better results (overall success of 78.8%) were obtained by using only the visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands of the ASTER image. Radarsat data did not bring any improvement to these classification results. In fact, when using solely the Radarsat data from two different angle of incidence and two different dates, the classification results were low (50.8%) but remained powerful for delineating the permanently moist riparian forest portion of the veredas with an accuracy better than 75% in most cases. These results are considered good given the width of some types often less than 50 m wide compared with the resolution of the images (12.5 - 15 m). Comparing the

  19. The Planetary Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David; Szalay, Alexander; Budavári, Tamás; Fuentes, César

    2014-11-01

    We are building the first system that will allow efficient data mining in the astronomical archives for observations of Solar System Bodies. While the Virtual Observatory has enabled data-intensive research making use of large collections of observations across multiple archives, Planetary Science has largely been denied this opportunity: most astronomical data services are built based on sky positions, and moving objects are often filtered out.To identify serendipitous observations of Solar System objects, we ingest the archive metadata. The coverage of each image in an archive is a volume in a 3D space (RA,Dec,time), which we can represent efficiently through a hierarchical triangular mesh (HTM) for the spatial dimensions, plus a contiguous time interval. In this space, an asteroid occupies a curve, which we determine integrating its orbit into the past. Thus when an asteroid trajectory intercepts the volume of an archived image, we have a possible observation of that body. Our pipeline then looks in the archive's catalog for a source with the corresponding coordinates, to retrieve its photometry. All these matches are stored into a database, which can be queried by object identifier.This database consists of archived observations of known Solar System objects. This means that it grows not only from the ingestion of new images, but also from the growth in the number of known objects. As new bodies are discovered, our pipeline can find archived observations where they could have been recorded, providing colors for these newly-found objects. This growth becomes more relevant with the new generation of wide-field surveys, particularly LSST.We also present one use case of our prototype archive: after ingesting the metadata for SDSS, 2MASS and GALEX, we were able to identify serendipitous observations of Solar System bodies in these 3 archives. Cross-matching these occurrences provided us with colors from the UV to the IR, a much wider spectral range than that

  20. The Herschel Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Eva

    2015-12-01

    The Herschel mission required a Science Archive able to serve data to very different users: The own Data Analysis Software (both Pipeline and Interactive Analysis), the consortia of the different instruments and the scientific community. At the same time, the KP consortia were committed to deliver to the Herschel Science Centre, the processed products corresponding to the data obtained as part of their Science Demonstration Phase and the Herschel Archive should include the capability to store and deliver them. I will explain how the current Herschel Science Archive is designed to cover all these requirements.

  1. Built-up land mapping capabilities of the ASTER and Landsat ETM+ sensors in coastal areas of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hanqiu; Huang, Shaolin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide urbanization has accelerated expansion of urban built-up lands and resulted in substantial negative impacts on the global environments. Precisely measuring the urban sprawl is becoming an increasing need. Among the satellite-based earth observation systems, the Landsat and ASTER data are most suitable for mesoscale measurements of urban changes. Nevertheless, to date the difference in the capability of mapping built-up land between the two sensors is not clear. Therefore, this study compared the performances of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER sensors for built-up land mapping in the coastal areas of southeastern China. The comparison was implemented on three date-coincident image pairs and achieved by using three approaches, including per-band-based, index-based, and classification-based comparisons. The index used is the Index-based Built-up Index (IBI), while the classification algorithm employed is the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results show that in the study areas, ETM+ and ASTER have an overall similar performance in built-up land mapping but also differ in several aspects. The IBI values determined from ASTER were consistently higher than from ETM+ by up to 45.54% according to percentage difference. The ASTER also estimates more built-up land area than ETM+ by 5.9-6.3% estimated with the IBI-based approach or 3.9-6.1% with the SVM classification. The differences in the spectral response functions and spatial resolution between relative spectral bands of the two sensors are attributed to these different performances.

  2. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  3. Volcanoes of México: An Interactive CD-ROM From the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, L.; Kimberly, P.; Calvin, C.; Luhr, J. F.; Kysar, G.

    2002-12-01

    xico from the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network and its predecessor, the Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, as well as early event-card notices of the Smithsonian's Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. An extensive petrologic database contains major-element analyses and other petrological and geochemical data for 1776 samples. The user also has access to a database of the Global Volcanism Program's map archives. Another option on the CD views earthquake hypocenters and volcanic eruptions from 1960 to the present plotted sequentially on a map of México and Central America. A bibliography of Mexican volcanism and geothermal research includes references cited in the Smithsonian's volcano database as well as those obtained from a search of the Georef bibliographic database. For more advanced queries and searches both the petrologic database and volcanic activity reports can be uploaded from the CD.

  4. A formin-nucleated actin aster concentrates cell wall hydrolases for cell fusion in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dudin, Omaya; Bendezú, Felipe O.; Groux, Raphael; Laroche, Thierry; Seitz, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is essential for fertilization. For fusion of walled cells, the cell wall must be degraded at a precise location but maintained in surrounding regions to protect against lysis. In fission yeast cells, the formin Fus1, which nucleates linear actin filaments, is essential for this process. In this paper, we show that this formin organizes a specific actin structure—the actin fusion focus. Structured illumination microscopy and live-cell imaging of Fus1, actin, and type V myosins revealed an aster of actin filaments whose barbed ends are focalized near the plasma membrane. Focalization requires Fus1 and type V myosins and happens asynchronously always in the M cell first. Type V myosins are essential for fusion and concentrate cell wall hydrolases, but not cell wall synthases, at the fusion focus. Thus, the fusion focus focalizes cell wall dissolution within a broader cell wall synthesis zone to shift from cell growth to cell fusion. PMID:25825517

  5. [Cross-comparison between ASTER and Landsat-7 ETM+ multispectral imagery].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-hua; Xu, Han-qiu; Chen, Li-cong

    2010-09-01

    Up to present, no study has been published with respect to the cross-comparison between ASTER and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. Therefore, the present paper has implemented the complementary study on the images between these two sensors. The study firstly conducted the sensors characteristics comparison, including orbit characteristic, sensor scanning mode and imagery spectral characteristic. Further comparison was implemented to get the relation equations between corresponding VNIR and SWIR bands of these two sensors based on the apparent reflectance of the three pairs of synchronization images and large common ground regions. The validation has been done to verify the effectiveness of the proposed corresponding bands relation equations and matching coefficients. The result shows that the provided relation equations have high accuracy. PMID:21105431

  6. Astershionones A-F, six new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Bing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Xu, Hui-Min; He, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Six new shionane-type triterpenes, astershionones A-F (1-6), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and CD analysis. 3 showed inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 23.0 and 23.1 μM, and cytotoxicity against HepG 2.2.15 cells with a CC50 value of 170.5 μM. 3 also exhibited inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 22.4 μM. PMID:24393620

  7. Developing Coastal Surface Roughness Maps Using ASTER and QuickBird Data Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joe; Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation regards one element of a larger project on the integration of NASA science models and data into the Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard (HAZUS-MH) Hurricane module for hurricane damage and loss risk assessment. HAZUS-MH is a decision support tool being developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It includes the Hurricane Module, which employs surface roughness maps made from National Land Cover Data (NLCD) maps to estimate coastal hurricane wind damage and loss. NLCD maps are produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This presentation discusses an effort to improve upon current HAZUS surface roughness maps by employing ASTER multispectral classifications with QuickBird "ground reference" imagery.

  8. Nonlinear competition between asters and stripes in filament-motor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebert, F.; Zimmermann, W.

    2005-09-01

    A model for polar filaments interacting via molecular motor complexes is investigated which exhibits bifurcations to spatial patterns. It is shown that the homogeneous distribution of filaments, such as actin or microtubules, may become either unstable with respect to an orientational instability of a finite wave number or with respect to modulations of the filament density, where long-wavelength modes are amplified as well. Above threshold nonlinear interactions select either stripe patterns or periodic asters. The existence and stability ranges of each pattern close to threshold are predicted in terms of a weakly nonlinear perturbation analysis, which is confirmed by numerical simulations of the basic model equations. The two relevant parameters determining the bifurcation scenario of the model can be related to the concentrations of the active molecular motors and of the filaments, respectively, which both could be easily regulated by the cell.

  9. Lithological mapping using ASTER data in the Moroccan Anti Atlas belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellouli, Amine; El Harti, Abderrazak; Adiri, Zakaria; El Ghmari, Abderrahmene; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing data reveals a great importance for lithological mapping due to their spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics. The Terra ASTER Data were processed in this work for mapping different lithological facies of Kerdous inlier in the Moroccan Anti Atlas Belt. This study area is characterized by its mineral potential and lithological diversity. Bands ratios, Optimum Index Factor (OIF) method and supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for mapping lithological units. The RGB color composites (4/9, 3/7, 4/1) and (931) allow discrimination of facies without prior knowledge of the study site. The ML and SVM classification methods allow better discrimination of lithological units but require a good selection of regions of interest. Compared to the ground reality and the existing map data, the ML and SVM methods allow mapping of facies with respective accuracies of 72% and 70%.

  10. Latin American Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

  11. Preliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-10-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than 2 years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano. Though most of the lava flows did not reach urban areas, only impacting the forests of the endangered Virunga National Park, some of them related to distal flank eruptions affected villages and roads. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling the lava flow propagation. We tested different parameters and digital elevation models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to evaluate the sensitivity of the models to changes in input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1. Simulations were tested against the known lava flows and topography from the 2010 Nyamulagira eruption. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested when input parameters are appropriately chosen. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  12. Mapping of high pressure metamorphics in the As Sifah region, NE Oman using ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2015-02-01

    The high pressure metamorphic zone of As Sifah area in the Saih Hatat window, NE Oman plays a vital role to study global tectonic setting, metamorphism, transport direction and age of initial ophiolite emplacement. Scientists and researchers are keen in determining the protolith, structural evolution, and timing and metamorphic conditions of the Saih Hatat area. In this study, mapping of the metamorphic zone and discrimination of associated rock formations occurred in the As Sifah region is carried out using visible and near infrared-shortwave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) spectral bands of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and well known image processing methods such as image decorrelation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Spectral Angel Mapper (SAM). The study delineated the region of metamorphic zone and discriminated the different metamorphic and carbonate rocks of the study area characterized by hydroxyl (OH) and carbonate bearing minerals. The assessment of accuracy for the occurrence and spatial distribution of major lithological units provided the overall accuracy of 96.06% with Kappa Coefficient = 0.95 in the matrix of Maximum Likelihood (ML) and compared with the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) algorithms. The occurrence of such minerals are detected and confirmed by SAM supervised classification method. The study also describes the spectral character of metamorphic and carbonates minerals. The metamorphic zone and associated rock types interpreted over the images are verified in the field and checked for their occurrences and spatial distributions. The occurrence of CO3 bearing carbonate minerals and OH bearing metamorphic minerals are confirmed further under microscope, XRD analysis and PIMA spectral measurements in the laboratory studies. The study proved sensor capability of ASTER to discriminate metamorphic rocks from associated formations and detection of different mineral

  13. An Improved Method to Retrieve Surface Emissivity in a Canary Pine Forest Using Aster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-Velasco, Africa; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    2012-07-01

    The widely-used Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm has been shown to provide reliable temperature and emissivity estimates from land-leaving thermal data. Nevertheless, TES has some important limitations mainly related to its inability to correct important inaccuracies for gray bodies, such as vegetation. In this study, this problem is addressed through an improvement to the current NEM (Normalized Emissivity Method) module included in the TES algorithm. The proposed method, called Modified NEM (ModNEM), has been specifically designed to retrieve an accurate surface emissivity for bodies with a spectral behavior typical of gray-bodies, i. e., flat and near spectrally invariant. ModNEM selects two different approximations of surface temperature instead of the usual maximum temperature, with the aim of accounting for the peculiar spectral behavior of brightness temperature and emissivity for vegetation. The NEM and TES, as well as the ModNEM, have been used to recover surface emissivity in a pine forest located in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results have been compared and validated using reference emissivity values obtained from the pines by means of the box method. This validation study showed that high uncertainties are associated with the standard techniques (up to 0.034), whereas ModNEM results in lower uncertainties in emissivity estimates (< 0.005 for all ASTER channels). The results suggest that the current approximations in the existing NEM module are not suitable for surfaces with a spectral behavior similar to a grey body. This work was supported by MICINN under Grant CGL2010-22189-C02.

  14. Validation of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 over the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Zheng; Meyer, David J.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of -0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of -3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures) cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height), GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  15. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Pánková, Hana; Raabová, Jana; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K) and Ceske Stredohori (region S). Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S) in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local adaptation studies

  16. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  17. Monitoring vegetation cover changes over a semi-arid rangeland with multispectral ASTER thermal infrared emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T.; Ritchie, J.; Hsu, A.; Jacob, F.; Ogawa, K.; Inamdar, A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of land surface temperatures with thermal infrared are an important and crucial application of satellite remote sensing that the value of multispectral thermal infrared emissivities, a measurement component, may be overlooked. Spectral emissivities, retrievable from sensors such as ASTER and MODIS provide indispensable data for more accurate land surface temperature estimates and characterization of land surface cover. This study addresses the latter issue, whereby long-term changes in vegetation canopy densities can be detected in a way independent of more conventional vegetation indices such as NDVI. Thermal emissivities are dependent upon the surface geometry and are especially variable over sparse vegetation. When viewing such terrain, emissivities range in values from 0.8-0.9 represent dry soils and up to 0.98-0.99 represent vegetation. Using ASTER's 90 m multispectral thermal infrared capability, a sequence of 21 scenes were acquired for 2001-2003 over the New Mexico semi-arid rangeland, Jornada. These were calibrated, atmospherically corrected, georegistered, then converted to spectral and broadband emissivities. Analysis of the scenes reveals spatially coherent patches of grass and shrubland showing decreasing emissivities on the order of 1% per 3 years. The observed patterns could be due to long-term soil surface texture or moisture changes, but a more likely explanation is decreased vegetation density. A significant benefit of emissivity monitoring, particularly at 8-9.5 μm wavelengths, is its independence from vegetation greenness, which means thermal infrared assessments can be a useful canopy density estimator year-round. When used in conjunction with NDVI, thermal data can help discriminate soils from both green and senescent vegetation.

  18. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  19. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  20. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  1. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-09-10

    Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.

  2. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  3. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture radar studies of Alaska volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Wicks, Charles W., Jr.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Power, John A.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Masterlark, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we summarize our recent InSAR studies of 13 Alaska volcanoes, including New Trident, Okmok, Akutan, Kiska, Augustine, Westdahl, Peulik, Makushin, Seguam, Shishaldin, Pavlof, Cleveland, and Korovin volcanoes.

  4. Volcanoes in the Classroom--an Explosive Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan A.; Thompson, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes for third- and fourth-grade students. Includes demonstrations; video presentations; building a volcano model; and inviting a scientist, preferably a vulcanologist, to share his or her expertise with students. (JRH)

  5. Tephra Studies by the Alaska Volcano Observatory: Present and Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K. L.

    2004-12-01

    Tephra from Aleutian arc volcanoes constitutes an important volcanic hazard for Alaska, western Canada, and some parts of the conterminous U.S. where even small amounts of airborne ash may have dire consequences for jet aircraft traversing North Pacific and western U.S. air routes. Motivated by the need to address volcanic ash hazards on a regional scale, we have initiated a program of tephra studies within the auspices of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) of the U.S. Geological Survey. A concentrated focus on tephra problems and a new laboratory facility within AVO will help facilitate studies of Quaternary age tephra at Alaskan volcanoes by providing a regional center for laboratory analyses of volcanic ash and standardized web-based reporting and archiving of tephra data. In its first year of operation, the laboratory has been engaged in research at Veniaminof, Mt. Spurr, and Augustine volcanoes, has sponsored research on Holocene tephra deposits of upper Cook Inlet, and has initiated analytical studies of tephra deposits on Adak and Kanaga Islands in the western Aleutians. The objective of these studies is to develop multiparameter techniques for characterization and correlation of tephra deposits, establish radiocarbon-controlled tephrostratigraphic frameworks, and to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of tephra-producing eruptions. In the upper Cook Inlet region of Alaska, we and our colleagues have begun developing a comprehensive record of ash fall by systematically selecting and coring shallow lakes and evaluating the tephra preserved in the lacustrine sediment. Sediment cores from these lakes contain numerous tephra deposits of Holocene age in datable context that can be correlated with proximal tephra deposits on the flanks of their source volcanoes. By combining tephra data from lacustrine deposits and natural exposures we hope to develop a robust geologic catalog of tephra deposits that will enable long-distance correlation of tephras, provide

  6. Kilauea volcano eruption seen from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The