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Sample records for astigmatism

  1. Astigmatism

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of refractive error of the eye. Refractive errors cause blurred vision and are the most common reason ... causes vision to be out of focus. The cause of astigmatism is unknown. It is usually present from birth. ...

  2. Facts about Astigmatism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is astigmatism corrected? Astigmatism can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. Individual lifestyles affect the way astigmatism is treated. Eyeglasses are the simplest and safest way to correct ...

  3. Astigmatism in reflector antennas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogdell, J. R.; Davis, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Astigmatic phase error in large parabolic reflector antennas is discussed. A procedure for focusing an antenna and diagnosing the presence and degree of astigmatism is described. Theoretical analysis is conducted to determine the nature of this error in such antennas.

  4. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  5. Astigmatism in cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Luntz, M. H.; Livingston, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    We report on our investigation into astigmatism in 40 eyes following a corneal cataract incision closed with a continuous 10/0 nylon monofilament suture (Ethilon). Immediately after surgery there was astigmatism caused by the nylon suture (suture-induced astigmatism), its severity depending on the tightness of the suture. It ranged from 1 to 10-5 dioptres, the mean value 4-09 dioptres with a standard deviation of +/-2-5. Removing the nylon suture eliminated this astigmatism and within a few weeks the corneal astigmatism correction in 48% of eyes returned to the preoperative level. In 80% of eyes the difference between the final postoperative corneal astigmatism (4 months after removing the continuous suture) and the preoperative astigmatism was 0-75 dioptres or less and the maximum change was 1-5 dioptres. In 40% of eyes the axis of the cylinder changed from a horizontal to an oblique axis but did not change from a with- to against-the-rule axis. The degree of astigmatism remained constant while the suture was in place and in 50% of eyes was equal to or less than 3 dioptres. The mean of the spherical equivalents was 11-31 dioptres with a standard deviation of +/-1-25. A spectacle correction 14 days after operation prescribed either as the mean spherical equivalent (11-50 dioptres) or according to the patient's refraction will give satisfactory vision until the suture is removed 4 months after operation. The degree of astigmatism following a corneal section and continuous nylon suture compares very favourably with astigmatism following other suturing techniques for cataract. Images PMID:326304

  6. Degenerate astigmatic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Jérémie; Mohamed, Ajmal; Romanini, Daniele

    2013-10-01

    At the output of a high-finesse cavity a succession of Lissajous patterns may be observed as the cavity length is finely tuned inside a “degenerate region” around a reentrant spherical configuration. This behavior is ascribed to a small parasitic astigmatism of the cavity mirrors. Simple geometrical optics modeling confirms this hypothesis, and then a more realistic analysis using transverse Gaussian modes reveals that the Lissajous patterns correspond to an organization of the astigmatism-split modes into a finer substructure of degenerate modes relative to that of a reentrant spherical cavity. This provides a thorough understanding of the field patterns observed in the degenerate region, including an intriguing spatial symmetry of the patterns corresponding to opposite displacements with respect to a specific central cavity length. This investigation represents a generalization of the theory of reentrant spherical cavities to the astigmatic case.

  7. Astigmatic Bessel laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonina, S. N.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Soifer, V. A.; Jefimovs, K.; Pääkkönen, P.; Turunen, J.

    2004-05-01

    The oblique incidence of a He-Ne laser beam onto a phase-only diffractive optical element (DOE) that simultaneously produces several unimode different-order Bessel beams propagating at various angles with respect to the optical axis is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, under obliquely incident illumination of a DOE that forms Bessel beams, the resulting astigmatic diffraction pattern can be used to unambiguously identify the direction of the Bessel beam's phase rotation and the order of the Bessel mode.

  8. Amblyopia in Astigmatic Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M.; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Miller, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine if reduced astigmatism-corrected acuity for vertical (V) and/or horizontal (H) gratings and/or meridional amblyopia (MA) are present prior to age three years in children who have with-the-rule astigmatism. Methods Subjects were 448 children, 6 months through 2 years of age with no known ocular abnormalities other than with-the-rule astigmatism, who were recruited through Women, Infants and Children clinics on the Tohono O’odham reservation. Children were classified as non-astigmats (≤ 2.00 D) or astigmats (> 2.00 D) based on right eye (RE) non-cycloplegic autorefraction measurements (Welch Allyn SureSight). RE astigmatism-corrected grating acuity for V and H stimuli was measured using the Teller Acuity Card procedure while children wore cross-cylinder lenses to correct their astigmatism or plano lenses if they had no astigmatism. Results Astigmatism-corrected acuity for both V and H gratings was significantly poorer in the astigmats than in the non-astigmats, and the reduction in acuity for astigmats was present for children in all three age groups examined (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years). There was no significant difference in V-H grating acuity (no evidence of MA) for the astigmatic group as a whole, or when data were analyzed for each age group. Conclusions Even in the youngest age group, astigmats tested with astigmatism correction showed reduced acuity for both V and H gratings, which suggests that astigmatism is having a negative influence on visual development. We found no evidence of orientation-related differences in astigmatism-corrected grating acuity, indicating either that MA does not develop prior to age 3 years, or that most of the astigmatic children had a type of astigmatism, i.e., hyperopic, that has proven to be less likely than myopic or mixed astigmatism to result in MA. PMID:20351602

  9. Amblyopia in astigmatic children: patterns of deficits.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2007-02-01

    Neural changes that result from disruption of normal visual experience during development are termed amblyopia. To characterize visual deficits specific to astigmatism-related amblyopia, we compared best-corrected visual performance in 330 astigmatic and 475 non-astigmatic kindergarten through 6th grade children. Astigmatism was associated with deficits in letter, grating and vernier acuity, high and middle spatial frequency contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity. Although grating acuity, vernier acuity, and contrast sensitivity were reduced across stimulus orientation, astigmats demonstrated orientation-dependent deficits (meridional amblyopia) only for grating acuity. Astigmatic children are at risk for deficits across a range of visual functions. PMID:17184807

  10. Anterior and Posterior Corneal Astigmatism after Refractive Lenticule Extraction for Myopic Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Mayumi; Igarashi, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the amount and the axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism after refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) for myopic astigmatism. Methods. We retrospectively examined 53 eyes of 53 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 33.2 ± 6.5 years) undergoing ReLEx to correct myopic astigmatism (manifest cylinder = 0.5 diopters (D)). Power vector analysis was performed with anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism measured with a rotating Scheimpflug system (Pentacam HR, Oculus) and refractive astigmatism preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results. Anterior corneal astigmatism was significantly decreased, measuring 1.42 ± 0.73 diopters (D) preoperatively and 1.11 ± 0.53 D postoperatively (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Posterior corneal astigmatism showed no significant change, falling from 0.44 ± 0.12 D preoperatively to 0.42 ± 0.13 D postoperatively (p = 0.18). Refractive astigmatism decreased significantly, from 0.92 ± 0.51 D preoperatively to 0.27 ± 0.44 D postoperatively (p < 0.001). The anterior surface showed with-the-rule astigmatism in 51 eyes (96%) preoperatively and 48 eyes (91%) postoperatively. By contrast, the posterior surface showed against-the-rule astigmatism in all eyes preoperatively and postoperatively. Conclusions. The surgical effects were largely attributed to the astigmatic correction of the anterior corneal surface. Posterior corneal astigmatism remained unchanged even after ReLEx for myopic astigmatism. PMID:26097749

  11. Distribution of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism According to Axis Orientation of Anterior Corneal Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Kimiya; Kamiya, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism in eyes with with-the-rule (WTR) and against-the-rule (ATR) anterior corneal astigmatism. Methods We retrospectively examined six hundred eight eyes of 608 healthy subjects (275 men and 333 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 55.3 ± 20.2 years). The magnitude and axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were determined with a rotating Scheimpflug system (Pentacam HR, Oculus) when we divided the subjects into WTR and ATR anterior corneal astigmatism groups. Results The mean magnitudes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were 1.14 ± 0.76 diopters (D), and 0.37 ± 0.19 D, respectively. We found a significant correlation between the magnitudes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.4739, P<0.001). In the WTR anterior astigmatism group, we found ATR astigmatism of the posterior corneal surface in 402 eyes (96.6%). In the ATR anterior astigmatism group, we found ATR posterior corneal astigmatism in 82 eyes (73.9%). Especially in eyes with ATR anterior corneal astigmatism of 1 D or more and 1.5 D or more, ATR posterior corneal astigmatism was found in 28 eyes (59.6%) and 9 eyes (42.9%), respectively. Conclusions WTR anterior astigmatism and ATR posterior astigmatism were found in approximately 68% and 91% of eyes, respectively. The magnitude and the axis orientation of posterior corneal astigmatism were not constant, especially in eyes having high ATR anterior corneal astigmatism, as is often the case in patients who have undergone toric IOL implantation. PMID:25625283

  12. Astigmatism

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily diagnosed by a standard eye exam with refraction test . Special tests are not usually required. Children or adults who cannot respond to a normal refraction test can have their refraction measured by a ...

  13. A design of PAL with astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yefei; Xiang, Huazhong; Zhu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jiabi

    2015-08-01

    Progressive addition lens (PAL) is designed for those who suffer from myopia and presbyopia to have a clear vision from a far distance to a nearby distance. Additionally there are many people that also suffer from astigmatism and need to be corrected. The cylinder power can't be simply added to the diopter of the PAL directly, because the diopter of the PAL needs to be changed smoothly. A methods has been proposed in this article to solve the problem, the freeform surface height of a PAL without astigmatism and the cylindrical lens surface height for the correction of astigmatism are calculated separately. The both two surface heights were added together, then the final surface is produced and shown with the both properties of PALs and cylindrical lenses used to correct the astigmatism.

  14. Perceptual Adaptation to the Correction of Natural Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Vinas, Maria; Sawides, Lucie; de Gracia, Pablo; Marcos, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Background The visual system adjusts to changes in the environment, as well as to changes within the observer, adapting continuously to maintain a match between visual coding and visual environment. We evaluated whether the perception of oriented blur is biased by the native astigmatism, and studied the time course of the after-effects following spectacle correction of astigmatism in habitually non-corrected astigmats. Methods and Findings We tested potential shifts of the perceptual judgments of blur orientation in 21 subjects. The psychophysical test consisted on a single interval orientation identification task in order to measure the perceived isotropic point (astigmatism level for which the image did not appear oriented to the subject) from images artificially blurred with constant blur strength (B = 1.5 D), while modifying the orientation of the blur according to the axis of natural astigmatism of the subjects. Measurements were performed after neutral (gray field) adaptation on naked eyes under full correction of low and high order aberrations. Longitudinal measurements (up to 6 months) were performed in three groups of subjects: non-astigmats and corrected and uncorrected astigmats. Uncorrected astigmats were provided with proper astigmatic correction immediately after the first session. Non-astigmats did not show significant bias in their perceived neutral point, while in astigmatic subjects the perceived neutral point was significantly biased, typically towards their axis of natural astigmatism. Previously uncorrected astigmats shifted significantly their perceived neutral point towards more isotropic images shortly (2 hours) after astigmatic correction wear, and, once stabilized, remained constant after 6 months. The shift of the perceived neutral point after correction of astigmatism was highly correlated with the amount of natural astigmatism. Conclusions Non-corrected astigmats appear to be naturally adapted to their astigmatism, and astigmatic

  15. Tubular astigmatism-tunable fluidic lens.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate a new means to fabricate three-dimensional liquid lenses which may be tuned in focal length and astigmatism. Using actuation by electrowetting-on-dielectrics, astigmatism in arbitrary directions may be tuned independently, with almost no cross talk between orthogonal orientations. The lens is based on electrodes structured on planar polyimide foils and subsequently rolled, enabling high-resolution patterning of complex electrodes along the azimuthal and radial directions of the lens. Based on a design established through fluidic and optical simulations, the astigmatism tuning is experimentally verified by a change of the corresponding Zernike coefficients measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It was seen that the back focal length can be tuned by 5 mm and 0° and 45° astigmatism by 3 μm through application of voltages in the range of 50  Vrms. It was observed that the cross talk with other aberrations is very low, suggesting a novel means for astigmatism control in imaging systems. PMID:27304276

  16. Improved astigmatic focus error detection method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    1992-01-01

    All easy-to-implement focus- and track-error detection methods presently used in magneto-optical (MO) disk drives using pre-grooved media suffer from a side effect known as feedthrough. Feedthrough is the unwanted focus error signal (FES) produced when the optical head is seeking a new track, and light refracted from the pre-grooved disk produces an erroneous FES. Some focus and track-error detection methods are more resistant to feedthrough, but tend to be complicated and/or difficult to keep in alignment as a result of environmental insults. The astigmatic focus/push-pull tracking method is an elegant, easy-to-align focus- and track-error detection method. Unfortunately, it is also highly susceptible to feedthrough when astigmatism is present, with the worst effects caused by astigmatism oriented such that the tangential and sagittal foci are at 45 deg to the track direction. This disclosure outlines a method to nearly completely eliminate the worst-case form of feedthrough due to astigmatism oriented 45 deg to the track direction. Feedthrough due to other primary aberrations is not improved, but performance is identical to the unimproved astigmatic method.

  17. Comparison of Astigmatic Correction after Femtosecond Lenticule Extraction and Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction for Myopic Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Ali, Mohamed A.; Igarashi, Akihito; Elewa, Mohamed Ehab M.; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare postoperative astigmatic correction between femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in eyes with myopic astigmatism. Methods We examined 26 eyes of 26 patients undergoing FLEx and 26 eyes of 26 patients undergoing SMILE to correct myopic astigmatism (manifest astigmatism of 1 diopter (D) or more). Visual acuity, cylindrical refraction, the predictability of the astigmatic correction, and the astigmatic vector components using Alpin’s method, were compared between the two groups 3 months postoperatively. Results We found no statistically significant difference in manifest cylindrical refraction (p=0.74) or in the percentage of eyes within ± 0.50 D of their refraction (p=0.47) after the two surgical procedures. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was detected between the groups in astigmatic vector components, namely, surgically induced astigmatism (0.80), target induced astigmatism (p=0.87), astigmatic correction index (p=0.77), angle of error (p=0.24), difference vector (p=0.76), index of success (p=0.91), flattening effect (p=0.79), and flattening index (p=0.84). Conclusions Both FLEx and SMILE procedures are essentially equivalent in correcting myopic astigmatism using vector analysis, suggesting that the lifting or non-lifting of the flap does not significantly affect astigmatic outcomes after these surgical procedures. PMID:25849381

  18. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  19. Relation between uncorrected astigmatism and visual acuity in pseudophakia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Pesala, Veerendranath; Garg, Prashant; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R

    2013-04-01

    PURPOSE.: The end point of astigmatic correction after cataract surgery will depend on how uncorrected astigmatism impacts distance and near vision of pseudophakic eyes. This study determined the impact of induced astigmatism and pupil size on the distance and near acuity of otherwise emmetropic pseudophakic eyes implanted with monofocal intraocular lenses. METHODS.: Monocular high-contrast distance (4 m) and near (40 cm) logMAR acuity was determined in 15 subjects (mean ± 1 SD, 57.9 ± 9.0 years) without astigmatism and with 2.5 diopters (D) myopic to 2.0 D hyperopic astigmatic lenses induced in 0.5-D steps at 0-, 45-, 90-, and 135-degree axes. This experiment was repeated for the same range of induced astigmatism with 1.5-, 3-, and 6-mm artificial pupil diameters placed before one eye of 10 subjects dilated with 10% phenylephrine HCl. RESULTS.: Distance acuity deteriorated with astigmatism for all axes tested (p < 0.01). Near acuity deteriorated with hyperopic astigmatism (p < 0.1), whereas it improved with up to 1 D of myopic astigmatism before saturating for all axes tested (p < 0.01). Distance and near acuity improved with a reduction in pupil diameter (p < 0.01). The change in distance and near acuity with induced astigmatism was smaller for 1.5-mm than for 3-mm and 6-mm pupil diameters (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS.: Partial restoration of near acuity with uncorrected myopic astigmatism comes with a proportional loss of distance acuity in pseudophakic eyes. Uncorrected myopic astigmatism more than 1 D results in a large loss of distance acuity at no additional benefit to near acuity. Both distance and near acuities with and without astigmatism are benefited with a reduction in pupil diameter. Uncorrected hyperopic astigmatism results in deterioration of both distance and near acuities of pseudophakic eyes. PMID:23458979

  20. Relationship between age, corneal astigmatism, and ocular dimensions with reference to astigmatism in eyes undergoing routine cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Collier Wakefield, O; Annoh, R; Nanavaty, M A

    2016-04-01

    PurposeTo assess the relationship between age, corneal astigmatism, and ocular dimensions with reference to astigmatism correction during cataract surgery.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study of right eyes of 2247 consecutive patients attending cataract surgery preassessment, data on patient demographics, axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and keratometric astigmatism were collected. Astigmatism was further analyzed as against-the-rule (ATR: steepest meridian 180±30°), with-the-rule (WTR: 90±30°), and oblique (OB: 30-60°or 120-150°).ResultsMean age, AL, and ACD were 72.28±13.84 years, 23.99±1.85 mm and 3.08 ±0.52 mm, respectively. In all, 20.4% eyes had ≤0.50 diopters (D), 55.2% had 0.51-1.50 D, 7.9% had 2.01-3.00 D, and 3.7% eyes had >3.00 D of astigmatism. Overall, 44.2% of eyes had corneal astigmatism >1.00 D. Average astigmatism in age ranges 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, and 90+ years were 0.82, 1.04, 1.04, 1.02, 1.15 and 2.01 D, respectively. The magnitude of preoperative astigmatism positively correlated with age (P<0.0001), with increasing and decreasing prevalence of ATR and WTR astigmatism, respectively, with advancing age. The magnitude of ATR astigmatism inversely correlates to AL (P<0.0001). ATR astigmatism is more prevalent with increasing magnitude of astigmatism (P<0.0001).ConclusionsA majority of patients for cataract surgery have astigmatism between 0.51 and 1.5 D. ATR astigmatism increases, whereas WTR decreases with age. ATR astigmatism inversely correlates to AL. With increasing age, the magnitude of astigmatism increases and ATR astigmatism becomes increasingly prevalent. The likelihood of a patient requiring astigmatic correction increases with age. PMID:26795412

  1. On multisoliton solutions of the constant astigmatism equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváč, Adam

    2015-09-01

    We introduce an algebraic formula producing infinitely many exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation {z}{yy}+{(1/z)}{xx}+2=0 from a given seed. A construction of corresponding surfaces of constant astigmatism is then a matter of routine. As a special case, we consider multisoliton solutions of the constant astigmatism equation defined as counterparts of famous multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation. A few particular examples are surveyed as well.

  2. Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between HOA and astigmatism. Results A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, 37 of which were classified as belonging to the higher astigmatism group, while 35 were assigned to the lower astigmatism group. There was a statistically significant difference in success rate between the higher and lower astigmatism groups. In both groups, all corneal HOAs were significantly reduced during amblyopia treatment. When comparing the two groups, a significant difference in coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up was detected (p = 0.043). In the Pearson correlation test, coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with astigmatism and a stronger correlation with astigmatism in the higher astigmatism group than in the lower astigmatism group (coefficient values, 0.383 and 0.284 as well as p = 0.021 and p = 0.038, respectively). Conclusions HOA, particularly coma HOA, correlated with astigmatism and could exert effects in cases involving hyperopic amblyopia. PMID:26865804

  3. Triangular laser resonators with astigmatic compensation.

    PubMed

    Skettrup, T; Meelby, T; Faerch, K; Frederiksen, S L; Pedersen, C

    2000-08-20

    The magnitudes and locations of the beam waists in both the sagittal and the tangential planes have been found by means of the ABCD matrix method for a triangular resonator. Equilateral and isosceles resonators are discussed, and curves are given from which resonators with astigmatism-free beams can be designed. A frequency-doubled triangular Nd ring laser has been constructed after this design, and it is demonstrated that this laser emits a single longitudinal mode with a circular TEM(00) Gaussian beam. PMID:18350014

  4. Polarization-based compensation of astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Dola Roy; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Ajay K.; Ghosh, Raja

    2004-02-01

    One approach to aberration compensation of an imaging system is to introduce a suitable phase mask at the aperture plane of an imaging system. We utilize this principle for the compensation of astigmatism. A suitable polarization mask used on the aperture plane together with a polarizer-retarder combination at the input of the imaging system provides the compensating polarization-induced phase steps at different quadrants of the apertures masked by different polarizers. The aberrant phase can be considerably compensated by the proper choice of a polarization mask and suitable selection of the polarization parameters involved. The results presented here bear out our theoretical expectation.

  5. Current Approaches for Management of Postpenetrating Keratoplasty Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Feizi, Sepehr; Zare, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    A successful corneal graft requires both clarity and an acceptable refraction. A clear corneal graft may be an optical failure if high astigmatism limits visual acuity. Intraoperative measures to reduce postkeratoplasty astigmatism include round and central trephination of cornea with an adequate size, appropriate sutures with evenly distributed tension, and perfect graft-host apposition. Suture manipulation has been described for minimising early postoperative astigmatism. If significant astigmatism remains after suture removal, which cannot be corrected by optical means, then further surgical procedures containing relaxing incisions, compression sutures, laser refractive surgery, insertion of intrastromal corneal ring segments, wedge resection, and toric intraocular lens implantation can be performed. When astigmatism cannot be reduced using one or more abovementioned approaches, repeat penetrating keratoplasty should inevitably be considered. However, none of these techniques has emerged as an ideal one, and corneal surgeons may require combining two or more approaches to exploit the maximum advantages. PMID:21811668

  6. Lack of oblique astigmatism in the chicken eye.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix M; Howland, Howard C; Ohlendorf, Arne; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Primate eyes display considerable oblique off-axis astigmatism which could provide information on the sign of defocus that is needed for emmetropization. The pattern of peripheral astigmatism is not known in the chicken eye, a common model of myopia. Peripheral astigmatism was mapped out over the horizontal visual field in three chickens, 43 days old, and in three near emmetropic human subjects, average age 34.7years, using infrared photoretinoscopy. There were no differences in astigmatism between humans and chickens in the central visual field (chicks -0.35D, humans -0.65D, n.s.) but large differences in the periphery (i.e. astigmatism at 40° in the temporal visual field: humans -4.21D, chicks -0.63D, p<0.001, unpaired t-test). The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks was not due to differences in corneal shape. Perhaps related to their superior peripheral optics, we found that chickens had excellent visual performance also in the far periphery. Using an automated optokinetic nystagmus paradigm, no difference was observed in spatial visual performance with vision restricted to either the central 67° of the visual field or to the periphery beyond 67°. Accommodation was elicited by stimuli presented far out in the visual field. Transscleral images of single infrared LEDs showed no sign of peripheral astigmatism. The chick may be the first terrestrial vertebrate described to lack oblique astigmatism. Since corneal shape cannot account for the difference in astigmatism in humans and chicks, it must trace back to the design of the crystalline lens. The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks also excludes a role in emmetropization. PMID:25701740

  7. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  8. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Steven M; Mifflin, Mark D; Edmonds, Jason N; Simpson, Rachel G; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D. Methods The charts of patients undergoing spherical PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of <1.00 D from 2002 to 2012 at the John A Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, UT, were retrospectively reviewed. Astigmatism was measured by manifest refraction. The final astigmatic refractive outcome at 6 months postoperatively was compared with the initial refraction by Alpins vector analysis. Results For PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00–0.75) preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00–1.75) postoperatively (P = 0.014), compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00–0.75) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00–2.00) postoperatively (P = 0.041). PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.50) and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00–1.50, P = 0.955). Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00–1.70) in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.80, P = 0.482), with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder. Conclusion Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. PMID:23277735

  9. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  10. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Molnar, Gabor; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Hwu, En-Te

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatile disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy. PMID:27250434

  11. Development and treatment of astigmatism-related amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Erin M

    2009-06-01

    Blur induced by uncorrected astigmatism during early development can result in amblyopia, as evidenced by reduced best-corrected vision relative to normal, in measures of grating acuity, vernier acuity, contrast sensitivity across a range of spatial frequencies, recognition acuity, and stereoacuity. In addition, uncorrected astigmatism during early development can result in meridional amblyopia, or best-corrected visual deficits that are greater for, or are present only for, specific stimulus orientations. Astigmatism-related amblyopia can be successfully treated with optical correction in children as old as school age, but the amblyopia may not be completely eliminated with optical treatment alone, and the age at which optical treatment is most effective has yet to be determined. Future research on determining the period of susceptibility of the visual system to negative effects of uncorrected astigmatism and exploration of alternative or complimentary treatment methods, in addition to optical correction, are warranted. PMID:19430327

  12. Pattern of astigmatism in a clinical setting in Maldives☆

    PubMed Central

    Marasini, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns of refractive errors have never been reported in Maldives. This study aims to dissect astigmatism and provide a general view in context of this island country. Methods A clinic based cross sectional study was designed with 277 patients, aged ≥3.5 years and with a primary astigmatism of ≥−1.00 diopters (D). They underwent complete eye examination and a vector analysis was done. Results Mean age was 28.58 (SD 19.15) years. Astigmatic magnitude depended on age (p < 0.05) but not on gender (p > 0.05). Severity of visual impairment after refractive correction was very less, with only 2.2% having visual acuity ≤6/60. Mean spherical, spherical equivalent and astigmatic refraction were −1.35 (SD 2.94 D), −2.40 (SD 3.04) and −2.12 (SD 1.11 D), respectively. Between fellow eyes, refractive and corneal astigmatism highly correlated (0.83 and 0.73). Fifty eyes (18.1%) had an astigmatic error of ≥−3.00 D which peaked in the second and third decades of life (p < 0.0001) and was corneal in origin (p < 0.0001). Internal J45 and J0 tended to be more negative with increasing age, showing a trend toward against the rule astigmatism. Correlation between corneal and refractive J0 and J45 were 0.88 and 0.62 (p < 0.0001). With the rule astigmatism was more common followed by against the rule and oblique. Conclusion In conclusion, this study inferred that among patients with relatively higher magnitude of astigmatism attending to the clinics in Maldives, younger patients are affected more, which could possibly link to the environment, genetics and nutrition. The probable association between nutrition and astigmatism needs to be investigated to fill the gap in literature. PMID:25800279

  13. Three Methods for Correction of Astigmatism during Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad-Rabei, Hossein; Mohammad-Rabei, Elham; Espandar, Goldis; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Hashemian, Seyed Javad; Feizi, Sepehr

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of three methods for correcting pre-existing astigmatism during phacoemulsification. Methods: This prospective, comparative, non-randomized study was conducted from March 2010 to January 2011, and included patients with keratometric astigmatism ≥1.25 D undergoing cataract surgery. Astigmatism was corrected using the following approaches: limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) on the steep meridian, extension and suturing of the phaco incision created at the steep meridian (extended-on-axis incision, EOAI), and toric intraocular lens (tIOL) implantation. Keratometric and refractive astigmatism were evaluated 1, 8, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Results: Eighty-three eyes of 72 patients (35 male and 37 female) with mean age of 62.4 ± 14.3 (range, 41-86) years were enrolled. The astigmatism was corrected by using the LRI, EOAI and tIOL implantation methods in 17, 33 and 33 eyes, respectively. Postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was significantly improved in all three groups. The difference in postoperative UDVA was not statistically significant among the study groups throughout follow-up except at week 24, when UCVA was significantly better in the tIOL group as compared to the EOAI group (P = 0.024). There is no statistically significant difference of correction index and index of success between three groups at week 24 (P = 0.085 and P = 0.085 respectively). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in astigmatism reduction among the three methods of astigmatism correction during phacoemulsification. Each of these methods can be used at the discretion of the surgeon. PMID:27413496

  14. Small Incision Lenticule Extraction for Postkeratoplasty Myopia and Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Tamer H; Ibrahim, Osama; Shehata, Kitty; Abdalla, Moones F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treating myopia and myopic astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Design. Case-series. Methods. Ten eyes of 10 patients with previous PKP and residual myopic astigmatism for whom pentacam imaging and thickness measurements were acceptable for laser vision correction. Manifest refraction (MR), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were obtained preoperatively and one day, one week, and one, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Cases were operated on the VisuMax® femtosecond laser platform with 500 kHz repetition rate. Results. The mean correction ratio for spherical errors was 0.84 ± 0.19 D and for the mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE) was 0.79 ± 0.13 D. Vector analysis showed a mean astigmatism reduction at the intended axis of 67 ± 25.25%, a correction index of 0.81 ± 0.21, and an overall mean percentage of success of astigmatism surgery of 53 ± 37.9%. The postoperative MRSE was stable throughout the 6-month follow-up period. The efficacy index was 0.93 and the safety index was 1.12. Conclusion. SMILE for correction of post-PKP myopia and astigmatism is effective, safe, and stable with moderate accuracy and predictability. Centration of the treatment within the grafts was easily performed. PMID:27446606

  15. Small Incision Lenticule Extraction for Postkeratoplasty Myopia and Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Osama; Shehata, Kitty; Abdalla, Moones F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treating myopia and myopic astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Design. Case-series. Methods. Ten eyes of 10 patients with previous PKP and residual myopic astigmatism for whom pentacam imaging and thickness measurements were acceptable for laser vision correction. Manifest refraction (MR), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were obtained preoperatively and one day, one week, and one, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Cases were operated on the VisuMax® femtosecond laser platform with 500 kHz repetition rate. Results. The mean correction ratio for spherical errors was 0.84 ± 0.19 D and for the mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE) was 0.79 ± 0.13 D. Vector analysis showed a mean astigmatism reduction at the intended axis of 67 ± 25.25%, a correction index of 0.81 ± 0.21, and an overall mean percentage of success of astigmatism surgery of 53 ± 37.9%. The postoperative MRSE was stable throughout the 6-month follow-up period. The efficacy index was 0.93 and the safety index was 1.12. Conclusion. SMILE for correction of post-PKP myopia and astigmatism is effective, safe, and stable with moderate accuracy and predictability. Centration of the treatment within the grafts was easily performed. PMID:27446606

  16. Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts for astigmatic Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    In this work we investigate the role of the beam astigmatism in the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shift. As a case study, we consider a Gaussian beam focused by an astigmatic lens and we calculate explicitly the corrections to the standard formulas for beam shifts due to the astigmatism induced by the lens. Our results show that the different focusing in the longitudinal and transverse direction introduced by an astigmatic lens may enhance the angular part of the shift.

  17. Interaction of axial and oblique astigmatism in theoretical and physical eye models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between oblique and axial astigmatism was investigated analytically (generalized Coddington's equations) and numerically (ray tracing) for a theoretical eye model with a single refracting surface. A linear vector-summation rule for power vector descriptions of axial and oblique astigmatism was found to account for their interaction over the central 90° diameter of the visual field. This linear summation rule was further validated experimentally using a physical eye model measured with a laboratory scanning aberrometer. We then used the linear summation rule to evaluate the relative contributions of axial and oblique astigmatism to the total astigmatism measured across the central visual field. In the central visual field, axial astigmatism dominates because the oblique astigmatism is negligible near the optical axis. At intermediate eccentricities, axial and oblique astigmatism may have equal magnitude but orthogonal axes, which nullifies total astigmatism at two locations in the visual field. At more peripheral locations, oblique astigmatism dominates axial astigmatism, and the axes of total astigmatism become radially oriented, which is a trait of oblique astigmatism. When eccentricity is specified relative to a foveal line-of-sight that is displaced from the eye's optical axis, asymmetries in the visual field map of total astigmatism can be used to locate the optical axis empirically and to estimate the relative contributions of axial and oblique astigmatism at any retinal location, including the fovea. We anticipate the linear summation rule will benefit many topics in vision science (e.g., peripheral correction, emmetropization, meridional amblyopia) by providing improved understanding of how axial and oblique astigmatism interact to produce net astigmatism. PMID:27607493

  18. Solutions for stability and astigmatism in high power laser resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narro, R.; Arronte, M.; de Posada, E.; Ponce, L.; Rodríguez, E.

    2009-09-01

    A method is proposed for the design of fundamental mode high power resonators, with joined stability zones. A parameter is created which gives the minimum length a laser resonator should have while having at the same time the broadest stabilities zones. For multimode and large mode volume resonators, a configuration is introduced for maximizing the laser overall efficiency due to the compensation of the astigmatism induced by the flash lamp pumping heating. The later configuration proposes a dual-active medium resonator, with 90 degree rotation around the optical axis between the astigmatic thermal lenses of the mediums. The reliability of this configuration is corroborated experimentally using a Nd:YAG dual-active medium resonator. It is found that in the pumping power range where the astigmatism compensation is possible, the overall efficiency is constant, even when increasing the excitation power with the consequent increase of the thermal lens dioptric power.

  19. Quasi-Bessel beams from asymmetric and astigmatic illumination sources.

    PubMed

    Müller, Angelina; Wapler, Matthias C; Schwarz, Ulrich T; Reisacher, Markus; Holc, Katarzyna; Ambacher, Oliver; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2016-07-25

    We study the spatial intensity distribution and the self-reconstruction of quasi-Bessel beams produced from refractive axicon lenses with edge emitting laser diodes as asymmetric and astigmatic illumination sources. Comparing these to a symmetric mono-mode fiber source, we find that the asymmetry results in a transition of a quasi-Bessel beam into a bow-tie shaped pattern and eventually to a line shaped profile at a larger distance along the optical axis. Furthermore, we analytically estimate and discuss the effects of astigmatism, substrate modes and non-perfect axicons. We find a good agreement between experiment, simulation and analytic considerations. Results include the derivation of a maximal axicon angle related to astigmatism of the illuminating beam, impact of laser diode beam profile imperfections like substrate modes and a longitudinal oscillation of the core intensity and radius caused by a rounded axicon tip. PMID:27464190

  20. Impact of astigmatism and high-order aberrations on subjective best focus.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Susana; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sawides, Lucie; Hernandez, Martha; Marin, Gildas

    2015-08-01

    We studied the role of native astigmatism and ocular aberrations on best-focus setting and its shift upon induction of astigmatism in 42 subjects (emmetropes, myopes, hyperopes, with-the-rule [WTR] and against-the-rule [ATR] myopic astigmats). Stimuli were presented in a custom-developed adaptive optics simulator, allowing correction for native aberrations and astigmatism induction (+1 D; 6-mm pupil). Best-focus search consisted on randomized-step interleaved staircase method. Each subject searched best focus for four different images, and four different conditions (with/without aberration correction, with/without astigmatism induction). The presence of aberrations induced a significant shift in subjective best focus (0.4 D; p < 0.01), significantly correlated (p = 0.005) with the best-focus shift predicted from optical simulations. The induction of astigmatism produced a statistically significant shift of the best-focus setting in all groups under natural aberrations (p = 0.001), and in emmetropes and in WTR astigmats under corrected aberrations (p < 0.0001). Best-focus shift upon induced astigmatism was significantly different across groups, both for natural aberrations and AO-correction (p < 0.0001). Best focus shifted in opposite directions in WTR and ATR astigmats upon induction of astigmatism, symmetrically with respect to the best-focus shift in nonastigmatic myopes. The shifts are consistent with a bias towards vertical and horizontal retinal blur in WTR and ATR astigmats, respectively, indicating adaptation to native astigmatism. PMID:26237300

  1. Epiblepharon of the lower eyelid: classification and association with astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Khwarg, S I; Lee, Y J

    1997-12-01

    To determine a classification system for epiblepharon of the lower eyelid and to evaluate a possible correlation between lower lid epiblepharon and astigmatism. Three morphologic characteristics (skin fold, cilia touching the cornea and corneal erosion) were observed by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination and Polaroid pictures in 186 eyes of 102 patients with epiblepharon of the lower lid. In 112 eyes, cycloplegic refractions performed. A classification system reflecting the severity of epiblepharon was then sought, and the incidences and type of astigmatism were evaluated. Epiblepharon of the lower lid could be classified according to the height of skin fold, the area of cornea touched by cilia and the area of corneal erosion. There was significant agreement between these three classifications. The incidence of astigmatism of 0.5D or more was 54%; most was 'with-the-rule', regardless of a patient's age. In addition to the representative nature of other characteristics, skin fold height can be easily measured without the need for slit-lamp examination in children and is closely related with the amount of skin which should be excised during surgery to correct epiblepharon. A classification system using skin fold height may therefore be the most appropriate method. In addition, there may be a correlation between lower lid epiblepharon and astigmatism. PMID:9510654

  2. Characteristics of Astigmatism in a Population of Tunisian School-Children

    PubMed Central

    Chebil, Ahmed; Jedidi, Lina; Chaker, Nibrass; Kort, Fedra; Limaiem, Rym; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of astigmatism in a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren in Tunisia. Materials and Methods: A random cluster design was used to recruit children from primary schools across urban and rural settings in Tunisia, from 2008 to 2010. A total of 6192 students aged 6–14-years old were enrolled. All students whose uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/20 underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Astigmatism was defined as the cylinder power of 0.75 diopter (D) or greater. Results: The prevalence of astigmatism was 6.67%. Mean cylinder power was - 1.89 ± 0.79D. The prevalence of astigmatism increased statistically significantly with age (P = 0.032). The prevalence of astigmatism was not significantly related to gender (P = 0.051). Of those with cylinder, 63.6%, 17.8%, and 18.6% schoolchildren had with with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism, respectively. ATR astigmatism was significantly higher in males (P = 0.033). There was no significant association between the student's area of residence and astigmatism (P = 0.059). Conclusion: Comparisons with other studies show that the prevalence of astigmatism in Tunisia is higher than in some countries. The prevalence of astigmatism increased with age but not gender. The majority of schoolchildren had with-the-rule astigmatism. PMID:26180472

  3. Correction of low corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. METHODS A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. RESULTS The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. CONCLUSION The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision. PMID:26309869

  4. Correlation Between Stereoacuity and Experimentally Induced Graded Monocular and Binocular Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Puthran, Neelam; Gagal, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stereopsis, the highest grade of binocular single vision, is affected by various factors, such as mis-alignment of visual axes, refractive errors especially anisometropia and astigmatism, both of which may result in amblyopia. There are very few studies in literature regarding the relationship between stereoacuity and refractive errors, especially astigmatism. Aim The present study was conducted to determine the correlation between stereoacuity and experimentally induced graded astigmatism in emmetropes. Materials and Methods A randomized study was conducted on 2000 individuals of either gender, between the ages of 8-35 years, at tertiary care centre attached to a medical college during the period of August 2012 to August 2014, All subjects were emmetropic with normal binocular single vision. Participants were randomly divided into four groups of 500 individuals each. Two groups were subjected to induced myopic astigmatism, either uni-ocularly or binocularly, using + 1.0 D and + 2.0 D cylinders at varying axes i.e., 450, 900 and 1800. Similarily, the remaining two groups were subjected to induced hypermetropic astigmatism, using - 1.0 D and - 2.0D cylinders at varying axes i.e. 450, 900 and 1800. Near stereoacuity was determined by the Titmus Fly Stereo Test, both before and after induction of astigmatism. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and ANOVA. Results The mean stereoacuity in emmetropes was 28.81±4.97 seconds of arc. There was a decrease in stereoacuity with increase in dioptric power of astigmatism (p<0.001). Oblique astigmatism reduced the stereoacuity maximally, while stereoacuity was least affected at 180o axis. Hypermetropic astigmatism caused more deterioration in stereoacuity than myopic astigmatism. A gross reduction in stereoacuity was noted in induced monocular astigmatism as against binocular astigmatism. Conclusion This study suggests that stereoacuity is significantly affected by even minor degrees of monocular or

  5. Comparison of Whole Eye vs. First-Surface Astigmatism in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Rachel; Marsack, Jason D.; Leach, Norman E.; Herring, Ralph J.; Anderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have structural differences in the cornea and lens, as compared to the general population. This study investigates objectively measured refractive and corneal astigmatism, as well as calculated internal astigmatism in subjects with and without DS. Methods Refractive (Grand Seiko autorefraction) and anterior corneal astigmatism (difference between steep and flat keratometry obtained with Zeiss Atlas corneal topography) were measured in 128 subjects with DS (mean age = 24.8±8.7 yrs) and 137 controls without DS (mean age = 24.9±9.9 yrs), with 1 eye randomly selected for analysis per subject. Refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism were converted to vector notation (J0, J45) to calculate internal astigmatism (Refractive – Corneal) and then converted back to minus cylinder form. Results Mean refractive astigmatism was significantly greater in subjects with DS than controls (−1.94±1.30DC vs −0.66±0.60DC, t=−10.16, p<0.001), as was mean corneal astigmatism (1.70±1.04DC vs 1.02±0.63DC, t=6.38, p<0.001) and mean internal astigmatism (−1.07±0.68DC vs −0.77±0.41DC, t=−4.21, p<0.001). A positive linear correlation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was observed for both study populations for both the J0 and J45 vectors (p<0.001 for all comparisons, R2 range = 0.31 to 0.74). The distributions of astigmatism orientation differed significantly between the two study populations when compared across all three types of astigmatism (Chi-Square, p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that corneal astigmatism is predictive of overall refractive astigmatism in individuals with DS, as it is in the general population. The greater magnitudes of astigmatism and wider variation of astigmatism orientation in individuals with DS for refractive, corneal, and calculated internal astigmatism is likely attributable to previously reported differences in the structure of the cornea and internal optical components

  6. Stability properties of a rotating astigmatic optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habraken, Steven J. M.; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2009-02-01

    We study the effects of rotation on the stability properties of an astigmatic two-mirror cavity. We show that rotation can both stabilize and destabilize a cavity and investigate the effects of such a rotationally-induced transition on the spatial structure and the orbital angular momentum of the cavity modes. Our method relies on the connection between ray and wave optics and is exact within the time-dependent paraxial approximation.

  7. Alignment of two mirror astronomical telescopes (the astigmatic component)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin; Rolland, Jannick

    2008-07-01

    The effects of alignment perturbations on the aberration fields of two mirror astronomical telescopes are discussed. It is demonstrated that expressions describing alignment induced field-linear astigmatism, published by McLeod based on the work of Schroeder, can be obtained using nodal aberration theory. Rather than merely providing a different derivation for alignment induced astigmatism, it is shown that nodal theory can provide several insights that are significant for the development of effective alignment techniques. In the example of a specific telescope sited on Mt. Hopkins (Ritchey- Chretien), two approaches to identify misalignments of the secondary mirror are demonstrated. One approach utilizes the eccentricity of defocused star images and their orientation angles to calculate the misalignment of the secondary mirror after axial coma is removed. A second approach based on the location of the two zeros of the astigmatic aberration field is then shown to give equivalent results, but at the same time ensuring a complete model of all possible effects of misalignment on the performance of the telescope.

  8. Changes in visual function following optical treatment of astigmatism-related amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-03-01

    Effects of optical correction on best-corrected grating acuity (vertical (V), horizontal (H), oblique (O)), vernier acuity (V, H, O), contrast sensitivity (1.5, 6.0, and 18.0 cy/deg spatial frequency, V and H), and stereoacuity were evaluated prospectively in 4- to 13-year-old astigmats and a non-astigmatic age-matched control group. Measurements made at baseline (eyeglasses dispensed for astigmats), 6 weeks, and 1 year showed greater improvement in astigmatic than non-astigmatic children for all measures. Treatment effects occurred by 6 weeks, and did not differ by cohort (<8 vs. >or= 8 years), but astigmatic children did not attain normal levels of visual function. PMID:18261760

  9. Plasma channels during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse with wavefront astigmatism in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kandidov, V. P.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Shlenov, S. A.; Shustikova, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally and numerically the possibility of controlling parameters of plasma channels formed during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse by introducing astigmatism in the laser beam wavefront. It is found that weak astigmatism increases the length of the plasma channel in comparison with the case of aberration-free focusing and that strong astigmatism can cause splitting of the plasma channel into two channels located one after another on the filament axis.

  10. Transverse-mode astigmatism in a diode-pumped unstable resonator Nd:YVO(4) laser.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y J; Fanning, C G; Siegman, A E

    1997-02-20

    We have observed a sizable astigmatism in the output beam from a diode-pumped unstable resonator Nd:YVO(4) laser operating in a single polarization and a single-longitudinal and transverse mode. The anisotropic index of refraction of the vanadate crystal has been identified as the source of this astigmatism. A theoretical prediction of the eigenmode astigmatism based on this index anisotropy is consistent with our experimental measurements. PMID:18250780

  11. Plasma channels during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse with wavefront astigmatism in air

    SciTech Connect

    Dergachev, A A; Kandidov, V P; Shlenov, S A; Ionin, A A; Mokrousova, D V; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S; Shustikova, A P

    2014-12-31

    We have demonstrated experimentally and numerically the possibility of controlling parameters of plasma channels formed during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse by introducing astigmatism in the laser beam wavefront. It is found that weak astigmatism increases the length of the plasma channel in comparison with the case of aberration-free focusing and that strong astigmatism can cause splitting of the plasma channel into two channels located one after another on the filament axis. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  12. Success rates in the correction of astigmatism with toric and spherical soft contact lens fittings

    PubMed Central

    Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Şengör, Tomris; Ün, Murat; Aki, Suat

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate success rates in the correction of astigmatism with toric and spherical soft contact lens fitting. Methods: 30 patients with soft toric lenses having more than 1.25 D of corneal astigmatism (25 eyes; Group A) or having 0.75–1.25 D of corneal astigmatism (22 eyes; Group B) and 30 patients with soft spheric lenses having 0.75–1.25 D of corneal astigmatism (28 eyes; Group C) or less than 0.75 D of corneal astigmatism (23 eyes; Group D) were included in the study. Corrected and uncorrected monocular visual acuity measurement with logMAR, biomicroscopic properties, autorefractometry and corneal topography were performed for all patients immediately before and at least 20 minutes after the application of contact lenses. Success of contact lens fitting was evaluated by three parameters: astigmatic neutralization, visual success, and retinal deviation. Results: After soft toric lens application, spheric dioptres, cylindric and keratometric astigmatism, and retinal deviation decreased significantly in Groups A and B (P < 0.05). In Group C, spheric dioptres and retinal deviation decreased (P < 0.05), while cylindric and keratometric astigmatism did not change significantly (P > 0.05). In Group D, spheric dioptres, retinal deviation, and cylindric astigmatism decreased (P < 0.05). Keratometric astigmatism did not change significantly (P > 0.05) and astigmatic neutralization even increased. Conclusions: Visual acuity and residual spherical equivalent refraction remained between tolerable limits with the use of toric and spheric contact lenses. Spherical lenses failed to mask corneal toricity during topography, while toric lenses caused central neutralization and decrease in corneal cylinder in low and moderate astigmatic eyes. PMID:20856589

  13. Propagation properties of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams through an astigmatic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liuzhan; Wang, Beizhan; Lu, Baida

    2005-09-01

    Based on the beam coherent-polarization (BCP) matrix approach and propagation law of partially coherent beams, analytical propagation equations of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model (PGSM) beams through an astigmatic lens are derived, which enables us to study the propagation-induced polarization changes and irradiance distributions at any propagation distance of PGSM beams through an astigmatic lens within the framework of the paraxial approximation. Detailed numerical results for a PGSM beam passing through an astigmatic lens are presented. A comparison with the aberration-free case is made, and shows that the astigmatism affects the propagation properties of PGSM beams.

  14. Digital refraction distortion correction with an astigmatic coherence sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Stack, Ronald A.; Brady, David J.

    2002-10-01

    We demonstrate the sensing and correction of an isoplanatic refractive distortion (not lens aberrations), using the complete measurement of the partially coherent field in an aperture that the previously described astigmatic coherence sensor provides. Isoplanatic distortions, and in general distortions that do not cause energy loss, maintain the orthogonality of the coherent modes. We use the fact that a common distortion will occur to all coherent modes to separate the distortion from the source behind it, rather than requiring a reference source at a different wavelength. Digital deconvolution was performed on the full four-dimensional partially coherent field for simultaneously computing the distortion and the source intensity distribution.

  15. Propagation of the Lissajous singularity dipole through an astigmatic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui; Zou, Xuefang; Huang, Weigang; Wang, Fanhou

    2013-11-01

    The propagation was investigated of a pair of Lissajous singularities of opposite singularity index called the Lissajous singularity dipole (LSD) through an astigmatic lens. It is shown that after passing through the lens the positions of the singularities are inverted and more than two LSDs occur. Changes in the degree of polarization of the LSDs as well as in the shape of the Lissajous figures also occur. In addition, Lissajous singularities may take place at the focal plane, and a single Lissajous singularity may appear and vanish under certain conditions. The results are compared with those of previous work.

  16. Astigmatism after cataract surgery: nylon versus Mersilene. Five-year data.

    PubMed

    Drews, R C

    1995-01-01

    This is a follow-up of a previous study that evaluated astigmatism after cataract surgery. In that study with a six-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in astigmatism between eyes with nylon sutures and those with polyester fiber (Mersilene) sutures. This article reports the five-year data on this series of eyes. PMID:7722909

  17. Astigmatism error modification for absolute shape reconstruction using Fourier transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhang; Li, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Liu, Ang; Xu, Kaiyuan; Wei, Xiaohong; Chai, Liqun

    2014-12-01

    A method is proposed to modify astigmatism errors in absolute shape reconstruction of optical plane using Fourier transform method. If a transmission and reflection flat are used in an absolute test, two translation measurements lead to obtain the absolute shapes by making use of the characteristic relationship between the differential and original shapes in spatial frequency domain. However, because the translation device cannot guarantee the test and reference flats rigidly parallel to each other after the translations, a tilt error exists in the obtained differential data, which caused power and astigmatism errors in the reconstructed shapes. In order to modify the astigmatism errors, a rotation measurement is added. Based on the rotation invariability of the form of Zernike polynomial in circular domain, the astigmatism terms are calculated by solving polynomial coefficient equations related to the rotation differential data, and subsequently the astigmatism terms including error are modified. Computer simulation proves the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Comparison of the Astigmatic Power of Toric Intraocular Lenses Using Three Toric Calculators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Ju; Lee, Hun; Woo, Young Jae; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Ha Yan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the astigmatic power of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) obtained from the AcrySof, TECNIS, and iTrace toric calculator in patients with preoperative with-the-rule (WTR) or against-the-rule (ATR) corneal astigmatism. Materials and Methods Fifty eyes with cataract and corneal astigmatism greater than 0.75 diopters were enrolled in each group (WTR and ATR). Keratometric values were measured using autokeratometry, an IOLMaster, and an iTrace, which incorporated corneal topography and ray-tracing aberrometry. Based on measured keratometric values, the astigmatic power of each toric IOL was calculated using three toric calculators. Results Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between six pairwise corneal astigmatism values in both groups. The TECNIS calculator tended to suggest a higher astigmatic power of the toric IOL than the AcrySof calculator. With the higher astigmatism and keratometric values from the IOLMaster, in both groups, calculations from the AcrySof and TECNIS calculators resulted in higher calculated astigmatic powers than those from same calculators with autokeratometry-measured values, demonstrating good agreement. With the higher calculated astigmatic power values, the values from the iTrace toric calculator using keratometric values obtained from iTrace ray tracing wavefront aberrometry or iTrace simulated keratometry showed fair to moderate agreement with those from the other calculator-keratometry pairs in both groups. Conclusion To achieve the best refractive outcome after toric IOL implantation, understanding the differences in keratometric values between instruments and in calculated astigmatic power among toric calculator programs is necessary. Moreover, systemic analysis of each toric calculator in conjunction with postoperative data is required. PMID:26069135

  19. Polarization-induced astigmatism caused by topographic masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoff, Johannes; Neumann, Jens Timo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; van Setten, Eelco; le Masson, Nicolas; Progler, Chris; Geh, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    With the continuous shrink of feature sizes the pitch of the mask comes closer to the wave length of light. It has been recognized that in this case polarization effects of the mask become much more pronounced and deviations in the diffraction efficiencies from the well-known Kirchhoff approach can no longer be neglected. It is not only the diffraction efficiencies that become polarization-dependent, also the phases of the diffracted orders tend to deviate from Kirchhoff theory when calculated rigorously. This also happens for large structures, where these phase deviations can mimic polarization dependent wave front aberrations, which in the case of polarized illumination can lead to non-negligible focus shifts that depend on the orientation and the features size themselves. This orientation dependence results in a polarization induced astigmatism offset, which can be of the same order of magnitude or even larger as polarization effects stemming from the lens itself. Hence, for correctly predicting polarization induced astigmatism offsets, one has to both consider lens and mask effects at the same time. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of polarized induced phase effects of topographic masks and develop a simple theoretical model that accurately describes the observed effects.

  20. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures.

    PubMed

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Karpierz, Mirosław A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651

  1. An astigmatic corrected target-aligned solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lando, Mordechai; Kagan, Jacob; Linyekin, Boris; Sverdalov, Ludmila; Pecheny, Grigory; Achiam, Yaakov

    2000-06-01

    Highly concentrated solar energy is required for solar pumping of solid state lasers, and for other applications. High concentration may be obtained by a combination of a primary concentrator with f/ D>2 in addition to a non-imaging concentrator. We have designed and constructed a novel tower primary concentrator. A 3.4 m diameter primary mirror, composed of 61 segments, was mounted on a commercial two-axis positioner. Unlike the common zenith mounting, the positioner fixed axis is directed southwards, pointing at 32° above the horizon. With this novel mounting, the concentrator is the first implementation of the astigmatic corrected target aligned (ACTA) design which flattens the irradiation density variation during the day. The primary mirror segments are each mounted on a separate two-axis mount, and aligned to compensate for astigmatism. The segments are spherically curved with R=17 m radius of curvature, while their vertexes are placed on an R/2=8.5 m radius spherical cap. A four-segment plane mirror reflects the light towards a horizontal focal plane. We have measured the absorbed solar power into a 89×91 mm 2 rectangular aperture and found good agreement with optical design calculations. Peak solar concentration in the focal plane exceeded 400 suns.

  2. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures

    PubMed Central

    Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651

  3. Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response.

  4. Risk Factors for Astigmatism in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G.; Ciner, Elise; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Cyert, Lynn A.; Quinn, Graham E.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Moore, Bruce; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine demographic and refractive risk factors for astigmatism in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study. Methods Three- to 5-year old Head Start preschoolers (N=4,040) from 5 clinical centers underwent comprehensive eye examinations by study-certified optometrists and ophthalmologists, including monocular visual acuity (VA) testing, cover testing, and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Astigmatism was defined as the presence of ≥ +1.5 diopters (D) cylinder in either eye, measured with cycloplegic refraction. The associations of risk factors with astigmatism were evaluated using the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from logistic regression models. Results Among 4,040 VIP Study participants over-representing children with vision disorders, 687 (17%) had astigmatism, and majority of astigmatism was with-the-rule (83.8%). In multivariate analyses, African-American (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.22–2.24), Hispanic (OR=2.25, 95% CI: 1.62–3.12) and Asian children (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.06–2.93) were more likely to have astigmatism compared with non-Hispanic white children, while American Indian children were less likely to have astigmatism than Hispanic, African American and Asian children (P<0.0001). Refractive error was associated with astigmatism in a non-linear manner, with an OR of 4.50 (95% CI: 3.00 – 6.76) for myopia (≤ −1.0D in spherical equivalent), and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.29 –1.86) for hyperopia (≥ +2.0D) when compared to children without refractive error (> −1.0D, < +2.0D). There was a trend of an increasing percentage of astigmatism among older children (linear trend p=0.06). The analysis for risk factors of with-the-rule astigmatism provided similar results. Conclusions Among Head Start preschoolers, Hispanic ethnicity, African-American and Asian race, myopic and hyperopic refractive error were associated with an increased risk of astigmatism, consistent with findings from the population-based Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease

  5. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, P.; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.

    2006-03-01

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5×10-3 for ±10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  6. The relation between superior phacoemulsification incision and steep axis on astigmatic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Özyol, Erhan; Özyol, Pelin

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the relation between superior phacoemulsification incision and different steep axis on astigmatism outcomes. This prospective, randomized study comprised three groups each with 24 eyes with age-related cataracts and underwent 3.0 mm superior clear corneal incision (CCI). The three groups of the patients were divided by the location of the steep axis. The steep axis was between 0 and 30° in group 1, 31-60° in group 2, 61-90° in group 3. The degree was accepted as the distance from the steep axis to the distal aspect of the wound. Outcome measures were including the changes in mean total astigmatism, surgically-induced astigmatism (SIA), axis deviation, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Astigmatism was measured by manuel keratometry readings before surgery and day-1, week-1, week-2, week-4 and week-8 postoperatively. The surgically-induced astigmatism was calculated by the vector analysis using the Holladay-Cravy-Koch method. The magnitude of mean total astigmatism was lowest in group 1 and highest in group 3 at 8th week. Surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.52 diopter (D), 0.88 D, 1.03 D in group 1, group 2, and group 3 respectively. The change in SIA was significant in group 1 (P < 0.05). The change in the astigmatic axis deviation was highest in group 1 (31.5 ± 31.3, P < 0.05). The mean UCVA and BCVA were not significant pre and postoperatively between groups (P > 0.05). Axis deviation and SIA were stable after the week-1 and week-2 examinations respectively. Cataract surgery with CCI on or near the steep axis is resulted in decreased SIA and increased axis deviation. PMID:22825889

  7. A simple method for astigmatic compensation of folded resonator without Brewster window.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Xiaojun, Zhang; Yonggang, Wang; Liqun, Sun; Hanben, Niu

    2014-02-10

    A folded resonator requires an oblique angle of incidence on the folded curved mirror, which introduces astigmatic distortions that limit the performance of the lasers. We present a simple method to compensate the astigmatism of folded resonator without Brewster windows for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Based on the theory of the propagation and transformation of Gaussian beams, the method is both effective and reliable. Theoretical results show that the folded resonator can be compensated astigmatism completely when the following two conditions are fulfilled. Firstly, when the Gaussian beam with a determined size beam waist is obliquely incident on an off-axis concave mirror, two new Gaussian beam respectively in the tangential and sagittal planes are formed. Another off-axis concave mirror is located at another intersection point of the two new Gaussian beams. Secondly, adjusting the incident angle of the second concave mirror or its focal length can make the above two Gaussian beam coincide in the image plane of the second concave mirror, which compensates the astigmatic aberration completely. A side-pumped continues-wave (CW) passively mode locked Nd:YAG laser was taken as an example of the astigmatically compensated folded resonators. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. This method can be used effectively to design astigmatically compensated cavities resonator of high-performance lasers. PMID:24663523

  8. Minimizing Surgically Induced Astigmatism at the Time of Cataract Surgery Using a Square Posterior Limbal Incision

    PubMed Central

    Ernest, Paul; Hill, Warren; Potvin, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the surgically induced astigmatism from clear corneal and square posterior limbal incisions at the time of cataract surgery. Methods. Surgically induced astigmatism was calculated for a set of eyes after cataract surgery using a temporal 2.2 mm square posterior limbal incision. Results were compared to similar available data from surgeons using clear corneal incisions of similar size. Results. Preoperative corneal astigmatism averaged 1.0 D and was not significantly different between the incision types. Surgically induced astigmatism with the 2.2 mm posterior limbal incision averaged 0.25 ± 0.14 D, significantly lower in magnitude than the aggregate surgically induced astigmatism produced by the 2.2 mm clear corneal incision (0.68 ± 0.49 D). Conclusion. The 2.2 mm square posterior limbal incision induced significantly less, and significantly less variable, surgically induced astigmatism relative to a similar-sized clear corneal incision. This is likely to improve refractive outcomes, particularly important with regard to premium intraocular lenses. PMID:22132310

  9. Transverse-mode astigmatism in a diode-pumped unstable resonator Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Fanning, C.G.; Siegman, A.E.

    1997-02-01

    We have observed a sizable astigmatism in the output beam from a diode-pumped unstable resonator Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser operating in a single polarization and a single-longitudinal and transverse mode. The anisotropic index of refraction of the vanadate crystal has been identified as the source of this astigmatism. A theoretical prediction of the eigenmode astigmatism based on this index anisotropy is consistent with our experimental measurements. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  10. Objective evaluation of refractive data and astigmatism: quantification and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, S B

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to present methods to improve the analysis of refractive data. A comparison of methods is used to analyse refractive powers using individual powers and aggregate data. Equations are also developed for the representation of the average power of a lens or refractive data as a univariate measure, which includes spherical, coma, and/or other aberrations. The equations provide a precise representation of refractive power, which is useful for comparing individual and aggregate data. Average lens power in the principal meridian can be adequately computed as can the average lens power through orthogonal and oblique meridians, providing a good univariate representation of astigmatism and refractive power. Although these formulae are perhaps not as easy to use as, for example, the spherical equivalent, they are more precise and superior in principle involving fewer approximations and are not subject to systematic bias. These effects are of significance when dealing with high-powered lenses such as intraocular lenses or the cornea. They need to be taken into account particularly for calculations of intraocular lens power, toric intraocular lenses, and cornea refractive surgery, especially if outcomes are to be improved. Such issues are of particular importance when dealing with aggregate data and determining statistical significance of treatment effects. PMID:24336294

  11. Ray vector fields, prismatic effect, and thick astigmatic optical systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F

    1996-06-01

    The application of the concept of ray vector fields to optical systems is reexamined. Paraxial or linear optics defines a four-dimensional ray vector field for any optical system: the vector field maps the incident ray vector into the emergent ray vector. In the case of thin systems, including thin astigmatic lenses, one can define a vector field of reduced dimensionality: the vector field is two-dimensional and maps the ray's incident position into the change in reduced direction. When the index of refraction is the same before and after a thin system, the change in reduced direction is the reduced deflection through the system or the reduced prismatic effect. Contrary to what has recently been claimed, this type of two-dimensional vector field does not apply in general to thick systems. However, a number of different types of two-dimensional vector fields can be defined for various particular classes of optical systems. Thick systems differ qualitatively from thin systems. They do not have equivalent thin lenses and cannot generally be replaced by thin lenses. Equations are derived for the change in reduced direction and deflection for a ray through optical systems in general and through separated two- and three-lens systems in particular. PMID:8807654

  12. How to convert the obliquely crossed to non-crossed astigmatism? A simple method using vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Vojniković, Bozo; Gabrić, Nikica; Dekaris, Iva

    2013-04-01

    The authors discussed about the problem of special form in astigmatism classification. This special type of astigmatism is the form of obliquely crossed astigmatism. In which the meridians, major and minor, are not right angles. In this astigmatism is not possible to prescribing for cylindrical (toric) spectacle lens. Authors describe the Thompson formula for oblique crossed cylinder and observe that this formula is to complicate for calculation new cylinder power. In this reason, the authors create the new formula and simple procedure for this calculation. This simple formula based on vector analysis and read: DM3 = DM2 x cos2 beta. PMID:23841133

  13. On-axis spectral shifts and spectral switches of Gaussian Schell-model beams focused by an astigmatic aperture lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Pan, Liuzhan; Ding, Chaoliang; Lü, Baida

    2008-10-01

    Starting from the propagation law of partially coherent light, the on-axis spectral shifts and spectral switches of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams focused by an astigmatic aperture lens are studied. It is shown that, as compared with an aberration-free case whose spectral shifts and spectral switches are induced by spatial correlation and aperture diffraction, the spectral shifts and spectral switches of GSM beams also depend upon the astigmatism of the lens for an astigmatism case. Detailed numerical calculations are made to illustrate the behavior of spectral shifts and spectral switches of GSM beams focused by an astigmatic aperture lens.

  14. Changes in falling risk depending on induced axis directions of astigmatism on static posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yeob; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] To assess the changes in falling risk depending on the induced axis direction of astigmatism using cylindrical lenses in a static posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females; mean age, 23.4 ± 2.70 years) fully corrected by subjective refraction participated. To induce myopic simple astigmatism conditions, cylindrical lenses of +0.50, +1.00, +1.50, +2.00, +3.00, +4.00, and +5.00 D were used. The direction of astigmatic axes were induced under five conditions with increased cylindrical powers:, 180°, 90°, and 45° on both eyes; 180°/90° right/left eye, and 45°/135° right/left eye. Changes in the fall risk index were analyzed using the TETRAX biofeedback system. Measurements were performed for 32 seconds for each condition. [Results] The fall risk index increased significantly from C+4.00 D in 180°/90° right/left eye, C+3.00 D in 45°/135° right/left eye, and C+3.00 D in 45° on both eyes versus corrected emmetropia. Among the five axis conditions with the same cylindrical power lenses, the increase in the fall risk index was highest at 45° in both eyes. [Conclusion] Uncorrected oblique astigmatism may increase falling risk compared to with-the-rule and against-the-rule astigmatism. Clinical specialists should consider appropriate correction of astigmatism for preventing falls, especially for uncorrected oblique astigmatism. PMID:26180360

  15. Changes in falling risk depending on induced axis directions of astigmatism on static posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Yeob; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the changes in falling risk depending on the induced axis direction of astigmatism using cylindrical lenses in a static posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females; mean age, 23.4 ± 2.70 years) fully corrected by subjective refraction participated. To induce myopic simple astigmatism conditions, cylindrical lenses of +0.50, +1.00, +1.50, +2.00, +3.00, +4.00, and +5.00 D were used. The direction of astigmatic axes were induced under five conditions with increased cylindrical powers:, 180°, 90°, and 45° on both eyes; 180°/90° right/left eye, and 45°/135° right/left eye. Changes in the fall risk index were analyzed using the TETRAX biofeedback system. Measurements were performed for 32 seconds for each condition. [Results] The fall risk index increased significantly from C+4.00 D in 180°/90° right/left eye, C+3.00 D in 45°/135° right/left eye, and C+3.00 D in 45° on both eyes versus corrected emmetropia. Among the five axis conditions with the same cylindrical power lenses, the increase in the fall risk index was highest at 45° in both eyes. [Conclusion] Uncorrected oblique astigmatism may increase falling risk compared to with-the-rule and against-the-rule astigmatism. Clinical specialists should consider appropriate correction of astigmatism for preventing falls, especially for uncorrected oblique astigmatism. PMID:26180360

  16. A novel color-LED corneal topographer to assess astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tiago B; Ribeiro, Filomena J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of corneal astigmatism evaluation measured by four techniques, Orbscan IIz®, Lenstar LS900®, Cassini®, and Total Cassini (anterior + posterior surface), in pseudophakic eyes. Patients and methods A total of 30 patients (46 eyes) who had undergone cataract surgery with the implantation of a monofocal intraocular lens (AcrySof IQ) were assessed after surgery. For each eye, subjective assessment of astigmatism and its axis was performed. Minimum, maximum, and mean keratometry and astigmatism and its axis were evaluated using the four measurement techniques. All measurements were compared with the subjective measurements. Agreement between each measurement technique and subjective assessment was evaluated using Bland–Altman plots. Linear regressions were performed and compared. Results Linear regression analysis of astigmatism axis showed very high R2 for all models, with Total Cassini showing the least difference to the unit slope (0.052) and the least difference to a null constant (3.790), although not statistically different from the other models. Regarding astigmatism value, the Cassini and Total Cassini models were similar and statistically better than the Lenstar model. Cassini and Total Cassini showed better J0 compared with Orbscan. Conclusion On linear regression models, Cassini and Total Cassini showed the best performance regarding astigmatism value. Cassini and Total Cassini also showed the least J0 deviation from the Cartesian origin compared with Orbscan, which had the lowest performance. Total corneal measurement with the color LED topographer seems to be a better technique for astigmatism assessment. PMID:27574391

  17. Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Students

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Miller, Joseph M.; Campus, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd–8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00 D, moderate: 1.00 D to <3.00 D, and high: ≥3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 ± 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI. PMID:27525112

  18. Toric intraocular lenses for correction of astigmatism in keratoconus and after corneal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Ilse EMA; Van Dooren, Bart TH

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the results of cataract extraction with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with preexisting astigmatism from three corneal conditions (keratoconus, postkeratoplasty, and postpterygium surgery). Methods Cataract patients with topographically stable, fairly regular (although sometimes very high) corneal astigmatism underwent phacoemulsification with implantation of a toric IOL (Zeiss AT TORBI 709, Alcon Acrysof IQ toric SN6AT, AMO Tecnis ZCT). Postoperative astigmatism and refractive outcomes, as well as visual acuities, vector reduction, and complications were recorded for all eyes. Results This study evaluated 17 eyes of 16 patients with a mean age of 60 years at the time of surgery. Mean follow-up in this study was 12 months. The corrected distance Snellen visual acuity (with spectacles or contact lenses) 12 months postoperatively was 20/32 or better in 82% of eyes. The mean corneal astigmatism was 6.7 diopters (D) preoperatively, and 1.5 D of refractive cylinder at 1-year follow-up. No vision-compromising intra- or postoperative complications occurred and decentration or off-axis alignment of toric IOLs were not observed. Conclusion Phacoemulsification with toric IOL implantation was a safe and effective procedure in the three mentioned corneal conditions. Patient selection, counseling, and IOL placement with optimal astigmatism correction are crucial. PMID:27382249

  19. Non-toric extended depth of focus contact lenses for astigmatism and presbyopia correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Yehezkel, Oren; Lahav-Yacouel, Karen; Belkin, Michael; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Testing whether the extended depth of focus technology embedded on non-toric contact lenses is a suitable treatment for both astigmatism and presbyopia. Methods: The extended depth of focus pattern consisting of microndepth concentric grooves was engraved on a surface of a mono-focal soft contact lens. These grooves create an interference pattern extending the focus from a point to a length of about 1mm providing a 3.00D extension in the depth of focus. The extension in the depth of focus provides high quality focused imaging capabilities from near through intermediate and up to far ranges. Due to the angular symmetry of the engraved pattern the extension in the depth of focus can also resolve regular as well as irregular astigmatism aberrations. Results: The contact lens was tested on a group of 8 astigmatic and 13 subjects with presbyopia. Average correction of 0.70D for astigmatism and 1.50D for presbyopia was demonstrated. Conclusions: The extended depth of focus technology in a non-toric contact lens corrects simultaneously astigmatism and presbyopia. The proposed solution is based upon interference rather than diffraction effects and thus it is characterized by high energetic efficiency to the retina plane as well as reduced chromatic aberrations.

  20. Application of the astigmatic method to the thickness measurement of glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchao; Ding, Rui; Yan, Xi; Li, Li; Han, Zhiping

    2011-06-01

    We developed a high accuracy thickness measurement system for glass substrates based on the optical design of the astigmatic method. Reflective optical measurement systems are the most widely used glass thickness measurement methods in current industrial production practice. The incline of glass in reflective optical measurement system is the main factor of inaccuracy of thickness data. Compared with reflective optical measurement system, we found our design could effectively eliminate errors of glass thickness caused by slightly shifts of glass tilt. The astigmatic optical system includes a laser diode, a cylindrical lens, and a quadrant detector. This method measures the astigmatic focusing error signal induced form the measured glass placed in the astigmatic optical system. The astigmatic focusing error signal is converted into the thickness of the glass substrate. The proposed glass thickness measurement system is verified by using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). On the validation of our system using tri-ordinate measuring machine, the accuracy of the proposed system is 0.2 μm, with a standard deviation of 0.7μm within the thickness measuring range of 1.2mm.

  1. Preoperative corneal astigmatism among adult patients with cataract in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isyaku, Mohammed; Ali, Syed A; Hassan, Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of corneal astigmatism among patients with cataract has not been well-documented in the resident African population. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate preexisting corneal astigmatism in adult patients with cataract. We analyzed keratometric readings acquired by manual Javal-Schiotz keratometry before surgery between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. There were 3,169 patients (3286 eyes) aged between 16 and 110 years involved with a Male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Mean keratometry in diopters was K1 = 43.99 and K2 = 43.80. Mean corneal astigmatism was 1.16 diopter and a majority (45.92%) of eyes had astigmatism between 1.00 and 1.99 diopters. Two-thirds of the eyes (66.9%) in this study had preoperative corneal astigmatism equal to or above 1.00 diopter. Findings will help local cataract surgeons to estimate the potential demand for toric intraocular lenses. PMID:25494254

  2. Distribution and Repeatability of Corneal Astigmatism Measurements (Magnitude and Axis) Evaluated With Color Light Emitting Diode Reflection Topography

    PubMed Central

    Asimellis, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and investigate the distribution and repeatability of anterior corneal surface astigmatism measurements (axis and magnitude) using a novel corneal topographer. Methods: Anterior corneal surface astigmatism was investigated in a total of 195 eyes using a novel multicolored spot reflection topographer (Cassini; i-Optics). Two patient groups were studied, a younger-age group A and an older-age group B. Three consecutive acquisitions were obtained from each eye. The repeatability of measurement was assessed using Bland–Altman plot analysis and is reported as the coefficient of repeatability. Results: Group A (average age 34.3 years) had on average with-the-rule astigmatism, whereas the older-age group B (average age 72.3 years) had on average against-the-rule astigmatism. Average astigmatism magnitude measurement repeatability in group A was 0.4 diopters (D) and in group B 0.4 D. Average astigmatism axis measurement repeatability in group A was 5.4 degrees and in group B 5.5 degrees. The axis measurement repeatability improved with increasing magnitude of astigmatism: in the subgroups with astigmatism between 3.0 and 6.0 D, the axis repeatability was 1.4 degrees (group A) and 1.2 degrees (group B), whereas in the subgroups with astigmatism larger than 6.0 D, the repeatability was 1.1 and 0.6 degrees, respectively. Conclusions: This novel corneal topography device seems to offer high precision in reporting corneal astigmatism. This study reaffirms the established trend of a corneal astigmatism shift from an average “with-the-rule” to “against-the-rule” with aging. PMID:26057324

  3. On the calibration of astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry for microflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cierpka, C.; Rossi, M.; Segura, R.; Kähler, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry (APTV) is a method to determine three components (3C) of the velocity field in a volume (3D) using a single camera. The depth position of the particles is coded by optical distortions caused by a cylindrical lens in the optical setup. This technique is particularly suited for microfluidic applications as measurement errors due to spatial averaging and depth of correlation, typically encountered with μPIV approaches, are eliminated so that the measurement precision is enhanced. Unfortunately, the current state of the technique is limited by the small measurement region achievable with the current calibration procedures as well as by higher order image aberrations (Cierpka et al 2010 Meas. Sci. Technol. 21 045401). In order to extend the size of the measurement volume and to account for all image aberrations, a new intrinsic calibration procedure, based on the imaging function of the particles, is proposed in the paper at hand. It provides an extended measurement depth, taking into account all image aberrations. In this work, the calibration procedure was applied to a μPIV arrangement but could also be implemented on macroscopic experimental setups. The calibration procedure is qualified with synthetic data as well as Poiseuille flow in a straight rectangular micro-channel with a cross-sectional area of 200 × 500 µm2. The three-dimensional velocity distribution of the whole channel was resolved via APTV with uncertainties of 0.9% and 3.7% of the centerline velocity, uc, for the in-plane and out-of-plane components, respectively. Further investigations using different cylindrical-lens focal lengths, magnifications and particle sizes provide information about achievable measurement depths and help to design and adapt the optimal system for the desired experiment.

  4. Analyses of surgically induced astigmatism and axis deviation in microcoaxial phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Özyol, Erhan; Özyol, Pelin

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and axis deviation after coaxial microincision superotemporal clear corneal phacoemulsification incision in eyes with differently located steep axis. This prospective, comparative study included four groups of 45 eyes with age-related cataracts; each group underwent 2.2-mm superotemporal clear corneal incision (CCI) cataract surgery. The four groups of patients were divided by location of the steep axis. Groups were matched according to symmetry of the steep axis for both right and left eyes as follows--0°-45° of steep axis for right eyes, and 136°-180° for left eyes (group 1); 46°-90° for right eyes and 91°-135° for left eyes (group 2); 91°-135° for right eyes and 46°-90° for left eyes (group 3); and 136°-180° for right eyes and 0°-45° for left eyes (group 4). Outcome measures included changes in mean total astigmatism, SIA, and axis deviation. Astigmatism was measured by manual keratometry readings before surgery and week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12 postoperatively. SIA was calculated by the vector analysis (Holladay-Cravy-Koch method). The magnitude of mean total astigmatism was lowest in group 3 and highest in group 1 at week 12. SIA was 0.39 diopters (D), 0.22 D, 0.17 D, and 0.28 D in group 1, group 2, group 3, and group 4, respectively. The change in astigmatic axis deviation was highest in group 3 (23.6 ± 16.6) (P < 0.05). Axis deviation and SIA were stable after week 4. Planning of CCI on or near the steep axis can help decrease corneal astigmatism. PMID:24081915

  5. Broadband astigmatism-corrected spectrometer design using a toroidal lens and a special filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xianying; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao; Yang, Jian; Bu, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, a method to obtain a broadband, astigmatism-corrected spectrometer based on the existing Czerny-Turner spectrometer is proposed. The theories of astigmatism correction using a toroidal lens and a special filter are described in detail. Performance comparisons of the modified spectrometer and the traditional spectrometer are also presented. Results show that with the new design the RMS spot radius in sagittal view is one-eightieth of that in the traditional spectrometer over a broadband spectral range from 300 to 700 nm, without changing or moving any optical elements in the traditional spectrometer.

  6. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism and Anterior Segmental Biometry Characteristics Before Surgery in Chinese Congenital Cataract Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Duoru; Chen, Jingjing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hui; Liu, Jinchao; Chen, Weirong; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and the distribution characteristics of corneal astigmatism (CA) and anterior segment biometry before surgery in Chinese congenital cataract (CC) patients are not completely understood. This study involved 400 CC patients from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center enrolled from February 2011 to August 2015. Data on CA, keratometry, central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System. The mean age of patients was 54.27 months, and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.53:1. The mean CA was 2.03 diopters (D), and 39.25% of subjects had CA values ≥2 D. The most frequent (71.8%) diagnosis was with-the-rule astigmatism. Oblique astigmatism was present in 16.2% of cases, and 12% of cases had against-the-rule astigmatism. The mean keratometry measurement of cataractous eyes in bilateral patients was significantly larger than that in unilateral patients. Girls had a larger mean keratometry but a thinner CCT than did boys. The CA, CCT, and ACD of cataractous eyes were significantly larger than those of non-cataractous eyes in unilateral patients. The CA, mean keratometry, CCT, and ACD in CC patients varied with age, gender, and laterality. Fully understanding these characteristics may help inform guidelines and treatment decisions in CC patients. PMID:26912400

  7. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism and Anterior Segmental Biometry Characteristics Before Surgery in Chinese Congenital Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Duoru; Chen, Jingjing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hui; Liu, Jinchao; Chen, Weirong; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and the distribution characteristics of corneal astigmatism (CA) and anterior segment biometry before surgery in Chinese congenital cataract (CC) patients are not completely understood. This study involved 400 CC patients from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center enrolled from February 2011 to August 2015. Data on CA, keratometry, central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System. The mean age of patients was 54.27 months, and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.53:1. The mean CA was 2.03 diopters (D), and 39.25% of subjects had CA values ≥2 D. The most frequent (71.8%) diagnosis was with-the-rule astigmatism. Oblique astigmatism was present in 16.2% of cases, and 12% of cases had against-the-rule astigmatism. The mean keratometry measurement of cataractous eyes in bilateral patients was significantly larger than that in unilateral patients. Girls had a larger mean keratometry but a thinner CCT than did boys. The CA, CCT, and ACD of cataractous eyes were significantly larger than those of non-cataractous eyes in unilateral patients. The CA, mean keratometry, CCT, and ACD in CC patients varied with age, gender, and laterality. Fully understanding these characteristics may help inform guidelines and treatment decisions in CC patients. PMID:26912400

  8. Accurate method for measuring oblique astigmatism and oblique power of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning; Silva, Donald E.

    1991-12-01

    The measurement of oblique astigmatism error and its oblique power of ophthalmic lens under identical conditions of the human visual system--such as the distance from the center rotation of the eye to the back vertex surface of the lens--viewing distance, and lens aperture using a Mach Zehnder interferometer is describe.

  9. Normalisation of asymmetric astigmatism after intralesional steroid injection for upper eye lid hemangioma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Langmann, A; Lindner, S

    1994-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas affect about 5% (3%-8%) of the population, showing a predilection for the face. After a phase of rapid enlargement between the 3rd and the 9th month of life, 70% regress by the age of six after a period of stability. 43%-60% of the children with eye lid hemangiomas develop strabismic, anisometropic, or deprivation amblyopia. Previous studies found the majority of cases resulting from anisometropia (especially asymmetric astigmatism) rather than strabism or occlusion of the visual axis. Several methods of treatment--surgical excision, irradiation, sclerosing agents, systemic steroids, ligation, cryotherapy--have been used but all with a risk of local or systemic complications. Local injections of steroids are a simple method of therapy with a high rate of resolution of hemangiomas, but still with a high degree of bad visual output because of persistent astigmatism. In four children with asymmetric astigmatism (axis of astigmatism towards the hemangioma) in which the injection was given at the beginning of the phase of enlargement, amblyopia could be avoided by preventing corneal steepening from becoming permanent. PMID:7835197

  10. Optical-vortex pair creation and annihilation and helical astigmatism of a nonplanar ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Heckenberg, N.R.; Vaupel, M.; Malos, J.T.; Weiss, C.O.

    1996-09-01

    The creation and annihilation of pairs of optical vortices have been studied in transitions between patterns produced in a photorefractive oscillator. Smooth metamorphosis between stable patterns occurs through pair creation or annihilation but can be modeled using superposition of modes taking into account lifting of degeneracy of helical modes by helical astigmatism of the resonator. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Observation of lasing modes with exotic localized wave patterns from astigmatic large-Fresnel-number cavities.

    PubMed

    Lu, T H; Lin, Y C; Liang, H C; Huang, Y J; Chen, Y F; Huang, K F

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the lasing modes in large-Fresnel-number laser systems with astigmatism effects. Experimental results reveal that numerous lasing modes are concentrated on exotic patterns corresponding to intriguing geometries. We theoretically use the quantum operator algebra to construct the wave representation for manifesting the origin of the localized wave patterns. PMID:20125716

  12. Modified pocket incision: a simplified technique for astigmatism control and wound closure.

    PubMed

    Kansas, P G

    1989-01-01

    Advantages of small incision cataract surgery are widely known whether performed with phacoemulsification or manual fragmentation (phacofracture). A modified pocket incision technique that allows predictable astigmatism control without reliance on expensive intraoperative keratometers is described. This technique requires less dissection than the pocket incision and is less likely to bleed. PMID:2646435

  13. The role of sideport incision in astigmatism change after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Theodoulidou, Sofia; Asproudis, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Athanasiadis, Aristidis; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the changes in corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery when the sideport incision is performed at a predetermined location away from the tunnel incision. Setting General Hospital of Piraeus “Tzaneio”, Attiki, Greece. Materials and methods A total of 333 eyes with corneal astigmatism ≤1.5 diopters (D) underwent cataract surgery. A three-step superotemporal clear corneal incision for the right eye and a superonasal clear corneal incision for the left eye (3.0 mm) was made, while the sideport incision was located at <90°, 90°–110°, and >110°. Keratometric data were measured with corneal topography EyeSys Vista 2000 pre- and postoperatively at the 1st and 6th month. Surgically induced astigmatism was calculated by vector analysis. We noted all cases in which a change >0.5 D in corneal astigmatic power occurred, as well as a change >20° in axis torque, despite axis direction. Results After multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted, cases with >110° distance between the tunnel and sideport incision had 2.22 times (P=0.021) greater likelihood for having changed >0.5 D in astigmatic power at the 1st month and 3.45 times (P=0.031) at the 6th month postoperatively, as compared with cases with a 90°–110° distance between the tunnel and sideport incision. As for the change in the astigmatic axis, cases with <90° distance had a 4.18 times greater likelihood for having a change >20° (P<0.001) (preoperative to 1st month) as compared with cases having 90°–110° of distance. Conclusion For surgeons that operate only from the superior position, we propose that in order to produce an incision that is as “astigmatically neutral” as possible, they should perform the sideport incision at a 90°–110° distance. PMID:26346741

  14. Optimum form of posterior chamber intraocular lenses to minimize aberrational astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Takei, K; Hommura, S; Okajima, H

    1995-01-01

    To optically determine the optimum form for a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL), we calculated the aberrational astigmatism induced by tilt and decentration of the PCIOL using an exact raytracing. First, the position and the radii of curvatures of the IOL were determined to make an emmetropic eye model using a paraxial raytracing. Next, the chief rays originating from the fovea centralis were traced backward through the tilted and/or decentrated PC IOL, the center of the pupil and the cornea, using trigonometric raytracing. Finally, the maximum and minimum aberrational astigmatism were calculated based on the Coddington's Equations for the sagittal and the tangential foci of the ray. All the refractive parameters in Gullstrand's No. 1 schematic eye were adopted. The effect of varying anterior corneal asphericity on the results was also examined. Four forms of polymethylmethacrylate PC IOLs (refractive index: 1.491) were analyzed; a plano-convex IOL with the curved surface facing the cornea, and three bi-convex forms with the ratio of anterior-to-posterior radii of curvatures of 1:4, 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The 1:4 bi-convex form showed the lowest values for the maximum aberrational astigmatism calculated at every combination of tilt and decentration except 0 degrees tilt and/or 0 mm decentration. The aberrational astigmatism with the 1:4 bi-convex form of PC IOL did not exceed 1.0 D at the maximum tilt and decentration. The variation of anterior corneal asphericity did not influence the results. We conclude that the 1:4 bi-convex form of PC IOL minimizes the postoperative astigmatism induced by tilt and/or decentration of the lens. PMID:8926647

  15. Extended depth of focus intra-ocular lens: a solution for presbyopia and astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, Alex; Raveh, Ido; Ben Yaish, Shai; Yehezkel, Oren; Belkin, Michael; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Subjects after cataract removal and intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation lose their accommodation capability and are left with a monofocal visual system. The IOL refraction and the precision of the surgery determine the focal distance and amount of astigmatic aberrations. We present a design, simulations and experimental bench testing of a novel, non-diffractive, non-multifocal, extended depth of focus (EDOF) technology incorporated into an IOL that allows the subject to have astigmatic and chromatic aberrations-free continuous focusing ability from 35cm to infinity as well as increased tolerance to IOL decentration. Methods: The EDOF element was engraved on a surface of a monofocal rigid IOL as a series of shallow (less than one micron deep) concentric grooves around the optical axis. These grooves create an interference pattern extending the focus from a point to a length of about one mm providing a depth of focus of 3.00D (D stands for Diopters) with negligible loss of energy at any point of the focus while significantly reducing the astigmatic aberration of the eye and that generated during the IOL implantation. The EDOF IOL was tested on an optical bench simulating the eye model. In the experimental testing we have explored the characteristics of the obtained EDOF capability, the tolerance to astigmatic aberrations and decentration. Results: The performance of the proposed IOL was tested for pupil diameters of 2 to 5mm and for various spectral illuminations. The MTF charts demonstrate uniform performance of the lens for up to 3.00D at various illumination wavelengths and pupil diameters while preserving a continuous contrast of above 25% for spatial frequencies of up to 25 cycles/mm. Capability of correcting astigmatism of up to 1.00D was measured. Conclusions: The proposed EDOF IOL technology was tested by numerical simulations as well as experimentally characterized on an optical bench. The new lens is capable of solving presbyopia and astigmatism

  16. Diamond burr superficial keratectomy with mitomycin C for corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism after pterygium excision

    PubMed Central

    Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Kara, Necip; Yildirim, Aydin; Alkin, Zeynep; Bozkurt, Ercument; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to report the successful treatment of corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism secondary to previous pterygium surgery with diamond burr superficial keratectomy using mitomycin C. Methods Four patients with corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism related to previous pterygium surgery underwent diamond burr superficial keratectomy with application of mitomycin C. Anterior segment photography and corneal topographic analysis were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively in all patients. Results Six months after surgery, corneal astigmatism and corneal aberrations were reduced in all patients. A clear cornea was achieved in all cases. No complications were noted during the follow-up period. Conclusion Diamond burr superficial keratectomy with application of mitomycin C is a potentially effective and simple procedure for treating patients with corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism secondary to previous pterygium surgery. PMID:23737657

  17. Phacoemulsification with corneal astigmatism correction with the use of a toric intraocular lens in a case of megalocornea.

    PubMed

    Rękas, Marek; Pawlik, Rafał; Kluś, Adam; Różycki, Radosław; Szaflik, Jacek Paweł; Ołdak, Monika

    2011-08-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old patient with megalocornea and coexisting corneal astigmatism. The corneal diameter in the right eye was 15.0 mm and in the left eye, 14.9 mm. In both eyes, a nuclear sclerotic cataract developed, with the tendency toward cortical mass swelling in the right eye. The aim of surgical treatment was to remove the cataract with simultaneous correction of corneal astigmatism by implanting an Acrysof toric intraocular lens (IOL). Intraocular lens stabilization was obtained by suturing it to an capsular tension ring (CTR) in the anterior chamber. The IOL-CTR complex was rotated into the lens capsule and aligned with the steep meridian of corneal astigmatism. The surgical technique provides a stable refractive and functional effect in patients with megalocornea and coexisting cataract and corneal astigmatism. PMID:21782100

  18. Effect of Pupil Size on Optical Quality Parameters in Astigmatic Eyes Using a Double-Pass Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yanome, Kyohei; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To objectively determine the effects of pupil size on optical quality parameters in astigmatic eyes using a double-pass instrument. Methods. We examined twenty-two eyes of 22 healthy volunteers (mean age ± standard deviation, 27.1 ± 2.8 years) who had no ophthalmic diseases other than refractive errors (manifest cylinder ≤0.25 diopters (D)). After we fully corrected cycloplegic refraction, we created with-the-rule astigma tism of 1, 2, and 3 diopters in these eyes and then quantitatively assessed the modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff frequency and the Strehl2D ratio with 2-, 4-, and 6-mm pupil sizes using the Optical Quality Analysis System. Results. The MTF cutoff frequency and the Strehl2D ratio decreased significantly as the amount of astigmatism increased at each pupil size (P < 0.001 for 2, 4, and 6 mm, analysis of variance). They also decreased significantly with an increase in pupil size at each diopter of astigmatism (P < 0.001 for 0, 1, 2, and 3 D). Multiple comparisons demonstrated a significant difference between measurements made for a 2-mm pupil and for a 6-mm pupil at each diopter of astigmatism (P < 0.001 for 0, 1, 2, and 3 D, Dunnett test) and those made for a 4-mm pupil and for a 6-mm pupil at each diopter of astigmatism (P < 0.001 for 0 D, P < 0.05 1, 2, and 3 D). Conclusions. Eyes with larger pupils had lower optical quality even when they were astigmatic. It may be necessary to correct the preexisting astigmatism to acquire excellent visual performance, especially in astigmatic eyes with larger pupils. PMID:23865038

  19. Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De la Cruz, A.; Ferrer, A.; del Hoyo, J.; Siegel, J.; Solis, J.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we report a model for accurately calculating the focal volumes corresponding to astigmatic elliptical beams used in fs-laser waveguide writing. The model is based on the use of the ABCD matrix formalism for the propagation of a Gaussian beam. The code includes the effects of propagation on the astigmatic elliptical beam, and the effects of beam truncation and diffraction at the entrance pupil of the focusing objective due to beam clipping when overfilling the pupil. The results predict that for a given astigmatism value and propagation distance it is possible to efficiently suppress the astigmatic focus closer to the surface. This explains previous experimental results where single structure waveguides with controllable aspect-ratio were fabricated using astigmatic-elliptical beams. Furthermore, we investigate the respective roles of astigmatism and beam propagation, as well as the strong impact of truncation and diffraction effects caused by clipping the beam at the pupil of the focusing optics. Finally, based on the results from our model, we present some practical considerations in terms of beam propagation and phase wrapping constraints.

  20. Experimentally determining the locations of two astigmatic images for an underwater light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pao-Keng; Liu, Jian-You; Ying, Shang-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Images formed by an underwater object from light rays refracted in the sagittal and tangential planes are located at different positions for an oblique viewing position. The overlapping of these two images from the observer's perspective will thus prevent the image-splitting astigmatism from being directly observable. In this work, we present a heuristic method to experimentally visualize the astigmatism. A point light source is used as an underwater object and the emerging wave front is recorded using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. The wave front is found to deform from a circular paraboloid to an elliptic paraboloid as the viewing position changes from normal to oblique. Using geometric optics, we derive an analytical expression for the image position as a function of the rotating angle of an arm used to carry the wave-front sensor in our experimental setup. The measured results are seen to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  1. Effects of astigmatic aberration in holographic generation of Laguerre-Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Ohtani, Takumi; Nishihara, Noboru; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2001-05-01

    The Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an optical beam with a phase singularity that propagates along its axis. We have previously reported the fabrication of blazed transmission phase holograms to generate beams with phase singularities. A common problem encountered in the generation of a phase singularity with high charge is that the singularity tends to split into m individual charge 1 singularities, where m is the charge of the original singularity. We have found through numerical simulation that astigmatic aberration can cause a higher-charge phase singularity to split. We have also found that strong astigmatic aberrations make the resulting beam close to a Hermite-Gaussian beam rather than an LG beam. Experimental investigation of these phenomena agree with the numerical simulation.

  2. Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittel, H.; Lück, H.; Affeldt, C.; Dooley, K. L.; Grote, H.; Leong, J. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Schreiber, E.; Slutsky, J.; Strain, K.; Was, M.; Willke, B.; Danzmann, K.

    2014-03-01

    The output port of GEO 600 is dominated by unwanted higher order modes (HOMs). The current thermal actuation system, a ring heater behind one of the folding mirrors, causes a significant amount of astigmatism, which produces HOMs. We have built and installed an astigmatism correction system, based on heating this folding mirror at the sides (laterally). With these side heaters and the ring heater behind the mirror, it is possible to tune its radius of curvature in the horizontal and the vertical degree of freedom. We use this system to match the mirrors in the two arms of GEO 600 to each other, thereby reducing the contrast defect. The use of the side heaters reduces the power of the HOMs at the output of GEO 600 by approximately 37%.

  3. Correcting variable third-order astigmatism introduced by conformal aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Michael R.

    1998-09-01

    Conformal dome surfaces may enhance the overall performance of missile systems employing optical sensors by providing a more aerodynamically shaped airframe, however realistic implementation of these highly aspheric surfaces is currently limited by the severe image aberrations they introduce to the transmitted wavefront. This paper proposes an optical correction technique designed to combat the large magnitude and varying nature of third order astigmatism introduced by conformal missile domes. The newly developed technique utilizes axial translation of crossed cylindrical elements to provide variable astigmatism correction as a function of sensor gimbal angle. Theoretical motivation for the optical correction technique is provided, and its performance is assessed in a sample conformal dome and optical sensor systems.

  4. Detecting higher-order wavefront errors with an astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Shane

    2009-06-01

    The reconstruction of wavefront errors from measurements over subapertures can be made more accurate if a fully characterized quadratic surface can be fitted to the local wavefront surface. An astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor with added neural network postprocessing is shown to have this capability, provided that the focal image of each subaperture is sufficiently sampled. Furthermore, complete local curvature information is obtained with a single image without splitting beam power. PMID:19488150

  5. Astigmatism and gain guiding in Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Gatz, S; Herrmann, J

    1995-04-15

    The effects of astigmatism and the radial variation of the gain on Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM) are studied with the help of an extended ABCD matrix formalism. A dramatic broadening of the allowed cavity parameter region is predicted that permits KLM in almost the whole stability region. The cavity design for KLM with an aperture differs significantly from the design for KLM without an aperture, because of the saturable diffraction loss. PMID:19859342

  6. Beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams in highly nonlocal nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen-Feng; Jiang, Xue-Song; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Li, Jian-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Min

    We investigate the beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams propagating in highly nonlocal nonlinear media. The input-power-induced different evolutions of the beam width are illustrated: (i) the beam widths in two transverse directions are compressed or broadened at the same time; (ii) the beam width in one transverse direction keeps invariant, and the other is compressed or broadened; (iii) furthermore, the beam width in one transverse direction is compressed, whereas it in the other transverse direction is broadened.

  7. Causes of focus-error feedthrough in optical-disk systems: astigmatic and obscuration methods.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, B E; Mansuripur, M

    1994-02-10

    High-density magneto-optical recording systems require sensitive and robust focus position sensors that are immune to transient changes in the amplitude and the phase of the light diffracted from pregrooved media during the seek operation. The false focus-error signal produced by track crossing during seeking is termed feedthrough. Total immunity to feedthrough is never achieved, although some focus-error detection methods, notably the obscuration method, perform better in this regard. The astigmatic focus-error detection method is usually operated with a large astigmatic foci separation distance to facilitate detector alignment and to permit push-pull tracking, which increases pattern noise and contributes to its poor resistance to feedthrough. Pattern noise is caused by the projection of the intensity pattern at the exit pupil of the objective lens onto the detector plane, at which it produces false focus-error signals. The obscuration method, a diffraction-limited method of focus-error sensing, evens out his pattern noise and is therefore more resistant to feedthrough. We present numerical modeling results that compare the feedthrough performance of the astigmatic and the obscuration methods of focus-error detection. PMID:20862069

  8. Use of a Toric Intraocular Lens and a Limbal-Relaxing Incision for the Management of Astigmatism in Combined Glaucoma and Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Allister

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report the surgical management of a patient with glaucoma undergoing cataract surgery with high preexisting astigmatism. A combination of techniques was employed for her astigmatism management. Methods A 76-year-old female with 5.5 dpt of corneal astigmatism underwent surgery in her left eye consisting of one-site trabeculectomy, phacoemulsification, toric intraocular lens implantation and a single inferior limbal-relaxing incision. Results Intraocular pressure control was achieved with no medication at 11 mm Hg; before the filtering procedure, the pressure was 16 mm Hg on two topical drugs. Astigmatism was reduced to 0.75 dpt, and both corrected and uncorrected visual acuity improved. Conclusions Astigmatism management can have a good outcome in combined procedures. We encourage surgeons to address astigmatism in the preoperative planning of patients undergoing glaucoma surgery associated with phacoemulsification. PMID:27293408

  9. Cataract Surgery in Eyes with Low Corneal Astigmatism: Implantation of the Acrysof IQ Toric SN6AT2 Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Jaskirat S; Vincent, Stephen J; White, Shane; Panchapakesan, Jai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the refractive and visual outcomes following cataract surgery and implantation of the AcrySof IQ Toric SN6AT2 intraolcular lens (IOL) (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA) in patients with low corneal astigmatism. Methods: This study is a retrospective, consecutive, single surgeon series of 98 eyes of 88 patients (with low preoperative corneal astigmatism) undergoing cataract surgery and implantation of the AcrySof IQ Toric SN6AT2 IOL. Postoperative measurements were obtained 1-month postsurgery. Main outcome measures were monocular distance visual acuity and residual refractive astigmatism. Results: Mean preoperative corneal astigmatic power vector (APV) was 0.38±0.09 D. Following surgery and implantation of the toric IOL, mean postoperative refractive APV was 0.13±0.10 D. Mean postoperative distance uncorrected visual acuity was 0.08±0.09 logMAR. Postoperative spherical equivalent refraction (SER) resulted in a mean of –0.23±0.22 D, with 96% of eyes falling within 0.50 D of the target SER. Conclusion: The AcrySof IQ Toric SN6AT2 IOL is a safe and effective option for eyes undergoing cataract surgery with low levels of preoperative corneal astigmatism. PMID:25667733

  10. Performance comparison between Shack-Hartmann and astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensors.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Shane

    2009-12-20

    Simulations on Kolmogorov phase screens are employed to compare the relative performance of an astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor (AHS) to that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). The AHS is shown to improve phase reconstruction accuracy when the subaperture phase contains significant energy in curvature modes and a moderate to high number of photons are collected. Dual use of the AHS and SHS may extend enhanced reconstruction to low signal levels. The AHS is also shown to have a small benefit for tilt-only reconstruction when the beam has sufficient power. PMID:20029599

  11. Six-month results of hyperopic and astigmatic LASIK in eyes with primary and secondary hyperopia.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, R L; Hardten, D R; Houtman, D M; Witte, B; Preschel, N; Chu, Y R; Samuelson, T W; Linebarger, E J

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism and develop a LASIK nomogram for primary hyperopia or hyperopia secondary to myopic refractive surgery using the VISX STAR S2. METHODS: Prospective evaluation of LASIK in 46 primary eyes and 29 secondary eyes with fogged manifest sphere from +0.5 diopters (D) to +6.0 D and cylinder from 0 to +5.0 D. RESULTS: Mean manifest spherical equivalent (SE) in patients with primary hyperopia was +2.50 D +/- 0.93 preoperatively and +0.70 D +/- 1.19 at 6 months. At 6 months, 79% of primary hyperopes had uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/40 or better; 63% were within +/- 1 D of emmetropia. One primary hyperope lost 2 lines of best spectacle-corrected vision (BCVA) at 1 month. Complications included transient epithelial defect (6.5%), epithelial cells in the interface (4.3%), diffuse lamellar keratitis (4.3%), haze (2.2%), and mild irregular astigmatism (2.2%). In those with secondary hyperopia, mean manifest SE was +1.70 D +/- 0.82 preoperatively and -0.27 D +/- 0.95 at 6 months. At 6 months, 83% of secondary hyperopes had UCVA of 20/40 or better; 74% were within +/- 1 D of emmetropia. No secondary hyperope lost > or = 2 lines of BCVA. Complications included intraoperative bleeding (3.4%), intraoperative epithelial defect (3.4%), transient interface debris (3.4%), significant dry eye (3.4%), blood in interface (3.4%), irregular astigmatism (6.9%), slight decentration (6.9%), trace haze (6.9%), mild epithelial ingrowth not requiring removal (3.4%), or corneal irregularity (3.4%). CONCLUSION: These early data suggest that LASIK for hyperopia from +0.5 to +6 D and astigmatism from 0 to +5 D using the VISX STAR S2 benefits from a nomogram adjusted for preoperative refraction, age, and prior refractive surgery and is safe and effective. Patients with secondary hyperopia achieved more correction than those with primary hyperopia, although the accuracy and

  12. Wide measurement range scanning heterodyne interferometer utilizing astigmatic position sensing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngkyu; Kim, Kyoung-Eop; Kim, Seong-Jin; Park, June-Gyu; Joo, Young-Hun; Shin, Bu Hyun; Lee, Seung-Yop; Cho, Kyuman

    2011-08-01

    A scanning heterodyne I/Q-interferometer scheme is proposed to overcome phase ambiguity caused by the periodic nature of its phase-dependent signal. A position sensing scheme using an astigmatic method in the confocal arrangement has been interfaced to the interferometer to retrieve the real phase value during a scanning process. The experimental results show that the vertical measurement range can be expanded up to 16μm. The potential of this interferometer on the scanning microscopy of a rough surface is discussed.

  13. A Michelson controlled-not gate with a single-lens astigmatic mode converter.

    PubMed

    Souza, C E R; Khoury, A Z

    2010-04-26

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. As an application, we implement a controlled-not gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. As a further application, we also build a transverse mode parity sorter which can be useful for quantum information processing as a measurement device for the transverse mode qubit. PMID:20588767

  14. Effects of thermal lensing on stability and astigmatic compensation of a Z-fold laser cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.G.; Lee, W.K.; Wong, S.P.; Zhou, J.Y.; Yu, Z.X.

    1996-12-01

    The {ital ABCD} transfer matrix method is used to study the stability of a Z-fold cavity with two concave and two flat mirrors and a Brewster-cut crystal. Analytical solutions of stable regions of the cavity without thermal lensing have been obtained. The influences of thermal lensing on stability, beam waists, and astigmatic compensation are discussed. By use of a Ti:sapphire laser with a Z-fold cavity, lasing action was achieved in the predicted stable subregions that are accessible. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  15. [Astigmatism following cataract surgery: comparison following wound closure with nylon suture and Mersilene].

    PubMed

    Bigar, F

    1990-05-01

    Mersilene (polyester fiber) is stronger and less elastic than nylon suture material. In contrast to nylon, Mersilene does not appear to be susceptible to biodegradation in the long term. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the regression of surgically induced astigmatism following extracapsular cataract extraction and lens implantation with a conventional 150 degree corneoscleral incision was in the same range with nylon monofilament 10-0 and Mersilene 10-0. With nylon single sutures (14 patients) there was a reduction from 3.5 and with Mersilene (12 patients) from 3.9 to 0.9 diopters. PMID:2195225

  16. Astigmatic phase correction for the magneto-optic spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Carcole, E; Davis, J A; Cottrell, D M

    1995-08-10

    We report a simple low-cost technique for evaluating the phase distortion in a magneto-optic spatial light modulator. We find that the dominant distortion is caused by astigmatism and is easily compensated by encoding of the complex-conjugate pattern onto the device. Two experimental results are shown. First, the focused spot size from a Fresnel lens is sharpened when the aberrations are corrected. Second, we show that the pattern that generates a first-order Bessel-function nondiffracting beam does not work unless the aberrations are corrected. PMID:21052357

  17. Astigmatic multifocus microscopy enables deep 3D super-resolved imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Abrahamsson, Sara; Mazenq, Laurent; Lecestre, Aurélie; Calmon, Pierre-François; Cerf, Aline; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a 3D super-resolution microscopy method that enables deep imaging in cells. This technique relies on the effective combination of multifocus microscopy and astigmatic 3D single-molecule localization microscopy. We describe the optical system and the fabrication process of its key element, the multifocus grating. Then, two strategies for localizing emitters with our imaging method are presented and compared with a previously described deep 3D localization algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the method by imaging the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells reaching a depth of field of ~4µm. PMID:27375935

  18. Astigmatic multifocus microscopy enables deep 3D super-resolved imaging.

    PubMed

    Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Abrahamsson, Sara; Mazenq, Laurent; Lecestre, Aurélie; Calmon, Pierre-François; Cerf, Aline; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a 3D super-resolution microscopy method that enables deep imaging in cells. This technique relies on the effective combination of multifocus microscopy and astigmatic 3D single-molecule localization microscopy. We describe the optical system and the fabrication process of its key element, the multifocus grating. Then, two strategies for localizing emitters with our imaging method are presented and compared with a previously described deep 3D localization algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the method by imaging the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells reaching a depth of field of ~4µm. PMID:27375935

  19. Influence of astigmatism on the fabrication of diffractive structures by use of focused ion-beam milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongqi; Bryan, Ngoi Kok Ann

    2004-08-01

    Astigmatism exists in a focused-ion-beam (FIB) system and causes the shape of a beam spot to change from a normal circle to an ellipse. This variation influences the fabrication of diffractive structures by use of programmable controlled milling of a FIB. It is analyzed combined with the fabrication of blazed gratings and Fresnel diffractive lenses. Fabrication errors caused by a beam spot with astigmatism is discussed in detail for four cases of the long axis of an ellipse (a) in accordance with the X axis, (b) in accordance with the Y axis, (c) at 45° with the X axis, and (d) at -45° with the X axis. Finally, a method is given for correction of the astigmatism and how to determine the circularity of the beam spot qualitatively.

  20. Long-term outcomes of wedge resection at the limbus for high irregular corneal astigmatism after repaired corneal laceration

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Zheng, Guang-Ying; Wen, Cheng-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Zhu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical value of wedge resection at corneal limbus in patients with traumatic corneal scarring and high irregular astigmatism. METHODS Patients with traumatic corneal astigmatism received wedge resection at least 6mo after suture removal from corneal wound. The uncorrected distance visual acuities (UCVA) and best corrected distance visual acuities (BCVA), pre- and post-operation astigmatism, spherical equivalent (SE), safety and complications were evaluated. RESULTS Ten eyes (10 patients) were enrolled in this study. Mean follow-up time after wedge resection was 37.8±15.4mo (range, 20-61mo). The mean UCVA improved from +1.07±0.55 logMAR to +0.43±0.22 logMAR (P=0.000) and the mean BCVA from +0.50±0.30 logMAR to +0.15±0.17 logMAR (P=0.000). The mean astigmatism power measured by retinoscopy was -2.03±2.27 D postoperatively and -2.83±4.52 D preoperatively (P=0.310). The mean SE was -0.74±1.61 D postoperatively and -0.64±1.89 D preoperatively (P=0.601). Two cases developed mild pannus near the sutures. No corneal perforation, infectious keratitis or wound gape occurred. CONCLUSION Corneal-scleral limbal wedge resection with compression suture is a safe, effective treatment for poor patients with high irregular corneal astigmatism after corneal-scleral penetrating injury. Retinoscopy can prove particularly useful for high irregular corneal astigmatism when other measurements are not amenable. PMID:27366685

  1. Optimization of nonimaging focusing heliostat in dynamic correction of astigmatism for a wide range of incident angles.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2010-05-15

    To overcome astigmatism has always been a great challenge in designing a heliostat capable of focusing the sunlight on a small receiver throughout the year. In this Letter, a nonimaging focusing heliostat with a dynamic adjustment of facet mirrors in a group manner has been analyzed for optimizing the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angles. This what is to the author's knowledge a new heliostat is not only designed to serve the purpose of concentrating sunlight to several hundreds of suns, but also to significantly reduce the variation of the solar flux distribution with the incident angle. PMID:20479826

  2. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and provides for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into one of different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  3. Characterization of a tunable astigmatic fluidic lens with adaptive optics correction for compact phoropter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2014-07-01

    Fluidically controlled lenses which adaptively correct prescribed refractive error without mechanically moving parts are extensively applied in the ophthalmic applications. Capable of variable-focusing properties, however, the associated aberrations due to curvature change and refractive index mismatch can inherently degrade image quality severely. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable astigmatic lens and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Characterization of the optical properties of the individual lenses is carried out by Shack-Hartmann measurements. An adaptive optics (AO) based scheme is demonstrated for three injected fluidic volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from -0.12, -0.25, -0.32 to 0.01, -0.01, -0.20 μm, respectively, corresponding to the optical power tenability of 0.83 to 1.84 D. Furthermore, an integrated optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic lenses and AO correction is demonstrated such that an induced refraction error of -1 D cylinder at 180° of a model eye vision is experimentally corrected.

  4. A microfluidic fluorescence measurement system using an astigmatic diffractive microlens array

    SciTech Connect

    Schonbrun, E.; Steinvurzel, P.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-01-12

    We demonstrate an opto-fluidic detection system based on an array of astigmatic diffractive microlenses integrated into a microfluidic flow focus device. Each astigmatic microlens produces a line excitation across the channel and collects fluorescence emission from the linear detection regions. The linear excitation spot results in uniform excitation across the channel and high time resolution in the direction of the flow. Collected fluorescence from each integrated microlens is relayed to a sub-region on a fast CMOS camera. By analyzing the signal from individual microlenses, we demonstrate counting and resolution of 500 nm and 1.1 μm beads at rates of up to 8,300 per second at multiple locations. In addition, a cross-correlation analysis of the signals from different microlenses yields the velocity dispersion of beads traveling through the channel at peak speeds as high as 560 mm/s. Arrays of specifically designed diffractive optics promise to increase the resolution and functionality of opto-fluidic analysis such as flow cytometry and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

  5. Astigmatism management in cataract surgery with Precizon® toric intraocular lens: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Carolina; Menezes, Carlos; Firmino-Machado, J; Rodrigues, Pedro; Lume, Miguel; Tenedório, Paula; Menéres, Pedro; Brochado, Maria do Céu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes and rotational stability of the new aspheric Precizon® toric intraocular lens (IOL) for the correction of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery. Setting Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Geral de Santo António – Centro Hospitalar do Porto, EPE and Hospital de Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal. Design This was a prospective clinical study. Patients and methods A total of 40 eyes of 27 patients with corneal astigmatism greater than 1.0 diopter (D) underwent cataract surgery with implantation of Precizon® toric IOL. IOL power calculation was performed using optical coherence biometry (IOLMaster®). Outcomes of uncorrected (UDVA) and best-spectacle corrected distance visual acuities (BCDVA), refraction, and IOL rotation were analyzed at the 1st week, 1st, 3rd, and 6th month’s evaluations. Results The median postoperative UDVA was better than preoperative best-spectacle corrected distance visual acuity (0.02 [0.06] logMAR vs 0.19 [0.20] logMAR, P<0.001). At 6 months, postoperative UDVA was 0.1 logMAR or better in 95% of the eyes. At last follow-up, the mean spherical equivalent was reduced from −3.35±3.10 D to −0.02±0.30 D (P<0.001) with 97.5% of the eyes within ±0.50 D of emmetropia. The mean preoperative keratometric cylinder was 2.34±0.95 D and the mean postoperative refractive cylinder was 0.24±0.27 D (P<0.001). The mean IOL rotation was 2.43°±1.55°. None of the IOLs required realignment. Conclusion Precizon® toric IOL revealed very good rotational stability and performance regarding predictability, efficacy, and safety in the correction of preexisting regular corneal astigmatism associated with cataract surgery. PMID:26855559

  6. Higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity in Native American children with a high prevalence of astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph M.; Harvey, Erin M.; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in children from a highly astigmatic population differ from population norms and whether HOAs are associated with astigmatism and reduced best-corrected visual acuity. Methods Subjects were 218 Tohono O’odham Native American children 5–9 years of age. Noncycloplegic HOA measurements were obtained with a handheld Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). Signed (z06s to z14s) and unsigned (z06u to z14u) wavefront aberration Zernike coefficients Z(3,−3) to Z(4,4) were rescaled for a 4 mm diameter pupil and compared to adult population norms. Cycloplegic refraction and best-corrected logMAR letter visual acuity (BCVA) were also measured. Regression analyses assessed the contribution of astigmatism (J0) and HOAs to BCVA. Results The mean root-mean-square (RMS) HOA of 0.191 ± 0.072 μm was significantly greater than population norms (0.100 ± 0.044 μm. All unsigned HOA coefficients (z06u to z14u) and all signed coefficients except z09s, z10s, and z11s were significantly larger than population norms. Decreased BCVA was associated with astigmatism (J0) and spherical aberration (z12u) but not RMS coma, with the effect of J0 about 4 times as great as z12u. Conclusions Tohono O’odham children show elevated HOAs compared to population norms. Astigmatism and unsigned spherical aberration are associated with decreased acuity, but the effects of spherical aberration are minimal and not clinically significant. PMID:26239206

  7. Advanced astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer in spectral broadband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hai-fang

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports an advanced Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the excellent imaging quality, a cylindrical lens with a wedge angle is used between the focusing mirror and the imaging plane to remove astigmatism in broadband. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrometer in the waveband of 260nm~520nm has been designed to prove our theory. It yields the excellent modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view which are more than 0.75 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20lp/mm).

  8. The origin of the Gouy phase anomaly and its generalization to astigmatic wavefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, T. D.; Wolf, E.

    2010-09-01

    One of the most poorly understood subjects in physical optics is the origin of the Gouy phase (sometimes called "the phase anomaly near focus"). This is evident from the large number of publications on the subject, many of which attribute it to quite different causes. In this paper we show that the Gouy phase anomaly can be clearly understood from elementary properties of normal congruences of light rays and from the relationship between geometrical optics and physical optics. We also show that the Gouy phase anomaly may be regarded as a degenerate case of a rapid π/2 phase change that is found to occur at each focal line of an astigmatic pencil of rays. The intensity distribution in the region of the phase changes is also presented. Furthermore, symmetry relations for both the phase anomaly and the intensity distribution are derived.

  9. Visual instrument image quality metrics and the effects of coma and astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Mouroulis, P; Zhang, H P

    1992-01-01

    We examine subjective contrast and edge sharpness discrimination in the presence of different amounts of coma, astigmatism, and combinations of these two aberrations. We also examine the correlation between subjective results and objective image quality measures. These include the integral of the modulation transfer function (MTF) across the frequency range of interest (MTFa), the Strehl ratio, the variance of the wave-front aberration, and the radius of 84% encircled energy of the point-spread function (R84). For the target orientation that is most affected by the aberrations, we find that the MTFa and R84 give good correlation, while the Strehl ratio and the variance do not. In addition, we find that the MTFa correlates with subjective results for all target orientations. We discuss the implications of the results on the automated assessment of the image quality of visual instruments. PMID:1738049

  10. Slow tool servo diamond turning of optical freeform surface for astigmatic contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chou, Hsiao-Yu; Wang, Pei-Jen; Tsai, Din Ping

    2011-09-01

    Three ultra-precision machining processes namely fast tool servo, slow tool servo and diamond milling, are frequently used to produce optical freeform surface. Slow tool servo machining has the advantages of no extra attachment and fast setting-up, however the three dimensional tool shape compensation and tool-path generation must be conducted carefully for getting high form accuracy and fine surface finish. This research aimed to develop a model of three dimensional tool shape compensation for generating 3D tool path in slow tool servo diamond turning of asymmetrically toric surface for astigmatic contact lens. The form accuracy of freeform surface was measured by ultra-high accuracy 3D profilometer (UA3P) with user define function. After correction, the form error is less than 0.5μm both in X- and Y-direction and the surface roughness is less than 5nm.

  11. Modeling of the general astigmatic Gaussian beam and its propagation through 3D optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kochkina, Evgenia; Wanner, Gudrun; Schmelzer, Dennis; Tröbs, Michael; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2013-08-20

    The paper introduces the complete model of the general astigmatic Gaussian beam as the most general case of the Gaussian beam in the fundamental mode. This includes the laws of propagation, reflection, and refraction as well as the equations for extracting from the complex-valued beam description its real-valued parameters, such as the beam spot radii and the radii of curvature of the wavefront. The suggested model is applicable to the case of an oblique incidence of the beam at any 3D surface that can be approximated by the second-order equation at the point of incidence. Thus it can be used in simulations of a large variety of 3D optical systems. The provided experimental validation of the model shows good agreement with simulations. PMID:24085008

  12. Extended wavelet transformation to digital holographic reconstruction: application to the elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Remacha, Clément; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Brunel, Marc; Lebrun, Denis

    2013-02-01

    Wavelet analysis provides an efficient tool in numerous signal processing problems and has been implemented in optical processing techniques, such as in-line holography. This paper proposes an improvement of this tool for the case of an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian (AEG) beam. We show that this mathematical operator allows reconstructing an image of a spherical particle without compression of the reconstructed image, which increases the accuracy of the 3D location of particles and of their size measurement. To validate the performance of this operator we have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle illuminated by an AEG beam. This study used mutual intensity propagation, and the particle is defined as a chirped Gaussian sum. The proposed technique was applied and the experimental results are presented. PMID:23385926

  13. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism between one-handed and two-handed cataract surgery techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Asushi; Kurosaka, Daijiro; Yoshida, Aktoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) between one-handed and two-handed cataract surgery techniques. Methods Eighty-eight eyes of 44 patients with no ocular disease other than cataract, who underwent cataract surgery by a single surgeon, were selected for this study. Cataract surgery was performed by coaxial phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation via a 2.4 mm transconjunctival single-plane sclerocorneal incision at the 12 o’clock position. In each patient, one eye was subjected to coaxial phacoemulsification using a one-handed technique while the fellow eye was subjected to coaxial phacoemulsification using a two-handed technique. For the two-handed technique, a corneal side port was created at the 2 o’clock position. The appropriate incision meridian was identified by a preoperative axis mark. SIA was calculated using the Alpins method. Results Mean SIA was 0.40 ± 0.28 diopters (D) in the one-handed technique group and 0.39 ± 0.25 D in the two-handed technique group. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean SIA score. The mean torque value was −0.05 ± 0.26 D in the one-handed technique group and 0.11 ± 0.37 D in the two-handed technique group. Mean torque was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the one-handed technique group than in the two-handed technique group. Conclusion The results indicate that the corneal side port in two-handed cataract surgery has a rotating effect on the axis of astigmatism. PMID:24124349

  14. One-Step Transepithelial Topography-Guided Ablation in the Treatment of Myopic Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Chen, Shihao; Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Filip; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Ting; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate one-step topography-guided transepithelial ablation in the treatment of low to moderate myopic astigmatism using a 1KHz excimer laser. Methods Retrospective study of 117 consecutive eyes available for evaluation 12 months after surgery. Pre- and post-operative visual and refractive data as well as post-operative pain and haze were analyzed. A novel technique integrating custom refractive- and epithelial- ablation in a single uninterrupted procedure was used. Results The mean pre-operative spherical equivalent (SE) and the mean cylinder were: –3.22 diopters (D) ±1.54 (SD) (range –0.63 to –7.25 D) and –0.77 D ±0.65 (range 0 to –4.50 D), respectively. At 12 months after surgery: no eyes lost ≥2 lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA). Safety and efficacy indexes were 1.27 and 1.09, respectively. Uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA) was ≥20/20 in 96.6% of the eyes. Manifest refraction spherical equivalent was within ±0.5 D of the desired refraction in 93.2% of the eyes. Average root mean square (RMS) wavefront error measured at central 6 mm, increased from 0.38 pre-operatively to 0.47 µm post-operatively. Refractive stability was achieved and sustained 1 month after surgery. No visually significant haze was registered during the observation period. Post-operative pain was reported in 4.5% of patients. Conclusions One-step transepithelial topography-guided treatment for low to moderate myopia and astigmatism performed with a 1 KHz laser, provided safe, effective, predictable and stable results with low pain and no visually significant haze. PMID:23799124

  15. Reproducibility of corneal astigmatism measurements with a hand held keratometer in preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, E M; Miller, J M; Dobson, V

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the overall accuracy and reproducibility of the Alcon portable autokeratometer (PAK) measurements in infants and young children. METHODS--The accuracy of the Alcon PAK in measuring toric reference surfaces (1, 3, 5, and 7 D) under various suboptimal measurement conditions was assessed, and the reproducibility of PAK measurements of corneal astigmatism in newborn infants (n = 5), children (n = 19, age 3-5 years), and adults (n = 14) was evaluated. RESULTS--Measurements of toric reference surfaces indicated (a) no significant effect of distance (17-30 mm) on accuracy of measurements, (b) no systematic relation between amount of toricity and accuracy of measurements, (c) no systematic relation between angle of measurement and accuracy, (d) no difference in accuracy of measurements when the PAK is hand held in comparison with when it is mounted, (e) no difference in accuracy of measurements when axis of toricity is oriented obliquely than when it is oriented horizontally, with respect to the PAK, and (f) a small positive bias (+0.16 D) in measurement of spherical equivalent. The PAK did not prove useful for screening newborns. However, measurements were successfully obtained from 18/19 children and 14/14 adults. There was no significant difference in median measurement deviation (deviation of a subject's five measurements from his/her mean) between children (0.21 D) and adults (0.13 D). CONCLUSIONS--The PAK produces accurate measurements of surface curvature under a variety of suboptimal conditions. Variability of PAK measurements in preschool children is small enough to suggest that it would be useful for screening for corneal astigmatism in young children. PMID:8534668

  16. Evaluation of the orientation of the steepest meridian of regular astigmatism among highly myopic Egyptian patients seeking non-ablative surgical correction of the refractive error

    PubMed Central

    Refai, Tamer Adel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: LASIK surgery is currently the preferred procedure to correct low to moderate myopia. The aim of this study was to determine the orientation of the steepest meridian of regular astigmatism in order to determine the relative incidence of vertical, horizontal, and oblique regular astigmatism among highly myopic Egyptian patients seeking non-ablative surgical correction of the refractive error. Methods: One hundred and one eyes of 68 highly myopic patients who were seeking refractive surgery were included in this consecutive case series study. The refractive errors were measured using an autorefractometer and confirmed by trial. We measured the uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity in Snellen lines. Keratometry, central corneal thickness, and anterior chamber depth also were measured. The cylinder power in diopters and the axis in degrees were reported. Astigmatism was graded as with the rule (i.e., vertical meridian steeper), against the rule (i.e., horizontal meridian steeper), and oblique astigmatism. The number and the percentage of eyes with the rule, against the rule, and oblique astigmatism were calculated, and the chi-squared test was performed to analyze the data. Results: The spherical refractive error ranged from −6.5 to −24.5 diopters (−13.45 ± 4.60). The cylinder power (Cyl) ranged from −0.25 to −7.5 diopters (−2.23 ± 1.28). The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) in Snellen lines ranged from 0.01 – 0.1 (0.03 ± 0.02). The mean for best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in Snellen lines was 0.40 (± 0.23). The steepest meridian was vertical (i.e., with-the-rule astigmatism) in 44 eyes (43.56%), horizontal (i.e., against-the-rule astigmatism) in 27 eyes (26.73%), and oblique (i.e., oblique astigmatism) in 30 eyes (29.70%). Conclusions: The incidence of with-the-rule astigmatism in patients with high myopia was found to be much lower than in previous studies for non-myopic patients, with a higher incidence for against

  17. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOEpatents

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  18. Visual performance in cataract patients with low levels of postoperative astigmatism: full correction versus spherical equivalent correction

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Robert P; Houtman, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether visual performance could be improved in pseudophakic subjects by correcting low levels of postoperative astigmatism. Methods An exploratory, noninterventional study was conducted using subjects who had been implanted with an aspheric intraocular lens and had 0.5–0.75 diopter postoperative astigmatism. Monocular visual performance using full correction was compared with visual performance using spherical equivalent correction. Testing consisted of high- and low-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading acuity and speed using the Radner Reading Charts. Results Thirty-eight of 40 subjects completed testing. Visual acuities at three contrast levels (100%, 25%, and 9%) were significantly better using full correction than when using spherical equivalent correction (all P < 0.001). For contrast sensitivity testing under photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare conditions, only one out of twelve outcomes demonstrated a significant improvement with full correction compared with spherical equivalent correction (at six cycles per degree under mesopic without glare conditions, P = 0.046). Mean reading speed was numerically faster with full correction across all print sizes, reaching statistical significance at logarithm of the reading acuity determination (logRAD) 0.2, 0.7, and 1.1 (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences also favored full correction in logRAD score (P = 0.0376), corrected maximum reading speed (P < 0.001), and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution/logRAD ratio (P < 0.001). Conclusions In this study of pseudophakic subjects with low levels of postoperative astigmatism, full correction yielded significantly better reading performance and high- and low-contrast visual acuity than spherical equivalent correction, suggesting that cataractous patients may benefit from surgical correction of low levels of preoperative corneal astigmatism. PMID:22399846

  19. Clinical outcomes of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis to treat moderate-to-high astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Schallhorn, Steven C; Venter, Jan A; Hannan, Stephen J; Hettinger, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refractive and visual outcomes of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with myopic astigmatism and cylindrical component ≥2.0 diopter (D). Methods In this retrospective study, 611 eyes that underwent LASIK for simple or compound myopic astigmatism were analyzed. Preoperative refractive cylinder ranged from −2.00 D to −6.00 D (mean −2.76±0.81 D), and the sphere was between 0.00 D and −9.75 D (mean −2.79±2.32 D). Predictability, visual outcomes, and vector analysis of changes in refractive astigmatism were evaluated. Results At 3 months after LASIK, 83.8% of eyes had uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better, 90.3% had manifest spherical equivalent within ±0.50 D, and 79.1% had residual refractive cylinder within ±0.50 D of intended correction. The mean correction ratio for refractive cylinder was 0.92±0.14, the mean error of angle was −0.45°±2.99°, and the mean error vector was 0.37±0.38 D. A statistically significant correlation was found between the error of magnitude (arithmetic difference in the magnitudes between surgically induced refractive correction and intended refractive correction) and the intended refractive correction (r=0.26, P<0.01). Conclusion Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of myopic astigmatism is safe, effective, and predictable. PMID:26203219

  20. Management of moderate and severe corneal astigmatism with AcrySof® toric intraocular lens implantation – Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Visual performance following toric intraocular lens implantation for cataract with moderate and severe astigmatism. Setting Cataract services, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Design Case series. Method This prospective study included 64 eyes of 40 patients with more than 1.50 dioptre (D) of pre-existing corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of the AcrySof® toric IntraOcular Lens (IOL). The unaided visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), residual refractive sphere and refractive cylinders were evaluated. Toric IOL axis and alignment error was measured by slit lamp method and Adobe Photoshop (version 7) method. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire at 3 months. Results The mean residual refractive astigmatism was 0.57 D at the final follow-up of 3 months. Mean alignment error was 3.44 degrees (SD = 2.60) by slit lamp method and 3.88 degrees (SD = 2.86) by Photoshop method. Forty-six (71.9%) eyes showed misalignment of 5 degrees or less, and 60 (93.8%) eyes showed misalignment of 10 degrees or less. The mean log MAR UCVA at 1st post-op day was 0.172 (SD = 0.02), on 7th post-op day was 0.138 (SD = 0.11), and on 30th post-op day was 0.081 (SD = 0.11). The mean log MAR BCVA at three months was −0.04 (SD = 0.76). Conclusion We believe that implantation of AcrySof® toric IOL is an effective, safe and predictable method to correct high amounts of corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery. PMID:26586976

  1. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jauhari, Nidhi; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Rajan Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron) incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS). METHODS A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each). Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions). Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software. RESULTS The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees) with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION Inverted V (Chevron) incision gives minimal SIA. PMID:25540754

  2. Inspection focus technology of space tridimensional mapping camera based on astigmatic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Liping

    2010-10-01

    The CCD plane of the space tridimensional mapping camera will be deviated from the focal plane(including the CCD plane deviated due to camera focal length changed), under the condition of space environment and vibration, impact when satellite is launching, image resolution ratio will be descended because defocusing. For tridimensional mapping camera, principal point position and focal length variation of the camera affect positioning accuracy of ground target, conventional solution is under the condition of vacuum and focusing range, calibrate the position of CCD plane with code of photoelectric encoder, when the camera defocusing in orbit, the magnitude and direction of defocusing amount are obtained by photoelectric encoder, then the focusing mechanism driven by step motor to compensate defocusing amount of the CCD plane. For tridimensional mapping camera, under the condition of space environment and vibration, impact when satellite is launching, if the camera focal length changes, above focusing method has been meaningless. Thus, the measuring and focusing method was put forward based on astigmation, a quadrant detector was adopted to measure the astigmation caused by the deviation of the CCD plane, refer to calibrated relation between the CCD plane poison and the asrigmation, the deviation vector of the CCD plane can be obtained. This method includes all factors caused deviation of the CCD plane, experimental results show that the focusing resolution of mapping camera focusing mechanism based on astigmatic method can reach 0.25 μm.

  3. Non-astigmatic imaging with matched pairs of spherically bent reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Bitter, Manfred Ludwig; Hill, Kenneth Wayne; Scott, Steven Douglas; Feder, Russell; Ko, Jinseok; Rice, John E.; Ince-Cushman, Alexander Charles; Jones, Frank

    2012-07-10

    Arrangements for the point-to-point imaging of a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and ultrasound at large angles of incidence employ matched pairs of spherically bent reflectors to eliminate astigmatic imaging errors. Matched pairs of spherically bent crystals or spherically bent multi-layers are used for X-rays and EUV radiation; and matched pairs of spherically bent mirrors that are appropriate for the type of radiation are used with microwaves, infrared and visible light, or ultrasound. The arrangements encompass the two cases, where the Bragg angle--the complement to the angle of incidence in optics--is between 45.degree. and 90.degree. on both crystals/mirrors or between 0.degree. and 45.degree. on the first crystal/mirror and between 45.degree. and 90.degree. on the second crystal/mirror, where the angles of convergence and divergence are equal. For x-rays and EUV radiation, also the Bragg condition is satisfied on both spherically bent crystals/multi-layers.

  4. LASIK and PRK in hyperopic astigmatic eyes: is early retreatment advisable?

    PubMed Central

    Frings, Andreas; Richard, Gisbert; Steinberg, Johannes; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Linke, Stephan Johannes; Katz, Toam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the refractive and keratometric stability in hyperopic astigmatic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) during the first 6 months after surgery. Patients and methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included 97 hyperopic eyes; 55 were treated with LASIK and 42 with PRK. Excimer ablation for all eyes was performed using the ALLEGRETTO excimer laser platform using a mitomycin C for PRK and a mechanical microkeratome for LASIK. Keratometric and refractive data were analyzed during three consecutive follow-up intervals (6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months). The corneal topography was obtained using Scheimpflug topography, and subjective refractions were acquired by expert optometrists according to a standardized protocol. Results After 3 months, mean keratometry and spherical equivalent were stable after LASIK, whereas PRK-treated eyes presented statistically significant (P<0.001) regression of hyperopia. In eleven cases, hyperopic regression of >1 D occurred. The optical zone diameter did not correlate with the development of regression. Conclusion After corneal laser refractive surgery, keratometric changes are followed by refractive changes and they occur up to 6 months after LASIK and for at least 6 months after PRK, and therefore, caution should be applied when retreatment is planned during the 1st year after surgery because hyperopic refractive regression can lead to suboptimal visual outcome. Keratometric and refractive stability is earlier achieved after LASIK, and therefore, retreatment may be independent of late regression. PMID:27099463

  5. Corneal astigmatism change and wavefront aberration evaluation after cataract surgery: “Single” versus “paired opposite” clear corneal incisions

    PubMed Central

    Razmjoo, Hasan; Koosha, Nima; Vaezi, Mohammad Hadi; Rahimi, Behrooz; Peyman, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Correcting the pre-existing astigmatism is an optimal goal in cataract surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the astigmatic correcting effect of a single regular 3.2 mm clear corneal incision (CCI) with paired opposite CCI in cataract patients and effect of these incisions on optical aberrations using the wavefront quantitative analysis. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study undertaken in an ophthalmology referral center on 50 patients planned for cataract surgery who were randomized to either single 3.2 mm CCI or paired opposite CCI group. Post-operative evaluation was performed at 12 weeks and included refraction, keratometery, corneal topography and wavefront analysis. Corneal astigmatism and post-operative values were compared in two groups. Results: The mean pre-operative corneal astigmatism was 2.58 ± 1.03 D in the single incision group and 2.70 ± 0.94 D in the paired opposite incisions group. After 12 weeks of surgery, the corneal astigmatism was reached to 2.15 ± 0.82 D in single incision group and 1.63 ± 1.21 in the paired opposite incisions group. There was a statistically significant difference in two arms of treatment regarding to surgically induced astigmatism after 3 months. The mean post-operative total and higher order aberrations and values were not significantly different in two groups. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that paired opposite incisions is an effective procedure for reducing pre-existing corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery. Paired incisions did not show any beneficial effect regarding wavefront aberrations compared with conventional single incision method. PMID:25221766

  6. 3D multifocus astigmatism and compressed sensing (3D MACS) based superresolution reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaqing; Sun, Mingzhai; Gumpper, Kristyn; Chi, Yuejie; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-03-01

    Single molecule based superresolution techniques (STORM/PALM) achieve nanometer spatial resolution by integrating the temporal information of the switching dynamics of fluorophores (emitters). When emitter density is low for each frame, they are located to the nanometer resolution. However, when the emitter density rises, causing significant overlapping, it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately locate individual emitters. This is particularly apparent in three dimensional (3D) localization because of the large effective volume of the 3D point spread function (PSF). The inability to precisely locate the emitters at a high density causes poor temporal resolution of localization-based superresolution technique and significantly limits its application in 3D live cell imaging. To address this problem, we developed a 3D high-density superresolution imaging platform that allows us to precisely locate the positions of emitters, even when they are significantly overlapped in three dimensional space. Our platform involves a multi-focus system in combination with astigmatic optics and an ℓ 1-Homotopy optimization procedure. To reduce the intrinsic bias introduced by the discrete formulation of compressed sensing, we introduced a debiasing step followed by a 3D weighted centroid procedure, which not only increases the localization accuracy, but also increases the computation speed of image reconstruction. We implemented our algorithms on a graphic processing unit (GPU), which speeds up processing 10 times compared with central processing unit (CPU) implementation. We tested our method with both simulated data and experimental data of fluorescently labeled microtubules and were able to reconstruct a 3D microtubule image with 1000 frames (512×512) acquired within 20 seconds. PMID:25798314

  7. Transmissive liquid-crystal device correcting primary coma aberration and astigmatism in laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2016-03-01

    Laser scanning microscopy allows 3D cross-sectional imaging inside biospecimens. However, certain aberrations produced can degrade the quality of the resulting images. We previously reported a transmissive liquid-crystal device that could compensate for the predominant spherical aberrations during the observations, particularly in deep regions of the samples. The device, inserted between the objective lens and the microscope revolver, improved the image quality of fixed-mouse-brain slices that were observed using two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy, which was originally degraded by spherical aberration. In this study, we developed a transmissive device that corrects primary coma aberration and astigmatism, motivated by the fact that these asymmetric aberrations can also often considerably deteriorate image quality, even near the sample surface. The device's performance was evaluated by observing fluorescent beads using single-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity in the image of the bead under a cover slip tilted in the y-direction was increased by 1.5 times after correction by the device. Furthermore, the y- and z-widths of the imaged bead were reduced to 66% and 65%, respectively. On the other hand, for the imaged bead sucked into a glass capillary in the longitudinal x-direction, correction with the device increased the fluorescence intensity by 2.2 times compared to that of the aberrated image. In addition, the x-, y-, and z-widths of the bead image were reduced to 75%, 53%, and 40%, respectively. Our device successfully corrected several asymmetric aberrations to improve the fluorescent signal and spatial resolution, and might be useful for observing various biospecimens.

  8. 3D multifocus astigmatism and compressed sensing (3D MACS) based superresolution reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaqing; Sun, Mingzhai; Gumpper, Kristyn; Chi, Yuejie; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule based superresolution techniques (STORM/PALM) achieve nanometer spatial resolution by integrating the temporal information of the switching dynamics of fluorophores (emitters). When emitter density is low for each frame, they are located to the nanometer resolution. However, when the emitter density rises, causing significant overlapping, it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately locate individual emitters. This is particularly apparent in three dimensional (3D) localization because of the large effective volume of the 3D point spread function (PSF). The inability to precisely locate the emitters at a high density causes poor temporal resolution of localization-based superresolution technique and significantly limits its application in 3D live cell imaging. To address this problem, we developed a 3D high-density superresolution imaging platform that allows us to precisely locate the positions of emitters, even when they are significantly overlapped in three dimensional space. Our platform involves a multi-focus system in combination with astigmatic optics and an ℓ1-Homotopy optimization procedure. To reduce the intrinsic bias introduced by the discrete formulation of compressed sensing, we introduced a debiasing step followed by a 3D weighted centroid procedure, which not only increases the localization accuracy, but also increases the computation speed of image reconstruction. We implemented our algorithms on a graphic processing unit (GPU), which speeds up processing 10 times compared with central processing unit (CPU) implementation. We tested our method with both simulated data and experimental data of fluorescently labeled microtubules and were able to reconstruct a 3D microtubule image with 1000 frames (512×512) acquired within 20 seconds. PMID:25798314

  9. Design and performance of an astigmatism-compensated self-mode-locked ring-cavity Ti:sapphire laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Dai, J.; Wang, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the nonlinear ABCD matrix and the renormalized q-parameter for Gaussian-beam propagation, self-focusing in conjunction with a spatial gain profile for self-mode locking in a ring-cavity Ti:sapphire laser is analyzed. In the experiment, an astigmatism-compensated self-mode-locked ring-cavity Ti:sapphire laser is demonstrated, and self-mode-locked operation is achieved in both bidirection and unidirection with pulse durations as short as 36 fs and 32 fs, respectively. The experimental observations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  10. Design and Performance Assessment of a Stable Astigmatic Herriott Cell for Trace Gas Measurements on Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk; Walega, James G.; Zahniser, Mark S.; McManus, J. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses a new, more stable, astigmatic Herriott cell employing carbon fiber stabilizing rods. Laboratory tests using a near-IR absorption feature of CO at 1564.168-nm revealed a factor of two improvement in measurement stability compared with the present commercial design when the sampling pressure was changed by +/-2 Torr around 50 Torr. This new cell should significantly enhance our efforts to measure trace gases employing pathlengths of 100 to 200-meters on airborne platforms with minimum detectable line center absorbances of less than 10(exp -6).

  11. Computation of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes using nodal-aberration theory.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-05-01

    In active optics systems, one concern is how to quantitatively separate the effects of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments that couple together in determining the total aberration fields when wavefront measurements are available at only a few field points. In this paper, we first quantitatively describe the impact of mount-induced trefoil deformation on the net aberration fields by proposing a modified theoretical formulation for the field-dependent aberration behavior of freeform surfaces based on the framework of nodal aberration theory. This formulation explicitly expresses the quantitative relationships between the magnitude of freeform surfaces and the induced aberration components where the freeform surfaces can be located away from the aperture stop and decentered from the optical axis. On this basis, and in combination with the mathematical presentation of nodal aberration theory for the effects of misalignments, we present the analytic expressions for the aberration fields of two-mirror telescopes in the presence of astigmatic primary mirror figure errors, mount-induced trefoil deformations on both mirrors, and misalignments. We quantitatively separate these effects using the analytical expressions with wavefront measurements at a few field points and pointing errors. Valuable insights are provided on how to separate these coupled effects in the computation process. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the analytic method presented in this paper. PMID:27140345

  12. Generalized design of a zero-geometric-loss, astigmatism-free, modified four-objective multipass matrix system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yin; Sun, LiQun; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Zilong

    2016-02-20

    During this study we constructed a generalized parametric modified four-objective multipass matrix system (MMS). We used an optical system comprising four asymmetrical spherical mirrors to improve the alignment process. The use of a paraxial equation for the design of the front transfer optics yielded the initial condition for modeling our MMS. We performed a ray tracing simulation to calculate the significant aberration of the system (astigmatism). Based on the calculated meridional and sagittal focus positions, the complementary focusing mirror was easily designed to provide an output beam free of astigmatism. We have presented an example of a 108-transit multipass system (5×7 matrix arrangement) with a relatively larger numerical aperture source (xenon light source). The whole system exhibits zero theoretical geometrical loss when simulated with Zemax software. The MMS construction strategy described in this study provides an anastigmatic output beam and the generalized approach to design a controllable matrix spot pattern on the field mirrors. Asymmetrical reflective mirrors aid in aligning the whole system with high efficiency. With the generalized design strategy in terms of optics configuration and asymmetrical fabrication method in this paper, other kinds of multipass matrix system coupled with different sources and detector systems also can be achieved. PMID:26906598

  13. Methods for calculating the vergence of an astigmatic ray bundle in an optical system that contains a freeform surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayanagi, Moriyasu

    2016-07-01

    A method using the generalized Coddington equations enables calculating the vergence of an astigmatic ray bundle in the vicinity of a skew ray in an optical system containing a freeform surface. Because this method requires time-consuming calculations, however, there is still room for increasing the calculation speed. In addition, this method cannot be applied to optical systems containing a medium with a gradient index. Therefore, we propose two new calculation methods in this paper. The first method, using differential ray tracing, enables us to shorten computation time by using simpler algorithms than those used by conventional methods. The second method, using proximate rays, employs only the ray data obtained from the rays exiting an optical system. Therefore, this method can be applied to an optical system that contains a medium with a gradient index. We show some sample applications of these methods in the field of ophthalmic optics.

  14. A new approach based on Machine Learning for predicting corneal curvature (K1) and astigmatism in patients with keratoconus after intracorneal ring implantation.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Mas, M A; Martín-Guerrero, J D; Rupérez, M J; Pastor, F; Dualde, C; Monserrat, C; Peris-Martínez, C

    2014-08-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common type of corneal ectasia. A corneal transplantation was the treatment of choice until the last decade. However, intra-corneal ring implantation has become more and more common, and it is commonly used to treat KC thus avoiding a corneal transplantation. This work proposes a new approach based on Machine Learning to predict the vision gain of KC patients after ring implantation. That vision gain is assessed by means of the corneal curvature and the astigmatism. Different models were proposed; the best results were achieved by an artificial neural network based on the Multilayer Perceptron. The error provided by the best model was 0.97D of corneal curvature and 0.93D of astigmatism. PMID:24857632

  15. Analysis of focusing error signals by differential astigmatic method under off-center tracking in the land-groove-type optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko

    2015-04-01

    We theoretically calculate the behavior of the focusing error signal in the land-groove-type optical disk when the objective lens traverses on out of the radius of the optical disk. The differential astigmatic method is employed instead of the conventional astigmatic method for generating the focusing error signals. The signal behaviors are compared and analyzed in terms of the gain difference of the slope sensitivity of the focusing error signals from the land and the groove. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and advantageous conditions for suppressing the gain difference are investigated. The calculation method and results described in this paper will be reflected in the next generation land-groove-type optical disks.

  16. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism between horizontal and X-pattern sutures in the scleral tunnel incisions for manual small incision cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Yadollah; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Two types of popular scleral tunnel sutures in the manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) are horizontal and X-pattern sutures. Surgically induced corneal astigmatism (SIA) is a useful indicator of the suturing effect. Aims: To compare SIA between horizontal and X-pattern sutures in the scleral tunnel incisions for MSICS. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized comparative trial. Materials and Methods: After superior scleral tunnel incision and capsulorhexis, the nucleus was prolapsed into the anterior chamber and delivered. The wound was sutured with either horizontal or X-pattern suture. The simulated keratometry values were derived from the corneal topography preoperatively and 1.5 and 3 months postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: The SIA was calculated by Cartesian coordinates based analysis. Results: Sixty-four patients (32 patients in each group) were included in the study. In the horizontal suture group, the SIA centroid values at 1.5 and 3 months after the surgery were 0.87 × 1° and 1.11 × 180°, respectively, showing induction of against-the-rule astigmatism. In the X-pattern suture group, the SIA centroid values at 1.5 and 3 months after the surgery were 0.61 × 97° and 0.66 × 92°, respectively, showing induction of mild with-the-rule astigmatism. The difference between the amount of SIA at 1.5 and 3 months after surgery was small. Conclusion: In the MSICS, the X-pattern sutures were preferred to the horizontal sutures in the patients without significant preoperative steepening in line with the central meridian of the incision. In the cases with significant preoperative steepening, sutureless surgery or horizontal sutures were preferred. Corneal astigmatism in the patients undergoing MSICS was stable at 1.5 months after the surgery. PMID:26458479

  17. Efficacy of Wavefront-guided Photorefractive Keratectomy with Iris Registration for Management of Moderate to High Astigmatism by Advanced Personalized Treatment Nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Hashemi, Hassan; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Rahmatnejad, Kamran; Sabet, Fatemeh Alsadat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using the advanced personalized treatment (APT) nomogram for correction of moderate to high astigmatism. Methods: This prospective interventional case series included 60 consecutive eyes of 30 patients undergoing wavefront-guided PRK (Zyoptix 217 Z100 excimer laser, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) using the APT nomogram and iris registration for myopic astigmatism. Mitomycin-C was applied intraoperatively in all eyes. Ophthalmic examination was performed preoperatively and 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Preoperatively, mean sphere was -1.68 ± 2.08 diopters (D), mean refractive astigmatism was -3.04 ± 1.05 D and mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -3.12 ± 1.77 D. Six months postoperatively, mean sphere was + 0.60 ± 0.64 D (P < 0.005), mean cylinder was -0.43 ± 0.46 D (P < 0.005) and mean SE was + 0.28 ± 0.48 D (P < 0.005). Hyperopic overcorrection (≥ +1.0 D) occurred in 3 (5%) eyes. Postoperatively, root mean square (RMS) of higher order aberrations (HOAs) was significantly increased (P = 0.041). RMS of spherical aberration (Z [4, 0]) showed no significant change after surgery (P = 0.972). Conclusion: Considering the acceptable residual refractive error, low rate of hyperopic overcorrection, acceptable uncorrected visual acuity, and low risk of postoperative corneal haze, PRK using the APT nomogram with iris registration and mitomycin-C use is a safe and effective modality for treatment of moderate to high astigmatism. PMID:27413491

  18. Single-Step Transepithelial PRK vs Alcohol-Assisted PRK in Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Cieslinska, Iwona; Mosquera, Samuel A.; Verma, Shwetabh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK), where both the epithelium and stroma are removed in a single-step, is a relatively new procedure of laser refractive error correction. This study compares the 3-month results of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism correction by tPRK or conventional alcohol-assisted PRK (aaPRK). This prospective, nonrandomized, case–control study recruited 148 consecutive patients; 93 underwent tPRK (173 eyes) and 55 aaPRK (103 eyes). Refractive results, predictability, safety, and efficacy were evaluated during the 3-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE). Mean preoperative MRSE was −4.30 ± 1.72 D and −4.33 ± 1.96 D, respectively (P = 0.87). The 3-month follow-up rate was 82.1% in the tPRK group (n = 145) and 86.4% in aaPRK group (n = 90), P = 0.81. Postoperative UDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% and 94% of eyes, respectively (P = 0.45). In the tPRK and aaPRK groups, respectively, 13% and 21% of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, and 30% and 31% gained 1 or 2 lines (P = 0.48). Mean postoperative MRSE was −0.14 ± 0.26 D in the tPRK group and −0.12 ± 0.20 D in the aaPRK group (P = 0.9). The correlation between attempted versus achieved MRSE was equally high in both groups. Single-step transepithelial PRK and conventional PRK provide very similar results 3 months postoperatively. These procedures are predictable, effective, and safe for correction of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism. PMID:26871764

  19. Single-Step Transepithelial PRK vs Alcohol-Assisted PRK in Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism Correction.

    PubMed

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Cieslinska, Iwona; Mosquera, Samuel A; Verma, Shwetabh

    2016-02-01

    Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK), where both the epithelium and stroma are removed in a single-step, is a relatively new procedure of laser refractive error correction. This study compares the 3-month results of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism correction by tPRK or conventional alcohol-assisted PRK (aaPRK).This prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study recruited 148 consecutive patients; 93 underwent tPRK (173 eyes) and 55 aaPRK (103 eyes). Refractive results, predictability, safety, and efficacy were evaluated during the 3-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE).Mean preoperative MRSE was -4.30 ± 1.72 D and -4.33 ± 1.96 D, respectively (P = 0.87). The 3-month follow-up rate was 82.1% in the tPRK group (n = 145) and 86.4% in aaPRK group (n = 90), P = 0.81. Postoperative UDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% and 94% of eyes, respectively (P = 0.45). In the tPRK and aaPRK groups, respectively, 13% and 21% of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, and 30% and 31% gained 1 or 2 lines (P = 0.48). Mean postoperative MRSE was -0.14 ± 0.26 D in the tPRK group and -0.12 ± 0.20 D in the aaPRK group (P = 0.9). The correlation between attempted versus achieved MRSE was equally high in both groups.Single-step transepithelial PRK and conventional PRK provide very similar results 3 months postoperatively. These procedures are predictable, effective, and safe for correction of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism. PMID:26871764

  20. Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wojciechowski, Robert; Simpson, Claire L; Hysi, Pirro G; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Hewitt, Alex W; Oexle, Konrad; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; MacGregor, Stuart; Pirastu, Mario; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; St Pourcain, Beaté; McMahon, George; Kemp, John P; Northstone, Kate; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Martin, Nicholas G; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Lu, Yi; Wang, Ya Xing; Hayward, Caroline; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Bencic, Goran; Wright, Alan F; Wedenoja, Juho; Zeller, Tanja; Schillert, Arne; Mirshahi, Alireza; Lackner, Karl; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Ried, Janina S; Gieger, Christian; Murgia, Federico; Wilson, James F; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Vingerling, Johannes R; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart; Oostra, Ben A; Zhou, Xin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Barathi, Veluchamy; Zheng, Yingfeng; Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Neelam, Kumari; Shin, Youchan; Lam, Janice; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Venturini, Cristina; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Meitinger, Thomas; Jonas, Jost B; Baird, Paul N; Mackey, David A; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pärssinen, Olavi; Stambolian, Dwight; Hammond, Christopher J; Klaver, Caroline C W; Williams, Cathy; Paterson, Andrew D; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2015-02-01

    To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640); and all independent individuals from the above three samples combined with a sample of Chinese subjects aged <25 years (N = 45,931). Participants were classified as cases with refractive astigmatism if the average cylinder power in their two eyes was at least 1.00 diopter and as controls otherwise. Genome-wide association analysis was carried out for each cohort separately using logistic regression. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. In the older European group the most strongly associated marker was downstream of the neurexin-1 (NRXN1) gene (rs1401327, P = 3.92E-8). No other region reached genome-wide significance, and association signals were lower for the younger European group and Asian group. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, no marker reached genome-wide significance: The most strongly associated regions were, NRXN1 (rs1401327, P = 2.93E-07), TOX (rs7823467, P = 3.47E-07) and LINC00340 (rs12212674, P = 1.49E-06). For 34 markers identified in prior GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co-susceptibility for spherical and astigmatic refractive errors. PMID:25367360

  1. Hard X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging by a Reflection Zone Plate in the Presence of Astigmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Braig, Christoph; Lochel, Heike; Hafner, Aljosa; Firsov, Alexander; Rehanek, Jens; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Wojcik, Michael; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen; Erko, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of an off-axis x-ray reflection zone plate to perform wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, on-axis point focusing, and two-dimensional imaging is demonstrated by means of one and the same diffractive optical element (DOE) at a synchrotron radiation facility. The resolving power varies between 3×101 and 4×102 in the range of 7.6 keV to 9.0 keV, with its maximum at the design energy of 8.3 keV. This result is verified using an adjustable entrance slit, by which horizontal (H) and vertical (V) focusing to 0.85 μm(H) and 1.29 μm(V) is obtained near the sagittal focal plane of the astigmatic configuration. An angular and axial scan proves an accessible field of view of at least 0.6 arcmin × 0.8 arcmin and a focal depth of ±0.86 mm. Supported by the grating efficiency of around 17.5% and a very short pulse elongation, future precision x-ray fluorescence and absorption studies of transition metals at their K-edge on an ultrashort timescale could benefit from our findings.

  2. Hard x-ray spectroscopy and imaging by a reflection zone plate in the presence of astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Braig, Christoph; Löchel, Heike; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Hafner, Aljosa; Rehanek, Jens; Wojcik, Michael; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen; Erko, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of an off-axis x-ray reflection zone plate to perform wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, on-axis point focusing, and two-dimensional imaging is demonstrated by means of one and the same diffractive optical element (DOE) at a synchrotron radiation facility. The resolving power varies between 3×101 and 4×102 in the range of 7.6 keV to 9.0 keV, with its maximum at the design energy of 8.3 keV. This result is verified using an adjustable entrance slit, by which horizontal (H) and vertical (V) focusing to 0.85 μm(H) and 1.29 μm(V) is obtained near the sagittal focal plane of the astigmatic configuration. An angular and axial scan proves an accessible field of view of at least 0.6 arcmin × 0.8 arcmin and a focal depth of ±0.86  mm. Supported by the grating efficiency of around 17.5% and a very short pulse elongation, future precision x-ray fluorescence and absorption studies of transition metals at their K-edge on an ultrashort timescale could benefit from our findings. PMID:26696150

  3. Ultra-high-speed 3D astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry: application to particle-laden supersonic impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, N. A.; Cierpka, C.; Kähler, C. J.; Soria, J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper demonstrates ultra-high-speed three-component, three-dimensional (3C3D) velocity measurements of micron-sized particles suspended in a supersonic impinging jet flow. Understanding the dynamics of individual particles in such flows is important for the design of particle impactors for drug delivery or cold gas dynamic spray processing. The underexpanded jet flow is produced via a converging nozzle, and micron-sized particles ( d p = 110 μm) are introduced into the gas flow. The supersonic jet impinges onto a flat surface, and the particle impact velocity and particle impact angle are studied for a range of flow conditions and impingement distances. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high-speed digital camera (Shimadzu HPV-1) capable of recording rates of up to 1 Mfps. Astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry (APTV) is used to measure the 3D particle position (Cierpka et al., Meas Sci Technol 21(045401):13, 2010) by coding the particle depth location in the 2D images by adding a cylindrical lens to the high-speed imaging system. Based on the reconstructed 3D particle positions, the particle trajectories are obtained via a higher-order tracking scheme that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution to increase robustness and accuracy of the measurement. It is shown that the particle velocity and impingement angle are affected by the gas flow in a manner depending on the nozzle pressure ratio and stand-off distance where higher pressure ratios and stand-off distances lead to higher impact velocities and larger impact angles.

  4. Corneal astigmatism correction with scleral flaps in trans-scleral suture-fixed posterior chamber lens implantation: a preliminary clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Wei; Xuan, Dwight; Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2011-01-01

    AIM To study the impact of scleral flap position, under which the posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC-IOL) were sulcus-fixed by trans-scleral suture, on cornea astigmatism. METHODS Twenty-six aphakic or cataract eyes were comprised in this prospective noncomparative case series study. Eleven eyes had traumatic cataract removed without sufficient capsular support, 3 had blunt trauma with subluxated traumatic cataract, 8 had undergone vitreoretinal surgery and 4 had congenital cataract removed. The average age was 54 years (range 21-74 years), with 17 men and 7 women. The foldable PC-IOL was fixed in sulcus by trans-scleral suture. The incision for IOL implantation was made 1mm posterior to limbus along the steepest meridian of cornea, while scleral flaps to bury the knots of trans-scleral suture were made along the flattest meridian. All the surgeries were performed by a single doctor (Ma L), and the follow up was at least 13 months (range 13-28 months). The preoperative, 3 months and 1 year postoperative corneal curvature along the steepest and flattest cornea meridian and overall cornea astigmatism were compared. RESULTS The curvature along the steepest meridian changed from 44.25±2.22D preoperatively to 44.08±2.16D at 3 months postoperatively, and 43.65±5.23D at 1 year postoperatively (P>0.05); the curvature along the flattest meridian changed from 41.24±2.21D preoperatively to 43.15±3.94D at 3 months postoperatively, and 42.85±5.17D at 1 year postoperatively (P<0.05); and the surgery induced astigmatism (SIA) on cornea was calculated by vector analysis, which was 2.42±2.13D at 3 months postoperatively, and 2.18±3.42D at 1 year postoperatively, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The scleral flap made along the flattest meridian, under which the posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) were sulcus-fixed by trans-scleral suture, can steepen the cornea in varying degrees, thus reducing preexisting corneal astigmatism

  5. Mini-incision cataract surgery and toric lens implantation for the reduction of high myopic astigmatism in patients with pellucid marginal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Balestrazzi, A; Baiocchi, S; Balestrazzi, A; Cartocci, G; Tosi, G M; Martone, G; Michieletto, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes, safety, and efficacy of cataract surgery with the implantation of a toric intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with stable pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD). Methods Eleven eyes (eight patients) diagnosed as stable PMD and cataract underwent mini-incision 2.2 mm cataract surgery followed by the implantation of hydrophobic toric aspheric IOL (AcrySof IQ Toric IOL, Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA). Perioperative variables of interest included uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and corneal topography. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, astigmatism, and spherical equivalent (SE) parameters. Follow-up was 6 months. Results The mean CDVA was 0.62±0.26 logMAR preoperatively and 0.07±0.07 logMAR postoperatively. The mean preoperative sphere and cylinder was −3.14±3.58D and −4.84±2.02D, respectively. The mean postoperative manifest refractive sphere and cylinder was −0.30±0.51D and −0.81±1.51D, respectively. There was a significant reduction in refractive astigmatism after toric IOL implantation (P<0.002). The toric IOL axis rotation was <5° in all cases at the final follow-up. Conclusions Implantation of hydrophobic toric IOL was a safe and effective surgical procedure to correct mild to moderate stable PMD. PMID:25721517

  6. Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Kewish, Cameron M; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Liu, Chian; Qian, Jun; Shi, Bing; Benson, Christa; Khounsary, Ali M; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bunk, Oliver; Fienup, James R; Macrander, Albert T; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2010-10-25

    We have used coherent X-ray diffraction experiments to characterize both the 1-D and 2-D foci produced by nanofocusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors, and we find agreement. Algorithms related to ptychography were used to obtain a 3-D reconstruction of a focused hard X-ray beam waist, using data measured when the mirrors were not optimally aligned. Considerable astigmatism was evident in the reconstructed complex wavefield. Comparing the reconstructed wavefield for a single mirror with a geometrical projection of the wavefront errors expected from optical metrology data allowed us to diagnose a 40 μrad misalignment in the incident angle of the first mirror, which had occurred during the experiment. Good agreement between the reconstructed wavefront obtained from the X-ray data and off-line metrology data obtained with visible light demonstrates the usefulness of the technique as a metrology and alignment tool for nanofocusing X-ray optics. PMID:21164684

  7. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  8. Analysis of behavior of focusing error signals generated by astigmatic method when a focused spot moves beyond the radius of a land-groove-type optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.

  9. Spatial distribution measurement of atomic radiation with an astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner-type spectrometer in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motoshi; Morita, Shigeru

    2006-10-01

    Emission lines in the visible/UV wavelength ranges are observed with 80 lines of sight which cover an entire poloidal cross section of the plasma in the Large Helical Device. The emitted light is received with optical fibers having 100μm diameter and is guided into a 1.33m Czerny-Turner-type spectrometer based on spherical mirrors for collimating and focusing. A charge-coupled device having 13.3×13.3mm2 area size is used as the detector and the spectra from all the lines of sight are recorded perpendicularly to the wavelength dispersion. The spectrometer is equipped with optics located in front of the entrance slit to correct the difference between the meridional and sagittal focal points, and thus the astigmatism, which otherwise causes severe cross talk between adjacent optical fiber images on the detector, is corrected. Consequently, simultaneous spectral measurement with 80 lines of sight is realized. The Zeeman splitting of a neutral helium line, λ667.8nm (2P1-3D1), which is caused by the magnetic field for plasma confinement, is measured with the spectrometer. Though the obtained line profile is in general a superposition of several components on the same line of sight, they can be separated according to their different splitting widths. The two-dimensional poloidal distribution of the helium line intensity is obtained with the help of a tomographic technique.

  10. Wavefront-Guided Photorefractive Keratectomy with the Use of a New Hartmann-Shack Aberrometer in Patients with Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Schallhorn, Steven C.; Venter, Jan A.; Hannan, Stephen J.; Hettinger, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess refractive and visual outcomes and patient satisfaction of wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in eyes with myopia and compound myopic astigmatism, with the ablation profile derived from a new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Methods. In this retrospective study, 662 eyes that underwent wavefront-guided PRK with a treatment profile derived from a new generation Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (iDesign aberrometer, Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) were analyzed. The preoperative manifest sphere ranged from −0.25 to −10.75 D, and preoperative manifest cylinder was between 0.00 and −5.25 D. Refractive and visual outcomes, vector analysis of the change in refractive cylinder, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results. At 3 months, 91.1% of eyes had manifest spherical equivalent within 0.50 D. The percentage of eyes achieving uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better was 89.4% monocularly and 96.5% binocularly. The mean correction ratio of refractive cylinder was 1.02 ± 0.43, and the mean error of angle was 0.00 ± 14.86° at 3 months postoperatively. Self-reported scores for optical side effects, such as starburst, glare, halo, ghosting, and double vision, were low. Conclusion. The use of a new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer for wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy resulted in high predictability, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. PMID:26504595

  11. Simultaneous measurement of the geometry and the internal 3D velocity field of a micron sized droplet confined in a channel using Astigmatism-PTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Tobias; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.

    2012-11-01

    Astigmatism-PTV is a method that allows to measure with a single camera the fully three-dimensional, three-component velocity field. The technique is ideally suited for microfluidic velocity measurements without errors due to in-plane and out-of-plane averaging (Cierpka et al. Meas Scie Tech 21, 2010). Recently it was shown, that the interface between two fluids or the surrounding fluid and droplets or bubbles can be estimated as well with the technique (Rossi et al., Meas Scie Tech 22, 2010). In this contribution the advantages of both techniques are combined to measure the shape of a droplet inside a micro channel along with the internal 3D flow field of the droplet induced by the surrounding fluid. For the current investigation, particles were only distributed within oil-droplets. Therefore the shape of the droplet could be later reconstructed by the volumetric particle positions and the velocity can be estimated tracking the same particles in consecutive frames of the same dataset. The procedure allows the simultaneous determination of the shape and the droplet velocity as well as the inner flow field and offers a great potential for current research.

  12. 3-Month experience in presbyopic correction with bi-aspheric multifocal central presbyLASIK treatments for hyperopia and myopia with or without astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Michiel H.A.; Ewering, Tobias; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze simultaneous vision (distance and near) 3-month after bi-aspheric multifocal central presbyLASIK treatments for hyperopia and myopia with or without astigmatism. Methods Retrospective study analyzing patients that had been treated for correcting distance ametropiae and alleviating presbyopic symptoms simultaneously. All patients had been treated in Presby Aspheric mode using FemtoLASIK. No eye had previous corneal refractive surgery. Preoperative corneal curvature ranged between 40 D and 48 D, with pachymetry thicker than 500 μm. Preoperative best distance corrected visual acuity (CDVA) was 0.1 LogMAR or better, with best corrected near vision (CNVA) of 0.2 LogRAD or better. Results 66 patients treated using PresbyMAX software (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany) were reviewed. For 24 patients, 3-month follow-up was completed. At 3 months, 71% of patients achieved UDVA 0.1 LogMAR or better, 79% patients obtained UNVA 0.1 LogRAD or better, and 83% of eyes were within 0.75 diopters (D) of defocus. Postoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was −0.15 ± 0.50 D. Stability was achieved from the 6-week follow-up. 92% of patients achieved UDVA 0.2 LogMAR or better and UNVA 0.2 LogRAD or better. No statistical differences between myopes/hyperopes or between males/females were found. Conclusions Patient selection and expectation management are essential to achieve patient satisfaction. Even though optically the results are quite predictable, some patients find it difficult to adapt to the compromise between far and near vision, and others are dissatisfied by the minor loss of distance VA.

  13. Comparison of Surgically-induced Astigmatism after Combined Phacoemulsification and 23-Gauge Vitrectomy: 2.2-mm vs. 2.75-mm Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Yong Woo; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The 2.2-mm microincision cataract surgery and small-gauge vitrectomy system is known to result in less surgically-induced astigmatism (SIA) in comparison to conventional surgical methods. We compared the amounts of SIA after combined phacoemulsification and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (23G-TSV) using the 2.2-mm microincision and 2.75-mm standard incision methods. Methods We studied 59 patients (61 eyes) who underwent combined phacoemulsification and 23G-TSV from November 2008 to September 2012. Twenty-eight patients (28 eyes) underwent 2.2-mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification, and 31 patients (33 eyes) underwent 2.75-mm standard incision phacoemulsification. SIA was evaluated using Naeser's polar method with the simulated keratometric values obtained from corneal topography. Preoperative and 1-week and 1-month postoperative KP (Naeser's polar value along the specific axis) and ΔKP values were compared between the 2.2-mm microincision and 2.75-mm standard incision groups. Results One week after surgery, both groups exhibited similar amounts of SIA (-ΔKP[120], 0.40 ± 0.41 vs. 0.51 ± 0.56 diopters [D]; p = 0.390). One month after surgery, however, the amount of SIA was significantly smaller in the 2.2-mm microincision group as compared to the 2.75-mm standard incision group (-ΔKP[120], 0.31 ± 0.54 vs. 0.56 ± 0.42 D; p = 0.045). Conclusions In combined phacoemulsification with 23G-TSV, 2.2-mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification induces less SIA than does 2.75-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification. PMID:24688255

  14. Long-Term Observation of Coexistence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy, Resultant High Myopia and Nonkeratoconic Developing Corneal Astigmatism: A Case Report of 7-Year Tracking in a Chinese Boy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianqin; Chixin, Du; Gu, Yangshun

    2015-06-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an extremely rare, bilateral, and inherited disorder, which affects the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Few PPCD cases in Chinese patients have been published so far. As far as we know, there are few studies which focused on the associations between PPCD and high myopia either. Here we report a rare case of coexistence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, resultant high myopia and with-the-rule developing corneal astigmatism in a young Chinese boy. A 6-year-old boy was first referred to our department 7 years ago, complaining of bilateral poor vision. Examinations of both eyes including ophthalmologic examination, cycloplegic refraction examination, confocal microscopy findings, and corneal topography were performed. Bilateral small aggregates of vesicular lesions and patchy hyperreflectivity were observed at the level of the Descemet's membrane on confocal microscopy, which is consistent with typical PPCD. Optometry and corneal topography examinations showed a resultant high myopia. Ocular examinations were performed annually to follow up with the patient in the past 7 years. The corneal lesions remained stable whereas an axial elongation and a sharp increase in both spherical and cylindrical equivalent power were observed. Close follow-ups including thorough scrutiny of the endothelium and systematic ocular ancillary examinations are essential for patients with PPCD. The pathological coexistence of PPCD and high myopia in our case is possibly due to a shared etiological pathway or genetic background. Advanced genetic analysis on similar cases is expected if more samples can be provided. PMID:26061314

  15. Corneal astigmatism measuring module for slit lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, L.; Riul, C.; Sousa, S. J. F.; DeGroote, J. G. S.; Rosa Filho, A. B.; Oliveira, G. C. D.

    2006-06-01

    We have developed an automatic keratometer module for slit lamps that provides automatic measurements of the radii of the corneal curvature. The system projects 72 light spots displayed in a precise circle at the examined cornea. The displacement and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analysed providing the keratometry. Measurements in the range of 26.8-75 D can be obtained and a self-calibration system has been specially designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Infrared LEDs indicate automatically which eye is being examined. Volunteer patients (492) have been submitted to the system and the results show that our system has a high correlation factor with the commercially available manual keratometers and the keratometry measurements from a topographer. Our developed system is 95% in agreement with the corneal topographer (Humphrey—Atlas 995 CZM) and the manual keratometer (Topcon OM-4). The system's nominal precision is 0.05 mm for the radii of curvature and 1° for the associated axis. This research has been supported by Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  16. Increase in velocimeter depth of focus through astigmatism. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1995-09-26

    Frequently, velocimeter targets are illuminated by a laser beam passing through a hole in a mirror. This mirror is responsible for diverting returning light from a target lens to a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). This mirror is often a significant distance from the target lens. Consequently, at certain target focus positions the returning light is strongly vignetted by the hole, causing a loss of signal. The authors find that they can prevent loss of signal and greatly increase the useful depth of focus by attaching a cylindrical lens to the target lens.

  17. Beam spot shift in a dynamic astigmatism correction type (DQ-DAF) electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Y.; Sukeno, M.; Suzuki, H.

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to avoid the convergence error in color CRT guns operating with a dynamic focus correction. The dynamic spot shift as well as the spot coma can be avoided at the same time with a proper arrangement of the quadrupole and main lenses with an oblique incidence of the side beam. The design confirmation is also presented.

  18. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S.; Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2014-10-15

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  19. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues. PMID:26698993

  20. Astigmatism compensation in digital holographic microscopy using complex-amplitude correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Khairul Fikri; Rahmatullah, Bahbibi; Samuri, Suzani Mohamad

    2015-07-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a promising tool for a three-dimensional imaging of microscopic particles. It offers the possibility of wavefront processing by manipulating amplitude and phase of the recorded digital holograms. With a view to compensate for aberration in the reconstructed particle images, this paper discusses a new approach of aberration compensation based on complex amplitude correlation and the use of a priori information. The approach is applied to holograms of microscopic particles flowing inside a cylindrical micro-channel recorded using an off-axis digital holographic microscope. The approach results in improvements in the image and signal qualities.

  1. Flexible generation of optical beams with quasicrystalline structures via astigmatism induced by a tilted lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Tsou, C. H.; Su, K. W.; Chen, Y. F.

    2012-12-01

    We theoretically show that a family of optical beams with vortex-lattice structures can be reliably generated by tilting the focal lens to introduce the relative phases between the interfering beams. We also experimentally generate the quasicrystal beams to confirm the theoretical analysis. With the analytical wave functions and experimental patterns, a variety of vortex-lattice structures are manifested.

  2. The ABCD matrix for parabolic reflectors and its application to astigmatism free four-mirror cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, K.; Cassou, K.; Martens, A.; Zomer, F.

    2015-10-01

    The ABCD matrix for parabolic reflectors is derived for any incident angles. It is used in numerical studies of four-mirror cavities composed of two flat and two parabolic mirrors. Constraints related to laser beam injection efficiency, optical stability, cavity-mode, beam-waist size and high stacking power are satisfied. A dedicated alignment procedure leading to stigmatic cavity-modes is employed to overcome issues related to the optical alignment of parabolic reflectors.

  3. Quantifying Assessments of Vision Improvements for Myopes, Hypermetropes, Presbyopes, and Astigmats, in Brazil and Elsewhere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Demetriou; D. M., D.; Niemi, Paul N.; D., O.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Vision can safely, rapidly, and significantly be improved among nearsighted, far-sighted, presbyopic, and astigmatatic individuals, using methods developed for Mc Leod's patent-pending Naturoptics. We hope to calibrate and apply the method in South America, particularly Brazil, using metric standards accessible from ordinary vision assessment charts as used there. This precursor for extension into Hispanic-speaking areas, especially Chile, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico, is to establish property-rights protected licensed teaching agreements. Initially, visually impaired potential students of to-be-established not-for-profit Naturopathic medical, surgical, dental, law, science, and arts schools, perhaps named Metocantins or Metaquaratinga University, if in Brazil, will learn to correct their vision; training and licensing them can provide earnings for the self-funding of all associated activities and expenses. We will publish established results that refute claims relating to vision. Mc Leod's spatial Fourier transform model for retinal focal surface electric field amplitude vision explains all phenomena and Land's two-wavelength interval color vision results.

  4. Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other causes include: Childhood cataracts Farsightedness , nearsightedness , or astigmatism , especially if it is greater in one eye ... amblyopic eye (such as cataracts). Children with a refractive error ... farsightedness, or astigmatism) will need glasses. Next, ...

  5. Ptosis - infants and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... curve of the cornea that causes blurred vision ( astigmatism ). Children with mild ptosis should have regular eye ...

  6. Long-Term Comparison of Posterior Chamber Phakic Intraocular Lens With and Without a Central Hole (Hole ICL and Conventional ICL) Implantation for Moderate to High Myopia and Myopic Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Kimiya; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Igarashi, Akihito; Kobashi, Hidenaga

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study shows a promising next-generation surgical option for the correction of moderate to high ametropia. Hole implantable collamer lens (ICL), STAAR Surgical, is a posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens with a central artificial hole. As yet, however, no long-term comparison of the clinical results of the implantation of ICLs with and without such a hole has hitherto been conducted. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was carried out in order to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of the implantation, in such eyes, of ICLs with and without a central artificial hole. Examinations were conducted of the 64 eyes of 32 consecutive patients with spherical equivalents of −7.53 ± 2.39 diopters (D) (mean ± standard deviation) in whom implantation of a Hole ICL was performed in 1 eye, and that of a conventional ICL was carried out in the other, by randomized assignment. Before 1, 3, and 6 months, and 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery, the safety, efficacy, predictability, stability, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density, and adverse events of the 2 surgical techniques were assessed and compared over time. The measurements of LogMAR uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity 5 years postoperatively were −0.17 ± 0.14 and −0.24 ± 0.08 in the Hole ICL group, and −0.16 ± 0.10 and −0.25 ± 0.08 in the conventional ICL group. In these 2 groups, 96% and 100% of eyes, respectively, were within 1.0 D of the targeted correction 5 years postoperatively. Manifest refraction changed by −0.17 ± 0.41 D and −0.10 ± 0.26 D occurred in from 1 month to 5 years in the Hole and conventional ICL groups, respectively. Only 1 eye (3.1%), which was in the conventional ICL group, developed an asymptomatic anterior subcapsular cataract. Both Hole and conventional ICLs corrected of ametropia successfully throughout the 5-year observation period. It appears likely that the presence of the central hole does not significantly affect these visual and refractive outcomes. Trial Registration: UMIN000018771. PMID:27057883

  7. Causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Ahangar, Andleeb; Sufi, Aalia Rasool; Nabi, Mushood; Rather, Muddasar Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cataract surgery is aimed at restoring sight to near normal vision. This study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, is an attempt to determine the causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir. One hundred patients who underwent cataract surgery with an unaided visual acuity of <6/9 at 16 weeks postoperatively were included in the study. Postoperative follow-up examinations were conducted until the 16th week. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded to determine the cause of subnormal vision. Of 100 patients, 40 underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), 30 underwent small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and 30 underwent phacoemulsification. Seventy-five percent of the patients who underwent ECCE had postoperative astigmatism with a mean astigmatism of 2.2 ± 0.81 diopters at 16 weeks, with the majority having with-the-rule astigmatism. In the SICS group, 17 (56.6 %) patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.75 ± 0.40 diopters, with the majority (82.3 %) having against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. In the phacoemulsification group, 13 (43.3 %) of the patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.48 ± 0.23 diopters with the majority having ATR astigmatism. Other causes of subnormal vision were pseudophakic ametropia, posterior capsular opacity and intraoperative complications like posterior capsular rent and vitreous loss. Postoperative astigmatism was the major cause of subnormal vision with greater astigmatism seen in the ECCE group. Therefore, procedures like smaller incision sutureless surgery and careful biometry are advocated to improve visual outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:24522881

  8. Modification of readings along oblique principal meridians to fit regular corneal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelman, Herven; Abelman, Shirley

    2015-08-01

    Anterior astigmatic corneal surface elements may have their continuity disturbed by environmental factors. Powers detected along principal meridians define matrices whose natures distinguish the continuity of surface elements. This work aims to adapt the matrix nature of data to fit closely, uniquely and holistically with the matrix nature in a sample of data for smooth astigmatic corneas that have powers along rectangular meridians. Matrices from continuous surfaces approximate matrices with outliers from irregular surfaces explicitly. Only approximations that minimize the Frobenius norm of the residual matrices are selected. Data from smooth astigmatic corneal surfaces, in an augmented sample, may now produce more reliable analyses.

  9. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-01-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional sub-wavelength grating anti-reflection coating on a f/1.7 lens surface is dominated by defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 waves and the magnitude of the piston approaches 1 wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 waves of astigmatism like variation and more than 0.01 waves of retardance induced defocus like variation.

  10. Ring lens focusing and push-pull tracking scheme for optical disk systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, R.; Zambuto, J.; Erwin, J. K.; Mansuripur, M.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental comparison of the ring lens and the astigmatic techniques of generating focus-error-signal (FES) in optical disk systems reveals that the ring lens generates a FES over two times steeper than that produced by the astigmat. Partly due to this large slope and, in part, because of its diffraction-limited behavior, the ring lens scheme exhibits superior performance characteristics. In particular the undesirable signal known as 'feedthrough' (induced on the FES by track-crossings during the seek operation) is lower by a factor of six compared to that observed with the astigmatic method. The ring lens is easy to align and has reasonable tolerance for positioning errors.

  11. Accuracy and validity of IK4 handheld video keratometer measurements in children

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.; Dobson, Velma

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Keratometer (IK4) is a custom handheld instrument that was designed specifically to allow measurement of corneal astigmatism in infants as young as 6 months of age. In this study, accuracy of IK4 measurements using standard toric surfaces was within 0.25 D. Validity measurements obtained in 860 children aged 3–7 years demonstrated slightly higher astigmatism measurements in the IK4 than in the Retinomax K+. Measurement success was 98% using the IK4. The IK4 may prove to be clinically useful for screening children as young as 3 years of age at high risk for corneal astigmatism. PMID:21907130

  12. Contact Lens Visual Rehabilitation in Keratoconus and Corneal Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ozkurt, Yelda; Atakan, Mehmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen

    2012-01-01

    Keratoconus is the most common corneal distrophy. It's a noninflammatory progressive thinning process that leads to conical ectasia of the cornea, causing high myopia and astigmatism. Many treatment choices include spectacle correction and contact lens wear, collagen cross linking, intracorneal ring segments implantation and finally keratoplasty. Contact lenses are commonly used to reduce astigmatism and increase vision. There are various types of lenses are available. We reviewed soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable contact lenses, piggyback contact lenses, hybrid contact lenses and scleral-semiscleral contact lenses in keratoconus management. The surgical option is keratoplasty, but even after sutur removal, high astigmatism may stil exists. Therefore, contact lens is an adequate treatment option to correct astigmatism after keratoplasty. PMID:22292112

  13. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  14. NEI for Kids: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Astigmatism (uh-STIG-muh-tiz-um) occurs when light is bent differently depending on where it strikes ... of your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. D Diabetes ( ...

  15. [Reversible irregular corneal astigmation in disseminated neurodermatitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Treumer, H

    1978-08-01

    Neurodermitis disseminata may often involve the eyes. A case report is described with development of an irregular astigmatism of the cornea, which resolved spontaneously. Possibilities of transitory alteration of refraction are discussed. PMID:703151

  16. Measurement of the M² beam propagation factor using a focus-tunable liquid lens.

    PubMed

    Niederriter, Robert D; Gopinath, Juliet T; Siemens, Mark E

    2013-03-10

    We demonstrate motion-free beam quality M² measurements of stigmatic, simple astigmatic, and general astigmatic (twisted) beams using only a focus-tunable liquid lens and a CCD camera. We extend the variable-focus technique to the characterization of general astigmatic beams by measuring the 10 second-order moments of the power density distribution for the twisted beam produced by passage through multimode optical fiber. Our method measures the same M² values as the traditional variable-distance method for a wide range of laser beam sources, including nearly TEM(00) (M²≈1) and general astigmatic multimode beams (M²≈8). The method is simple and compact, with no moving parts or complex apparatus and measurement precision comparable to the standard variable-distance method. PMID:23478761

  17. Standard ophthalmic exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... test include: Cataracts Diabetes Glaucoma High blood pressure Macular degeneration ... due to any of the following: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) Astigmatism Blocked tear duct Cataracts Color blindness ...

  18. National Ignition Facility Beamline Pupil Relay Plane Location and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Korniski, R J; Lawson, J K

    2002-01-29

    Axial astigmatism can be introduced into the nominal design of an optical system by tilted and tilted-wedged plates. The pupil images in the National Ignition Facility experience many such components. Some ramifications will be explored.

  19. Optimization of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Chemical Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2010-03-01

    We describe and characterize an external cavity quantum cascade laser designed for detection of multiple airborne chemicals, and used with a compact astigmatic Herriott cell for sensing of acetone and hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Refractive eye surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    Refractive eye surgery helps improve nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. Below are some questions you may want to ... What to ask your doctor about refractive eye surgery; ... ask your doctor; Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis - what to ...

  1. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... blurry. This blurriness is referred to as a "refractive error." It is caused by a difference between the ... used to correct farsightedness. It may also correct astigmatism. The FDA and American Academy of Ophthalmology have ...

  2. Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... don't line up in the same direction Refractive error in an eye - when one eye cannot focus ... with its shape. This includes nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. Cataract - a clouding in the lens of the ...

  3. Standard ophthalmic exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... for glaucoma using a method called tonometry Color blindness is tested using cards with colored dots that ... degeneration (ARMD) Astigmatism Blocked tear duct Cataracts Color blindness Corneal abrasion (or dystrophy) Corneal ulcers and infections ...

  4. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Peripheral Corneal Relaxing Incisions during Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hirnschall, Nino; Wiesinger, Jörg; Draschl, Petra; Findl, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate influencing factors on the residual astigmatism after performing peripheral corneal relaxing incisions (PCRIs) during cataract surgery. Methods. This prospective study included patients who were scheduled for cataract surgery with PCRIs. Optical biometry (IOLMaster 500, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) was taken preoperatively, 1 week, 4 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Additionally, corneal topography (Atlas model 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany), ORA (Ocular Response Analyzer, Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, USA), and autorefraction (Autorefractometer RM 8800 Topcon) were performed postoperatively. Results. Mean age of the study population (n = 74) was 73.5 years (±9.3; range: 53 to 90) and mean corneal astigmatism preoperatively was −1.82 D (±0.59; 1.00 to 4.50). Mean corneal astigmatism was reduced to 1.14 D (±0.67; 0.11 to 3.89) 4 months postoperatively. A partial least squares regression showed that a high eccentricity of the cornea, a large deviation between keratometry and topography, and a high preoperative astigmatism resulted in a larger postoperative error concerning astigmatism. Conclusions. PCRI causes a reduction of preoperative astigmatism, though the prediction is difficult but several factors were found to be a relevant source of error. PMID:26199739

  5. Shack-Hartmann sensor based optical quality testing of whole slide imaging systems for digital pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, S. M.; Hulsken, Bas; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) systems are used in the emerging field of digital pathology for capturing high-resolution images of tissue slides at high throughput. We present a technique to measure the optical aberrations of WSI systems using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as a function of field position. The resulting full-field aberration maps for the lowest order astigmatism and coma are analyzed using nodal aberration theory. According to this theory two coefficients describe the astigmatism and coma inherent to the optical design and another six coefficients are needed to describe the cumulative effects of all possible misalignments on astigmatism and coma. The nodal aberration theory appears to fit well to the experimental data. We have measured and analyzed the full-field aberration maps for two different objective lens-tube lens assemblies and found that only the optical design related astigmatism coefficient differed substantially between the two cases, but in agreement with expectations. We have also studied full-field aberration maps for intentional decenter and tilt and found that these affect the misalignment coefficient for constant coma (decenter) and the misalignment coefficient for linear astigmatism (tilt), while keeping all other nodal aberration theory coefficients constant.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Penetrating Keratoplasty Performed with the VisuMax Femtosecond Laser System and Comparison with Conventional Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Kobashi, Hidenaga; Shimizu, Kimiya; Igarashi, Akihito

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical outcomes of femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty (FLAK) using the VisuMax femtosecond laser system, and to compare them with those of conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods We retrospectively examined 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients undergoing FLAK and 20 eyes of 20 age- and diagnosis-matched patients undergoing conventional PK. We quantitatively assessed corneal astigmatism, refractive astigmatism, and corrected visual acuity, 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, and endothelial cell density 6 months postoperatively. Results Corneal and refractive astigmatism after FLAK were significantly lower after FLAK than that after conventional PK at 3 and 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). FLAK provided significantly faster visual recovery than conventional PK at 1 month postoperatively (p = 0.02), but not at 3 and 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.52 and p = 0.80, respectively). We found no significant differences in the change in endothelial cell density between the two groups (p = 0.30). Conclusions FLAK using the VisuMax femtosecond laser system induces significantly less corneal and refractive astigmatism than conventional PK, and provides significantly faster visual recovery in the early postoperative period, possibly because the geometry of the donor-recipient matching is more physiological and requires less tight sutures. It is suggested that FLAK has advantages over conventional PK, in terms of astigmatism and fast visual recovery. PMID:25126741

  7. Collimation of diode laser beams with a single holographic diffractive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, Miroslav; Koudela, Ivo; Aubrecht, Ivo

    1999-07-01

    Holographic diffractive optical elements collimating highly divergent, elliptical and astigmatic edge emitted diode laser beams are analyzed. Elements are recorded using only divergent beams with spherical wavefronts while off-axis astigmatism and coma of the holographic recording arrangement are compensated in a narrow beam approximation. Because of the very asymmetrical recording setup, significant blazing properties are present. Two types of the collimators are proposed: one for obliquely and the other for perpendicularly incident laser beam. Astigmatic properties of the output beams were measured in the reverse setup, i.e. when the collimated laser beams impinge on elements from their back side. Comparison of the advantages and drawbacks of both arrangements is presented.

  8. Resolution of electro-holographic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Chernyshov, Oleksii; Lee, Hyoung; Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Park, Min-Chul

    2016-06-01

    The resolution of the reconstructed image from a hologram displayed on a DMD is measured with the light field images along the propagation direction of the reconstructed image. The light field images reveal that a point and line image suffers a strong astigmatism but the line focusing distance differences for lines with different directions. This will be astigmatism too. The focusing distance of the reconstructed image is shorter than that of the object. The two lines in transverse direction are resolved when the gap between them is around 16 pixels of the DMD's in use. However, the depth direction is difficult to estimate due to the depth of focus of each line. Due to the astigmatism, the reconstructed image of a square appears as a rectangle or a rhombus.

  9. Design of aspherical surfaces for panoramic imagers using multi-populations genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Liang, Zhong-zhu; Jin, Chun-Shui

    2009-05-01

    A design method of aspherical surface for panoramic imaging system with two mirrors using multi-populations genetic algorithms is proposed. Astigmatism induced by mirrors may significantly compromise image resolution. To solve this problem, we induced algebraic expression of astigmatism in panoramic imager based on generalized Coddington equation and theory of geometric optics. Then, we propose an optimization process for mirror profile design to eliminate astigmatism and provide purposely-designed projection formula with aid of MPGA. A series of polynomial expressions of aspherical surfaces are obtained and procedures of the design are presented. In order to facilitate ray tracing and aberration calculation, even asphere surface model is obtained by using of hybrid schemes combining MPGA and damped least squares. Finally, a prototype of the catadioptric panoramic imager has been developed and panoramic ring image is obtained.

  10. Observation of lens aberrations for high resolution electron microscopy II: simple expressions for optimal estimates.

    PubMed

    Saxton, W Owen

    2015-04-01

    This paper lists simple closed-form expressions estimating aberration coefficients (defocus, astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, coma / misalignment, spherical aberration) on the basis of image shift or diffractogram shape measurements as a function of injected beam tilt. Simple estimators are given for a large number of injected tilt configurations, optimal in the sense of least-squares fitting of all the measurements, and so better than most reported previously. Standard errors are given for most, allowing different approaches to be compared. Special attention is given to the measurement of the spherical aberration, for which several simple procedures are given, and the effect of foreknowledge of this on other aberration estimates is noted. Details and optimal expressions are also given for a new and simple method of analysis, requiring measurements of the diffractogram mirror axis direction only, which are simpler to make than the focus and astigmatism measurements otherwise required. PMID:25728295

  11. Unveiling orbital angular momentum and acceleration of light beams and electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arie, Ady

    Special beams, such as the vortex beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and the Airy beam that preserves its shape while propagating along parabolic trajectory, have drawn significant attention recently both in light optics and in electron optics experiments. In order to utilize these beams, simple methods are needed that enable to easily quantify their defining properties, namely the OAM for the vortex beams and the nodal trajectory acceleration coefficient for the Airy beam. Here we demonstrate a straightforward method to determine these quantities by astigmatic Fourier transform of the beam. For electron beams in a transmission electron microscope, this transformation is easily realized using the condenser and objective stigmators, whereas for light beam this can be achieved using a cylindrical lens. In the case of Laguerre-Gauss vortex beams, it is already well known that applying the astigmatic Fourier transformation converts them to Hermite-Gauss beams. The topological charge (and hence the OAM) can be determined by simply counting the number of dark stripes of the Hermite-Gauss beam. We generated a series of electron vortex beams and managed to determine the topological charge up to a value of 10. The same concept of astigmatic transformation was then used to unveil the acceleration of an electron Airy beam. The shape of astigmatic-transformed depends only on the astigmatic measure and on the acceleration coefficient. This method was experimentally verified by generating electron Airy beams with different known acceleration parameters, enabling direct comparison to the deduced values from the astigmatic transformation measurements. The method can be extended to other types of waves. Specifically, we have recently used it to determine the acceleration of an optical Airy beams and the topological charge of so-called Airy-vortex light beam, i.e. an Airy light beam with an embedded vortex. This work was supported by DIP and the Israel Science

  12. Off-axis collimation of diode laser beams by means of single-element holographic diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miler, M.; Pala, J.; Aubrecht, I.; Hradil, M.

    2006-09-01

    Principles of single-element holographic diffractive optics for collimation of diode laser beams with a large divergence, an elliptic cross-section, and astigmatism are presented. Holographic off-axis transformation enables collimation of the beam in two variants: one with a perpendicular input beam and an oblique output beam, and the other with the beams arranged vice-versa. Diffraction due to an elliptic aperture is analyzed. Inspection of experimental samples demonstrates an agreement with theory in the case of diffraction limited focal pattern and shows increase of astigmatism with the departure from diffraction only limitation.

  13. Wound construction in manual small incision cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haldipurkar, S S; Shikari, Hasanain T; Gokhale, Vishwanath

    2009-01-01

    The basis of manual small incision cataract surgery is the tunnel construction for entry to the anterior chamber. The parameters important for the structural integrity of the tunnel are the self-sealing property of the tunnel, the location of the wound on the sclera with respect to the limbus, and the shape of the wound. Cataract surgery has gone beyond just being a means to get the lens out of the eye. Postoperative astigmatism plays an important role in the evaluation of final outcome of surgery. Astigmatic consideration, hence, forms an integral part of incisional considerations prior to surgery. PMID:19075401

  14. [Refraction in childhood as a risk factor for the development of amblyopia and/or strabismus. Recording a round table discussion at the 89th Congress of the German Society of Ophthalmology 25 September 1991 in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Haase, W

    1994-01-01

    The members of the panel refer to the recent literature. As has been shown by several groups of authors (Atkinson et al., Abrahamsson et al., Ingram et al.) hypermetropia of 3 diopters or more as well as astigmatism of 1 or more dpt at the age of 12 months, especially oblique astigmatism, increase the rate of amblyopia/strabism until the age of 4 years. The risk rises too, if the refractive error deteriorates. The authors conclude that the prescription of glasses in non-squinters should be based on these new findings. PMID:8152197

  15. Optical design methods to suppress aberrations which are caused by change of object distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Shunsuke; Shibuya, Masato; Maehara, Kazuhisa; Oka, Mikio; Nakadate, Suezou

    2011-10-01

    An object distance range within which fine image can be obtained by focus adjustment is limited since aberrations are caused by change of object distance. We have developed a novel optical design method to suppress variation of coma, astigmatism and field curvature induced by change of object distance. Variation of astigmatism and field curvature can be suppressed by introducing appropriate distortion. Also variation of coma caused by change of object distance can be suppressed by using spherical image surface which pivot is located at the center of exit pupil.

  16. Simple mathematical model for designing laser diode focusing optics with a large numerical aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haiyin

    2014-10-01

    A simple mathematical model is derived for conveniently designing laser diode focusing optics with a large numerical aperture. The astigmatism of laser diode beams and the lens truncation effects are considered in the model. The linearly polarized nature of laser diode beams is also included. Two design examples using this model are presented. Design results show that the lens truncation will increase the size of the focused spot and the value of the M2 factor, and the lens truncation caused a focal shift, which is not enough to correct laser diode beam astigmatism.

  17. Modeling aberrations in the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houairi, K.; Casertano, S.; Lallo, M.; Makidon, R. B.

    2006-10-01

    We present an analysis of the optical model for HST and ACS that shows the possible impact of misalignments of various optical elements on apparent image aberrations. The analysis was aimed at identifying possible causes for apparent variations in coma and astigmatism seen on orbital time scales in HST images. Results indicate that any combinations of mirrors and motions that reproduce the observed coma and astigmatism changes, also predict either large shifts in the image, which is not observed, or require unrealistically large movements of the elements.

  18. Off-axis reflecting telescope with axially-symmetric optical property and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seunghyuk

    2006-06-01

    The basic concept and fundamental result of a recently developed geometric aberration theory for classical off-axis reflecting telescopes and imaging systems are presented. It is shown that a classical off-axis reflecting telescope can be designed to have practically axially-symmetric optical property by eliminating the dominant aberration (linear astigmatism) caused by the asymmetric geometry. A simple closed-form equation for elimination of linear astigmatism is presented. Also, to show how the developed aberration theory can be applied to current and future telescopes, several off-axis reflecting telescopes and imaging systems are designed and analyzed.

  19. Wide viewing-zone-angle full-color electronic holography system using very high resolution liquid crystal display panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoh, Takanori; Mishina, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Oi, Ryutaro; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2011-02-01

    A wide viewing-zone-angle full-color electronic holography reconstruction system is developed. Time division multiplexing of RGB color light and space division multiplexing of viewing-zone-angles are adopted to keep the optical system compact. Undesirable light such as illumination light, phase conjugate light, and high-order diffraction light are eliminated by half-zone-plate hologram generation and single sideband beam reconstruction. Color aberration and astigmatism caused by the reproduction optical system are analyzed and reduced. The developed system expands viewing-zone-angle of full-color holographic image three times wider than the original, suppressing undesirable light, color aberration, and astigmatism.

  20. Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between −20 and +20 D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0 to 8 D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism. PMID:19373359

  1. A simple method for creating a robust optical vortex beam with a single cylinder lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hannarae Annie; Cohen, Martin G.; Noé, John W.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a simple method for creating Laguerre-Gauss (LG) optical vortex beams from Hermite-Gauss (HG) modes with a single cylinder lens. The diverging vortex created by the cylinder lens has the correct intensity distribution in the far-field but its residual longitudinal astigmatism causes the vortex to revert to the original HG mode when it is brought to a focus. We show that an appropriate small tilt of the focusing lens can prevent this effect by introducing a compensating astigmatism. The corrected vortex is a good approximation to an exact LG mode and should be useful for a variety of demonstrations and experiments.

  2. Modes of a twisted optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Habraken, Steven J. M.; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2007-03-15

    An astigmatic optical resonator consists of two astigmatic mirrors facing each other. The resonator is twisted when the symmetry axes of the mirrors are nonparallel. We present an algebraic method to obtain the complete set of the paraxial eigenmodes of such a resonator. Basic ingredients are the complex eigenvectors of the four-dimensional transfer matrix that describes the transformation of a ray of light over a roundtrip of the resonator. The relation between the fundamental mode and the higher-order modes is expressed in terms of raising operators in the spirit of the ladder operators of the quantum harmonic oscillator.

  3. Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Eva; Bueno, Juan M.; Schwarz, Christina; Artal, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    Wave aberrations of isolated ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses were measured by using a point-diffraction interferometer. This method allowed us to gain greater insight into the detailed aberration structure of eye lenses showing systematic presence of some dominant aberrations. In order of significance, astigmatism together with spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil are the main aberrations present in all lenses. We found a high correlation between the axis of both astigmatism and trefoil with the Y-shaped suture planes of the lens, revealing a subtle relationship between the induced aberrations and the histological features.

  4. Focal properties of a plane grating in a convergent beam.

    PubMed

    Hall, J T

    1966-06-01

    Focusing from a plane grating can be accomplished by using convergent radiation incident on the grating in such a manner that any incident angle alpha(n), the resulting diffraction angle beta(n), will be on the same side of the grating normal. The theory for the focal properties is developed by applying Fermat's principle of least time to selected terms resulting from a finite series expansion of the system's distance function. Derivations are given for finding the focal curve equation, astigmatism, and coma, of the most usable configuration of the optical components. Discussions of the aberrations disclose methods for eliminating the astigmatism and reducing the coma. PMID:20049009

  5. Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus- and track-error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Mansuripur, M.

    1992-01-01

    A commonly used tracking method on pre-grooved magneto-optical (MO) media is the push-pull technique, and the astigmatic method is a popular focus-error detection approach. These two methods are analyzed using DIFFRACT, a general-purpose scalar diffraction modeling program, to observe the effects on the error signals due to focusing lens misalignment, Seidel aberrations, and optical crosstalk (feedthrough) between the focusing and tracking servos. Using the results of the astigmatic/push-pull system as a basis for comparison, a novel focus/track-error detection technique that utilizes a ring toric lens is evaluated as well as the obscuration method (focus error detection only).

  6. Symbolic algebra approach to the calculation of intraocular lens power following cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjelmstad, David P.; Sayegh, Samir I.

    2013-03-01

    We present a symbolic approach based on matrix methods that allows for the analysis and computation of intraocular lens power following cataract surgery. We extend the basic matrix approach corresponding to paraxial optics to include astigmatism and other aberrations. The symbolic approach allows for a refined analysis of the potential sources of errors ("refractive surprises"). We demonstrate the computation of lens powers including toric lenses that correct for both defocus (myopia, hyperopia) and astigmatism. A specific implementation in Mathematica allows an elegant and powerful method for the design and analysis of these intraocular lenses.

  7. Corneal topography, refractive state, and accommodation in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Frederike D; Dehnhardt, Guido; Schaeffel, Frank; Hanke, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    Corneal topography of a harbor seal measured with a Placido's disc shows a central flattened stripe in the vertical meridian. Together with a pupil that can form a vertical slit, the flat vertical meridian can minimize the optical effects caused by the transition from water to air. Using infrared (IR) photoretinoscopy, we analyzed the refractive state of harbor seals and revealed a high degree of myopia and astigmatism in air, but emmetropia or slight hyperopia with little astigmatism underwater. The brightness distribution in the pupils suggest the presence of a multifocal dioptric apparatus in air and underwater. We found a first indication for accommodation by dynamic recordings underwater. PMID:16256164

  8. Quasi-toric planar microlenses for oblique-incidence light beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Hisakazu; Kawai, Shigeru

    1997-02-01

    Novel quasi-toric planar microlenses (PML s) suitable for planar optics are proposed. The PML s have elliptical apertures, and they are astigmatism free for oblique-incidence light beams. A simple PML model is proposed for designing the quasi-toric PML. Fabricated quasi-toric PML s were evaluated to demonstrate their chip-to-chip interconnection probability.

  9. Optical behavior of surface bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straulino, Samuele; Gambi, Cecilia M. C.; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The observation of diamond-like light spots produced by surface bubbles obliquely illuminated is reported. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of geometrical optics, and an explanation is provided attributing the effect to the astigmatism introduced by the deformation of the liquid surface surrounding the bubble. An essential ray tracing program is outlined and used to reconstruct the observed phenomenon numerically.

  10. Mass spectrometers with energy focusing: Combinations of magnetic and electric sector fields whose mean planes of deflection are tilted with respect to each other

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrich, H.; Ewald, H.

    1988-01-01

    First a combination of two sector fields is considered, for instance a homogeneous magnetic field followed by an electric cylinder condenser. The mean planes of deflection of the fields are tilted with respect to each other by an oblique angle. Such a combination has astigmatic focusing properties for paraxial rays of ions of certain mass and energy coming from an object point assumed at a certain distance before the first field on the incoming central ray. At different distances from the field combination are formed. calculated in first order, two real or virtual straight astigmatic focusing lines which are perpendicular to each other and to the outgoing central ray. By proper assumptions of the dimensions of the combination it can be arranged that its first order energy dispersion and one real of its astigmatic focusing lines have exactly the same direction. Then by addition of a third sector field (again a homogeneous magnetic field) it can be achieved that the astigmatic focusing will be changed into a stigmatic one while at the same time the energy dispersion can be reduced to small values. The mass dispersion of this three field combination in the given numerical example is about perpendicular to the direction of the energy dispersion.

  11. Airy, Sir George Biddell (1801-92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A brilliant Cambridge mathematician (Senior Wrangler 1823, i.e. leader of the graduating mathematics class), Airy became the seventh Astronomer Royal in 1835 after a brief period as Lucasian Professor at Cambridge. His output was prodigious, and he published nearly 400 scientific papers and 150 reports on various scientific issues, such as the gauge of railways, spectacles to correct astigmatism,...

  12. Analytical description of a Gaussian beam in a ring resonator with a nonplanar axial contour and an odd number of mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Plachenov, A B; Radin, A M

    2011-01-31

    Stability conditions for a ring resonator with an odd number of mirrors and a nonplanar axial contour are studied analytically. New explicit expressions are derived to describe the transverse field distribution of the Gaussian mode with general astigmatism produced in this resonator. Field characteristics for a resonator with the specified parameters are calculated. (laser beams)

  13. Nearly Anastigmatic X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed X-ray telescope made of many concentric reflecting rings, each of which consists of two portions of cone. Proposed design is variation on conventional grazing incidence X-ray telescope, which has just one twosegment reflecting element but suffers from excessive astigmatism and field curvature. Using many short elements instead of single long element, new design gives nearly anastigmatic image.

  14. Pinhole Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  15. Refractive surgery and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Lionel; Battu, Ravindra; Kushner, Burton

    2005-02-01

    This review discusses the potential for strabismic complications after refractive surgery for hyperopia, myopia, anisomyopia, astigmatism and monovision, and how to avoid these complications. Guidelines are given for assessing patients with strabismus seeking refractive surgery. Screening tests are suggested that lead to stratification of refractive surgery patients into different risk groups each warranting a different intensity of evaluation. PMID:15670088

  16. RESONATORS, MODES, BEAMS: Gain saturation of laser beams and production and decay of phase dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2006-02-01

    The distortion of the distribution of initially pure laser modes caused by the gain saturation is simulated numerically. It is shown that the gain saturation results in a considerable enrichment of the modal spectrum of radiation accompanied by the production and decay of phase dislocations in the far-field domain and at the output of an astigmatic π/2-mode converter.

  17. Corneal primary aberrations compensation by oblique light incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

    2009-07-01

    The eye is not a centered system. The line of sight connects the fovea with the center of the pupil and is usually tilted in the temporal direction. Thus, off-axis optical aberrations, mainly coma and oblique astigmatism, are introduced at the fovea. Tabernero et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3274-3283 (2007)] showed that a horizontal tilt of the crystalline lens generates a horizontal coma aberration that is compensated by the oblique light incidence on the eye. Here we suggest that corneal astigmatism may also play a role in compensation of oblique aberrations, and we propose a simple model to analyze such a possibility. A theoretical Kooijman eye model with a slight (~0.6 D) with-the-rule astigmatism is analyzed. Light rays at different incidence angles to the optical axis are considered, and the corresponding point spread functions (PSFs) at the retina are calculated. A quality criterion is used to determine the incidence angle that provides the narrowest and highest PSF energy peak. We show that the best image is obtained for a tilted incidence angle compatible with mean values of the angle kappa. This suggests that angle kappa, lens tilt, and corneal astigmatism may combine to provide a passive compensation mechanism to minimize aberrations on the fovea.

  18. Vision Screening: A Study of 297 Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, A. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Vision assessments were provided to 297 preschoolers in nine Head Start programs in New York State. The protocol used provided a thorough evaluation and required only seven minutes per child. Sixty-three children (21.2%) were referred for further evaluation. Visual deficits detected included decreased acuity, strabismus, astigmatism, and…

  19. Surgical device for supporting corneal suturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Oliveira, Gunter C. D.; De Groote, Jean-Jacques; Sousa, Sidney J. F.; Saia, Paula

    2009-02-01

    A system for ophthalmic surgery support has been developed in order to minimize the residual astigmatism due to the induced irregular shape of the cornea by corneal suture. The system projects 36 light spots, from LEDs, displayed in a precise circle at the lachrymal film of the examined cornea. The displacement, the size and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analyzed providing the keratometry and the circularity of the suture. Measurements in the range of 32D - 55D (up to 23D of astigmatism are possible to be obtained) and a self-calibration system has been designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Steel precision spheres have been submitted to the system and the results show 99% of correlation with the fabricant's nominal values. The system has been tested in 13 persons in order to evaluate its clinical applicability and has been compared to a commercial keratometer Topcon OM-4. The correlation factors are 0,92 for the astigmatism and 0.99 for the associated axis. The system indicates that the surgeon should achieve circularity >=98% in order to do not induce astigmatisms over 3D.

  20. High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyo, Gonzalo; Harvey, Andrew R.; Singh, Amritpal

    2005-10-01

    Pupil plane encoding enables extended depth of field and greatly reduced sensitivity to aberrations in an imaging system (field curvature, thermally induced defocus, astigmatism, etc.). The application of pupil plane encoding has potential in thermal imaging where it can enable the use of simple, low-cost, light-weight lens systems. We present numerical and modelling studies of the application of this technique to an uncooled LWIR imaging system, F/1, 75mm focal length, germanium singlet with a detector array size of 240x320 with 50 micron pixel. The initial singlet is corrected from coma and spherical aberration, but its performance across the field of view is greatly limited by astigmatism. The introduction of an encoding asymmetrical germanium phase mask at the aperture stop of the system, combined with digital image processing, allows the removal of astigmatism and improved imaging performance across the field of view. This improvement is subject to a noise amplification in the digitally restore image. There is as a tradeoff between the maximum correction to astigmatism and reduced signal-to-noise ratio in the recovered image.

  1. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  2. Tetravalent Chromium (Cr(4+)) as Laser-Active Ion for Tunable Solid-State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    During 10/31/91 - 3/31/92, the following summarizes are major accomplishments: (1) numerical modeling of the four mirror astigmatically compensated, Z-fold cavity was performed; and (2) the simulation revealed several design parameters to be used for the construction of a femtosecond forsterite laser.

  3. Long-Term Efficacy and Rotational Stability of AcrySof Toric Intraocular Lens Implantation in Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hun; Chung, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy and rotational stability of the AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) in correcting preoperative astigmatism in cataract patients. Methods This prospective observational study included 30 eyes from 24 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of an AcrySof toric IOL with micro-coaxial cataract surgery between May 2008 and September 2008. Outcomes of visual acuity, refractive and keratometric astigmatism, and IOL rotation after 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and long-term (mean, 13.3±5.0 months) follow-up were evaluated. Results At final follow-up, 73.3% of eyes showed an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/25 or better. The postoperative keratometric value was not different from the preoperative value; mean refractive astigmatism was reduced to -0.28±0.38 diopter (D) from -1.28±0.48 D. The mean rotation of the toric IOL was 3.45±3.39 degrees at final follow-up. One eye (3.3%) exhibited IOL rotation of 10.3 degrees, the remaining eyes (96.7%) had IOL rotation of less than 10 degrees. Conclusions Early postoperative and long-term follow-up showed that implantation of the AcrySof toric IOL is an effective, safe, and predictable method for managing corneal astigmatism in cataract patients. PMID:20714383

  4. Acoustically-tuned optical spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lens arrangement corrects for aberrations and gives resolution of 0.7 seconds of arc. In spectrometer, light from telescope is relayed by doublet lens to acoustically tuned optical filter. Selected wavelengths are relayed by triplet lens to charge coupled device camera. Intervening cylindrical lens, tilted at 12 degree angle, corrects for astigmatism and coma introduced by two element birefringent crystal in filter.

  5. Advances in femtosecond laser technology

    PubMed Central

    Callou, Thais Pinheiro; Garcia, Renato; Mukai, Adriana; Giacomin, Natalia T; de Souza, Rodrigo Guimarães; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser technology has become widely adopted by ophthalmic surgeons. The purpose of this study is to discuss applications and advantages of femtosecond lasers over traditional manual techniques, and related unique complications in cataract surgery and corneal refractive surgical procedures, including: LASIK flap creation, intracorneal ring segment implantation, presbyopic treatments, keratoplasty, astigmatic keratotomy, and intrastromal lenticule procedures. PMID:27143847

  6. Manual intrastromal corneal keratotomy: An alternate encouraging approach for refractive error correction

    PubMed Central

    Kodandapani, Saravana; Saravana, Sukanya

    2014-01-01

    Results of femtosecond based intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy have been reported to be encouraging for correction of Astigmatism. We report a new surgical technique-manual intrastromal corneal keratotomy (MICK) for correction of simple refractive astigmatism (−1.5 DC against the rule). The technique involves the creation of a 100 μm thickness corneal flap creation using Moria M2 evolution LSK MicroKeratome and 300 μm depth, 4 mm long manual transverse astigmatic keratotomy on both sides of the steep axis 3 mm from the pupillary center along with four incision peripheral radial keratotomy outside the optic zone (based on the mesopic pupil). The flap was repositioned and routine post-operative regimen was followed. Patient achieved 20/20 vision in both eyes post-operatively on the first day, which was maintained even at the 1 month follow-up. This simple technique could be useful as an alternative method for correction of refractive errors in patients not suitable for excimer and/or femtosecond laser treatment. PMID:24799800

  7. Mersilene (polyester), a new suture for penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ramselaar, J A; Beekhuis, W H; Rijneveld, W J; van Andel, M V; Dijk, F; Jongebloed, W L

    1992-01-01

    Mersilene (polyester monofilament) seems to be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty because it is strong, shows no degradation by ultraviolet light, is insoluble, so that it can be left in situ, and offers the possibility of regulating postoperative astigmatism by suture adjustment. In 12 patients penetrating keratoplasty was performed with the combined interrupted/running suturing technique, using eight interrupted nylon 10-0 sutures and one running Mersilene 11-0 suture. The results were compared with those of 25 patients in whom eight interrupted nylon 10-0 sutures and one running nylon 11-0 suture were used. Six months after penetrating keratoplasty, no differences could be found between the two groups in keratometric astigmatism, visual acuity or slitlamp findings. In three patients postoperative adjustment of the running Mersilene suture reduced astigmatism by 50, 90 and 100% respectively. In an animal study the behaviour of Mersilene in the cornea was evaluated by slitlamp examination, histology and electron-microscopy. The tissue response to Mersilene was minimal. Considering the resemblance to nylon in clinical findings, minimal tissue response, lack of biodegradation and possibility of regulating postoperative astigmatism by suture adjustment, Mersilene seems to be a suitable material for penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:1305032

  8. Excimer laser system Profile-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atejev, V. V.; Bukreyev, V. S.; Vartapetov, Serge K.; Semenov, A. D.; Sugrobov, V. A.; Turin, V. S.; Fedorov, Sergei N.

    1999-07-01

    The description of ophthalmological excimer laser system 'PROFILE-500' for photorefractive and physiotherapeutic keratectomy is presented. Excimer Laser Systems 'PROFILE- 500' are optical system that use ArF excimer lasers to perform photorefractive keratectomy or LASIK; surgical procedures used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

  9. Ocular findings among mentally retarded children in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, K

    1983-08-01

    The distribution of refractive errors, astigmatism, anisometropia, visual acuity and organic ophthalmic diseases were determined among 149 Finnish mentally retarded (IQ less than 70) children, aged 9-10 years. The case group was classified in 3 categories according to the degree of mental retardation. The control group (n = 100) was selected by random sampling. PMID:6637425

  10. Advances in femtosecond laser technology.

    PubMed

    Callou, Thais Pinheiro; Garcia, Renato; Mukai, Adriana; Giacomin, Natalia T; de Souza, Rodrigo Guimarães; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser technology has become widely adopted by ophthalmic surgeons. The purpose of this study is to discuss applications and advantages of femtosecond lasers over traditional manual techniques, and related unique complications in cataract surgery and corneal refractive surgical procedures, including: LASIK flap creation, intracorneal ring segment implantation, presbyopic treatments, keratoplasty, astigmatic keratotomy, and intrastromal lenticule procedures. PMID:27143847